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Sample records for premium tomato market

  1. Risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. We compare hourly price data of the European Energy Exchange (EEX) auction and of the continuous over-the-counter (OTC) market which takes place prior to the EEX auction. Data provided by the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) has been used as a snapshot of the OTC market two hours prior to the EEX auction. Ex post analysis found market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. The largest positive premiums were paid for high demand evening peak hours on weekdays during winter months. By contrast, night hours on weekends featuring lowest demand levels display negative premiums. Additionally, ex ante analysis found a strong positive correlation between the expected tightness of the system and positive premiums. For this purpose, a tightness factor has been introduced that includes expectations of fundamental factors such as power plant availability, wind power production and demand. Hence, findings by can be supported that power traders in liberalised markets behave like risk-averse rational economic agents. - Research highlights: →Analysis of hourly risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. →Market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. →A strong correlation exists between the expected tightness of the power system and premiums.

  2. Explaining the so-called 'price premium' in oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, A.; Ortiz, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the information content of several variables on the so-called ''oil price premium over fundamentals''. We define this premium as the difference between the market oil price and the estimated price consistent with the OECD's relative industry stock level. By using Granger causality tests and extended regressions we test the systematic ability of a broad set of variables to explain the premium. We find that speculation in the oil market - measured by non-commercial long positions - can improve the traditional model, reducing the premium significantly during some parts of the sample. (author)

  3. The dynamics of risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mork, E.

    2006-01-01

    Premiums in futures prices are usually considered through the use of 2 models: a no-arbitrage model; and the equilibrium approach or theory of normal backwardation. The no-arbitrage approach equates futures prices with spot prices, storage costs and convenience yields, and is difficult to apply to electricity markets. This paper investigated future electricity prices in Nord Pool's futures market using an equilibrium approach, which split futures prices into an expected spot price component and a risk premium component. Three main hypotheses were used: (1) that risk premiums were present in the Nord Pool futures market during the period 1997-2004; that risk premiums in the Nord Pool futures market were smaller or absent during the period of 2000 to 2002; and, that there was a significant change in risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market after the winter of 2002-2003 due to a change in consumer hedging behaviour. Futures prices were compared to realized spot prices in their delivery periods in order to test the hypotheses. In order to estimate the futures premiums, a 1-sample test was performed on the entire period for 1, 30, 60, and 90 days before delivery of the block or month contract. The test employed the null hypothesis that the futures premiums were 0. Premiums were positive and varied between 3.7 per cent and 9.3 per cent. The purpose of the study was to determine whether risk premiums were present. Results showed that risk premiums varied over time. Two additional hypotheses were then investigated to examine whether the presence of outside speculators reduced risk premiums, and to see if a period of high prices and volatility caused more buyers to hedge in the futures market. Results showed that in the face of volatility and higher prices, consumers do not purchase fixed-price contracts which would ultimately increase futures premiums in the market. It was concluded that premiums are an important element in the pricing of Nord Pool futures and forwards

  4. Estimating the market premium in short term interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Hans Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Looking at the term structure in the interest rate market one can’t help notice the evident market premium above the central banks target rate. What factors might decide this premium? By using different variations of simple regression models we see that the model is constantly lagging the real time series. Acknowledging the fact that market clearings often are subject to several equations; we’re better able to develop a sensible model using a simultaneous equilibrium model. The multiple equat...

  5. The Skew Risk Premium in the Equity Index Market

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Kozhan; Anthony Neuberger; Paul Schneider

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new method for measuring moment risk premiums. We find that the skew premium accounts for over 40% of the slope in the implied volatility curve in the S&P 500 market. Skew risk is tightly related to variance risk, in the sense that strategies designed to capture the one and hedge out exposure to the other earn an insignificant risk premium. This provides a new testable restriction for asset pricing models trying to capture, in particular, disaster risk premiums. We base our resul...

  6. Required Market Risk Premium among countries in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    This survey also links with the Equity Premium Puzzle. It may be explained by the fact that many market participants use historical data and advice from textbooks and finance professors. Consequently, ex-ante equity premia have been high, most market prices have been consistently undervalued, and the ex-post risk premia has been also high. Many investors use historical data and textbook prescriptions to estimate the required and the expected equity premium, the undervaluation and the high ex-post risk premium are self fulfilling prophecies.

  7. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  9. An empirical study of the information premium on electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benth, Fred Espen; Biegler-König, Richard; Kiesel, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    Due to the non-storability of electricity and the resulting lack of arbitrage-based arguments to price electricity forward contracts, a significant time-varying risk premium is exhibited. Using EEX data during the introduction of emission certificates and the German “Atom Moratorium” we show that a significant part of the risk premium in electricity forwards is due to different information sets in spot and forward markets. In order to show the existence of the resulting information premium and to analyse its size we design an empirical method based on techniques relating to enlargement of filtrations and the structure of Hilbert spaces. - Highlights: ► Electricity is non-storable and the classical spot–forward-relationship is invalid. ► Future information will cause an information premium for forward contracts. ► We model this premium mathematically using enlargement of filtrations. ► We develop a statistical method testing for the information premium empirically. ► We apply the test to the 2nd phase of the EUETS and the German “Atom Moratorium”

  10. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  12. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  13. Risk premium in the UK natural gas forward market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaek Haff, Ingrid; Lindqvist, Ola; Loeland, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This report investigates the UK natural gas market, and tests whether it is a fair-game efficient forward market, using forward contracts ranging from one to five months time to delivery. The forward and spot price series are separately non-stationary, but cointegrated. Furthermore, the forward prices are biased predictors of both the future spot and the 1-month-ahead forward price. The risk premium on the forward prices is positive, as opposed to the US gas market, where the risk premium was found to be negative in similar work. Moreover, the analysis reveals that the storage model is an incomplete model for the relationship between the spot and forward prices. However, storage has a clear effect on this relationship, an effect that appears to be non-linear. (author)

  14. The Value Premium on the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    research on this issue. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence for the Danish stock market and to test whether the value premium is a genuine long-term feature of the market or just a phenomenon that pops up now and then. To research this issue we have collected accounting and stock market data......A number of influential studies have documented a strong value premium for US stocks over the period 1963 to 1990 (Fama and French (1992), Lakonishok et al. (1994)). Stocks with low price-earnings multiples, price-book values and other measures of value are reported to have given a higher mean...... return than the high multiple growth firms. Work by Basu (1997) and others have shown that the value dominance is also a feature of the earlier market history of the United States. The value premium is reported also to exist in a number of other countries over the period 1975 to 1995 (Fama and French...

  15. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  16. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% and 21.44% for tomato and ginger respectively, implying that the producers/marketers of both tomato and ginger will make highest returns if they stored and sold to other (urban/international) markets during periods of ...

  17. Promoting the market and system integration of renewable energies through premium schemes—A case study of the German market premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Purkus, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    With the share of renewable energies within the electricity sector rising, improving their market and system integration is of increasing importance. By offering plant operators a premium on top of the electricity market price, premium schemes represent an option to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with market signals, and have been implemented by several EU member states. This paper examines the case study of the German market premium scheme adopted in 2012. Building on an evaluation of early experiences, we discuss whether the market premium contributes to the aims of market and/or system integration (effectiveness), and what potential efficiency gains and additional costs of “administering integration” are associated with it (efficiency). While exposing renewables to price risks is not the scheme’s purpose, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, risks of overcompensating producers for marketing and balancing costs are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented production are established, but they seem insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. To conclude, we provide an outlook on alternative designs of premium schemes, and discuss whether they seem better suited for addressing the challenges ahead. - Highlights: • Premium schemes are used to align renewable energy sources (RES) with market signals. • We examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the German market premium scheme. • Participation in direct marketing has increased, but so have support costs. • For intermittent RES, incentives for demand-oriented production are insufficient. • Efficiency gains from exposing RES to market risks entail several trade-offs

  18. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006). For tomato, the commodity of interest in this study, tariffs reduction increased ... Even though Accra is the largest tomato consumer market in Ghana, it was ... Impediments arising from oligopolistic behaviour of traders, seasonal ... an ideal case for employing the TAR model in analysing price transmission and market.

  19. The dynamics of risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, E. [Consultant, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Premiums in futures prices are usually considered through the use of 2 models: a no-arbitrage model; and the equilibrium approach or theory of normal backwardation. The no-arbitrage approach equates futures prices with spot prices, storage costs and convenience yields, and is difficult to apply to electricity markets. This paper investigated future electricity prices in Nord Pool's futures market using an equilibrium approach, which split futures prices into an expected spot price component and a risk premium component. Three main hypotheses were used: (1) that risk premiums were present in the Nord Pool futures market during the period 1997-2004; that risk premiums in the Nord Pool futures market were smaller or absent during the period of 2000 to 2002; and, that there was a significant change in risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market after the winter of 2002-2003 due to a change in consumer hedging behaviour. Futures prices were compared to realized spot prices in their delivery periods in order to test the hypotheses. In order to estimate the futures premiums, a 1-sample test was performed on the entire period for 1, 30, 60, and 90 days before delivery of the block or month contract. The test employed the null hypothesis that the futures premiums were 0. Premiums were positive and varied between 3.7 per cent and 9.3 per cent. The purpose of the study was to determine whether risk premiums were present. Results showed that risk premiums varied over time. Two additional hypotheses were then investigated to examine whether the presence of outside speculators reduced risk premiums, and to see if a period of high prices and volatility caused more buyers to hedge in the futures market. Results showed that in the face of volatility and higher prices, consumers do not purchase fixed-price contracts which would ultimately increase futures premiums in the market. It was concluded that premiums are an important element in the pricing of Nord Pool futures and

  20. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reveal that price transmission and adjustments parameters, key indicators of market performance, declined following the actual liberalization of Ghana's agricultural markets. It appears that the underlying factors responsible for the performance of the tomato markets deteriorated over the period of the study.

  1. The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Market Risk Premium : Study of Sweden, Germany and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmidi, Arad; Sheludchenko, Dmytro; Allahyari Westlund, Samira

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Market Premium. Study of Sweden, Germany and Canada Authors Samira Allahyari Westlund Arad Tahmidi Dmytro Sheludchenko Supervisor Christos Papahristodoulou Key words Macroeconomic, market risk premium, GDP, inflation, money supply, primary net lending and net borrowing, regression analysis. Institution Mälardalen University School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology Box 883, SE-721 23 Västerås Sweden Course Bachelor The...

  2. The individual insurance market before reform: low premiums and low benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Heidi; Gabel, Jon R; Pickreign, Jeremy; McDevitt, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Based on analyses of individual market health plans sold through ehealthinsurance and enrollment information collected from individual market carriers, this article profiles the individual health insurance market in 2007, before health reform. The article examines premiums, plan enrollment, cost sharing, and covered benefits and compares individual and group markets. Premiums for the young are lower than in the group market but higher for older people. Cost sharing is substantial in the individual insurance market. Seventy-eight percent of people were enrolled in plans with deductibles for single coverage, which averaged $2,117. Annual out-of-pocket maximums averaged $5,271. Many plans do not cover important benefits. Twelve percent of individually insured persons had no coverage for office visits and only 43% have maternity benefits in their basic coverage. With the advent of health exchanges and new market rules in 2014, covered benefits may become richer, cost sharing will decline, but premiums for the young will rise.

  3. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Economic analysis of price premiums in the presence of non-convexities. Evidence from German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Analyzing price data from sequential German electricity markets, namely the day-ahead and intraday auction, a puzzling but apparently systematic pattern of price premiums can be identified. The price premiums are highly correlated with the underlying demand profile. As there is evidence that widespread models for electricity forward premiums are not applicable to the market dynamics under analysis, a theoretical model is developed within this article which reveals that non-convexities in only a subset of sequential markets with differing product granularity may cause systematic price premiums at equilibrium. These price premiums may be bidirectional and reflect a value for additional short-term power supply system flexibility.

  5. Economic analysis of price premiums in the presence of non-convexities. Evidence from German electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschmann, Martin

    2017-11-15

    Analyzing price data from sequential German electricity markets, namely the day-ahead and intraday auction, a puzzling but apparently systematic pattern of price premiums can be identified. The price premiums are highly correlated with the underlying demand profile. As there is evidence that widespread models for electricity forward premiums are not applicable to the market dynamics under analysis, a theoretical model is developed within this article which reveals that non-convexities in only a subset of sequential markets with differing product granularity may cause systematic price premiums at equilibrium. These price premiums may be bidirectional and reflect a value for additional short-term power supply system flexibility.

  6. The Pricing of Tail Risk and the Equity Premium: Evidence from International Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We explore the pricing of tail risk as manifest in index options across international equity markets. The risk premium associated with negative tail events displays persistent shifts, unrelated to volatility. This tail risk premium is a potent predictor of future equity returns, while option......-implied volatility only forecasts the future return variation. Hence, compensation for negative jump risk is the primary driver of the equity premium across all indices, whereas the reward for pure diffusive variance risk is largely unrelated to future equity returns. We also document pronounced commonalities...

  7. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  10. Plan–Provider Integration, Premiums, and Quality in the Medicare Advantage Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. Data Source. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. Study Design. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan–provider integration. Data Collection. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan–provider integration through examination of plans’ websites and governance documents. Principal Findings. We found that integrated plan–providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Conclusions. Current policy encourages plan–provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). PMID:23800017

  11. Plan-provider integration, premiums, and quality in the Medicare Advantage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-12-01

    To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan-provider integration. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan-provider integration through examination of plans' websites and governance documents. We found that integrated plan-providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Current policy encourages plan-provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. ECONOMICS OF TOMATO MARKETING IN ASHANTI REGION, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillus Abawiera Wongnaa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The perishable nature of most agricultural produce and the concomitant need for effective marketing outlets carries along huge economic consequences, especially in developing countries like Ghana. This study examines the determinants of profit in tomato marketing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Cross-sectional data collected from a random sample of 200 tomato marketers consisting of 100 wholesalers and 100 retailers were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the multiple linear regression technique of the ordinary least squares. The results show that wholesalers have a higher margin of 99.7 percent, while the retailers have a margin of 75.4 percent. Labour cost, purchase price, transportation cost and selling price run through all the estimated regressions as determinants of marketing profit. The effects of these variables on marketing profit could raise public concern since they have implications on prices received by tomato producers and those paid by final consumers and therefore there is the need for the government to devise policies aimed at stabilizing the local currency.The results also call for policy efforts to completely eliminate illiteracy among tomato traders in Ghana especially in the Ashanti Region. Policies that could enable the retailers to increase their scale of operations are also advocated. Future researchers may also estimate the exact point in the age variable at which retail profit declines and possible antecedents.

  13. Growth and variability in health plan premiums in the individual insurance market before the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Before we can evaluate the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance premiums in the individual market, it is critical to understand the pricing trends of these premiums before the implementation of the law. Using rates of increase in the individual insurance market collected from state regulators, this issue brief documents trends in premium growth in the pre-ACA period. From 2008 to 2010, premiums grew by 10 percent or more per year. This growth was also highly variable across states, and even more variable across insurance plans within states. The study suggests that evaluating trends in premiums requires looking across a broad array of states and plans, and that policymakers must examine how present and future changes in premium rates compare with the more than 10 percent per year premium increases in the years preceding health reform.

  14. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  15. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  16. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  17. Asymmetric impacts of global risk appetite on the risk premium for an emerging market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlı, İbrahim Burak

    2008-05-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of global risk appetite on the risk premium utilizing high-frequency data. Taking the Turkish economy as our laboratory, we find that the risk premium volatility responds only to a worsening in the risk appetite for the Turkish economy, which is a result that we do not observe for the other emerging markets. Then, we investigate the role of current account dynamics on this asymmetric effect, by focusing also on an economy with similar current account performance. The empirical results find supporting evidence for the role of current account dynamics on the estimated asymmetry.

  18. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  19. Expectations and forward risk premium in the Spanish deregulated power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Meneu, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation in energy markets has entailed important changes in the way agents conduct business. Price risk arises as a result of fluctuations in the future price of electricity and agents assume long or short positions in the forward and spot markets to hedge their exposure to price risk. The presence of forward risk premium in prices is evidence of the fact that agents act in the market according to risk considerations. This work aims to analyse the information content of the difference between the forward and spot prices (the so-called forward premium) regarding the agents' decisions. We find that the sign and magnitude of the ex post forward premium depend on the unexpected variation in demand and on the unexpected variation in the hydroelectric capacity, and that both the ex post and the ex ante forward premia are negatively related to the variance of spot price, as predict. We provide additional insights about relevant aspects of spot price pricing in the Spanish electricity market such as the positive relation between spot prices and CO 2 emission allowance prices or the impact on spot prices of the set of market matching rules introduced in March 2006.

  20. Analysis of drivers affecting the use of market premium for renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoese, Massimo; Slednev, Viktor; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify and analyze parameters that determine the profitability of wind power operators in the German market premium model. Based on an empirical analysis of different German wind power profiles from 2007 to mid-2012, we are able to show that the profitability significantly depends on the correlation of the wind power portfolio with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error in Germany. Significant differences between the wind forecast errors clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios can be identified. Our analysis shows that a wind power operator would profit in most cases from a reduced forecast error, which could be achieved through an improved forecast model and an increased share of the intraday cleared error. Furthermore significant locational portfolio advantages and disadvantages can be identified when comparing the different market values. In general, the empirical analysis shows that a premium of 3.5 €/MWh is suitable to cover the cost of an imperfect forecast. Taking further into account that for 2012 a premium of 12 €/MWh was granted; the direct marketing option can be evaluated as highly attractive, which is furthermore indicated by the rapid increase of the directly marketed wind power and photovoltaic generation. - Highlights: • Wind power operator profitability in the German market premium model is analyzed. • Correlation with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error is crucial. • Wind forecast error clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios show clear differences. • The direct marketing option of wind power can be evaluated as attractive.

  1. Domestos : going premium in the UK Toilet Cleaners Market

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Bernardo Maria Bebiano de Sousa e

    2016-01-01

    Unilever was the company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing, followed by a teaching note, intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate or graduate programs. In the last years, bleach market has become increasingly commoditized due to intense competition from Retailers Own Brands, the low involvement of the category and the lack of innovation. Domestos, a Unilever brand present in more than 50 countries, is the clear leader in t...

  2. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  3. MARKET SIGNALS IN VALUE-BASED PRICING PREMIUMS AND DISCOUNTS

    OpenAIRE

    Feuz, Dillon M.

    1999-01-01

    There is concern in the beef industry that present marketing practices may be impending the transmission of economic signals from consumers to producers. Presently, fed cattle may be sold on a show list, pen-by-pen, or on an individual head basis, and may be priced using live weight, dressed weight, or grid or formula pricing. Market signals are more likely to reach producers if cattle are priced individually. Current value-based pricing are discussed. Three grid pricing systems are evaluated...

  4. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini; Maryam Kazemi Manesh

    2006-01-01

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  5. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  6. PRODUCTION AND MARKETABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AND ORGANIC PRODUCED TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean BAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agricultural production is denoted by high levels of chemisation, strait specialised production, high yields and low costs per production unit, however this production causes risky interventions, which could affect negatively on environment and human health Research results indicate possibilities for growing vegetables in alternative systems, less risky for environment with satisfying economic success. The aim of this research was to determine economic success of organic, sustainable and conventional production of tomato in the Mediterranean area of Republic Croatia. Bianual research was conducted during 2002/2003. During vegetation we examined parameters of growth, marketable yields and costs for materials, work and machinery which are used in economic analysis. Economical analysis of tomatoes production indicate worst results in organic production system. Loses in tomatoes organic production were consequences of two main factors: lower marketed yield and equal product price for all three production types. Lower yields in organic production were expected, therefore bad financial results were caused by mainly low market prices, which do not validate quality and food safety. Therefore financial success is preconditioned by higher market validation, which can be obtained through market analysis and product development. Consumer awareness about organic agriculture is still very weak and this point requires further attention. The link between organic agriculture and the environment/nature protection is missing too. The purchase of organic food is influenced by the level of information and knowledge of consumers with reference to these products. Doubts about the truthfulness and significance of some data were raised by main places where organic food is purchased, since an excessive greatest limitations are high prices and a low level of information to consumers. Current standard of life of most Croatian consumers does not permit them to

  7. Big and tall: Does a height premium dwarf an obesity penalty in the labor market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both height and weight are associated with wages. However, some gaps in our understanding of the relationship between body size and wages remain. For example, given a height premium and an obesity penalty, due to forces working in opposite directions, the current literature is unable to provide clear answers to questions such as whether a tall obese woman or a short healthy weight woman would earn a higher wage premium. Using Australian data and iso-contour wage curves derived from a semi-parametric wage regression model, this paper illustrates the complex nature of the relationship between height, weight and wages and how the nature of these differences depends on gender and age. As adult height is fixed, a key focus of the paper is illustrating for various height ranges whether there are any wage benefits in the labor market to increasing or decreasing one's weight. For individuals aged 25-54 as a whole, I find that there are strong effects of weight reduction at lower ends of the height distribution for females (between 1.50-1.70m) but not for males (men (>1.85m), a wage premium is found for being overweight. For relatively taller women (>1.72m), no penalty for being overweight is discernible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include... offered by us for each planting period and practice. For example, if you choose 100 percent of the maximum... second time for ground-culture tomatoes (the third time for staked tomatoes); (ii) Unharvested mature...

  9. States with stronger health insurance rate review authority experienced lower premiums in the individual market in 2010-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Fulton, Brent D; Hollingshead, Ann; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    States have varying degrees of review authority over health insurance carriers' rates, including prior approval authority over proposed rates and requirements for loss ratios, the proportion of premium revenues spent on medical claims. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires carriers in certain categories of health insurance to provide public justification for rate increases of 10 percent or more. We collected data on how states changed their rate review authority and requirements during 2010-13, the years immediately after enactment of the ACA, and we combined these data with carrier filings. We found that adjusted premiums in the individual market in states that had prior-approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-13 ($3,489) than premiums in states with no rate review authority or that had only file-and-use regulations, which gave the states no authority to block rate increases ($3,617). Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior-approval states with loss ratio requirements, from $3,526 in 2010 to $3,452 in 2013, while premiums increased from $3,422 to $3,683 in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. Our findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained health insurance premium increases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Farmgate Private Standards and Price Premium: Evidence From the GlobalGAP Scheme in Kenya's French Beans Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Isaac Maina; Loy, Jens-Peter; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of private quality and assurance schemes in international trade is defining market access in high value chains. The prime concern for small-scale producers is whether price premiums are realizable due to compliance. Using French beans marketing, the authors find that GlobalGAP certification, produce traceability, number of suppliers, competition for supplies, direct procurement, a good road network, and supply contracts have positive farmgate price effects for smallholders. ...

  11. PINK TOMATO CETUS F1 – PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Barbaritskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink tomato due to their high taste quality is particularly important crop for consumers in Russia. Pink tomato seeds become more popular in the market every year. Breeders have accomplished to combine high fruit taste quality with good transportation abilities and fruit denseness. One of the latest breeding achievement is Cetus F1. A successful combination of good fruit taste with transportability and yield makes this variety a potential leader in Russian market. This is confirmed by growers' trials in various regions of South of Russia. 

  12. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  14. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  15. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  16. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a... Special Provisions. The price election you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship...: (A) Grown fresh market tomatoes for commercial sales; or (B) Participated in the management of a...

  17. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... to add ``strawberries'' in section 9(b)(3) to the list of crops that require soil fumigation before planting fresh market tomatoes. Strawberries are susceptible to nematode damage and pose the same risk of... sections 9(b)(1) and (2)), peppers, eggplants, strawberries or tobacco have been grown and the soil was not...

  18. Price variation of tomatoes and ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed price of tomatoes and ginger in Giwa market, Kaduna State to identify seasonal price patterns and their expected changes over time. The analytical approach in this study was based on the price multiplicative model. The study based preliminary on secondary data collected from NAERLS weekly ...

  19. Impact of the market premium on direct marketers. An agency-based model approach; Auswirkungen der Marktpraemie auf die Akteure der Direktvermarktung. Ein agentenbasierter Modellansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, Sandra; Hauser, Wolfgang [ZIRIUS Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Reeg, Matthias [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-09-15

    By introducing a market premium and tightening the eligibility requirements for the green electricity privilege, the latest amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) has brought about major changes to the market for direct marketing of electricity from EEG-eligible plants. Has the new EEG made direct marketing based on the green electricity privilege unprofitable altogether, or only for individual market participants? What are the experiences and perspectives of electricity traders in regard to the new EEG and what strategies and business models have they turned to as a result? This article presents first results from a project funded by the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) on the impact of the new regulatory framework for direct marketing on businesses in the renewable electricity market.

  20. I-ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. "PINK TOMATO. PRODUCTION. CONSUMPTION. MARKET TRENDS IN CENTRAL ASIA».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Alimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 28 May 2015, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Ist International conference "Pink tomato. Production, consumption, market trends" was held. The problems of breedong, seed production of cultivars and hybrids of pink tomato, as well as increasing of consumer's demand have been considered. The conference has provided good opportunity for meetings of producers, breeders, and researchers from different countries.

  1. Premium inflation in the Irish private health insurance market: drivers and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B

    2013-12-01

    Nearly half of the Irish population is covered by private health insurance. In recent years, premium inflation has been significantly ahead of overall inflation and has been accelerating. This has contributing to a drop in the numbers insured since the peak in 2008. The fall in the numbers with private health insurance also has implications for the public health system. Factors behind this premium inflation include rising charges for beds in public hospitals, increasing volume of treatments and increasing quality of service and cover. While some progress has been made by insurers on reducing fees paid to consultants and private hospitals, unless the quantity or quality of care are addressed then premium inflation is unlikely to abate.

  2. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tomato variety known as ‘Srijana’ developed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC has been substantially popular among Nepalese farmers and entrepreneurs. To understand the seed value chain of the Srijana hybrid tomato, a survey was conducted in 2014/15 with public research and extension institutions, private seed companies/firms, non-governmental organization and community group including individual farmers, involved in Srijana tomato seed production. The survey covered random selection of 30 agro-vets and 30 farmers in Kathmandu valley, Kavre, Nuwakot, Dolakha and Kaski districts, Nepal where production of Srijana tomato seed is mostly concentrated. A focus group discussion was also conducted with commercial tomato farmers in each of the study districts. The study showed a total production of 293 kg Srijana seed having a value of around 47 million Nepalese Rupees (US $ 470 thousands in year 2013/14. Private sector was the dominant actor sharing about 85% of the total Srijana seed production followed by non-governmental organization (10%, farmers group (3% and governmental station/farm/centers (2%, respectively. Out of the total Srijana seed produced, about 95% was consumed in domestic market while 5% was exported to India. The study revealed increasing trend of production, supply and price of Srijana tomato seed. About 0.3 million NRs (US $ 3,000 profit was estimated through the production of Srijana tomato seed in 0.05 hectares (500 m2 of land. Agro-vets (private sector seed dealers were the major actors for supplying the seed from the producers to farms and received a higher profit margins. The farmers producing and selling the seed in technical assistance of public agencies received higher producer`s share (66.6% than farmers producing and selling seed through own group (60%, technical assistance of non-governmental organization (53.3%, and in contract with private seed companies (26.7%. Majority of commercial tomato farmers

  3. Transaction costs and marketing decision: a case study of smallholder tomato farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Osebeyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of transaction costs and other institutional and socio-economic factors on smallholder tomato farmers marketing decision in Makurdi Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. The study used a survey data from 165 randomly selected farm households. Using a Logit model, the study found that the probability of market participation is significantly affected by transaction cost variables (namely access to market information, market distance and transport cost. Education and dependency ratio also had significant effect on decision to sell in the market. While access to market information and education significantly increase the probability of tomato farmers’ participation in the market, transport cost, market distance and dependency ratio significantly decrease the probability. The study stresses the need for government intervention by means of providing the necessary infrastructures that will help to reduce transaction costs and thus increase farmers’ participation in the market. Also policies to provide adequate and timely information about the market situations as well as polices to enhance access to education are advocated.

  4. Practices of farmers in production and marketing of tomato in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described socio-economic characteristics, production, consumption and marketing patterns of tomato farmers as well as constraints they encounter in tomato production in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty tomato farmers randomly selected form twelve villages in the area constituted sample for the study. Data were collected with interview schedule and questionnaire and were presented with frequency, percentage and mean scores. Findings show that the respondents were mainly married (71% women (72.5% who were literate with mean age and mean farming experience of 42.22 years and 17.21years respectively. Greater proportion of the respondents grew tomatoes on communal land (31.7% with personal savings (42.5% and hired labour (45%. They grew tomatoes during rainy season (54.1% using personal reserved seeds (53.3%. Lack/poor storage facility (M=2.00 and fluctuation in price of tomato (M = 2.13 were some of the serious constraints to production and marketing of tomatoes respectively in the area. The study recommends that government, non-governmental organisations, self help development organisations/agencies as well as philanthropists should assist in provision of storage facilities for tomatoes so as to reduce losses and ensure preservation and availability of the product all year round at reasonable and stable price.

  5. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  6. Can the consumption-free nonexpected utility model solve the risk premium puzzle? An empirical study of the Japanese stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Myong-Il

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the consumption-free two-beta intertemporal capital asset-pricing model developed by Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) is able to solve the risk premium puzzle in the Japanese stock market over the period 1984-2002. Using the cash flow and discount rate betas as risk factors, the model is able to explain about half of the market returns by selection of suitable vector autoregression variables. On this basis, the model proposed solves the risk premium puzzle in Ja...

  7. Does Open Enrollment Control Premiums? A Case Study from the “Medigap” Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rice

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a change in “Medigap” regulations that occurred in Missouri in 1999. It allows Medicare beneficiaries in the state to switch to a different carrier each year so long as they retain the same standardized policy type, without losing their open enrollment privileges. The analysis is based on a comparison of various outcomes in Missouri and those in two comparison states, Kansas and Florida. We found little evidence that the policy change affected premiums charged by insurance carriers in Missouri, but conclude that other desirable aspects of the change make it potentially attractive for other states to follow.

  8. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae...

  9. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  10. Luxury and Premium Fashion Brands Online Marketing : Case Study Kiosked Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The online marketing of luxury fashion brands has traditionally been a slow-paced business. Consumers are spending an increasing amount of time online and the electronic market provides enormous marketing and sales potential for companies that wish to increase brand awareness or conduct other marketing activities. The aim of this study is to conduct an understanding of the world of luxury fashion brands and how they perform their online marketing. The scope of the research is narrowed in...

  11. Liquidity in the foreign exchange market : Measurement, commonality, and risk premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, Loriano; Ranaldo, Angelo; Wrampelmeyer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of liquidity in the foreign exchange market. We find significant variation in liquidity across exchange rates, substantial illiquidity costs, and strong commonality in liquidity across currencies and with equity and bond markets. Analyzing the impact of

  12. Determination of six Alternaria toxins with UPLC-MS/MS and their occurrence in tomatoes and tomato products from the Swiss market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Jürg; Schneider, Patrick; Rother, Martin; Schmutz, Hansruedi

    2011-11-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of the Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, altertoxin I and tentoxin. Owing to its instability, altenusin could not be determined. The sample preparation includes an acidic acetonitrile/water/methanol extraction, followed by SPE clean-up step, before injection into the UPLC-MS/MS system. The separation was made on an Acquity UPLC column using a water/acetonitrile gradient with ammonium hydrogen carbonate as a modifier. Matrix compounds of real samples led to enhancement as well as suppression of the target compounds, depending on analyte and matrix. The recoveries were between 58 and 109% at a level of 10 μg/kg. Eighty-five tomato products, consisting of peeled and minced tomatoes, soup and sauces, tomato purées and concentrates, ketchup as well as dried and fresh tomatoes, were taken from the Swiss market in 2010. Tenuazonic acid was found most frequently (81 out of 85 samples) and in the highest levels of up to 790 μg/kg. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were found in lower concentrations, ranging from <1 to 33 μg/kg for alternariol and <5 to 9 μg/kg for alternariol monomethyl ether. Only a few samples were positive for altenuene and tentoxin. Altertoxin I was never detected.

  13. Digital marketing in retail : what are the benefits a Swiss premium department store could reap when adapting to the changing environment of digitization? A maturity model

    OpenAIRE

    Schöni, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The force of digitization has empowered customers with an omni-present access to a worldwide bazar of products and information. This shift has compelled traditional retailers to expand their channels and touchpoints to wherever the customer wishes to be served. The new scattered landscape of touchpoints and the rapid development of increasingly sophisticated technology have confronted marketers with new challenges and opportunities alike. Meanwhile, Swiss premium department sto...

  14. Comparison of Seafood and Agricultural Ecological Premiums1

    OpenAIRE

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The report compares ecolabeled seafood premiums observed in the market with consumers’ stated willingness to pay premiums. Also ecolabeled premiums in the agricultural sector were examined. The next issue addressed was the sensitivity of changes in the price and premiums of ecolabeled seafood. Empirical findings showed that all things being equal, consumers stated willingness to pay reflects in their actual market behavior though they may pay less than stated. Premiums observed in the aquacul...

  15. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  17. Curb Your Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    institutional setting. In particular, we implement a difference-in-differences strategy using Italian data at the provider level from 2001 to 2008 to evaluate the impact of monitoring claims on medical liability expenditures, measured as insurance premiums and legal expenditures, which was adopted by only some...... Regions. Our results show that this information-enhancing policy reduces paid premiums by around 15%. This reduced-form effect might arise by higher bargaining power on the demand side or increased competition on the supply side of the insurance market. Validity tests show that our findings are not driven...

  18. Dynamic Jump Intensities and Risk Premiums in Crude Oil Futures and Options Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Li, Bingxin

    2016-01-01

    Options on crude oil futures are the most actively traded commodity options. We develop a class of computationally efficient discrete-time jump models that allow for closed-form option valuation, and we use crude oil futures and options data to investigate the economic importance of jumps...... and dynamic jump intensities in these markets. Allowing for jumps is crucial for modeling crude oil futures and futures options, and we find evidence in favor of time-varying jump intensities. During crisis periods, jumps occur more frequently. The properties of the jump processes implied by the option data...... differ from those implied by the futures data, which may be due to improved parameter identification....

  19. The market premium of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012. Does it really contribute to both market and system integration of renewables?; Die Marktpraemie im EEG 2012. Ein sinnvoller Beitrag zur Markt- und Systemintegration erneuerbarer Energien?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Purkus, Alexandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie

    2013-03-15

    With the share of renewable energies within the electricity sector rising, improving their market integration (i.e. inclusion in the steering and remuneration processes of the electricity market) and system integration (i.e. enhanced responsibility for grid stability) is of increasing importance. To transform the energy system efficiently while ensuring security of supply, it is necessary to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with short- and long-term market signals. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012 introduced the market premium to provide market experience to renewable plant operators and incentives for demand-oriented electricity production. Shortly after its introduction, the instrument is already being criticised as ineffective and expensive. Building on early experiences, this article examines whether the market premium in its current design improves market and/or system integration, and if it seems suitable in principle to contribute to these aims (effectiveness). Also, potential efficiency gains and additional costs of ''administering integration'' are discussed (efficiency). While market integration in a strict sense (i.e. exposing renewables to price risks) is not the purpose of the market premium, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, windfall profits are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented electricity production are established, but they prove insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. A continuation of the instrument in its current form therefore does not seem recommendable. To conclude, potential alternative solutions are presented.

  20. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  1. Diversity among Modern Tomato Genotypes at Different Levels in Fresh-Market Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bhattarai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated tomato has been in existence for about 400 years and breeding activities have been conducted for only eight decades. However, more than 10,000 tomato cultivars have already been developed. Ninety-one tomato genotypes were characterized for twenty-one morphological traits using developmental, vegetative, and fruit traits. Correlation, principal component, and cluster analysis between the traits were carried out. Higher correlations between fruit traits including fruit shape, fruit size, and fruit types were observed. These correlations indicate that specific fruit types require specific traits like branched inflorescence and a greater number of fruits per inflorescence are beneficial only for smaller fruit sizes like cherry and grape tomatoes. Contrastingly, traits like determinate growth habit and fruit maturity are preferred in all fruit types of tomato for better cultivation practices and longer production duration and hence showed lower correlations. Principal component analysis clustered tomato genotypes into three main clusters with multiple subgroups. Similar tomato genotypes were placed into one or more clusters confirming the results from correlation analysis. Involvement of private breeding programs in cultivar development has increased the competition on introgression of novel and desired traits across new cultivars. Understanding the diversity present in modern cultivars and potential traits identification in related wild species can enhance tomato diversity and improve quality and production.

  2. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  3. The conditional size premium and intertemporal risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders...

  4. Downside Variance Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad; Okou, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decomposition of the variance risk premium in terms of upside and downside variance risk premia. The difference between upside and downside variance risk premia is a measure of skewness risk premium. We establish that the downside variance risk premium is the main component of the variance risk premium, and that the skewness risk premium is a priced factor with significant prediction power for aggregate excess returns. Our empirical investigation highlights the positive and s...

  5. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  6. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  7. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  8. ACA Marketplace premiums and competition among hospitals and physician practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maria; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P; Baker, Laurence C

    2018-02-01

    To examine the association between annual premiums for health plans available in Federally Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) and the extent of competition and integration among physicians and hospitals, as well as the number of insurers. We used observational data from the Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight on the annual premiums and other characteristics of plans, matched to measures of physician, hospital, and insurer market competitiveness and other characteristics of 411 rating areas in the 37 FFMs. We estimated multivariate models of the relationship between annual premiums and Herfindahl-Hirschman indices of hospitals and physician practices, controlling for the number of insurers, the extent of physician-hospital integration, and other plan and rating area characteristics. Premiums for Marketplace plans were higher in rating areas in which physician, hospital, and insurance markets were less competitive. An increase from the 10th to the 90th percentile of physician concentration and hospital concentration was associated with increases of $393 and $189, respectively, in annual premiums for the Silver plan with the second lowest cost. A similar increase in the number of insurers was associated with a $421 decrease in premiums. Physician-hospital integration was not significantly associated with premiums. Premiums for FFM plans were higher in markets with greater concentrations of hospitals and physicians but fewer insurers. Higher premiums make health insurance less affordable for people purchasing unsubsidized coverage and raise the cost of Marketplace premium tax credits to the government.

  9. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIETY PRICE PREMIUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location price difference was inversely related to distance from the central commodity market, and the seasonal price difference was attributed to storage technique. These show imperfect competitive market behaviour. Peu/drum with characteristics of brown colour, rough skin and large grain size had a price premium than ...

  10. Técnicas de colheita para tomate de mesa Harvesting methods for fresh market tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a qualidade de frutos provenientes de colheita utilizando cestas de bambu e sacolas de lona plástica em campos de produção na região de Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Utilizou-se como testemunha frutos não submetidos ao manuseio. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (sistemas de colheita x dias após a colheita com três repetições. Foram observados o tempo de colheita, incidência de danos físicos (% originados no campo e/ou no processo de colheita, perda de masa (% durante o armazenamento, e a qualidade visual após armazenamento por 21 dias a temperatura ambiente (23ºC. O tempo necessário para realizar a colheita no mesmo número de plantas utilizando-se cesta de bambu foi superior em 20%, em relação à sacola plástica. A incidência de danos físicos (% e perda de massa (%, apesar de maiores nos frutos colhidos com sacola, não foram significativamente diferentes dos colhidos com cestas de bambus. Observou-se maior perda de massa (% durante o armazenamento nos frutos colhidos utilizando-se sacolas de lonas plásticas. Após armazenamento por 21 dias, frutos colhidos com sacola plástica apresentavam maiores perdas do que aqueles colhidos utilizando-se cestas de bambu, principalmente devido a danos físicos e podridões.Quality of tomato fruits harvested using traditional bamboo baskets was compared to fruits harvested using harvest bags in the Mogi Guaçu region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruits not submitted to handling were used as control. The trial was totally randomized (harvest system x days after harvest in a factorial design. The observed data were time spent for each harvest operation, mechanical injury (% caused either in the field or/and in the process of harvesting, weight loss (% during storage and final quality of fruits after storage for 21 days at room temperature (23ºC. The time necessary for the harvest with bamboo baskets was 20% higher than using plastic bags. The results

  11. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  12. Is there evidence that recent consolidation in the health insurance industry has adversely affected premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopit, William G

    2004-01-01

    James Robinson suggests that recent consolidation in the insurance market has been a cause of higher health insurance prices (premiums). Although the recent consolidation among health insurers and rising premiums are indisputable, it is unlikely that consolidation has had any adverse effect on premiums nationwide, and Robinson provides no data that suggest otherwise. Specifically, he does not present data showing an increase in concentration in any relevant market during the past few years, let alone any resulting increase in premiums. Health insurance consolidation in certain local markets could adversely affect premiums, but it seems clear that it is not a major national antitrust issue.

  13. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  14. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  15. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  16. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  17. The Choice of Canned Whole Peeled Tomatoes is Driven by Different Key Quality Attributes Perceived by Consumers Having Different Familiarity with the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez-Muñoz, Lucía; Steenbekkers, Bea Lpa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Canned whole peeled tomatoes are a premium tomato product; however, no information is available about the key intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes perceived by consumers when buying this product. This research considered consumers differing in the level of familiarity with peeled tomatoes, that is, knowledge, frequency of consumption, and availability of this product, on 3 markets: Chile (low), The Netherlands (medium), and Italy (high). The perceptions and preferences of each group were studied using first focus groups and subsequently conjoint analysis in order to identify the key quality attributes leading their preferences for this product. Focus groups identified 7 intrinsic attributes (color, packing medium, tomato consistency, acidity level, sweetness level, extra ingredients, and intensity of product taste), and 5 extrinsic attributes (packaging material, product type, country of origin, brand, and label design). Significant variations according to the familiarity were found. The conjoint analyses showed that color of tomatoes was the most important intrinsic quality attribute for all groups, while packaging material was the most important extrinsic quality attribute for Chileans and Dutch, being a glass container or a can with easy open the preferred packaging for respective groups. In contrast, country of origin was the most important parameter for Italians. We concluded that intrinsic and extrinsic attributes were strongly influenced by the degree of familiarity with canned whole peeled tomatoes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Quantifying Postharvest Loss and the Implication of Market-Based Decisions: A Case Study of Two Commercial Domestic Tomato Supply Chains in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. McKenzie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this study quantifies horticultural postharvest losses of two medium-sized (annual pack volume 4500 t commercial, domestic, tomato supply chains. Quantification of loss was based on weight or volume, consistent with direct measurement methods of the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard 2016 and qualitative techniques were used to identify the drivers of the loss and contextualise the findings. Postharvest loss was found to be between 40.3% (55.34 t and 55.9% (29.61 t of the total harvestable product. It was determined that between 68.6% and 86.7% of undamaged, edible, harvested tomatoes were rejected as outgrades and consequently discarded due to product specifications. Between 71.2% and 84.1% of produced tomatoes were left in the field and not harvested. This study highlights significant factors contributing to high levels of food loss and waste. Edible products are being removed from the commercial food supply chain, rejected as outgrades deemed cosmetically defective due to market-based decisions. With only 44.1% and 59.7% of the harvestable crop reaching the consumers of the two supply chains, respectively, it is perhaps more appropriate to describe a food “waste” chain as opposed to a food “supply” chain.

  19. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  20. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  1. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  2. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  3. Risk Premium and Central Bank Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Ozlu

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relation between the risk premium and central bank intervention. Forward rates are calculated for the Turkish Lira-USD exchange market and then the effect of central bank intervention on the risk premium is estimated. Using high quality daily intervention data from the Central Bank of Turkey as well as implied forward rates, an MA (21)-GARCH (1,1) model is estimated. Both purchases and sales of US dollars by the Central Bank of Turkey appear to have no effect on the si...

  4. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  6. Premium quality for a mechanical design department

    OpenAIRE

    Rofín Serrà, Guillem

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis has been carried out in a market which is expected to grow rapidly in the next decade. Because of this, actors in the market like Alpha want to strengthen their business position through refining the quality of their products and processes. One of the internal targets of MD, a mechanical design department within Alpha, referred to “premium product quality parameters” although these were not defined. Hence, this Thesis intends to contribute in the definition and understanding that ...

  7. Plan estratégico de marketing de nueva línea de jugos premium para the Coca-Cola Company

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonel, Magaly; Ríos, Nicole; Taborga, Marcelo; Victorero, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    La alimentación saludable está cambiando los patrones de consumo de la sociedad, los consumidores están eligiendo productos bajos en grasas, sin preservantes u otros componentes dañinos a la salud. La categoría de jugos no es ajena a esta realidad, de acuerdo a las tendencias globales, regionales y locales, se ha evaluado la posibilidad de incorporar un jugo Premium RTD (100% jugo listo para consumir) al portafolio de The Coca-Cola Company en Lima Metropolitana. El presente Pla...

  8. The Association of State Rate Review Authority with Health Insurance Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticse, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Adjusted premiums in the individual market in states with prior approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-2013 than premiums in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. (2) Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior approval states while premiums increased in states with no rate review authority or with file-and-use regulations only. (3) The findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained increases in health insurance premiums.

  9. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  10. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  11. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  12. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  13. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  14. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  15. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Enciso-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt. are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32 and tree tomatoes (n = 30 through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII in other Solanaceae (Asterid species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41 for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F ST > 0.90, which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  16. Risk premium and insalubrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portela, Josmael; Figueira, Rosania Lucia

    2005-01-01

    The risk premium and insalubrity have been widely discussed in the legal universe/labor. The social and economic impacts interfere on the right of the professional exposed to ionizing radiation to have or not additional rights. Due to the large accidents, with world repercussion, which occurred in recent times, involving workers undergoing these radiation, these professionals are receiving special attention by the competent bodies on the right or not to risk premium and insalubrity. The professional who operates equipment that emit ionising radiation, or those working directly with radioisotopes are undoubtedly under imminent risk, even if they complied with all safety requirements, thus deserving a more careful analysis by our lawyers with respect to receive additional percentages. Recent decisions of higher Courts begin to consolidate a more just and logical reasoning on the subject

  17. Assessing consumer preferences and willingness to pay for organic tomatoes in Albania: a conjoint choice experiment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell Skreli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional, production system (open field vs. greenhouse, origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.

  18. Expression of heterosis in floral traits and fruit size in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was prompted by lack of improved tomato cultivars adapted to the humid tropical. Tomato hybrids were developed by crossing wild and cultivated tomato varieties. The average fruit size of the tomato hybrids generated did not meet the level of acceptability in the local market. A modified three way cross ...

  19. Emergence of a resistance breaking TSWV strain in tomato in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly destructive pathogen of tomato in the central valley of California. During the 2016 tomato growing season, unusually early and severe symptoms of TSWV occurred in fields of TSWV-resistant fresh market tomato cultivars. Disease incidences of 50-80% were ob...

  20. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  1. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  2. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  3. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  4. Geographic variation in premiums in health insurance marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2014-08-01

    This policy brief analyzes the 2014 premiums associated with qualified health plans (QHPs) made available through new health insurance marketplaces (HIMs), an implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. We report differences in premiums by insurance rating areas while controlling for other important factors such as the actuarial value of the plan (metal level), cost-of-living differences, and state-level decisions over type of rating area. While market equilibrium, based on experience and understanding of the characteristics of the new market, should not be expected this soon, preliminary results give policymakers key issues to monitor.

  5. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  6. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  7. Signaling and the Education Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Kurtzon

    2004-01-01

    A large portion of the rise in the education premium can be explained by a signaling theory of education which predicts that in the future, increases in the education level of the workforce will actually cause the education premium to rise, simply because different workers are being labeled as “highly educated†. This prediction is supported by past behavior of the high school education premium. It runs counter to the view that increases in the relative supply of high education workers wil...

  8. The impact of HMO competition on private health insurance premiums, 1985-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, T M; Feldstein, P J

    1995-01-01

    A critical unresolved health policy question is whether competition stimulated by managed care organizations can slow the rate of growth in health care expenditures. We analyzed the competitive effects of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) on the growth in fee-for-service indemnity insurance premiums over the period 1985-1992 using premium data on 95 groups that had policies with a single, large, private insurance carrier. We used multiple regressions to estimate the effect of HMO market penetration on insurance premium growth rates. HMO penetration had a statistically significant (p market whose HMO penetration rate increased by 25% (e.g., from 10% to 12.5%), the real rate of growth in premiums would be approximately 5.9% instead of 7.0%. Our findings indicate that competitive strategies, relying on managed care, have significant potential to reduce health insurance premium growth rates, thereby resulting in substantial cost savings over time.

  9. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...

  10. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  11. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of...

  12. RISK PREMIUM IN MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANU ÖZGÜREL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pure premium or risk premium is the premium that would exactly meet the expected cost of the risk covered ignoring management expenses, commissions, contingency loading, etc. Claim frequency rate and mean claim size are required for estimation in calculating risk premiums. In this study, we discussed to estimate claim frequency rate and mean claim size with several methods and calculated risk premiums. Data, which supported our study, is provided by insurance company involving with motor vehicle insurance.

  13. The intra- and interstate excess market return for low- and high-volatility level

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Gary

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a method to estimate the market risk premium that accounts for shifts in investment opportunities by explicitly modeling the volaiility level. This method decomposes the market risk premium into two components., the expected risk premium within the volatility state and risk premium associate with an unexpected change in volatility state. I find that the expected risk premium within the state is negatively related to the market volatility, which is consistent with empirical...

  14. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO 2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  15. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  16. Eficácia de limpeza durante o beneficiamento do tomate de mesa Effectiveness of cleaning fresh market tomatoes during post harvest handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Magalhães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a limpeza do tomate de mesa 'Débora' em relação à eficácia na qualidade dos frutos. Primeiramente, estudou-se a eficácia, com auxílio de esferas de borracha, variando-se as cerdas (náilon, sisal, PET e fibra de coco e a rotação (40, 80, 120 e 160rpm das escovas. Depois, com os melhores resultados, foram avaliadas a eficácia da limpeza em tomates e a qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos mensurada pela perda de massa (%, atividade respiratória (CO2 e evolução da concentração de etileno. No primeiro ensaio, as cerdas de náilon, sisal e fibra de coco combinadas com as altas rotações tornaram a limpeza mais eficaz. A cerda PET e a rotação de 40rpm foram ineficientes, apresentando um índice de limpeza (IL inferior a 50%. Para os tomates, o tratamento com náilon a 120rpm foi o mais eficaz na limpeza (IL=91%; todavia, o tratamento com náilon 160rpm apresentou um IL inferior (88%, pois, devido à alta velocidade, os frutos pulavam e não eram envoltos pelas cerdas. Menores IL foram obtidos com fibra de coco a 80 e 120rpm, mas não estatisticamente diferentes. De modo geral, frutos limpos com náilon e sisal a 120rpm apresentaram as maiores alterações na qualidade pós-colheita quando comparados aos frutos limpos nessas mesmas cerdas a 160rpm. Maior flexibilidade das cerdas proporciona maior contato fruto/cerdas, com melhoria na eficiência de limpeza, o que pode provocar alterações na qualidade pós-colheita do fruto, porém não significativas.This research evaluated the cleaning process of fresh market tomatoes Débora in relation to the efficiency cleaning and fruit quality. First, the efficiency cleaning was carried, with rubber spheres, changing the types of bristles (nylon, sisal fiber, PET and coconut fiber as well as the rotation (40, 80, 120 and 160rpm of rotary brushes. Afterwards, with the best results, the studies were carried out with fresh market tomatoes to evaluate cleaning efficiency

  17. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  18. The Book-to-Market Anomaly in the Chinese Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-Yip Ho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the existence of value premium in the Chinese stock markets and empirically provides its explanation. Our results suggest that the value premium does exist in the Chinese markets, and investor sophistication is significant in explaining its existence. In particular, there is supporting evidence that the value premium could be driven by individual investors, whereas stocks that are mostly held by institutional investors are value-premium free. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings.

  19. What drives insurer participation and premiums in the Federally-Facilitated Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; Drake, Coleman; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Simon, Kosali

    2017-12-01

    We investigate determinants of market entry and premiums within the context of the Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces for individual insurance. Using Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) as the conceptual framework, we study how competition and firm heterogeneity relate to premiums in 36 states using Federally Facilitated or Supported Marketplaces in 2016. Our primary data source is the Qualified Health Plan Landscape File, augmented with market characteristics from the American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File as well as insurer-level information from federal Medical Loss Ratio annual reports. We first estimate a model of insurer entry and then investigate the relationship between a market's predicted number of entrants and insurer-level premiums. Our entry model results suggest that competition is increasing with the number of insurers, most notably as the market size increases from 3 to 4 entrants. Results from the premium regression suggest that each additional entrant is associated with approximately 4% lower premiums, controlling for other factors. An alternative explanation for the relationship between entrants and premiums is that more efficient insurers (who can price lower) are the ones that enter markets with many entrants, and this is reflected in lower premiums. An exploratory analysis of insurers' non-claims costs (a proxy for insurer efficiency) reveals that average costs among entrants are rising slightly with the number of insurers in the market. This pattern does not support the hypothesis that premiums decrease with more entrants because those entrants are more efficient, suggesting instead that the results are being driven mostly by price competition.

  20. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  1. Dynamic pricing of general insurance in a competitive market

    OpenAIRE

    Emms, P.

    2006-01-01

    A model for general insurance pricing is developed which represents a stochastic generalisation of the discrete model proposed by Taylor (1986). This model determines the insurance premium based both on the breakeven premium and the competing premiums offered by the rest of the insurance market. The optimal premium is determined using stochastic optimal control theory for two objective functions in order to examine how the optimal premium strategy changes with the insurer’s objective. Each of...

  2. Premiums And Reserves, Adjusted By Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler, Alois

    2013-01-01

    The net-premium principle is considered to be the most genuine and fair premium principle in actuarial applications. However, an insurance company, applying the net-premium principle, goes bankrupt with probability one in the long run, even if the company covers its entire costs by collecting the respective fees from its customers. It is therefore an intrinsic necessity for the insurance industry to apply premium principles, which guarantee at least further existence of the company itself; ot...

  3. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rate credits. (4) Unearned premium reserve means the portion of gross premiums due that provide for...) Written premiums for the period; plus— (ii) The total premium reserve at the beginning of the period; less— (iii) The total premium reserve at the end of the period. (2) Written premiums in a period means— (i...

  4. Premium indexing in lifelong health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercruysse, W.; Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Pitacco, E.; Antonio, K.

    2013-01-01

    For lifelong health insurance covers, medical inflation not incorporated in the level premiums determined at policy issue requires an appropriate increase of these premiums and/or the corresponding reserves during the term of the contract. In this paper, we investigate appropriate premium indexing

  5. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies for Low... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premium subsidy. 423.780 Section 423.780 Public...-service plans or 1876 cost plans) in a PDP region in the reference month. (ii) Premium amounts. The...

  6. 5 CFR 890.1208 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 599C(e) of Public Law 101-513. (b) If the individual is not covered under this subpart for the full pay period, premiums are paid only for the days he or she is actually covered. The daily premium rate is an amount equal to the monthly premium rate multiplied by 12 and divided by 365. (c) The payments required...

  7. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  8. 24 CFR 203.443 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... premium. All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.269 1 concerning mortgage insurance premiums... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE...

  9. Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Z. Santos

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

  10. The Impact of the Term Auction Facility on the Liquidity Risk Premium and Unsecured Interbank Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve's Term Auction Facility (TAF) in alleviating the liquidity shortage in USD and reducing the spread between the 3-month Libor rate and the expected policy rate. I construct a proxy for the 3-month liquidity risk premium based on data from the FX forward market which enables me to (i) decompose the Libor spread into a liquidity premium and a credit premium, and (ii) test the effectiveness of the TAF in reducing the liquidity premi...

  11. The Eco-Efficiency Premium Puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.

    2004-09-01

    Conventional investment theory suggests that socially responsible investing (SRI) leads to inferior, rather than superior, portfolio performance. Using Innovest's well-established corporate eco-efficiency scores, we provide evidence supporting the contrary. We compose two equity portfolios that differ in ecoefficiency characteristics and find that our high-ranked portfolio provided substantially higher average returns compared to its low-ranked counterpart over the period 1995-2003. Using a wide range of performance attribution techniques to address common methodological concerns, we show that this performance differential cannot be explained by differences in market sensitivity, investment style, or industry-specific components. We finally investigate whether this ecoefficiency premium puzzle withstands the inclusion of transaction costs scenarios, and evaluate how excess returns can be earned in a practical setting via a best-in-class stock selection strategy. The results remain significant under all levels of transactions costs, thus suggesting that the incremental benefits of SRI can be substantial

  12. The Loss Aversion / Narrow Framing Approach to the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Barberis; Ming Huang

    2006-01-01

    We review a recent approach to understanding the equity premium puzzle. The key elements of this approach are loss aversion and narrow framing, two well-known features of decision-making under risk in experimental settings. In equilibrium, models that incorporate these ideas can generate a large equity premium and a low and stable risk-free rate, even when consumption growth is smooth and only weakly correlated with the stock market. Moreover, they can do so for parameter values that correspo...

  13. Market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, L

    1990-03-01

    This article discusses the nature of market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry. It presents four approaches for conducting market niche analysis. An an example of one approach, the Las Vegas Visitor Profile Study is used to identify a premium niche in the Las Vegas Slot Target Market. A detailed examination of the premium niche profile provides a description of the typical premium slot player. The description of the typical premium player leads to hypotheses regarding needs (the unique preference set) of the premium player. An analysis of the unique preference set suggests an appropriate enhanced marketing program.

  14. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  15. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  16. Incentive-compatible guaranteed renewable health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Pauly, Mark V

    2006-05-01

    Theoretical models of guaranteed renewable insurance display front-loaded premium schedules. Such schedules both cover lifetime total claims of low-risk and high-risk individuals and provide an incentive for those who remain low-risk to continue to purchase the policy. Questions have been raised of whether actual individual insurance markets in the US approximate the behavior predicted by these models, both because young consumers may not be able to "afford" front-loading and because insurers may behave strategically in ways that erode the value of protection against risk reclassification. In this paper, the optimal competitive age-based premium schedule for a benchmark guaranteed renewable health insurance policy is estimated using medical expenditure data. Several factors are shown to reduce the amount of front-loading necessary. Indeed, the resulting optimal premium path increases with age. Actual premium paths exhibited by purchasers of individual insurance are close to the optimal renewable schedule we estimate. Finally, consumer utility associated with the feature is examined.

  17. Tort law and medical malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A; Nelson, Leonard J

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimated the effects of tort law and insurer investment returns on physician malpractice insurance premiums. Data were collected on tort law from 1991 through 2004, and multivariate regression models, including fixed effects for state and year, were used to estimate the effect of changes in tort law on medical malpractice premiums. The premium consequences of national policy changes were simulated. The analysis found that the introduction of a new damage cap lowered malpractice premiums for internal medicine, general surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology by 17.3%, 20.7%, and 25.5%, respectively. Lowering damage caps by dollar 100,000 reduced premiums by 4%. Statutes of repose also resulted in lower premiums. No other tort law changes had the effect of lowering premiums. Simulation results indicate that a national cap of dollar 250,000 on awards for noneconomic damages in all states would imply premium savings of dollar 16.9 billion. Extending a dollar 250,000 cap to all states that do not currently have them would save dollar 1.4 billion annually, or about 8% of the total. A negative effect on malpractice premiums was found for the Dow Jones industrial average, but not for bond prices; effects of the Nasdaq index were not significant for internal medicine, but were marginally significant for surgery and obstetrics premiums.

  18. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  20. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  1. THE EQUITY PREMIUM PUZZLE AND EMOTIONAL ASSET PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    MARC GÜRTLER; NORA HARTMANN

    2007-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  2. Perfil dos compradores de tomate de mesa em supermercados da região de Campinas Market profile of fresh tomato consumers in the Campinas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andreuccetti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O acesso a informações e às mudanças tecnológicas fizeram com que consumidores se tornassem cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde. Assim, procurou-se estabelecer o comportamento de compra dos consumidores de tomate de mesa (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. em supermercados de Campinas (SP, e a partir das respostas aos questionários traçou-se seu perfil destacando suas preferências, costumes, reclamações e exigências. Identificou-se que é a mulher que realiza as compras para casa, com preferência pelo consumo do tomate na forma "in natura". Encontrou-se insatisfação de 95,6% dos entrevistados quanto à qualidade do tomate, sendo a presença de danos físicos a maior reclamação. Assim, a qualidade do tomate que estava sendo apresentado nas gôndolas dos supermercados não correspondia àquela indicada pelos consumidores (frutos com coloração vermelha, uniformes e ausência de injúrias. Diante da insatisfação dos consumidores e considerando que o tomate preferencialmente é consumido "in natura" deve-se atentar para sua aparência externa, promovendo manuseio adequado nas etapas pós-colheita a fim de minimizar danos físicos. Os consumidores revelaram que pagariam uma quantia mais elevada pelo tomate caso este apresentasse melhor qualidade. A opinião do consumidor deve ser considerada para se encontrar soluções tecnológicas e/ou estratégicas que possam minimizar os danos pós-colheita do tomate, atingindo suas expectativas quanto à qualidade do produto.Access to information together with technological developments have helped to make consumers more preocupied about their health. A study was made of the buying habits of tomato consumers in supermarkets in Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil. With the answers to the questionnaire to hand it was possible to determine the preferences, the customs, the complaints and the demands of the customers. It was established that it is the woman of the house who does the

  3. Are Integrated Plan Providers Associated With Lower Premiums on the Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Forgia, Ambar; Maeda, Jared Lane K; Banthin, Jessica S

    2018-04-01

    As the health insurance industry becomes more consolidated, hospitals and health systems have started to enter the insurance business. Insurers are also rapidly acquiring providers. Although these "vertically" integrated plan providers are small players in the insurance market, they are becoming more numerous. The health insurance marketplaces (HIMs) offer a unique setting to study integrated plan providers relative to other insurer types because the HIMs were designed to promote competition. In this descriptive study, the authors compared the premiums of the lowest priced silver plans of integrated plan providers with other insurer types on the 2015 and 2016 HIMs. Integrated plan providers were associated with modestly lower premiums relative to most other insurer types. This study provides early insights into premium competition on the HIMs. Examining integrated plan providers as a separate insurer type has important policy implications because they are a growing segment of the marketplaces and their pricing behavior may influence future premium trends.

  4. The urban density premium across establishments

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman; Matthew Freedman

    2013-01-01

    We use longitudinal microdata to estimate the urban density premium for U.S. establishments, controlling for observed establishment characteristics and dynamic establishment behavior. Consistent with previous studies, we estimate a density premium between 6 and 10 percent, even after controlling for establishment composition, local skill mix, and the endogeneity of location choice. More importantly, we find that the estimated density premium is realized almost entirely at birth and is constan...

  5. Valoração dos atributos de qualidade do tomate de mesa: um estudo com atacadistas da CEAGESP Valuation of the quality attributes of tomato for fresh market: a study with CEAGESP wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina L de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grande variação no valor do tomate de mesa, do mesmo grupo varietal, mesma classificação e no mesmo dia de comercialização, no mercado atacadista da CEAGESP, tem entre suas causas mais importantes a diferença de qualidade nos atributos destes frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi criar uma ferramenta de avaliação dos atributos de qualidade considerados importantes para o tomate de mesa e, a partir da avaliação, apontar os mais relevantes na diferença de valor praticado na comercialização da CEAGESP. Primeiramente, foram levantados os principais atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate de mesa a partir de entrevista com agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP. A partir deste levantamento, foi criado um gabarito de avaliação visual da qualidade. Por fim, foram levantados os lotes de tomate de mesa de preço máximo e os de preço mínimo para três classificações (graúdo, médio e miúdo comercializados no mesmo dia, avaliando-se os seus atributos de qualidade por dois sistemas: sistema I - avaliação dos atributos de qualidade por meio de notas de desempenho de acordo com o gabarito, e o sistema II - levantamento da frequência de ocorrência de cada atributo avaliado no lote de tomate. Os atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate, segundo os agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP, são: o tamanho (tipo ou calibre, a coloração do fruto, a ausência de defeitos, durabilidade, embalagem e sabor. Os atributos determinantes na variação de preços avaliados pelo sistema I são embalagens paletizáveis e embalagens que proporcionem um adequado empilhamento, enquanto que, para o sistema II, estes atributos são: frutos sem danos superficiais de casca e proteção adequada da embalagem contra injúrias mecânicas.The great variation in the value of tomato from the same variety group, same classification and on the same day of marketing, registered by the Terminal Market of CEAGESP, were related to

  6. Premium adjustment: actuarial analysis on epidemiological models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we analyse insurance premium adjustment in the context of an epidemiological model where the insurer's future financial liability is greater than the premium from patients. In this situation, it becomes extremely difficult for the insurer since a negative reserve would severely increase its risk of insolvency, ...

  7. A note on weighted premium calculation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaluszka, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Okolewski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent problem in actuarial science is to determine premium calculation principles that satisfy certain criteria. Goovaerts et al. [Goovaerts, M. J., De Vylder, F., Haezendonck, J., 1984. Insurance Premiums: Theory and Applications. North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 84] establish an optimality-type

  8. THE APPLICATION OF BŰHLMANN-STRAUB MODEL TO THE ESTIMATION OF NET PREMIUM RATES DEPENDING ON THE AGE OF THE INSURED IN THE MOTOR THIRD LIABILITY INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    One of the basic variables used in the process of tariff calculation of premiums in motor liability insurance is the age of the insured. In this type of insurance offered by insurers operating on the Polish market, this variable is taken into account in the ratemaking by discounts and increases in assigned premium, known as the net premiums rates. The aim of this work is to propose a method of rate estimation of net premiums in the groups of the motor third liability insurance portfolio of in...

  9. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure of ...... and are closely related to global risk aversion, the business cycle, and traditional exchange rate fundamentals.......We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  10. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Early Findings on Changes in Plan Availability and Premiums in Rural Places, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2015-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in HIMs from 2014 to 2015 in terms of choices offered and premiums charged, with emphasis on how these measures vary across rural and urban places. Key Findings. (1) In 74 percent of HIM rating areas, the number of firms operating increased by at least one, while the number of firms decreased in only about 6 percent of rating areas. Further, 64 percent of rating areas with fewer than 50 persons per square mile gained at least one firm. (2) There was no consistent pattern of premium increases with respect to rating area population density (used as a proxy here for the degree of "ruralness" of the rating areas). Nationally, rural areas are not experiencing higher premium increases than their urban counterparts. In fact, the lowest increases in second-lowest cost silver plan premiums occurred in the medium-density population rating areas of 51 to 300 persons per square mile. (3) Average adjusted premiums increased from 2014 to 2015 by 6.7 percent in Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) compared to just 1.4 percent in State-Based Marketplaces (SBMs). Regardless of SBM or FFM status, premium increases across the United States were negatively correlated with the number of firms entering the market. (4) Analysis of the most rural states, in terms of percentage of the population classified as nonmetropolitan, shows that, in general, premiums fell significantly in rural places where they had been rather high, and they increased in rural places where they had been rather low. The five rural states with the lowest premium increases had an average of 0.17 firms entering the market, while the five with the highest premium increases had an average of 0.50 firms exiting the market.

  11. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  12. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...

  13. Storage and the electricity forward premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Stratford; Popova, Julia

    2008-01-01

    We develop and test a model describing the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. The model is constructed by linking the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to an established model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. The model predicts a sharply negative effect of gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. Empirical results, based on PJM data, strongly support the model. (author)

  14. 24 CFR 266.604 - Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Other... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.604 Mortgage insurance premium: Other..., based upon the respective share of risk, that is to be used in calculating mortgage insurance premiums...

  15. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  16. 42 CFR 60.14 - The insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The insurance premium. 60.14 Section 60.14 Public... LOAN PROGRAM The Loan § 60.14 The insurance premium. (a) General. (1) The Secretary insures each lender... lender an insurance premium. The insurance premium is due to the Secretary on the date of disbursement of...

  17. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  18. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  19. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  20. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  1. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A

    2004-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  2. Health insurance premium tax credit. Final regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.

  3. 31 CFR 50.36 - Allocation of premium income associated with entities that do share profits and losses with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities; Workers' Compensation Funds § 50.36 Allocation of premium... agreement to place and service insurance contracts for a State residual market insurance entity or a State...

  4. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  5. Controle automático do fluxo de água na etapa de limpeza em unidades de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Automatic control of water sistems in the cleaning step in fresh market tomato packing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A água é um recurso cada vez mais escasso e também de alto custo em várias regiões. O beneficiamento de frutas e hortaliças, em geral, apresenta elevado consumo de água durante o processo de limpeza. A linha de beneficiamento e de classificação do tomate de mesa é constituída de: recebimento, limpeza, seleção, classificação e embalagem. Normalmente, o recebimento dos tomates em uma linha de beneficiamento ocorre com taxa de alimentação constante, porém com interrupções frequentes dos operadores, ocasionando desperdício de energia e água, e a eficiência de limpeza dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um sistema de limpeza dos frutos, equipado com um controle automático de fluxo de água, visando ao uso racional de água. Para a avaliação da eficiência do processo de limpeza, aplicou-se uma metodologia que utiliza o turbidímetro. Observou-se que o índice de limpeza foi, segundo critérios estatísticos, semelhante nos sistemas automatizado e tradicional, todavia o consumo de água no sistema automatizado foi quatro vezes inferior quando comparado ao sistema tradicional, indicando o potencial de aplicação comercial deste sistema.Water is a natural resource becoming scarce in many regions. Cleaning fruits and vegetables, generally demands high water consumption. A fresh market tomato packing-line is composed of: receiving, cleaning, sorting, classifying and packing. Normally, the receiving process for tomatoes in a packing line happens in a constant flow, however often interruptions of operators cause loss of water, energy and also fruits cleaning efficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop an automation system for cleaning fruits, with a rational water use. For evaluating cleaning efficiency it was developed a methodology using a turbidimiter. The results showed that the cleaning efficiency index was statistically similar between the two systems; however, water consumption for the automated

  6. Comparison and evaluation of the roles of tomato farmer cooperatives in Taiwan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.-S.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables all over the world and the production was 145 million tonnes in 2011. In Taiwan and The Netherlands, tomato also became an important vegetable nowadays. In both countries, the farmer cooperatives are the way to help farmers accessing markets. However,

  7. Consumer Preferences for Fresh Tomato at the European Scale: A Common Segmentation on Taste and Firmness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causse, M.; Friguet, C.; Coiret, C.; Lepicier, M.; Navez, B.; Lee, van der M.K.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Sinesio, F.; Moneta, E.; Grandillo, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In

  8. Susceptibility of the Tomato Mutant High Pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Charnikhova, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Kohlen, W.; Bino, R.J.; Levin, I.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2dg is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as

  9. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  10. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY... contains final regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected... regulations in this document provide guidance to holders of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities and other...

  11. A Cat Bond Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek J. Bantwal; Howard C. Kunreuther

    1999-01-01

    Catastrophe Bonds whose payoffs are tied to the occurrence of natural disasters offer insurers the ability to hedge event risk through the capital markets that could otherwise leave them insolvent if concentrated solely on their own balance sheets. At the same time, they offer investors a unique opportunity to enhance their portfolios with an asset that provides an attractive return that is uncorrelated with typical financial securities Despite its attractiveness, spreads in this market remai...

  12. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  13. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  14. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  15. Direct marketing of electricity from biogas plants; Direktvermarktung von Strom aus Biogasanlagen. Chancen und Risiken aus rechtlicher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falke, Iris; Schlichting, Julia [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The German Renewable Energy Sources Act of January, 1{sup st} 2012 contains new possibilities of direct selling electricity to the market, to promote and to improve market integration of electricity generated from renewable energies. The core is the introduction of a market premium for electricity which has actually been fed into the grid system and purchased by a third party. In addition to his market revenues, the installation operator receives the market premium. The market premium replaces the guaranteed EEG feed-in tariff. The market premium should cover the difference between the proceeds from direct selling and the EEG feed-in tariff. In addition, installation operators receive a management premium to compensate their transaction costs. As a supplement to the market premium model the EEG 2012 introduces a flexibility premium to create an economic incentive for providing additional capacities and encourage a demand-oriented electricity production. Further possibilities of direct marketing are the ''green electricity privilege'' and the non-subsided direct marketing. This article provides an over-view of the different forms of direct-marketing that are included in EEG 2012 with a focus on the market premium and the flexibility premium. These two instruments are of high importance to operators of installations generating electricity from biogas. A further emphasis is put on risks and chances in contract negotiation in the context of direct marketing. (orig.)

  16. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  17. 77 FR 30377 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...

  18. Investing in systematic factor premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Kees G.; Slager, Alfred M. H.; Stork, P.A.

    In this paper we investigate and evaluate factor investing in the US and Europe for equities and bonds. We show that factor-based portfolios generally produce comparable or better portfolios than market indices. We expand the analysis to other asset classes and factors, work with other optimisation

  19. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-09-01

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pnew implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e825-e830.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Influence of Inter-Intra Row Spacing on Yield Losses of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    losses of tomato growing under open field production with fresh market (Bishola) and processing ..... AVRDC. 2003. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, Shanhua, Tainan, progress ... Australia national universities. 20: 1.

  1. Covering bariatric surgery has minimal effect on insurance premium costs within the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Wayne; Williams, Brandon; Scott, John; Morton, John

    2016-06-01

    Currently, of the 51 state health exchanges operating under the Affordable Care Act, only 23 include benchmark plans that cover bariatric surgery coverage. Bariatric surgery coverage is not considered an essential health benefit in 28 state exchanges, and this lack of coverage has a discriminatory and detrimental impact on millions of Americans participating in state exchanges that do not provide bariatric surgery coverage. We examined 3 state exchanges in which a portion of their plans provided coverage for bariatric surgery to determine if bariatric surgery coverage is correlated with premium costs. State health exchanges; United States. Data from the 2015 state exchange plans were analyzed using information from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Individual Market Landscape file and Benefits and Cost Sharing public use files. Only 3 states (Oklahoma, Oregon, and Virginia) in the analysis have 1 or more rating regions in which a portion of the plans cover bariatric surgery. In Oklahoma and Oregon, the average monthly premiums for all bronze, silver, and gold coverage levels are higher for plans covering bariatric surgery. Only 1 of these states included platinum plans that cover bariatric surgery. The average difference in premiums was between $1 to $45 higher in Oklahoma, and $18 to $32 higher in Oregon. Conversely, in Virginia, the average monthly premiums are between $2 and $21 lower for each level for plans covering bariatric surgery. Monthly premiums for plans covering versus not covering bariatric surgery ranged from 6% lower to 15% higher in the same geographic rating region. Across all 3 states in the sample, the average monthly premiums do not differ consistently on the basis of whether the state exchange plans cover bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  3. 49 CFR 260.17 - Credit risk premium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium analysis. 260.17 Section 260... Financial Assistance § 260.17 Credit risk premium analysis. (a) When Federal appropriations are not available to cover the total subsidy cost, the Administrator will determine the Credit Risk Premium...

  4. 49 CFR 260.15 - Credit risk premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium. 260.15 Section 260.15... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.15 Credit risk premium. (a) Where available... pay to the Administrator a Credit Risk Premium adequate to cover that portion of the subsidy cost not...

  5. 7 CFR 400.710 - Preemption and premium taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption and premium taxation. 400.710 Section 400... of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.710 Preemption and premium taxation. A policy or plan of insurance that is approved by the Board for FCIC reinsurance is preempted from state and local taxation. ...

  6. 77 FR 26698 - Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... explain how to allocate prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums to determine the amount of the... Act of 2010. The regulations affect taxpayers who pay prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums...

  7. 24 CFR 241.1030 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1030 Mortgage insurance premiums. The lender, upon endorsement of the note, shall pay the Commissioner a first mortgage insurance premium equal to 0.5 percent of the...

  8. 24 CFR 221.254 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 221... Cost Homes § 221.254 Mortgage insurance premiums. (a) All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.295 of this chapter relating to mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under...

  9. 78 FR 70856 - Information Reporting of Mortgage Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Information Reporting of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... regulations that require information reporting by persons who receive mortgage insurance premiums, including... reporting requirements that result from the extension of the treatment of mortgage insurance premiums made...

  10. 31 CFR 337.8 - Payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance premiums. When certificated debentures are tendered for purchase prior to maturity in order that the proceeds thereof be applied to pay for mortgage insurance premiums, any difference between the amount of the debentures purchased and the amount of the mortgage insurance premium will generally be...

  11. Greenhouse Tomato Producers’ Views on Soilless Agriculture in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato comes as the most commonly produced, consumed and subject for trading in the world. Alongside fresh consumption, on the other hand it forms the most significant raw material source of food industry, especially for tomato paste, frozen and dried vegetable-fruit and canned food industry. Turkey's greenhouse vegetable production field for 2016 year is 675173 decars and Antalya forms 51% of this field. Tomato forms 61.72% of Antalya's greenhouse production. The main material of the research consists of interviews made with producers resided in 5 villages/towns, where greenhouse tomato production is carried out densely in Antalya city, Alanya district. In 48 villages and towns, greenhouse tomato production is carried out, according to the official records. In the chosen areas, 365 producers exist. 20% of these producers (73 form the sample size. In the research, it was determined that the producers' average agricultural land possession is 9.13 decars and in 40.53% of these areas they grew tomatoes. None of these producers are engaged in contractual growing. All of the yield is produced for the edible (as table-top item. After the harvest, all of the products are sold in the wholesales market in county and city. 7.89% of the producers have no information on soilless agriculture, as 10.52% of them think that it has no advantages and 73.36% of them recommend traditional agriculture.

  12. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Kočenda, E.; Zemčík, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  13. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, Evžen; Zemčík, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  14. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest as defined in § 329.1(c). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash, given... the balance in a demand deposit account and the duration of the account balance shall not be considered the payment of interest on a demand deposit account and shall not be subject to the limitations in...

  15. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are

  16. Stop-loss premiums under dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1999-01-01

    Stop-loss premiums are typically calculated under the assumption that the insured lives in the underlying portfolio are independent. Here we study the effects of small departures from this assumption. Using Edgeworth expansions, it is made transparent which configurations of dependence parameters

  17. 5 CFR 892.303 - Can I pay my premiums directly by check under the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under the premium conversion plan? 892.303 Section 892.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Contributions and Withholdings § 892.303 Can I pay my premiums directly...

  18. Reexamining financial and economic predictability with new estimators of realized variance and variance risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Mao, Xiuping; Veiga, Helena

    This study explores the predictive power of new estimators of the equity variance risk premium and conditional variance for future excess stock market returns, economic activity, and financial instability, both during and after the last global financial crisis. These estimators are obtained from...... time-varying coefficient models are the ones showing considerably higher predictive power for stock market returns and financial instability during the financial crisis, suggesting that an extreme volatility period requires models that can adapt quickly to turmoil........ Moreover, a comparison of the overall results reveals that the conditional variance gains predictive power during the global financial crisis period. Furthermore, both the variance risk premium and conditional variance are determined to be predictors of future financial instability, whereas conditional...

  19. Targeting the Online Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKGODFREY

    2004-01-01

    Many marketing executives did adouble take in April whenChanel tested a marketing medium previously shunned by most premium brands: permission email. Shanghai-based marketing firm 2i Communications created the opt-in email campaign to draw customers to Chanel's new skin care product Precision. The company emailed ecoupons 120,000 young women earning more than 3,000 yuan (US$362.4) per month in five cities across China.

  20. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  1. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida de Paula Farias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of organically grown tomatoes in the Amazonian region of Brazil is difficult due to inherent phytosanitary issues. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the productivity of grafted tomato plants (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Santa Adélia grown organically in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess scion/rootstock compatibility under organic growth conditions. The Solanum species employed as rootstocks were S. gilo (jiló, S. lycocarpum (jurubebão, S. stramonifolium (jurubeba vermelha and S. viarum (joá, while the susceptible S.lycopersicum cultivar Santa Adélia was the scion. Ungrafted tomato plants and tomato grafted on tomato rootstock were employed as controls. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with six treatments and five repetitions of five plants each. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the significance of differences between treatments were determined using the Tukey test (P<0.05. All ungrafted tomato plants and those comprising tomato grafted on S.lycopersicum rootstock became infected by brown rot and perished. The total numbers of fruits, numbers of marketable fruits, mean masses of fruits, total productivities and productivities of marketable fruits associated with tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the equivalent values obtained with tomato grafted on S. viarum rootstock. S. gilo exhibited the best compatibility index (1.11 of all rootstock/scion combinations studied. It is concluded that tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks represent viable alternatives for the production of organic tomatoes in the Amazon region.

  2. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.

  3. Economic policy uncertainty, equity premium and dependence between their quantiles: Evidence from quantile-on-quantile approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ali; Zaighum, Isma; Shah, Nida

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and equity premium in G7 countries over a period of the monthly data from January 1989 to December 2015 using a novel technique namely QQ regression proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Based on QQ approach, we estimate how the quantiles of the economic policy uncertainty affect the quantiles of the equity premium. Thus, it provides a comprehensive insight into the overall dependence structure between the equity premium and economic policy uncertainty as compared to traditional techniques like OLS or quantile regression. Overall, our empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative association between equity premium and EPU predominately in all G7 countries, especially in the extreme low and extreme high tails. However, differences exist among countries and across different quantiles of EPU and the equity premium within each country. The existence of this heterogeneity among countries is due to the differences in terms of dependency on economic policy, other stock markets, and the linkages with other country's equity market.

  4. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  5. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  6. Are starting wages reduced by an insurance premium for preventing wage decline? Testing the prediction of Harris and Holmstrom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Raposo, P.

    2017-01-01

    In the model of Harris and Holmstrom (1982) labour market entrants pay an insurance premium to prevent wage decline. As employers are unable to assess the ability of an entrant, they would offer a wage equal to expected productivity of the worker's category and adjust it with unfolding information

  7. Are starting wages reduced by an insurance premium for preventing wage decline? Testing the prediction of Harris and Holmstrom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Raposo, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the model of Harris and Holmstrom (1982) workers pay an insurance premium to prevent a wage decline. As employers are unable to assess the ability of a labour market entrant, they would offer a wage equal to expected productivity of the worker's category and adjust it with unfolding information

  8. Branding and Performance in the Global Beer Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    The mass market for beers is served by a few global breweries in an oligopoly structure covering most of the world market. The homogeneity of their main lager beers are very high and produced at large scaled plants at low costs. However, the breweries spend large amounts of money to promote some...... of the lager beers as premium beers and at a high and increasing price premium. Based on a database with prices for standard and premium lager, the paper study the development in the consumption of different types of beers on the global market in recent years. We estimate the price premium on premium beers...... and relate it to the rapid change in the oligopoly structure of the market through the merger and acquisition activities....

  9. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  10. A genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and its application to photorespiratory metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, H.; Cheung, C.Y. Maurice; Poolman, M.G.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; van Riel, N.A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has been studied extensively due to its high economic value in the market, and high content in health-promoting antioxidant compounds. Tomato is also considered as an excellent model organism for studying the development and metabolism of fleshy fruits. However, the

  11. Rational expectations, risk and efficiency in energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1991-04-01

    Conditional on the hypothesis that energy futures markets are efficient or rational, this paper uses Fama's regression approach to measure the information in energy futures prices about future spot prices and time varying premiums. The paper finds that the premium and expected future spot price components of energy futures prices are negatively correlated and that most of the variation in futures prices is variation in expected premiums. (author).

  12. History and the Equity Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    William Goetzmann; Roger Ibbotson

    2005-01-01

    We summarize some of our own past findings and place them in the context of the historical development of the idea of the equity risk premium and its empirical measurement by financial economists. In particular, we focus on how the theory of compensation for investment risk developed in the 20th century in tandem with the empirical analysis of historical investment performance. Finally, we update our study of the historical performance of the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1792 to th...

  13. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  14. A novel approach for modeling deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Ofir D., E-mail: rubino@agri.huji.ac.i [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Babcock, Bruce A., E-mail: babcock@iastate.ed [Department of Economics, Iowa State University, 578F Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The theoretical framework developed in this study allows development of a model of deregulated electricity markets that explains two familiar empirical findings; the existence of forward premiums and price-cost markups in the spot market. This is a significant contribution because electricity forward premiums have been previously explained exclusively by the assumptions of perfect competition and risk-averse behavior while spot markups are generally the outcome of a body of literature assuming oligopolistic competition. Our theoretical framework indicates that a certain premium for forward contracting is required for efficient allocation of generation capacity. However, due to the uniqueness of electricity and the design of deregulated electricity markets this premium might be substantially higher than its optimal level. - Research highlights: {yields} The state of knowledge regarding modeling electricity markets is incomplete. {yields} Electricity forward premiums are not necessarily driven by risk aversion. {yields} Efficiency in production requires a certain premium for forward contracting. {yields} It is likely that market premiums are substantially higher than their optimal level. {yields} Policy regulation should not seek to eliminate forward premium entirely.

  15. A novel approach for modeling deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical framework developed in this study allows development of a model of deregulated electricity markets that explains two familiar empirical findings; the existence of forward premiums and price-cost markups in the spot market. This is a significant contribution because electricity forward premiums have been previously explained exclusively by the assumptions of perfect competition and risk-averse behavior while spot markups are generally the outcome of a body of literature assuming oligopolistic competition. Our theoretical framework indicates that a certain premium for forward contracting is required for efficient allocation of generation capacity. However, due to the uniqueness of electricity and the design of deregulated electricity markets this premium might be substantially higher than its optimal level. - Research highlights: → The state of knowledge regarding modeling electricity markets is incomplete. → Electricity forward premiums are not necessarily driven by risk aversion. → Efficiency in production requires a certain premium for forward contracting. → It is likely that market premiums are substantially higher than their optimal level. → Policy regulation should not seek to eliminate forward premium entirely.

  16. Selling Into the Sun: Price Premium Analysis of a Multi-State Dataset of Solar Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomatis, Sandra [Adomatis Appraisal Services, Punta Gorda, FL (United States); Jackson, Thomas [Texas A & M Univ. and Real Property Analytics Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Graff-Zivin, Joshua [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capturing the value that solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may add to home sales transactions is increasingly important. Our study enhances the PV-home-valuation literature by more than doubling the number of PV home sales analyzed (22,822 homes in total, 3,951 of which are PV) and examining transactions in eight states that span the years 2002–2013. We find that home buyers are consistently willing to pay PV home premiums across various states, housing and PV markets, and home types; average premiums across the full sample equate to approximately $4/W or $15,000 for an average-sized 3.6-kW PV system. Only a small and non-statistically significant difference exists between PV premiums for new and existing homes, though some evidence exists of new home PV system discounting. A PV green cachet might exist, i.e., home buyers might pay a certain amount for any size of PV system and some increment more depending on system size. The market appears to depreciate the value of PV systems in their first 10 years at a rate exceeding the rate of PV efficiency losses and the rate of straightline depreciation over the asset’s useful life. Net cost estimates—which account for government and utility PV incentives—may be the best proxy for market premiums, but income-based estimates may perform equally well if they accurately account for the complicated retail rate structures that exist in some states. Although this study focuses only on host-owned PV systems, future analysis should focus on homes with third-party-owned PV systems.

  17. ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIC INNOVATION MODEL FOR ATTAINING PREMIUM VALUE FOR THE SRI LANKAN GEM AND JEWELLERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamalie Ekanayake

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial innovative action is a four-pronged strategic integration; it mitigates financial risk in knowledge transfer and technology transfer, it integrates manufacturing and business strategy, and it provides policy remedy to transform the assets and capabilities of the value system. The innovation process utilises market innovations to establish a competitive advantage, gathers intellectual assets, attains proprietary rights and fosters the ability to implement appropriate strategies and sustain a competitive advantage, thus generating premium value. The entrepreneur's commitment uncovers market opportunities and exploits the inventiveness of value-system technologies to result in market innovation. The integration of the above-mentioned four forces with changing market needs transforms the capabilities of the value system to allow it to sustain business value regeneration and thus generate premium value. The failure of either one or all four forces of entrepreneurs' innovative strategies will lead to a reduction in the market value of the products and disintegrate the industry value system. This phenomena was observed in the gem and jewellery industry in Sri Lanka, where the industry has been capable enough to develop a competitive product base but has been positioned to experience a reduction in market value. This reduction has resulted in the disintegration of the industry value system, forcing firms to work in isolation.

  18. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  19. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  20. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  1. Banking regulation and market making

    OpenAIRE

    Cimon, David A.; Garriott, Corey

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of market makers subject to recent banking regulations: liquidity and capital constraints in the style of Basel III and a position limit in the style of the Volcker Rule. Regulation causes market makers to reduce their intermediation by refusing principal positions. However, it can improve the bid-ask spread because it induces new market makers to enter. Since market makers intermediate less, asset prices exhibit a liquidity premium. Costs of regulation can be assessed by m...

  2. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  3. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we ...

  4. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelous, Athanasios A.; Frangos, Nicholas E.; Zimbidis, Alexandros A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percent...

  5. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  6. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiati Dwi Kartikasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we analyze premium pricing using random sum model based on compound distribution

  7. CHIP premiums, health status, and the insurance coverage of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2010-01-01

    This study uses the introduction of premiums into Kentucky's Children's Health Insurance Program (KCHIP) to examine whether the enrollment impact of new premiums varies by child health type. We also examine the extent to which children find alternative coverage after premium nonpayment. Public insurance claims data suggest that those with chronic health conditions are less likely to leave public coverage. We find little evidence of a differential impact of premiums on enrollment among the chronically ill. Our survey of nonpayers shows that 56% of responding families found alternative private or public health coverage for their children after losing CHIP.

  8. Effects of supply chain management on tomato export in Iran : application of structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi, Matin; Azadi, Hossein; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taheri, Fatemeh; Dubois, Thomas; Passel, Van, Steven; Witlox, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran is one of the top 10 countries in the world that produce tomatoes, the level that they are exported into the global market is low. This issue may have resulted from a major problem within tomatoes’ supply chain management. This paper aims to develop an empirical model of the supply chain management (SCM) of tomato companies. Throughout the reviewed literature, a SCM construct with different six indi- cators has been developed, including information sharing, long-term relationshi...

  9. 5 CFR 890.502 - Withholdings, contributions, LWOP, premiums, and direct premium payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount equal to the premiums for a pay period during which the employee was in a leave without pay (LWOP... for every pay period during which the enrollment continues, except for the 31-day temporary extension... 365 days. (1) An employee who is granted leave without pay (LWOP) under subpart L of part 630 of this...

  10. Does the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect significantly affect the A-H premium of the stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Since the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect ("the Connect") was launched in late 2014, more and more Mainland investors have invested in Hong Kong listed shares, and vice versa, increasing the transaction volume of the stock market on both sides. However, only a few studies investigated how the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect affected the pricing dynamics of stocks listed in both Shanghai and Hong Kong. Applying linear regression, this study investigates how the Connect affects the H-share discounts of 12 stocks cross-listed in Shanghai and Hong Kong. A new feature of our model is that we add a dummy variable so as to be the first study to examine the effect of the China financial crisis on the A-H premium of the stocks. We find that the A-H premium of all stocks widens significantly after the Connect is launched, implying immatureness or even inefficiency of China's financial market. Furthermore, the result shows that trading activities in the mainland market affects the A-H premium more significantly than trading activities in the Hong Kong market do. This implies that China's financial market plays a dominant role in the Connect.

  11. Caracterização de dois equipamentos de beneficiamento e classificação de tomates para mesa Cleaning efficiency in packing lines for fresh market tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André T. O. Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, nos últimos anos, tem aumentado o beneficiamento e a classificação de frutas e hortaliças em equipamentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a etapa de limpeza de dois equipamentos de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa, um nacional e outro importado, instalados na região metropolitana de Campinas - SP. A caracterização foi realizada quanto ao número, tipo e velocidade de rotação das escovas, aplicação de água, tempo de permanência dos frutos e eficiência de limpeza. O tempo de permanência foi mensurado com relação ao tamanho dos frutos, segundo os padrões da CEAGESP. Para mensurar a eficiência, foi desenvolvido um equipamento composto de um anel deslizante envolvido por um pano branco. As amostragens foram realizadas antes e após a etapa de limpeza e avaliadas utilizando colorímetro HUNTER Lab. Por meio dos resultados, observaram-se diferenças entre os dois equipamentos, em que o importado apresentou menor número de escovas, rotações mais baixas e maior consumo de água que o nacional. No equipamento nacional, o tempo de permanência dependeu do tamanho dos frutos, não sendo encontrada essa correlação no equipamento importado, e ambos tiveram a mesma eficiência de limpeza. Conclui-se que a limpeza está relacionada à interação entre os parâmetros estudados, sendo também necessário realizar manutenções nos equipamentos das unidades para a melhoria no funcionamento.On the last years, in Brazil, sorting and classifying fruits and vegetables using packing lines have increased. This work aimed at characterizing the cleaning process for fresh market tomatoes at two packing lines, one imported and one national located at Campinas, São Paulo State. Characterization included data, number, types and brushes velocity, water use, fruit standing time and cleaning efficiency. Standing time was measured correlating to fruit diameter (CEAGESP. For measuring cleaning efficiency an equipment was developed

  12. Natural variation for responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in heirloom tomatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Veluchamy

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin and csp22 (from cold shock protein. Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato.

  13. The U.S. Money Market and the Term Auction Facility in the Financial Crisis of 2007-–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wu

    2011-01-01

    The interbank money market in the United States and Europe became turbulent during the financial crisis of 2007-–2009, with the counterparty default risk premiums and liquidity premiums of short-term financing among major financial institutions rising sharply to unprecedented levels. Using various measures of macroeconomic and financial risks, I find that the surges in counterparty risk premiums were predominantly driven by heightened uncertainties about the macroeconomy and financial market,...

  14. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  15. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  16. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to pay...

  17. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinsurance agreements with parties not subject to United States taxation) are treated separately and are... consideration includes— (i) Advance premiums; (ii) Amounts in a premium deposit fund or similar account, to the... parties not subject to United States taxation. (2) Net consideration determined by a ceding company—(i) In...

  18. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  19. Can large long-term investors capture illiquidity premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a literature study to assess whether large long-term investors can benefit from liquidity premiums in different asset classes. We both describe the theoretical predictions on liquidity premiums and portfolio choice with illiquidity, as well as empirical evidence on liquidity

  20. 12 CFR 217.101 - Premiums on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from paying interest on a demand deposit. Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash... AGAINST THE PAYMENT OF INTEREST ON DEMAND DEPOSITS (REGULATION Q) Interpretations § 217.101 Premiums on... that is not, directly or indirectly, related to or dependent on the balance in a demand deposit account...

  1. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  2. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  3. 78 FR 7264 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9611] RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit...

  4. 76 FR 50931 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care... be able to purchase private health insurance through State-based competitive marketplaces called...

  5. 77 FR 41048 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...

  6. TESTING FOR RISK PREMIUMS IN THE WHEAT-FLOUR SUBSECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Salih, Hachim M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper specifies a model of wholesale flour price determination that incorporates risk measures for input prices (wheat) and a joint output price (millfeed). Tests using daily price data for a Buffalo flour miller indicate that risk premiums do exist. Moreover, these premiums persist in a model that incorporates hedging.

  7. 31 CFR 337.13 - Payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance premiums. When book-entry debentures are being purchased prior to maturity to pay for mortgage insurance premiums, the difference between the amount of the debentures purchased and the mortgage insurance... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of mortgage insurance...

  8. 24 CFR 213.256 - Premiums; insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums; insurance upon completion... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.256 Premiums...

  9. 24 CFR 236.253 - Premiums-operating loss loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Obligations for Mortgage Insurance § 236.253 Premiums—operating loss loans. All of the provisions of § 207.252a of this chapter relating to mortgage insurance premiums on operating loss loans shall apply to... Act the mortgage insurance premiums due in accordance with § 207.252a shall be calculated on the basis...

  10. A comment on 'Storage and the electricity forward premium'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloys van Treslong, Adriaan; Huisman, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the robustness of the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008). They examine the electricity forward premium in relation to gas storage inventories and find that, although electricity is not directly storable, electricity forward premiums are lower when gas storage inventories are higher, especially on days with high temperatures. Douglas and Popova (2008) derive their results from a forward premium model that is an extension of the Bessembinder and Lemmon (2002) model. We examine whether the gas storage inventory results hold under a different specification of the forward risk premium. Our results support the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008) and show that their results are not influenced by the specification of the forward premium model. (author)

  11. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A. Pantelous

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percentage of the respective volatility. The optimal controller for the premium is obtained using advanced optimization techniques, and it is finally shown that the respective pricing strategy follows a more balanced development compared with the traditional premium approaches.

  12. The Happy Meal® Effect: the impact of toy premiums on healthy eating among children in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David G; Daniel, Samantha; Hanning, Rhona M; Manske, Steve

    2012-05-24

    "Toy premiums", offered with McDonald's Happy Meals®, are a prominent form of food marketing directed at children. Two California jurisdictions recently implemented policies that only permit offering fast-food toy premiums with meals that meet certain nutritional criteria. The primary objective of the current study was to examine elements of this policy in a Canadian context and determine if children select healthier food products if toy premiums are only offered with healthier food options. The study also examined if the impact of restricting toy premiums to healthier foods varied by gender and age. A between-groups experimental study was conducted with 337 children aged 6-12 years attending day camps in Ontario, Canada. Children were offered one of four McDonald's Happy Meals® as part of the camp lunch program: two "healthier" meals that met the nutritional criteria and two meals that did not. In the control condition, all four meals were offered with a toy premium. In the intervention condition, the toy was only offered with the two "healthier" meals. Children were significantly more likely to select the healthier meals when toys were only offered with meals that met nutritional criteria (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.89-5.40). The effect of pairing toys with healthier meals had a stronger effect on boys than girls (OR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.14-3.17). Policies that restrict toy premiums to food that meet nutritional criteria may promote healthier eating at fast-food restaurants.

  13. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  14. Risk Premia in the Czech Money Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pohl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate risk premia in the Czech money market and we pay special attention to the 2008-2009 crisis period. Our results imply a rising forward premium and we argue that the error correction model is the most appropriate method, but median may be used as a first guess estimator. We estimated the term premium between the policy rate and various money market interest rates. In this context, ARCH models proved to be useful in reflection of non-stationarity observed in the data. The financial crisis caused a structural break in our data sample, but the impact on the forward premium was only brief and forward premia normalized quickly. The widening of the term premium proved to be much more persistent, although it declined significantly since the peak of the crisis.

  15. Estimating local, organic, and other price premiums of shell eggs in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2016-05-01

    Hedonic modeling and retail scanner data were utilized to investigate the influence of local, organic, nutrition benefits, and other attributes of shell eggs on retail price premium in Hawaii. Within a revealed preference framework, the analysis of local and organic attributes, simultaneously, under a single unified setting is important, as such work is highly deficient in the published literature. This paper finds high to moderate price premiums in four key attributes of shell eggs - organic (64%), local (40%), nutrition benefits claimed (33%), and brown shell (18.4%). Large and extra-large sized eggs also experience price premiums over medium sized eggs. With each larger packing size, the estimated coefficients were negative, indicating a price discount, relative to the baseline packing size. However, there is no evidence to support the overwhelming influence of "local" over "organic", as hypothesized in other research work. Overall, the findings in this paper suggest industry producers and retailers should highlight and market effusively the primary attributes of their shell eggs, including "local", to remain competitive in the marketplace. Effective communication channels are crucial to delivering the product information, capturing the attention of consumers, and securing retail sales. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. The Equity Premium Puzzle: Analysis in Brazil after the Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates whether there is evidence of an Equity Premium Puzzle (EPP in Brazil, applying two different methodologies. The EPP was identified by Mehra and Prescott (1985 since the Consumption Capital Asset Pricing Model (CCAPM, when calibrated with reasonable preference parameters, could not explain high historical average risk premiums in the United States. In our first approach, we consider Mehra’s (2003 model and calibrate the coefficient of risk aversion, using 1995:2-2012:1 quarterly data. The Ibovespa index was used as a measure of the market return, whereas the risk-free rate was proxied by the Selic interbank rate and by the savings account rate. In our second approach, we propose a new method to test the puzzle. We jointly estimate, via generalized method of moments, the parameters of interest using a moment condition that has not been previously explored, as far as we are aware of. The two approaches produced a high risk aversion coefficient, however the second approach indicated that we cannot reject the hypothesis of the risk aversion coefficient being statistically equal to zero. A possible explanation for this result might be that in Brazil the equity premium is not statistically different from zero. Therefore there is no evidence of EPP in Brazil for the studied period.

  17. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Inflation Targeting on the Risk Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krušković Borivoje D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the conduct of monetary policy is monetary policy strategy. Monetary strategy is necessary for monetary policy makers to analyse all relevant information in order to undertake effective policy actions. Inflation targeting has enabled countries to achieve low inflation in the very short term. Due to this, the financial markets have adjusted their long-term inflation expectations and incorporated them into the interest rate. Risk premiums that compensate for the uncertainty of inflation have fallen. The aim of this paper is to examine how the adoption of inflation targeting affects the movement of the risk premium. The hypothesis we want to test is that the adoption of inflation targeting affects the reduction of the country risk premium by affecting the formation of a more stable macroeconomic environment through a more stable and predictable inflation rate in the medium and long term. The method used for evaluating the regression coefficients is the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM. This method involves the use of conditional moments in endogenous and exogenous variables with a lag as instruments for the assessment of differential equations, while the difference lagged endogenous variables are used as instruments in the levels equation.

  18. Optimal Premium as a Function of the Deductible: Customer Analysis and Portfolio Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Thøgersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An insurance company offers an insurance contract ( p , K , consisting of a premium p and a deductible K. In this paper, we consider the problem of choosing the premium optimally as a function of the deductible. The insurance company is facing a market of N customers, each characterized by their personal claim frequency, α, and risk aversion, β. When a customer is offered an insurance contract, she/he will, based on these characteristics, choose whether or not to insure. The decision process of the customer is analyzed in detail. Since the customer characteristics are unknown to the company, it models them as i.i.d. random variables; A 1 , … , A N for the claim frequencies and B 1 , … , B N for the risk aversions. Depending on the distributions of A i and B i , expressions for the portfolio size n ( p ; K ∈ [ 0 , N ] and average claim frequency α ( p ; K in the portfolio are obtained. Knowing these, the company can choose the premium optimally, mainly by minimizing the ruin probability.

  19. Marketplace Plans With Narrow Physician Networks Feature Lower Monthly Premiums Than Plans With Larger Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Daniel; Cidav, Zuleyha; Swanson, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of health insurance Marketplaces under the Affordable Care Act has been associated with growth of restricted provider networks. The value of this plan design strategy, including its association with lower premiums, is uncertain. We used data from all silver plans offered in the 2014 health insurance exchanges in the fifty states and the District of Columbia to estimate the association between the breadth of a provider network and plan premiums. We found that within a market, for plans of otherwise equivalent design and controlling for issuer-specific pricing strategy, a plan with an extra-small network had a monthly premium that was 6.7 percent less expensive than that of a plan with a large network. Because narrow networks remain an important strategy available to insurance companies to offer lower-cost plans on health insurance Marketplaces, the success of health insurance coverage expansions may be tied to the successful implementation of narrow networks. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  1. Effects of health information technology on malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung

    2015-04-01

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.

  2. High speed intelligent classifier of tomatoes by colour, size and weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cement, J.; Novas, N.; Gazquez, J. A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.

    2012-11-01

    At present most horticultural products are classified and marketed according to quality standards, which provide a common language for growers, packers, buyers and consumers. The standardisation of both product and packaging enables greater speed and efficiency in management and marketing. Of all the vegetables grown in greenhouses, tomatoes are predominant in both surface area and tons produced. This paper will present the development and evaluation of a low investment classification system of tomatoes with these objectives: to put it at the service of producing farms and to classify for trading standards. An intelligent classifier of tomatoes has been developed by weight, diameter and colour. This system has optimised the necessary algorithms for data processing in the case of tomatoes, so that productivity is greatly increased, with the use of less expensive and lower performance electronics. The prototype is able to achieve very high speed classification, 12.5 ratings per second, using accessible and low cost commercial equipment for this. It decreases fourfold the manual sorting time and is not sensitive to the variety of tomato classified. This system facilitates the processes of standardisation and quality control, increases the competitiveness of tomato farms and impacts positively on profitability. The automatic classification system described in this work represents a contribution from the economic point of view, as it is profitable for a farm in the short term (less than six months), while the existing systems, can only be used in large trading centers. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. HIV, wages, and the skill premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ioana

    2014-09-01

    The HIV epidemic has dramatically decreased labor supply among prime-age adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using within-country variation in regional HIV prevalence and a synthetic panel, I find that HIV significantly increases the capital-labor ratio in urban manufacturing firms. The impact of HIV on average wages is positive but imprecisely estimated. In contrast, HIV has a large positive impact on the skill premium. The impact of HIV on the wages of low skilled workers is insignificantly different from 0, and is strongly dampened by competition from rural migrants. The HIV epidemic disproportionately increases the incomes of high-skilled survivors, thus increasing inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Optimum Sanitizer Levels for Prevention of Salmonella Cross-Contamination of Mature Round Tomatoes in a Laboratory Model Flume System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Aswathy; Li, You; De, Jaysankar; Gutierrez, Alan; Silverberg, Rachael; Schneider, Keith R

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella has been reported to be involved in several foodborne illness outbreaks, many of which resulted from consumption of raw tomatoes. This research aimed to optimize and evaluate the concentration of free chlorine (hypochlorous acid [HOCl]) used as a sanitizer to prevent cross-contamination of tomatoes inoculated with a cocktail of five rifampin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars in a laboratory-based model flume system. Organic load, prepared using sterilized Scotts Premium Topsoil, was added in different quantities to the flume wash water to simulate real-world packinghouse conditions. In a typical packinghouse operation utilizing a recirculating flume system, the organic matter washed from tomato surfaces accumulates over time. In this study, different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) of HOCl were used as sanitizers under three organic load conditions (0, 650, and 1,000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand). Results showed that 100 ppm of HOCl was necessary to prevent Salmonella cross-contamination of uninoculated tomatoes in the model flume system in the presence of organic loading. Also, when treated with 100 ppm of HOCl, Salmonella levels were reduced by >4.5 log CFU per tomato from inoculated tomatoes in the presence of organic load. At 75 ppm of HOCl, Salmonella cross-contamination was prevented, but only in the absence of organic loading. In studies in which plate counts were negative, whole tomato enrichment studies were performed. No cross-contamination of uninoculated tomatoes was recorded when 100 ppm of HOCl was used, even in the presence of high organic load (1,000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand). Although sanitizer application reduces contamination on tomato surfaces, the primary function of sanitizers in the wash water is to prevent cross-contamination.

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  7. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  8. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  9. Comparative analysis of tomato value chain competitiveness in selected areas of Malawi and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses tomato value chain performance in Malawi and Mozambique using data collected from a market study commissioned by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture as part of a regional research on conservation agriculture in maize-based farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that Malawi has a slightly higher competitive advantage in the production of tomato compared to Mozambique. Malawi’s relative competitiveness in tomato is mainly due to slightly higher productivity and the cost advantage in labor (low wages and irrigation costs. The paper proposes policy implications aimed at raising the productivity and trade competitiveness of tomato, as this will ensure the overall productivity of the maize-based smallholder farming systems in the two countries.

  10. STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

  11. Determinan Nilai Pelanggan dan Implikasinya pada Dependensi Pelanggan Bengkel Suv Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he implementation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC for Indonesia making its big market more capitalized and and grow rapidly. The Indonesian automotive industrial market has become ASEAN’s biggest auto market. Automotive products in Indonesia is divided into two is a variant of commercial vehicles and passenger vehicle. Passenger vehicle is divided into three types namely: sedan, multi purpose vehicle (MPV, sport utility vehicle (SUV. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of customer value such as service quality and customer relationship management (CRM and its implications on customer dependence. This research using a method of survey with a number of population 63.015 customers and 400 respondents as customers at premium SUV authorized service station in urban areas in West Java with using slovin formula. Analysis of data using path analysis. The result of this research concluded that the service quality and customer relationship management influenced partially significant on the perceived value of customers of car workshop premium SUV.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF LINE EXTENSION STRATEGIES BY PREMIUM BRANDS ON BRAND EQUITY: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lukas SEIZER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Premium markets are expected to outperform other markets throughout the near future. Thus these markets are of high importance for marketers, who already face challenges to manage premium brands due to the hazard of a possible dilution of user’s sense of exclusivity and pride. Premium brand managers must know when it is best to take a pass on short-term growth opportunities that could tarnish the brand's long-term health. Line extensions embody one of the most frequently used vehicles for growth to meet global consumer needs. Though they have advantages, also risks are associated with them. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to identify the influence of line extensions on brand equity in culturally different spheres. The study focuses on premium brands from the automotive industry and asks if and in how far different – vertical (different price & quality level and horizontal (same price & quality level – line extension strategies influence brand equity differently among cultures. A one group pre-test post-test research design is used to measure brand equity before and after an existing brand’s (hypothetical extension. A structured online survey with page logic collected primary data from four hundred students in Germany and Thailand recruited by a matched sampling technique. Culture has to be added to brand equity models as results show distinctive changes of brand equity for both Germany and Thailand. While after vertical downscale extensions, brand equity increases in Germany, it decreases in Thailand. Hence, the research results in managerial recommendations which assess if product policy strategies should be thought ‘regionally’ or ‘globally’.

  13. Customers’ buying behaviour   toward premium dog food brands -   A case study of Bozita Robur

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christofer; Liashchenko, Anastasiia; Andreasson, Rebecka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge of customers’ buying behaviour toward premium dog food by examining their brand associations and how these are shaped by using Bozita Robur as a case study. Background: Market for dog food has increased heavily during the last decades what made knowledge of underlying driving forces of dog food consumption crucial for dog food producers. Quite peculiar is a phenomenon of purchasing behaviour towards a product purchased but not ...

  14. Expert Opinion versus Transaction Evidence: Using the Reilly Index to Measure Open Space premiums in the Urban-Rural Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Geerte Cotteleer; Tracy Stobbe; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2008-01-01

    Due to economic and population growth farmland and to a lesser extend other undeveloped areas are under pressure in the urban-rural fringe in British Columbia, Canada. The objectives of this paper are to determine if residential property values near Victoria, BC include open-space premiums for farmland, parks or golf courses, and to determine if using assessed values instead of market prices of the property result in the same findings. We estimate a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model ...

  15. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  16. 24 CFR 207.252e - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 207.252e Section 207.252e Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.252e Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner... mortgagees, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.163-11T - Allocation of certain prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums (temporary). 1.163-11T Section 1.163-11T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Allocation—(1) In general. As provided in section 163(h)(3)(E), premiums... section applies whether the qualified mortgage insurance premiums are paid in cash or are financed...

  18. 24 CFR 221.256 - Interest rate increase and payment of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate increase and payment... Interest rate increase and payment of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and § 221.65... continuation of a below market interest rate, interest on such mortgage shall be computed by the mortgagee at...

  19. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotional with insured periods, but after56 years enhancement of premium reserve value.

  20. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  1. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  2. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  3. THE FEATURES OF THE WORLD REINSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prokofjeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the worldwide reinsurance market during the global recession and the main players of the market. Also analyzed key indicators and the most devastating losses for 2008-2012. Analyzed the amount of premiums received in the last five years, major re insurers in the world.

  4. Microbiological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella on Cherry Tomatoes at Retail in Querétaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cervantes, Marla G; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Martínez-Gonzáles, Nanci E; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2018-04-01

    Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined. The median values of the microbial populations were obtained, and the data were analyzed per the sampling site by using the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The median of aerobic plate count content in tomatoes obtained from supermarkets ranged between 2.2 and 4.4 log CFU/g, and in markets from 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/g. For molds and yeasts, the tomatoes from supermarkets (2.0 to 4.1 log CFU/g) and markets (1.5 to 4.5 log CFU/g) showed similar contents. Regardless of the sampling site, the values of total coliforms were very low, ranging from 1.0 to 1.8 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 5.4 and 20.1% of samples from supermarkets and markets, respectively; in both sites, the content was low (0.3 to 5.8 most probable number per g). The incidence of Salmonella was 14.1% in supermarkets and 7.8% in local markets. The results obtained from this investigation highlight the elevated risk for consumer health associated with the ingestion of cherry tomatoes.

  5. The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids, Alabamas CHIP Program Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long...

  6. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  7. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  9. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  10. Premium growth and its effect on employer-sponsored insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica; Selden, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We use variation in premium inflation and general inflation across geographic areas to identify the effects of downward nominal wage rigidity on employers' health insurance decisions. Using employer level data from the 2000 to 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, we examine the effect of premium growth on the likelihood that an employer offers insurance, eligibility rates among employees, continuous measures of employee premium contributions for both single and family coverage, and deductibles. We find that small, low-wage employers are less likely to offer health insurance in response to increased premium inflation, and if they do offer coverage they increase employee contributions and deductible levels. In contrast, larger, low-wage employers maintain their offers of coverage, but reduce eligibility for such coverage. They also increase employee contributions for single and family coverage, but not deductibles. Among high-wage employers, all but the largest increase deductibles in response to cost pressures.

  11. A case for 'prevailing ecology' as premium determinant in home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case for 'prevailing ecology' as premium determinant in home-based child care ... Ewe mothers located in Dzemeni a migrant, lakeside community in Ghana. ... It builds a case from the analysis of definitions and concepts in care literature.

  12. Log-supermodularity of weight functions and the loading monotonicity of weighted insurance premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo S. Sendov; Ying Wang; Ricardas Zitikis

    2010-01-01

    The paper is motivated by a problem concerning the monotonicity of insurance premiums with respect to their loading parameter: the larger the parameter, the larger the insurance premium is expected to be. This property, usually called loading monotonicity, is satisfied by premiums that appear in the literature. The increased interest in constructing new insurance premiums has raised a question as to what weight functions would produce loading-monotonic premiums. In this paper we demonstrate a...

  13. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  14. Are Country and Size Risks Priced in the Brazilian Stock Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available When estimating a firm’s cost of equity for valuation and other purposes in emerging markets without (or with only partial capital market integration, many practitioners include a premium for country risk. In principle, the inclusion of such a risk factor would be justified if the particular country of interest was not sufficiently integrated into the global capital market. Initially, the paper measures and tests the degree of integration for the Brazilian market and does not reject the hypothesis of integration. The paper then tests directly the relevance of country risk premium in individual stocks’ expected returns in the Brazilian market. Monthly data for the stocks of 57 of the most actively traded, non-financial firms, over the 2004 to 2014 period are used, using EMBI (Emerging Markets Bond Index as a proxy for country risk, and this is found not to be significant. Finally, a premium for the size factor, also commonly used by practitioners, is also tested. Although it is found to be significant, the premium is negative, in contrast with current practice, which entails the addition of a positive premium to the required returns on small stocks. The inclusion of both a country risk and a size premium, in addition to the market portfolio risk premium, corresponds to the use of the Goldman Sachs model, as proposed by Mariscal and Lee (1993.

  15. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Mark M. Spiegel

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  16. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Correlations between yield and fruit quality characteristics of fresh market tomatoes Correlações entre caracteres de produção e qualidade de frutos de tomate de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia M de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations were estimated for all possible pairs among eleven characters of tomatoes. Fifteen treatments including five parents and ten hybrids of Instituto Agronômico (IAC tomato breeding program were evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design, with tree replications in Itatiba, São Paulo state, Brazil, during 2005/2006. The following traits were evaluated: fruit yield per plant (FP, fruit number per plant (FN, average fruit weight (FW, cluster number per plant (CN, fruit number per cluster (FC, number of locules per fruit (NL, fruit length (FL, fruit width (WI, fruit wall thickness (FT, total soluble solids (SS, and total titratable acidity (TA. The genotypic (rG, phenotypic (rF and environmental correlations (rA for two pairs of plant traits were estimated using the Genes© program. High similarity was found among the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations. Positive and high phenotypic and genotypic correlations were observed between FP and the traits FN, FW and FT, and these associations contributed for yield increasing. FW and FT contributed to yield increase and should be considered together as primary yield components in tomato. Positive values of the genotypic and phenotypic correlations revealed that FP influenced FN with high direct effect and significant positive correlation. These traits may be included as the main selection criteria for tomato yield improvement.Correlações fenotípica, genotípica e ambiental foram estimadas entre todos os possíveis pares de onze caracteres de tomate de mesa. Quinze tratamentos, incluindo cinco parentais e dez híbridos do programa de melhoramento de tomate do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram testados no delineamento em blocos casualizados completos, em Itatiba-SP, em 2005/2006. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: produção (FP, número (FN e peso médio do fruto (FW, número de pencas por planta (CN, número de

  18. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  19. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  20. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  1. Sources of Return in the Index Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns an issue of existence of a risk premium in equity and index futures markets. The paper consists of four parts. The first part describes the basic hypotheses of forward curves in the futures market. In the second section, I formulate 5 hypotheses concerning a risk premium in the equity futures market, its forecastability, and its dependence on a market segment and development stage. The third part includes an empirical study, which confirms the existence of timedependent and partially predictable risk premium. The research was based on the Polish futures market in the years 2000-2010. The last section of the paper discusses potential implications for the financial market practice and indicates areas for further research.

  2. Valuations of ‘Sustainably Produced’ Labels on Beef, Tomato, and Apple Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsor, Glynn T.; Shupp, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates consumer perceptions of what “sustainably produced†food labels imply and estimates corresponding demand for products carrying these labels. Results suggest that the typical U.S. consumer is not willing to pay a positive premium for beef, tomatoes, or apple products labeled as “sustainably produced.†Demand is particularly sensitive to inferences consumers make regarding what a “sustainably produced†food label implies. Suggestions for future work and implication...

  3. Asset Pricing Behaviour with Dual-Beta in Case of Pakistani Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Attiya Y. Javid; Eatzaz Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics of beta by the asymmetric response of beta to bullish and bearish market environment on 50 stocks traded in Karachi Stock Exchange during 1993-2007. The results show that the betas increase (decrease) when the market is bullish (bearish). The results however suggest that investors receive a positive premium for accepting down-side risk, while a negative premium is associated with up-market beta. The results suggest that the conditional Fama and French thre...

  4. Trends in the Use of Premium and Discount Cigarette Brands: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analyzed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Results Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Conclusions Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favor the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population. PMID:24092600

  5. Trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands: findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analysed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favour the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population.

  6. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising

  7. S-shape relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay premium prices for high quality cured pork products in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Torres, Alejandro; Muñoz-Gallego, Pablo A; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores 2 different probabilistic models explaining willingness to pay premium prices for high-quality cured products from the swine industry. Seven cured pork products (sausage, fuet, ham, loin, shoulder, salami and pepperoni) were studied in 9 food-stores in Valladolid, Spain. Consumers of the products were interviewed (686 completed surveys). It was found by using mixed effect statistical models that the relationship between willingness to pay a premium price and customer satisfaction had nonlinear behavior, following an S-shape with inverted slope which was the first empirical evidence of this type of behavior in meat products in real market conditions. It was also established that the interaction between satisfaction and current expenditure on the product was significant and indispensable for explaining consumers' willingness to pay premium price for cured pork products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gasoline marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline

  9. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  10. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI; I NYOMAN WIDANA; KARTIKA SARI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI) 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotio...

  11. Medical malpractice reform and employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard Jack

    2008-12-01

    Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings.

  12. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  14. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  15. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  16. Physical Picture of the Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Darooneh

    2004-01-01

    We find the wealth distribution for an economic agent in the financial market, in analogy with standard derivation of generaliz Boltzman (Tsallis) factor in statistical mechanics. In this respect, Tsallis entropic index separates two different regimes, the large and small size market. The Pareto like wealth distribution is obtained in the case of small size market. A method for computing the premium is suggested based on the surplus average vanishing.

  17. Investor attention and FX market volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, John; Kita, Arben; Wang, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between investors’ active attention, measured by a Google search volume index (SVI), and the dynamics of currency prices. Investor attention is correlated with the trading activities of large FX market participants. Investor attention comoves with comtemporaneous FX market volatility and predicts subsequent FX market volatility, after controlling for macroeconomic fundamentals. In addition, investor attention is related to the currency risk premium. Our results sugge...

  18. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  19. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%).

  20. New opportunities for developing tomato varieties with enhanced carotenoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leiva-Brondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of varieties with a high content of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, has become a major focus in the marketing of tomato. Several mutants have been used in the development of high pigment varieties, but the significant influence of the environment on carotenoid content and the presence of negative side effects in vegetative growth and yield have limited the success of these variants. Consequently, the identification of alternative sources of variation in the quest for high carotenoid content is ongoing. In this study, 12 accessions of Solanum lycopersicum (including the former var cerasiforme and S. pimpinelifolium have been evaluated in three different environments: open field and glasshouse cultivation at two sites. Three accessions (BGV6195 of S. pimpinellifolium, LA1423 of the former var cerasiforme and LA3633 a possible hybrid between S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum showed outstanding and stable lycopene content, that doubled in all three environments the content of the positive control LA3538, with the high pigment-1 mutation (hp1. In addition, accession CATIE14812 would also be interesting as regards improvement of β-carotene content. These materials offer new opportunities in the development of tomato varieties with enriched and reliable carotenoid content and the close taxonomic relationship of these accessions with cultivated tomato will facilitate their use in breeding programs.

  1. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  2. Evaluation of the harmonization process of the Czech insurance market with the single insurance market of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Čejková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Czech insurance industry, it has been 13 years since the passage of the Insurance Act in 1991, which did away with the monopoly and allowed competition in this business sector. In our evaluation, we can state that the positives outweigh the negatives. A relatively high pace of growth in total premiums written was achieved and the ratio of premiums written to GDP increased, up to 4,0% in 2002. In comparison with EU countries, the Czech insurance market is behind in 2 global indicators: the ratio of premiums written to GDP and the share of life insurance in total premiums written. The Czech insurance market must count on greater competition from foreign insurance companies, as the Czech Republic was May 1, 2004, accepted as a member of the European Union.

  3. Effect of organic amendments and compost extracts on tomato production and storability in ecological production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorbani reza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Shiravan, Iran, during 2005 in order to investigate the effects of organic amendments, synthetic fertilizers and compost extracts on crop health, productivity and storability of commonly used tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. Treatments included different fertilizers of cattle, sheep and poultry manures, house-hold compost and chemical fertilizers, and five aqueous extracts from cattle manure, poultry manures, green-waste and house-hold composts and water as control. The effect of fertilizer type on tomato yield and marketable yield was significant (P

  4. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  5. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  6. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  7. 5 CFR 892.102 - What is premium conversion and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS... FEHB insurance premium. If you are a participant in the premium conversion plan, Section 125 of the...

  8. 5 CFR 892.206 - Can I cancel my waiver and participate in premium conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.206 Can I cancel my waiver and participate in premium...

  9. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... impractical. The NRC is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance... protection requirements and indemnity agreements to increase the primary nuclear liability insurance layer...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF HYSTERESIS IN CONSUMER’S BEHAVIOUR FOR PREMIUM PRICE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny KRYUKOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an example of the manifestation of the hysteresis in consumers’ behaviour for the Latvian company operating on the market closest to oligopoly and having a local brand name. Based on the quota sample of 332 company stores consumers, their loyalty, willingness to pay for domestic cosmetic products and the propensity to buy habitual products were evaluated. In the survey the unfolding bracketing procedure is used. It is shown that the relationship between the number of loyal consumers and the product price depends on the price increase or decrease and has the form of a hysteresis loop. The width of the hysteresis loop depends on the pricing of a competing company. The range of the premium prices bringing a positive economic impact is determined. The obtained results confirm a considerable influence of the hysteresis effect on consumers’ sensitivity to price changes. The findings can be useful for managers in evaluating a possible revenue growth connected with the premium pricing strategy.

  11. Viabilidade técnica e econômica da caixa Embrapa para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura Technical and economic viability of the Embrapa crate for marketing of fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as vantagens econômicas da nova embalagem desenvolvida pela Embrapa Hortaliças para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura. A caixa tipo "K", embalagem mais usada no Brasil, tem grande número de características indesejáveis. Considerando os problemas da caixa tipo "K" e o alto índice de perdas pós-colheita na cadeia produtiva de hortaliças, a Embrapa Hortaliças iniciou um programa de pesquisa para o desenvolvimento de uma nova embalagem para tomate. O trabalho culminou com a definição da nova embalagem de plástico nomeada caixa Embrapa. Além de outras vantagens técnicas a nova embalagem, comparada com a caixa tipo "K", apresentou redução de perdas pós colheita (17%, considerando a conservação e integridade dos frutos. Para um horizonte de 5 anos, os indicadores econômicos para ambas embalagens, mostraram viabilidade econômica superior para a caixa Embrapa, sendo o valor presente líquido de, aproximadamente, R$ 60,7 mil e R$ 90,0 mil para a caixa tipo "K" e Caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. A taxa de benefício/custo foi de 4,80 e 7,80 para a caixa tipo "K" e caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. Considerando preços correntes e custos totais, a caixa Embrapa apresentou-se técnica e economicamente viável.The economic advantages of a new crate developed for commercialization of fresh tomatoes was evaluated. The Box type "K", name of the package for fresh vegetables crops mostly employed in Brazil, has many undesirables features. Considering the problems of box type "K" and the high index of post harvest losses in the production chain of vegetables, Embrapa Hortaliças started a research program focusing on the development of a new container for fresh tomatoes. This work ended with the adaptation of a new crate model made of plastic. This Embrapa crate showed comparative physical advantages of approximately 17% reduction in postharvest losses when compared to the box type K, considering conservation and

  12. Estimating dual deposit insurance premium rates and forecasting non-performing loans: Two new models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Risky banks that endanger the stability of the financial system should pay higher deposit insurance premiums than healthy banks and other financial institutions that have shown good financial performance. It is necessary, therefore, to have at least a dual fair premium rate system. In this paper, we develop a model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Our definition of a fair premium rate in this paper is a rate that could cover the operational expenditures of the deposit insuring organiz...

  13. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  14. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  15. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  16. Taking private labels upmarket : Empirical generalizations on category drivers of premium private label introductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Geyskens, I.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    Premium private labels (PLs) are considered one of the hottest trends in grocery retailing. Still, retailers do not feel the need to introduce premium PLs in every category. Generalizing across approximately 150 categories for six retailers from two countries that already carry premium PLs for

  17. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  18. 24 CFR 266.606 - Mortgage insurance premium: Duration and method of paying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.606 Mortgage insurance premium: Duration and method of paying. (a) Duration of payments. Mortgage insurance...

  19. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium. Upon termination of a loan insurance contract by a payment in full or by a voluntary termination... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to the...

  20. 24 CFR 251.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 251.6 Section 251.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING PROJECTS § 251.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the... affected lenders, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...

  1. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to the portion of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance...

  2. 76 FR 40741 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and... mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for FHA Multifamily Housing, Health Care Facilities, and Hospital... mortgage insurance regulation at 24 CFR 207.254 provides as follows: Notice of future premium changes will...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6050H-3T - Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Information reporting requirements. Any... section applies to the receipt of all payments of mortgage insurance premiums, by cash or financing... premiums is determined on a mortgage-by-mortgage basis. A recipient need not aggregate mortgage insurance...

  4. 12 CFR 741.4 - Insurance premium and one percent deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance premium and one percent deposit. 741... Insurance premium and one percent deposit. (a) Scope. This section implements the requirements of Section... payment of an insurance premium. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Available assets ratio...

  5. 24 CFR 236.252 - First, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 236.252 Section 236.252 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... insurance premiums. All of the provisions of § 207.252 of this chapter governing the first, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under this subpart, except: (a) Where...

  6. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY...: In accordance with HUD regulations, this notice announces changes of the mortgage insurance premiums... mortgage. The mortgage insurance premiums to be in effect for FHA firm commitments issued or reissued in FY...

  7. 24 CFR 203.260 - Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.260 Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP). 203.260 Section 203.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  8. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from disability...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.29 - Payment of fees and insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Payment of fees and insurance premiums. 1962.29... Security § 1962.29 Payment of fees and insurance premiums. (a) Fees. (1) Security instruments. Borrowers... the service cannot be obtained without cost. (b) Insurance premiums. County Supervisors are authorized...

  10. 24 CFR 203.22 - Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of insurance premiums or... Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.22 Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege. (a) Payment of periodic insurance premiums or charges. Except with respect to mortgages for which...

  11. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.608 Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated...

  12. 24 CFR 266.610 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 266.610 Section 266.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.610 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner deems appropriate, the...

  13. 48 CFR 2132.770 - Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Insurance premium payments... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 2132.770 Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve. Insurance premium payments and a special contingency reserve are made...

  14. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Zhai

    Full Text Available To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt, quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1, 320 mm (W2 and 360 mm (W3, and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F, 3.0 dS/m (S1 and 5.0 dS/m (S2. Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym. After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual, and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  15. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  16. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Estimating Short run and Long run Coefficients of Fundamentals Factors with Growth and Momentum Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shoaib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long term relationship of risk premium and fundamental factors in emerging stock markets of China, India and Pakistan keeping in view leading contribution of Fama and French (1992 and Carhart (1997 models. Contrary to the macroeconomic multifactor models, this study incorporates firm-specific risk factors related to the market premium; size (SMB, value (HML, momentum (WML and growth (UMD as determinants of risk premium. The firm-specific growth factor is incorporated based on evidence from Ho, Strange, and Piesse (2008 by employing (UMD which is based on assets to market equity of the firm. Sample of 1198 companies from the three emerging markets for the period of 2001-2013 depicts market risk premium as the leading factor affecting risk premium in Indian and the Pakistani markets. Results reveal market momentum being high enough to overestimate coefficients in the short run. However, the relationship is stabilized and adjusted in the long run. Chinese markets, where all the risk factors seem to play their role to determine risk premium, are relatively much stable and grown-up and clearly represent maturity of the Chinese markets. Distinction between the short run and long run might be useful for the investors of the three emerging economies. According to the principle of high risk associated with high returns, small value happens to deliver higher returns with higher volatility. The growth stocks outperform value stocks in these economies.

  18. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  19. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  1. Cumulative Prospect Theory, Option Returns, and the Variance Premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, Lieven; Driessen, Joost; Ebert, Sebastian; Londono Yarce, J.M.; Spalt, Oliver

    The variance premium and the pricing of out-of-the-money (OTM) equity index options are major challenges to standard asset pricing models. We develop a tractable equilibrium model with Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) preferences that can overcome both challenges. The key insight is that the

  2. 75 FR 38748 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 447 and 457 [CMS-2244-CN] RIN 0938-AP73 Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS ACTION: Correction of final rule with comment period...

  3. The equity risk premium: A review of models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Fernando; Rosa, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the equity risk premium (ERP) by combining information from twenty models. The ERP in 2012 and 2013 reached heightened levels - of around 12 percent - not seen since the 1970s. We conclude that the high ERP was caused by unusually low Treasury yields.

  4. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  5. The VIX, the Variance Premium, and Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela Maria; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    . These problems are eliminated if risk is captured by the variance premium (VP) instead; it is unobservable, however. We propose a 2SLS estimator that produces consistent estimates without observing the VP. Using this method, we find a positive risk–return trade-off and long-run return predictability. Our...

  6. Consumer Protection and Premium Rate Services In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of the telecommunication industry in Denmark is quite liberal. There are no requirements to register with national authorities when providing telecommunication services or Premium Rate Services. Only Network Operators, who want to make use of the scarce frequency resources, must re...... active in securing compliance with the law....

  7. 46 CFR 308.507 - Security for payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.507 Security for payment of... collateral deposit fund or a surety bond, to secure the payment of the premiums, in an amount which shall at...

  8. 77 FR 41270 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012, make the following corrections: 0 1. On page 30385, in the...

  9. Foreign exchange risk premium determinants: case of Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, Evžen

    -, č. 297 (2006), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : “forward premium” puzzle * exchange rate risk * time-varying risk premium Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp297.pdf

  10. Foreign exchange risk premium determinants: case of Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, E.

    -, č. 811 (2006), s. 1-17 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : “forward premium” puzzle * exchange rate risk * time-varying risk premium Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp811.pdf

  11. Quantifying the Impact of Autism Coverage on Private Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, James N.; Spielman, Stuart; Mandell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Many states are considering legislation requiring private insurance companies to pay for autism-related services. Arguments against mandates include that they will result in higher premiums. Using Pennsylvania legislation as an example, which proposed covering services up to $36,000 per year for individuals less than 21 years of age, this paper…

  12. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium......Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers...

  13. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  14. Consumer preferences for fresh tomato at the European scale: a common segmentation on taste and firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mathilde; Friguet, Chloé; Coiret, Clément; Lépicier, Mélanie; Navez, Brigitte; Lee, Monica; Holthuysen, Nancy; Sinesio, Fiorella; Moneta, Elisabetta; Grandillo, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  17. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  18. Difficult marketing; Schwierige Vermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentzing, Sascha

    2013-02-15

    With the new edition of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) at 1st January 2012, the market premium model becomes effective in order to implement the green electricity into the electricity market better. With this, the operators of photovoltaic power plants switched from the fixed EEG compensation for electricity to direct marketing. The market premium model provides that only 90% of the power generated by large photovoltaic power plants on roofs of buildings are compensated via EEG corresponding to 0.15 Euro/kWh. The remaining 10% is compensated only with 0.045 Euro/kWh which complies with the actual stock exchange value. If one is not very happy with this solution, one has to consume the excess power by its own or to sell the excess power to third parties. The own consumption would be the easier solution. But the own consumption is usually not possible because the most large photovoltaic power plants are installed on roofs of commercial and public buildings. Consequently, the operators of these photovoltaic power plants have to sell the excess power to third parties. This is associated with many imponderables and additional costs.

  19. A guide to understanding the variation in premiums in rural health insurance marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Key Findings. (1) State-level decisions in implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) have led to significant state variation in the design of Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) rating areas. In some designs, rural counties are grouped together, while in others, rural and urban counties have been deliberately mixed. (2) Urban counties have, on average, approximately one more firm participating in the marketplaces, representing about 11 more plan offerings, than rural counties have. (3) The highest-valued "platinum" plan types are less likely to be available in rural areas. Thus, the overall mix of plan types should be factored into the reporting of average premiums. (4) Levels of competition are likely to have a greater impact on the decisions of firms considering whether to operate in higher-cost areas or not, as those firms must determine how they can pass such costs on to consumers, conditional on the market share they are likely to control.

  20. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); Stremersch, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising elasticity and brand equity respectively. We test the hypotheses in two large-scale empirical studies using a comprehensive dataset from the automotive industry that includes, among others, the conten...

  1. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  2. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each of... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...; place a U.S. No. 12 screen (1.68 millimeters (0.066 inch) openings) over the sink drain; transfer the...

  3. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  4. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  5. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  6. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  7. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  8. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  9. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  10. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  11. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; changes in providers, premiums, benefits, plan procedures etc. (vii) Membership activities (for example... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing...

  12. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  13. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  14. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  15. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean–variance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean–variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean–variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feed-in tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes. - Highlights: • Mean–variance portfolio approach to analyse risk implications of policy instruments. • We show that feed-in tariffs require lower support levels than feed-in premiums. • This systematic effect stems from the lower exposure of investors to market risk. • We created a stochastic model for an exemplary offshore wind park in West Denmark. • We quantify risk-return, Sharpe Ratios and differences in required support levels

  16. Corporate sustainability and asset pricing models: empirical evidence for the Brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Gonçalves de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper investigates the impact of corporate sustainability on asset prices. For that purpose, we develop a novel corporate sustainability factor and test the extent to which this factor is priced in an augmented four-factor version of the traditional Fama & French (1993 asset pricing model. The corporate sustainability factor is based on a zero-investment portfolio which is long in stocks with high sustainability and short in stocks with low sustainability. We use data on the Brazilian stock market to estimate alternative model specifications with different combinations of four explanatory variables: the corporate sustainability premium, the market risk factor premium, the size factor premium and the book-to-market factor premium. Our results indicate that corporate sustainability is priced and helps to explain the variability in the cross-section of expected stock returns.

  17. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Bell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a two-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms and leaves, irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment.

  18. Adaptive Markets and the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    In the adaptive markets hypothesis (AMH) intelligent but fallible investors learn from and adapt to changing economic environments. This implies that markets are not always efficient but are usually competitive and adaptive, varying in their degree of efficiency as the environment and investor population change over time. The AMH has several implications, including the possibility of negative risk premiums, alpha converging to beta, and the importance of macro factors and risk budgeting in as...

  19. Nutritional evaluation of dried tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Parsons, C M; Schang, M; Azcona, J

    2003-01-01

    Two samples of tomato seeds, a by-product of the tomato canning industry were evaluated to determine proximate analysis, amino acid content, and digestibility, TMEn, and protein efficiency ratio. Tomato seeds were also used to replace corn and soybean meal (SBM) in a chick diet on an equal true amino acid digestibility and TMEn basis. Tomato seeds were found to contain 8.5% moisture, 25% CP, 20.0% fat, 3.1% ash, 35.1% total dietary fiber, 0.12% Ca, 0.58% P, and 3,204 kcal/kg of TMEn. The total amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine in the tomato seeds were 0.39, 0.40, and 1.34%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 75, 70, and 54%, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (weight gain per unit of protein intake) value when fed to chicks at 9% CP was 2.5 compared to 3.6 for SBM (P seeds could replace corn and SBM without any adverse affects on chick weight gain, feed intake, or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 21 d posthatch. Tomato seeds at any level in the diet did not significantly affect skin pigmentation. Although the protein quality of tomato seeds may not be as high as SBM, tomato seeds do contain substantial amounts of digestible amino acids and TMEn. When formulating diets on a true digestible amino acid and TMEn basis, tomato seeds can be supplemented into chick rations at up to 15% without any adverse affects on growth performance.

  20. Does Intrinsic Habit Formation Actually Resolve the Equity Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Chapman

    2002-01-01

    Constantinides (1990) describes a simple model of intrinsic habit formation that appears to resolve the "equity premium puzzle" of Mehra and Prescott (1985). This finding is particularly important, since it has motivated a broader consideration of the implications of habit formation preferences in dynamic equilibrium models. However, consumption growth actually behaves very differently pre- and post-1948, and the explanatory power of the habit formation model is driven by the pre-1948 data. U...

  1. Curb your premium! evaluating state intervention in medical malpractice insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia, AmaralGarcia; Veronica, Grembi

    2011-01-01

    Using data of Italian public healthcare providers over years 2001 through 2008, we evaluate the impact of two policies adopted by Italian Regions (i.e., States) to cope with increasing medical malpractice costs using a Difference-in-Difference specification. We assess the impact of the policies on premiums paid and legal expenditures. The first policy consisted in collecting information and monitoring both compensation requests and any legal action related to a medical malpractice claim again...

  2. The equity premium in finance and valuation textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations about the equity premium found in the main finance and valuation textbooks. We review several editions of books written by authors such as Brealey and Myers; Copeland, Koller and Murrin (McKinsey); Ross, Westerfield and Jaffe; Bodie, Kane and Marcus; Damodaran; Copeland and Weston; Van Horne; Bodie and Merton; Stowe et al.; Pratt; Penman; Bruner; Weston & Brigham; and Arzac. We highlight the confusing message the textbooks convey regarding the equ...

  3. The impact of CHIP premium increases on insurance outcomes among CHIP eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya; Stearns, Sally

    2014-03-03

    Within the United States, public insurance premiums are used both to discourage private health policy holders from dropping coverage and to reduce state budget costs. Prior research suggests that the odds of having private coverage and being uninsured increase with increases in public insurance premiums. The aim of this paper is to test effects of Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) premium increases on public insurance, private insurance, and uninsurance rates. The fact that families just below and above a state-specific income cut-off are likely very similar in terms of observable and unobservable characteristics except the premium contribution provides a natural experiment for estimating the effect of premium increases. Using 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) merged with CHIP premiums, we compare health insurance outcomes for CHIP eligible children as of January 2003 in states with a two-tier premium structure using a cross-sectional regression discontinuity methodology. We use difference-in-differences analysis to compare longitudinal insurance outcomes by December 2003. Higher CHIP premiums are associated with higher likelihood of private insurance. Disenrollment from CHIP in response to premium increases over time does not increase the uninsurance rate. When faced with higher CHIP premiums, private health insurance may be a preferable alternative for CHIP eligible families with higher incomes. Therefore, competition in the insurance exchanges being formed under the Affordable Care Act could enhance choice.

  4. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  5. Designing Psychological Treatments for Scalability: The PREMIUM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Vellakkal

    Full Text Available Lack of access to empirically-supported psychological treatments (EPT that are contextually appropriate and feasible to deliver by non-specialist health workers (referred to as 'counsellors' are major barrier for the treatment of mental health problems in resource poor countries. To address this barrier, the 'Program for Effective Mental Health Interventions in Under-resourced Health Systems' (PREMIUM designed a method for the development of EPT for severe depression and harmful drinking. This was implemented over three years in India. This study assessed the relative usefulness and costs of the five 'steps' (Systematic reviews, In-depth interviews, Key informant surveys, Workshops with international experts, and Workshops with local experts in the first phase of identifying the strategies and theoretical model of the treatment and two 'steps' (Case series with specialists, and Case series and pilot trial with counsellors in the second phase of enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of its delivery by counsellors in PREMIUM with the aim of arriving at a parsimonious set of steps for future investigators to use for developing scalable EPT.The study used two sources of data: the usefulness ratings by the investigators and the resource utilization. The usefulness of each of the seven steps was assessed through the ratings by the investigators involved in the development of each of the two EPT, viz. Healthy Activity Program for severe depression and Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful drinking. Quantitative responses were elicited to rate the utility (usefulness/influence, followed by open-ended questions for explaining the rankings. The resources used by PREMIUM were computed in terms of time (months and monetary costs.The theoretical core of the new treatments were consistent with those of EPT derived from global evidence, viz. Behavioural Activation and Motivational Enhancement for severe depression and harmful drinking respectively

  6. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  7. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  8. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    response of plant to salinity stress varies according to plant ... National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo. State .... the work of Mgbeze et al. ... accumulation of four tomato cultivars. American. Journal of Plant Physiology, ...

  9. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  10. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  11. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  12. Impact of terrorism and political instability on equity premium: Evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MengYun, Wu; Imran, Muhammad; Zakaria, Muhammad; Linrong, Zhang; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Muhammad, Shah Khalid

    2018-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact of terrorism and political instability on firm equity premium in Pakistan using panel data for 306 non-financial firms for the period 2001 to 2014. Other variables included are law & order, government regime change and financial crisis of 2007/08. The estimated results reveal that terrorism has statistically significant negative impact on firm equity premium in Pakistan. This result is robust with alternative equation specifications. The result also remains same when terrorism variable is replaced with external and internal conflict variables. Law & order variable has significant positive effect on firm equity premium, which implies that equity premium increases with the improvement in law & order situation in the country. Equity premium also increases with government stability and when there is democratic system in the country. The result also reveals that global financial crisis of 2007/08 negatively influenced the firm equity premium. The study suggests some policy implications.

  13. DOLGONOSIK IS A NEW ORIGINAL ORANGE TOMATO VARIETY FOR THE OPEN GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of a new determinant tomato variety for open field and greenhouse film with the original small dense fruit, keeping quite well its marketable qualities within 15-20 days after harvest in milk maturity phase is given. The fruits are rounded with sharp elongated spout. Fruits are good for fresh consumption, canning and pickling. Recommended for baby food and food for people with problems of the digestive system.

  14. Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dorai , Martine; Papadopoulos , Athanasios; Gosselin , André

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution and its interactions with climatic factors and cultural practices on tomato yield and fruit quality are reviewed. Adjusting the salinity of the nutrient solution allows growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however, increases in salinity limit marketable yield. Under high ECs, fruit size is inversely related to EC while t...

  15. HMO market penetration and costs of employer-sponsored health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L C; Cantor, J C; Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2000-01-01

    Using two employer surveys, we evaluate the role of increased health maintenance organization (HMO) market share in containing costs of employer-sponsored coverage. Total costs for employer health plans are about 10 percent lower in markets in which HMOs' market share is above 45 percent than they are in markets with HMO enrollments of below 25 percent. This is the result of lower premiums for HMOs than for non-HMO plans, as well as the competitive effect of HMOs that leads to lower non-HMO premiums for employers that continue to offer these benefits. Slower growth in premiums in areas with high HMO enrollments suggests that expanded HMO market share may also lower the long-run growth in costs.

  16. Progressive or regressive? A second look at the tax exemption for employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; Collins, Sara; Davis, Karen

    2009-05-01

    The major argument for capping the exemption of health insurance benefits from income tax is that doing so will generate significant revenue that can be used to finance an expansion of health coverage. This analysis finds that given the state of insurance markets and current variations in premiums, limiting the current exemption could adversely affect individuals who are already at high risk of losing their health coverage. Evidence suggests that capping the exemption for employment-based health insurance could disproportionately affect workers in small firms, older workers, and wage-earners in industries with high expected claims costs. To avoid putting many families at increased health and financial risk, and to avoid undermining employer-sponsored group coverage, any consideration of a cap would have to be combined with coverage for all, changes in insurance market rules, and shared responsibility for financing.

  17. Fair premium rate of the deposit insurance system based on banks' creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Deposit insurance is a key element in modern banking, as it guarantees the financial safety of deposits at depository financial institutions. It is necessary to have at least a dual fair premium rate system based on the creditworthiness of financial institutions, as considering a singular premium system for all banks will have a moral hazard. In this paper, we develop a theoretical as well as an empirical model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Design/methodology/approach: Our...

  18. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Effects of public premiums on children's health insurance coverage: evidence from 1999 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Genevieve; Hadley, Jack; Blavin, Fredric

    This study uses 2000 to 2004 Current Population Survey data to examine the effects of public premiums on the insurance coverage of children whose family incomes are between 100% and 300% of the federal poverty level. The analysis employs multinomial logistic models that control for factors other than premium costs. While the magnitude of the estimated effects varies across models, the results consistently indicate that raising public premiums reduces enrollment in public programs, with some children who forgo public coverage having private coverage instead and others being uninsured. The results indicate that public premiums have larger effects when applied to lower-income families.

  20. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  2. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  3. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  4. Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, B.Y.; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, K.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high...... exposure to innovations in implied market skewness exhibit low returns on average. The results are robust to various permutations of the empirical setup. The market skewness risk premium is statistically and economically significant and cannot be explained by other common risk factors such as the market...... excess return or the size, book-to-market, momentum, and market volatility factors, or by firm characteristics....

  5. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. ... both in culture and soil treatments. ... pseudomonads to benomyl in culture .... bacterial pathogens of tomato solanucearum. Indian Pin to 11:01. in vitro.

  6. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  7. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... microbiological and sensory quality of tomato ketchup that was prepared using low-cost ... The color of tomato ketchup samples were measured by comparing it with standard color chart .... multiple rage tests. RESULTS AND ...

  8. Mideast crisis and pricing in the oil futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Futures prices and the corresponding expected future cash price on crude oil markets differ. The difference is hypothesized to be due to a time varying risk premium where risk is due to either cash price volatility, oil output volatility, or unanticipated oil price movement. And this risk is measured by the conditional variance of the forementioned sources of risk. Using the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heterosckdasticity) model and its extensions this study addresses the determination of the time varying risk premium. Political unrest in the Mideast oil exporting countries is hypothesized to be a determinant of the time varying risk premium in the oil futures market. The empirical tests allow informative inferences to be drawn on the role of political unrest in pricing oil

  9. Premium Pricing In Health Insurance By Nelson- Aalen Estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Istikaanah, Najmah

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the using of Nelson Aalen estimators are presented to estimate transition probabilities of multistate model. Based on discrete time Markov, we will get transition matrices?é?á which the elements are transition probabilities from Nelson Aalen estimator. Because of the data that used in the construction of transition matrices are person?óÔé¼Ôäós health histories, then it can be seen as a morbidity value, which can be used to premium pricing.?é?á

  10. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  11. Assessment of plutonium security effect using import premium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Aoyagi, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed to describe the concept of import premium method, which can quantify a security effect of demand reduction of imports by introducing the alternative before its supply disruption (or variation) may happen. Next, by using this formula, a security value of plutonium use (especially, fast breeder reactor), defined as a contributor to reduction of possibilities of disruption (or variation) of natural uranium supply was estimated. From these studies, it is concluded that although the formula proposed here is simplified, it may be available for assessing an energy security if only we prepare the data concerning future motions of supply and demand curves. (author)

  12. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  13. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  14. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  15. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  16. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  17. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  18. Generation of gamma irradiation and EMS-induced mutant lines of the H7996 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canama, Alma O.; Galvez, Hayde F.; Tongson, Eden Jane U.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Desiree M.

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide for the fresh vegetable market and food processing industry. With the completion of the genome-sequencing projects in various crops, the major challenge will be determine the gene function. One approach is to generate and to analyze mutant phenotypes. The paper reports the generation of gamma-irradiated and ethy methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated mutant populations, identification and phenotypic characterization of dominant and visible mutations in tomato mutant lines. Mutant populations of tomato H7996 were created using physical (cobalt 60 gamma ray) and chemical EMS mutagens. Generally, based on high-throughput phenotypic characterization, mutations were observed on the plant habit, size, morphology, leaf and flower color and morphology and fruit characteristics. Specifically, the most common dominant and visible mutations noted in the M 1 generation were monopodial, compact, short internodes, multi-branch plant type, light yellow and ghost leaf coloration, tiny and long pedicel leaf morphology and small or short plant size. In the M2 generation, homogeneous and segregating M 2 families were selected to constitute the core set of visible tomato mutants. Initial bacterial wilt resistance (BWR) gene knockouts were also identified. The mutant lines will be used as a rich source of genetic materials for breeding and functional genomics of tomato. (author)

  19. Market Power in Power Markets: Evidence from Forward Prices of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Jensen, Thomas Elgaard; Mølgaard, Rune

    We examine the forward market for electricity for indications of misuse of market power, using a unique data set on OTC price indications posted by Elsam A/S, the dominant producer in Western Denmark, which is one of the price areas under the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. The Danish Competition...... Council (the regulatory government agency) has ruled that Elsam has used its dominant position to obtain excessive spot prices over a period from July 2003 through December 2006. We show that significant forward premia exist, and that they are related both to spot market volatility and misuse of market...... are consistent across forward premium regressions and structural forward pricing models....

  20. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  1. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Auto Telematics System For Insurance Premium Rating amp Pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irode Philip Luvuga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes and profile location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

  3. The estimation of risk-premium implicit in oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    The futures price can be seen as the sum of the expected value of the underlying asset price and a risk-premium. In order to disentangle these two components of the futures price, one can try to model the relationship between spot and futures prices, in order to obtain a closed expression for the risk-premium, or to use information from spot and option prices to estimate risk-aversion functions. Given the high volatility of the ratios between futures and spot prices, we opted for the latter, estimating risk-neutral and subjective probability density functions, respectively, from observed option and spot prices. looking at the prices of Brent and West Texas Intermediate light/sweet crude oil options, the obtained evidence suggests that risk-aversion is typically very low for levels near the futures prices. However, due to price volatility and, consequently, to the tails of distribution, the risk-aversion functions are badly behaved in extreme prices and futures prices do not anticipate sharp movements in oil spot prices. Therefore, futures oil prices seem to be useful in forecasting spot prices only when moderate price changes occur. (author)

  4. 29 CFR 778.205 - Premiums for weekend and holiday work-example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premiums for weekend and holiday work-example. 778.205....205 Premiums for weekend and holiday work—example. The application of section 7(e)(6) may be illustrated by the following example: Suppose an agreement of employment calls for the payment of $7.50 an...

  5. Estimated value of insurance premium due to Citarum River flood by using Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukono; Aisah, I.; Tampubolon, Y. R. H.; Napitupulu, H.; Supian, S.; Subiyanto; Sidi, P.

    2018-03-01

    Citarum river flood in South Bandung, West Java Indonesia, often happens every year. It causes property damage, producing economic loss. The risk of loss can be mitigated by following the flood insurance program. In this paper, we discussed about the estimated value of insurance premiums due to Citarum river flood by Bayesian method. It is assumed that the risk data for flood losses follows the Pareto distribution with the right fat-tail. The estimation of distribution model parameters is done by using Bayesian method. First, parameter estimation is done with assumption that prior comes from Gamma distribution family, while observation data follow Pareto distribution. Second, flood loss data is simulated based on the probability of damage in each flood affected area. The result of the analysis shows that the estimated premium value of insurance based on pure premium principle is as follows: for the loss value of IDR 629.65 million of premium IDR 338.63 million; for a loss of IDR 584.30 million of its premium IDR 314.24 million; and the loss value of IDR 574.53 million of its premium IDR 308.95 million. The premium value estimator can be used as neither a reference in the decision of reasonable premium determination, so as not to incriminate the insured, nor it result in loss of the insurer.

  6. 76 FR 67572 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... section 1839 of the Act, requires that, starting on January 1,2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2012 is $99.90, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  7. 75 FR 68790 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... the Act, requires that, starting on January 1, 2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays each month... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2011 is $115.40, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  8. 78 FR 64943 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... section 1839 of the Act, requires that, starting on January 1, 2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays... governments or on the private sector. Executive Order 13132 establishes certain requirements that an agency... B premium rate for all enrollees for 2014 is $104.90, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly...

  9. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. - Research Highlights: →The study explored the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for green electricity. →All the hypothesised drivers of WTP a premium were found to be significant. →Contrary to some former studies, income was found to be a good predictor of WTP and the pledged premium. →The quantum of the premium positively correlates with income levels.

  10. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. 550.1409 Section 550.1409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not...

  11. 29 CFR 825.212 - Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.212 Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments. (a)(1) In... obligations to maintain health insurance coverage cease under FMLA if an employee's premium payment is more... an employee's insurance in accordance with this section and fails to restore the employee's health...

  12. 38 CFR 8.5 - Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. 8.5 Section 8.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. Deductions from benefits...

  13. 5 CFR 892.202 - Are retirees eligible for the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion plan? 892.202 Section 892.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.202 Are retirees eligible for the premium conversion plan? No...

  14. 5 CFR 892.301 - How do I pay my premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I pay my premium? 892.301 Section 892.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Contributions and...

  15. 5 CFR 892.201 - Who is covered by the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan? 892.201 Section 892.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.201 Who is covered by the premium conversion plan? (a) All...

  16. 5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... schedule who performs work on a holiday is entitled to basic pay, plus premium pay at a rate equal to basic pay, for the work that is not in excess of the employee's compressed work schedule for that day. For... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for...

  17. 26 CFR 1.249-1 - Limitation on deduction of bond premium on repurchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... A issues a callable 20-year convertible bond at face for $1,000 bearing interest at 10 percent per... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on deduction of bond premium on... deduction of bond premium on repurchase. (a) Limitation—(1) General rule. No deduction is allowed to the...

  18. 24 CFR 255.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 255.6 Section 255.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... PROJECTS § 255.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of 24 CFR 251.6 shall..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  19. 24 CFR 4001.203 - Calculation of upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. 4001.203 Section 4001.203 Housing and Urban Development... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.203 Calculation of upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. (a...

  20. 24 CFR 252.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 252.6 Section 252.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and..., AND BOARD AND CARE HOMES § 252.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  1. 78 FR 59366 - Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 AGENCY: Office of the... with HUD regulations, this Notice announces the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital mortgage insurance programs that have...

  2. Insurer Competition In Federally Run Marketplaces Is Associated With Lower Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Banthin, Jessica S; Trachtman, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Federal subsidies for health insurance premiums sold through the Marketplaces are tied to the cost of the benchmark plan, the second-lowest-cost silver plan. According to economic theory, the presence of more competitors should lead to lower premiums, implying smaller federal outlays for premium subsidies. The long-term impact of the Affordable Care Act on government spending will depend on the cost of these premium subsidies over time, with insurer participation and the level of competition likely to influence those costs. We studied insurer participation and premiums during the first two years of the Marketplaces. We found that the addition of a single insurer in a county was associated with a 1.2 percent lower premium for the average silver plan and a 3.5 percent lower premium for the benchmark plan in the federally run Marketplaces. We found that the effect of insurer entry was muted after two or three additional entrants. These findings suggest that increased insurer participation in the federally run Marketplaces reduces federal payments for premium subsidies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... refund of insurance premium. Upon termination of loan insurance contract by a payment in full or by a... equal to the pro rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance...

  4. Effects of nutrient content claims, sports celebrity endorsements and premium offers on pre-adolescent children's food preferences: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, H; Scully, M; Niven, P; Kelly, B; Chapman, K; Donovan, R; Martin, J; Baur, L A; Crawford, D; Wakefield, M

    2014-04-01

    To assess pre-adolescent children's responses to common child-oriented front-of-pack food promotions. Between-subjects, web-based experiment with four front-of-pack promotion conditions on energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods: no promotion [control]; nutrient content claims; sports celebrity endorsements (male athletes) and premium offers. Participants were 1302 grade 5 and 6 children (mean age 11 years) from Melbourne, Australia. Participants chose their preferred product from a randomly assigned EDNP food pack and comparable healthier food pack then completed detailed product ratings. Child-oriented pack designs with colourful, cartooned graphics, fonts and promotions were used. Compared to the control condition, children were more likely to choose EDNP products featuring nutrient content claims (both genders) and sports celebrity endorsements (boys only). Perceptions of nutritional content were enhanced by nutrient content claims. Effects of promotions on some product ratings (but not choice) were negated when children referred to the nutrition information panel. Premium offers did not enhance children's product ratings or choice. Nutrient content claims and sports celebrity endorsements influence pre-adolescent children's preferences towards EDNP food products displaying them. Policy interventions to reduce the impact of unhealthy food marketing to children should limit the use of these promotions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Singular boundary value problem for the integrodifferential equation in an insurance model with stochastic premiums: Analysis and numerical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, T. A.; Konyukhova, N. B.; Kurochkin, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    A singular boundary value problem for a second-order linear integrodifferential equation with Volterra and non-Volterra integral operators is formulated and analyzed. The equation is defined on ℝ+, has a weak singularity at zero and a strong singularity at infinity, and depends on several positive parameters. Under natural constraints on the coefficients of the equation, existence and uniqueness theorems for this problem with given limit boundary conditions at singular points are proved, asymptotic representations of the solution are given, and an algorithm for its numerical determination is described. Numerical computations are performed and their interpretation is given. The problem arises in the study of the survival probability of an insurance company over infinite time (as a function of its initial surplus) in a dynamic insurance model that is a modification of the classical Cramer-Lundberg model with a stochastic process rate of premium under a certain investment strategy in the financial market. A comparative analysis of the results with those produced by the model with deterministic premiums is given.

  6. The green electricity market model. Proposal for an optional, cost-neutral direct marketing model for supplying electricity customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) is the market integration of renewable energy resources. For this purpose it has introduced compulsory direct marketing on the basis of a moving market premium. At the same time the green electricity privilege, a regulation which made it possible for customers to be supplied with electricity from EEG plants, has been abolished without substitution with effect from 1 August 2014. This means that, aside from other direct marketing channels, which will not be economically viable save for in a few exceptional cases, it will no longer be possible in future to sell electricity from EEG plants to electricity customers under the designation ''electricity from renewable energy''. The reason for this is that electricity sold under the market premium model can no longer justifiably be said to originate from renewable energy. As a consequence, almost all green electricity products sold in Germany carry a foreign green electricity certificate.

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  8. Synergistic Effects of Agronet Covers and Companion Cropping on Reducing Whitefly Infestation and Improving Yield of Open Field-Grown Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Mutisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill are one of the biggest vegetable crops in the world, supplying a wide range of vitamins, minerals and fibre in human diets. In the tropics, tomatoes are predominantly grown under sub-optimal conditions by subsistence farmers, with exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses in the open field. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is one of the major pests of the tomato, potentially causing up to 100% yield loss. To control whitefly, most growers indiscriminately use synthetic insecticides which negatively impact the environment, humans, and other natural pest management systems, while also increasing cost of production. This study sought to investigate the effectiveness of agronet covers and companion planting with aromatic basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as an alternative management strategy for whitefly in tomatoes and to evaluate the use of these treatments ontomato growth and yield. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Training Field, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Treatments comprised a combination of two factors, (1 growing environment (agronet and no agronet and (2 companion planting with a row of basil surrounding tomato plants, a row of basil in between adjacent rows of tomato, no companion planting. Agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. Better tomato yields were also recorded in treatments where the two treatments were used in combination. Higher yield (13.75 t/ha was obtained from tomatoes grown under agronet cover with a basil row planted in between adjacent rows of the tomato crop compared to 5.9 t/ha in the control. Non-marketable yield was also lowered to5.9 t/ha compared to 9.8 t/ha in the control following the use of the two treatments in combination. The results of this study demonstrate the potential viability of using companion cropping and agronet

  9. Obstetricians' rising liability insurance premiums and inductions at late preterm gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the association between professional liability insurance premiums for obstetricians and late preterm induction (LPI) rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all Illinois women pregnant with singletons at 34 weeks' gestation from 1991 to 2003. The independent association between LPI (induction between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation) rates and the previous year's obstetric malpractice insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression. The mean annual LPI rate (5.4/1000 in 1991 to 15.2/1000 in 2003, P insurance premiums ($55,480 to $110,613, P insurance premium. Rising premiums are associated with increased frequency of LPI among women with singleton gestations.

  10. The Effect of Massachusetts' Health Reform on Employer-Sponsored Insurance Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John F; Hubbard, R Glenn; Kessler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use publicly available data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) to investigate the effect of Massachusetts' health reform plan on employer-sponsored insurance premiums. We tabulate premium growth for private-sector employers in Massachusetts and the United States as a whole for 2004 - 2008. We estimate the effect of the plan as the difference in premium growth between Massachusetts and the United States between 2006 and 2008-that is, before versus after the plan-over and above the difference in premium growth for 2004 to 2006. We find that health reform in Massachusetts increased single-coverage employer-sponsored insurance premiums by about 6 percent, or $262. Although our research design has important limitations, it does suggest that policy makers should be concerned about the consequences of health reform for the cost of private insurance.

  11. A new measure of the impact of managed care on healthcare markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlson, L G; Moy, E M; Kim, J I; Griner, P F

    2001-11-01

    Most studies of managed care impact have used health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration or index of competition as the marker of managed care impact. However, little empirical evidence has been found to support the validity of these or other measures in current use. In addition, as managed care evolves to forms other than HMOs and managed care penetration in large metropolitan areas approaches 100% of commercially insured patients, the utility of the most commonly used measure, HMO penetration, will decrease still further. To provide a preliminary analysis of the use of premiums as a measure of market impact of managed care. Retrospective analysis (quartile, correlation, multiple-variable linear regression) of publicly available datasets. Labor market-adjusted HMO premiums from 3 publicly available sources, for the 56 largest metropolitan areas in the United States, were compared with penetration and index of competition as predictors of the dependent market variable, hospital bed-days per 1000 population. Health maintenance organization premiums in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program emerged as the best predictor of HMO market impact. Average HMO premiums reported in the Interstudy database and for the Medicare+Choice program also outperformed penetration or index of competition in relating to several commonly available markers of competition such as bed-days per 1000. Premiums charged by HMOs are a useful measure of the impact of managed care on healthcare markets in large metropolitan areas.

  12. Intraday market asymmetries — A Nordic example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund; Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    , particularly important for VRE producers, but it also means that the price formation at intraday market can change optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market. Through econometric modelling of intraday price premiums, this paper investigates intraday price asymmetries, which potentially can lead...... to strategic bidding. The intraday market is per definition symmetric, as prices for power sales always correspond to prices for power purchases, however, we find that this symmetry is not reflected in the price structure in regards to the total load adjustment needs....

  13. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    , including standard measures of illiquidity of the underlying stock, determinants of spreads, and a measure of net demand pressure. The positive illiquidity premium we find is consistent with existing evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold net long positions.......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per...

  14. PENGARUH KEBIJAKAN HARGA BBM, JUMLAH SEPEDA MOTOR, PENDAPATAN PERKAPITA TERHADAP KONSUMSI PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi BBM di Indonesia semakin meningkat karena meningkatnya pendapatan masyarakat, jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kebijakan harga BBM, kendaraan bermotor (motor, pendapatan perkapita terhadap konsumsi BBM (Premium. Objek penelitian ini adalah konsumsi BBM di Republik Indonesia kurun waktu 1985-2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier Berganda dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kebijakan harga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap konsumsi premium, pendapatan per kapita  berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, jumlah sepeda motor berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, serta harga BBM, pendapatan perkapita, dan jumlah sepeda motor secara serentak berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium. Fuel consumption in Indonesia is increasing due to rising incomes, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fuel price policy, motor vehicles (motorcycles, per capita income on the consumption of fuel (Premium. The object of this study is the fuel consumption in the Republic of Indonesia period 1985-2014. The design of this research study with a quantitative approach. Analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Ordinary Least Square method (OLS. Based on the results of this study concluded that the pricing policies have a significant effect on the consumption of premium, per capita income has positive influence on consumption of premium, the number of motorcycles positive effect on premium consumption, as well as fuel prices, per capita income, and the number of motorcycles simultaneously positive effect on consumption of premium.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  16. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  17. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  18. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  19. 75 FR 68798 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2011 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Retirement Act and certain others do not have to pay premiums for Medicare Part A.) Section 1818A of the Act... specifies that the premium that these individuals will pay for CY 2011 will be equal to the premium for... consequential effect on State, local, or tribal governments or on the private sector. However, States are...

  20. 12 CFR 221.122 - Applicability of margin requirements to credit in connection with Insurance Premium Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in connection with Insurance Premium Funding Programs. 221.122 Section 221.122 Banks and Banking...) Interpretations § 221.122 Applicability of margin requirements to credit in connection with Insurance Premium... with insurance premium funding programs. The inquiries are included in a set of guidelines in the...