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Sample records for premium quality chicken

  1. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  2. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  3. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  4. Plan-provider integration, premiums, and quality in the Medicare Advantage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-12-01

    To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan-provider integration. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan-provider integration through examination of plans' websites and governance documents. We found that integrated plan-providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Current policy encourages plan-provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Plan–Provider Integration, Premiums, and Quality in the Medicare Advantage Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. Data Source. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. Study Design. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan–provider integration. Data Collection. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan–provider integration through examination of plans’ websites and governance documents. Principal Findings. We found that integrated plan–providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Conclusions. Current policy encourages plan–provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). PMID:23800017

  6. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  7. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Choo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05. Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05, and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05. Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b* of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05, whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05, whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05. In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.

  8. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pbreeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

  9. Microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia

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    Ong Pek Geck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from three layer farms (designated as Farm A, Farm B and Farm C. A total of 67 culled chicken layer samples consisting of egg wash water, chicken carcass rinse, drinking water, cloaca swab, feed and faeces were examined for enterobacteriaceae, total and faecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli using the procedures in the bacteriological analytical manual. Results: The total plate count for bacteria ranged from 2.7 x 103 cfuml-1 to 1.8 x 107 cfug-1 (Farm A, 1100.0 Most probable number (MPNml-1/ MPNg-1 for Farm A, B and C. Similarly, E. coli count for all the three farms ranged from 1100.0 MPNml-1/MPNg-1. E. coli counts were very low for most of the samples examined except chicken carcass and faeces. Conclusion: In general, Farm A had higher bacterial count, followed by Farm C and Farm B. This work gives an indication that pathogenic foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Shigella and Yersinia spp. may be present in culled chicken layers and consequently pose the risk of causing food poisoning or outbreaks.

  10. Impact of semen quality of Aseel chicken on induced molting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous chickens are an important source of animal proteins. Aseel is the very famous chicken breed of Pakistan which is facing the reproductive issues. Molting is economically used for the improvement of reproductive performance of male rosters. So the current experiment was designed to investigate the effect of molting on semen quality of indigenous Aseel chicken. Roosters (n=20 were divided into two groups, Group A molted (n=10 and group B non-molted (control (n=10. Molting was performed through the method of feed restrictions. After the molting phase, semen was analyzed for six weeks. The semen quality was significantly (P< 0.05 improved in terms of volume (0.34±0.8 & 0.16±0.4 ml, mortality (73.7±2.5 & 63.5±2.2%, semen concentration (3.36±1.2 & 1.63±0.2 x 115/ml, morphological defect of sperm, (6.5±0.5 & 8.7±0.6 % and livability of sperm (75±2.3 & 64±2.5% were significant (P< 0.05 better for group A as group B. It was concluded that molting could be used for improvement of semen quality of indigenous Aseel chicken to cover the reproductive problems.

  11. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991--Novemer 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  12. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  13. Prediction of chicken quality attributes by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, Douglas Fernandes; Kaminishikawahara, Cintia Midori; Soares, Adriana Lourenco; Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika; Grespan, Moises; Shimokomaki, Massami; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) reflectance was tested as a potential technique to predict quality attributes of chicken breast (Pectoralis major). Spectra in the wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and quality attributes were predicted using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). PCA performed on NIR dataset revealed the influence of muscle reflectance (L(∗)) influencing the spectra. PCA was not successful to completely discriminate between pale, soft and exudative (PSE) and pale-only muscles. High-quality PLSR were obtained for L(∗) and pH models predicted individually (R(2)CV of 0.91 and 0.81, and SECV of 1.99 and 0.07, respectively). Water-holding capacity was the most challenging attribute to determine (R(2)CV of 0.70 and SECV of 2.40%). Sample mincing and different spectra pre-treatments were not necessary to maximise the predictive performance of models. Results suggest that NIR spectroscopy can become useful tool for quality assessment of chicken meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. S-shape relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay premium prices for high quality cured pork products in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Torres, Alejandro; Muñoz-Gallego, Pablo A; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores 2 different probabilistic models explaining willingness to pay premium prices for high-quality cured products from the swine industry. Seven cured pork products (sausage, fuet, ham, loin, shoulder, salami and pepperoni) were studied in 9 food-stores in Valladolid, Spain. Consumers of the products were interviewed (686 completed surveys). It was found by using mixed effect statistical models that the relationship between willingness to pay a premium price and customer satisfaction had nonlinear behavior, following an S-shape with inverted slope which was the first empirical evidence of this type of behavior in meat products in real market conditions. It was also established that the interaction between satisfaction and current expenditure on the product was significant and indispensable for explaining consumers' willingness to pay premium price for cured pork products.

  15. Do taste expectations mediate the impact of quality cues on consumers’ choice of chicken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Thøgersen, John; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    for the choice of chicken, and that taste is one of the most important quality dimensions in consumers’ overall evaluation of chicken. In the next step, the four quality cues were included in a conjoint design, where nine different profiles of whole fresh chickens were created using a fractional factorial design......The hypothesis of this research is that the impact of quality dimensions on consumers’ willingness to buy organic vs. conventional or free-range chicken is partly mediated through taste expectations. The study comprises two exploratory focus group studies, followed by a questionnaire containing...

  16. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (pdietary fiber (pdietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  18. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (psausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (psausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

  19. Do taste expectations mediate the impact of quality cues on consumers’ choice of chicken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Thøgersen, John; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    The hypothesis of this research is that the impact of quality dimensions on consumers’ willingness to buy organic vs. conventional or free-range chicken is partly mediated through taste expectations. The study comprises two exploratory focus group studies, followed by a questionnaire containing...... a conjoint analysis design. The purpose of the focus groups was to determine the most important quality cues, which could afterwards be incorporated into the choice experiment. It was found that production method, price, size and information about farmer and rearing conditions are very important quality cues...... for the choice of chicken, and that taste is one of the most important quality dimensions in consumers’ overall evaluation of chicken. In the next step, the four quality cues were included in a conjoint design, where nine different profiles of whole fresh chickens were created using a fractional factorial design...

  20. Downside Variance Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.; Okou, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decomposition of the variance risk premium in terms of upside and downside variance risk premia. The difference between upside and downside variance risk premia is a measure of skewness risk premium. We establish that the downside variance risk premium is the main component of the variance risk premium, and that the skewness risk premium is a priced factor with significant prediction power for aggregate excess returns. Our empirical investigation highlights the positive and s...

  1. Production performance, egg quality and biochemical parameters of three way crossbred chickens with reciprocal F1 crossbred chickens in sub-tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabinda Khawaja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 225 hens (18 weeks of age of each Rhode Island Red male x Fayoumi female (RIFI, Fayoumi male x Rhode Island Red female (FIRI and White Leghorn male x FIRI female (RLH were maintained on deep litter system for a period of 72 weeks of age. In floor pens, each crossbred chicken was randomly distributed between pens, with 21 to 24 birds of the same breed per pen (2.00 to 2.50 ft2/bird. The results revealed that the age of sexual maturity was lowest in RIFI followed by FIRI and RLH chickens. The highest egg production was obtained by three-way crossbred chickens (RLH as compared with two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI. The highest egg weight was observed in RLH than those of FIRI and RIFI crossbred chickens. The internal egg quality parameters included yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk + albumen weight and albumen height were same in all crossbred chickens. There was non-significant (p>0.05 difference in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, protein, uric acid and ALP values among all crossbred chickens. It may be concluded that three-way crossbred chickens (RLH showed better egg traits than two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI with lower mortality. The RIFI crossbred chickens achieved sexual maturity earlier than both FIRI and RLH crossbred chickens with lower egg traits.

  2. Influence of partial and complete caponization on chicken meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A

    2009-07-01

    Caponization is a surgical technique adopted to alter the sexual maturation of male chickens with the aim of improving the quality characteristics of carcass and meat. Under commercial conditions within each flock, about 10% of the birds usually result with incomplete caponization and are called slips. A trial was conducted to compare quality traits of breast and thigh meat from capons (n = 12), slips (n = 12), and cocks (unoperated birds; n = 12) (Hubbard x Golden Comet) reared together and processed at 180 d old under commercial conditions. Capons exhibited the highest (P < 0.01) values of breast and thigh meat lightness and yellowness as well as the lowest values of redness (P < 0.01) compared with cocks and slips. These variations in meat color were related to a lower concentration of heme pigments in both breast and thigh meat from capons. Capons and slips presented lower Allo-Kramer shear values of cooked breast meat (P < 0.05) in comparison with cocks. As for chemical composition, capons showed a higher content of total lipid, cholesterol, and ash both in breast and thigh meat. Total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not strongly affected by caponization. However, capons exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.01) content of linoleic and linolenic acids as well as a lower content of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids in respect to slips and cocks. Overall, this study indicated that caponization can affect the main meat quality traits with special regards to appearance (color), texture, and composition. Finally, it was found that slips present intermediate meat quality characteristics between capons and cocks.

  3. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  4. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex.

  5. Influence of YEA-SACC 1026 Probiotic on Meat Quality in Chicken Broilers

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    Ionel TOADER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics, as fodder supplement for chickens, could stimulate meat quality that is a very important criterion especially for human consumption markets. The study had in view the effects of powdery YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic on meat quality in chicken broilers. There were studied 75 meat chickens of Ross-308 hybrid grouped on three lots of 25 capita/lot during an experimental period of 42 days. In the mixed fodder of experimental lots was added powdery YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic in proportion of 0.1% in lot L1(E and in proportion of 0.25% in lot L2(E. In the experiment end, were effected control slaughtering of 5 chickens per each lot, to establish the meat quality by trenching and meat chemical composition. After YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic administration, as fodder supplement, the chicken meat quality was improved by increasing the weight of superior quality meat in carcass. The obtained results confirm the favourable effects of probiotics on chicken meat production and its quality

  6. Slaughter performance and meat quality of three Italian chicken breeds

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    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.

  7. Applications of hyperspectral imaging in chicken meat safety and quality detection and evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.

  8. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  9. Egg Qualities and Performance Characteristics of Laying Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Characteristics of Laying Chicken in Different Intensive Housing Systems. ... initial and final body weights, hen – day production, mortality rate, feed conversion ... although extended battery cage may be adopted to meet some of the welfare ...

  10. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  11. THE EFFECT OF BROILER CHICKEN ORIGIN ON CARCASE AND MUSCLE YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWA GORNOWICZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the influence of broiler chicken origin on dressing percentage, meat yield and physicochemical traits of breast muscle quality. The comparative study was carried out in the period from 05.01. to 16.02.2007 on three commercial: Cobb 500 (group I, Hybro G+ (group II and Ross 308 (group III meat chicken hybrids. The observed differences in the quality of carcases and meat of the examined commercial meat hybrids were statistically significant (p≤0.05, and indicate that origin of the chickens is the main modifying factor. Meat chicken hybrids, which constitute the basis for commercial production of poultry our country, do not constitute a homogeneous material. Due to the variability over time in the offered sets of commercial meat hybrids should be monitored taking into consideration their meatness traits and basic physicochemical characteristics of meat.

  12. Microbiological quality of chicken thighs after vacuum packaging, EDTA, Coriandri aetheroleum and Menthae spicata aetheroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Margarita Terentjeva; Martin Mellen; Attila Kántor; Maciej Kluz; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Juraj Čuboň

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was monitoring chicken thighs microbiological quality after treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), coriander (Coriandri aetheroleum) and spearmint (Menthae spicata aetheroleum) essential oil, stored under vacuum packaging, at 4±0.5°C for a period of 16 days. The following treatments of chicken thighs were used: Air-packaging control samples, control vacuum-packaging samples, vacuum-packaging with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w, control samples, vacuum-packaging ...

  13. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 °C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences ( p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  14. Effect of freezing on electrical properties and quality of thawed chicken breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Wang, Peng; Han, Minyi; Chen, Tianhao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research was to study the electrical properties and quality of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat and to investigate the relationship between these parameters at different times of frozen storage. Methods Thawed samples of chicken breast muscles were evaluated after being kept in frozen storage at −18°C for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 months). Results The results showed that water-holding capacity (WHC) and protein solubility decreased while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content increased with increasing storage time. The impedance module of samples decreased during 8-month frozen storage. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the impedance change ratio (Q value) was significantly (pmeat. Conclusion Impedance measurement has a potential to assess the quality of frozen chicken meat combining with quality indices. PMID:27554358

  15. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  16. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  17. Correlation analysis of relationships between polymorphisms of high quality chicken myogenin gene and slaughter and meat quality traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong WANG; Chaowu YANG; Yiping LIU; Xiaosong JIANG; Huarui DU; Mohan QIU; Qing ZHU

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-SSCP technique was de-signed to investigate the effect of the myogenin (MyoG) gene on quality of chicken meat (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four muta-tions at base position in the promoter region were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locus A, and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B. Least squares analysis showed that there was a significant difference between genotype and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P0.05) was detected in the other traits. It was concluded that the MyoG gene is the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation can be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for meat quality traits.

  18. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  19. 纯烤烟(SVC)最新发展技术--第一部分%Recent Advances in the Technology of Straight Virginia Cigarettes (SVC) Development of Premium Cost-effective Lower-Tar SVC Products with Acceptable Smoking Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawky Abdallah

    2004-01-01

    @@ Part 1. Basic Principles This is the first article in a series of three that is based on Dr. Abdallah's presentation at China Tobacco Society Convention, December 11-13, 2003, in Shanghai. The series discusses the contributions of manufacturing in general, and blending and processing in particular, to the development of premium costeffective lower-tar SVC products with acceptable smoking qualities.

  20. Physical and Microbiological Qualities of Kampong-Broiler Crossbred Chickens Meat Raised in Different Stocking Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Patria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding between broiler and kampong chickens has been performed to develop a kampong-broiler strain chicken. The chicken stocking condition needs more attention as a part of animal welfare. This study was performed to identify the relationship between the stocking density and the stress based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI and the effect of stocking density on meat quality, i.e., physical, microbiological, and organoleptic. Ninety DOCs of Kampong-Broiler (KB were assigned into a completely randomized design with 3 treatments of stocking density  i.e., 8, 10, and 12 birds m-2. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experimental chickens were housed in 9 blocks of housing each with 1 x 1 m2 size. Data on physical and microbiology of meat qualities were analyzed with analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple range test. The organoleptic data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result showed that the stocking density did not significantly affect the physical and hedonic quality of KB chicken’s breast. The stocking densities significantly affected (P<0.05 the microbiological variables of breast meat. The average value of THI during maintenance reached 28.98±1.25–29.33±1.32oC. The higher the animal density the higher the THI value that correlated to the stress condition. However, high stocking density did not affect the physical and hedonic quality of breast meat,  thus it can be accepted by the consumers. The higher the stocking density the higher the total plate count, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, without the presence of Salmonella sp. The meat quality of KB chickens raised in the stocking density of 10 birds m-2 meets the requirement of SNI 01-3924-2009.

  1. The effects of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite dietary supplementation on broiler chickens meat quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Safaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of broiler chickens dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite supplementations on broiler thigh meat water holding capacity (WHC, lipid oxidation (TBARS, pH, and meat color during frozen storage. A total of 448-dayold sexed broiler cockerels were randomly assigned into 28 experimental units. A cornsoybean meal basal diet with 0, 15 and 30 g/kg kaolin, bentonite and zeolite as feed additive were added to control and 6 dietary treatments. Chickens were slaughtered and the left thighs kept at −20°C and analyzed after 1 and 150 days of storage. Experimental treatments had no effect on meat WHC, pH and color. Freezing at −20°C for 150 days impaired meat quality and caused chicken rancidity; however, lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value was significantly lower in chickens received diets including 15 g/kg bentonite and kaolin comparing to control diet after 150 days of frozen storage (P<0.05. It was concluded that though adding silicate minerals did not significantly influence WHC, pH and color in experimental treatments, they had influenced lipid oxidation and decreased chicken meat rancidity during frozen storage period

  2. Effect of Growth Enhancers on Quality of Chicken Meat During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma H. Ali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of some growth enhancers as dietary onion & garlic (Allium sativum and vitamin E supplementation with water on the meat quality parameters of broiler chicken. A total of 150 chicks were divided into 3 groups, 50 birds per treatment. The first group was fed control diet, the second group fed control diet supplemented with onion 2% and garlic 2% and the third group fed on control diet with vitamin E mixed with water. Birds were slaughtered at the end of the trial to evaluate pH , moisture content, cooking loss, shear force, instrumental color and fatty acids composition of refrigerated (5±1ºC for 6 days and frozen (3 and 6 months samples. There was a significant decrease in the mean pH, shear force, a*- and b*- values and cooking loss in samples from chicken dietary supplemented with onion & garlic, and also in chicken (supplemented with vitamin E mixed with water compared with the control. The mean moisture contents of chicken samples were not significantly influenced by the used growth enhancers. There was a numeric decrease in total saturated fatty acids (TSF % and an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS % in chicken samples (supplemented with vitamin E mixed with water than control and which supplemented with onion & garlic. Palmitic was the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. It could be concluded that the supplementation of onion & garlic and vitamin E improved chicken meat quality during refrigerated and frozen storage.

  3. CHANGES IN THE QUALITY OF DRESSED CHICKEN OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar HT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study examines the preservation quality of dressed chicken procured from different sources of processing during storage at –18±1ºC. Breast portion of the dressed birds obtained from three different sources, viz. market/road side slaughtered chicken (MSC, retail slaughtered chicken (RSC, and scientifically slaughtered chicken (SSC, were cut into chunks, divided into 250 g portions, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at –18±1ºC and evaluated at 30 days intervals for changes in quality attributes. Frozen storage had no marked influence on pH change of the samples. SSC samples had higher extract release volume (15.34±0.08 to 13.45±0.93 ml than MSC (13.00±0.19 to 9.91±0.97 ml and RSC samples (13.65±0.24 to 11.70±1.21ml. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in thiobarbituric acid of all three sample types during storage but values were well below the threshold level of spoilage. SSC samples showed lower tyrosine content throughout frozen storage compared to MSC and RSC samples. A significant decline in microbial load, viz. total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and moulds count were noticed during frozen storage. Organoleptic attributes, viz. appearance, flavour, texture and overall palatability were not affected due to frozen storage except juiciness in MSC samples which decreased (P<0.05 from 6.53±0.13 to 5.96±0.11 on 90 days of storage. Although the scientifically slaughtered chicken had better quality, all the sample types could be stored at –18±1ºC till 90 days without much deterioration in their quality.

  4. PREMIUM PRICE PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA HUTAN PRODUKSI BERSERTIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Muhayah Noor Pitri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification is a key issue in relation to the forest products industry. It's also a new trend market of forest products. Forest certification is a guarantee that the products resulting from the forest management process in accordance with the standard of sustainable forest resources management. Certification will be increasing the cost of management as an impact of fulfilling requirement on the criteria of the certified forest. The fundamental question whether the award of certified products has been accompanied by an increase in premium price for forest estate or only becoming as the cost that reducing profit for the forest estate. The aims of this research are: 1 to know the difference between the sales price of certified and non-certified wood, 2 to know the premium price on certified forests, 3 to identify the factors that influence the amount of premium price of the certified forest. Data collection were used by searching the document and literature reference on forest certification. The results showed that the premium price received from the certified timber is higher than non-certified timber. Certified wood with high quality has a premium price that is greater than the low-quality wood. The percentage of premium price received varied forest estate. Premium price sometimes unsignificantly received by small-scale of timber estate. The revenue of premium price of certifies forest is influenced by the following factors: 1 The forest area to be certified, 2 Organizations that perform assessments, 3 Company / bodies / organizations that filed the certification, 4 he The country as a buyer of certified timber product 5 the facilitator in the market activities, 6 post-certification fee, and 7 the sales price.

  5. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (pphosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  6. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  7. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  8. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  9. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  10. Effects of transport and lairage on mortality, liveweight loss and carcass quality in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Before broiler chickens are slaughtered, they are subjected to an array of events such as feed the withdrawal of feed, catching, loading into crates or coops, and transportation to a processing plant. After transportation, the birds are unloaded in a holding area and subjected to a variable lairage time till the moment of slaughter. Major problems associated with ante mortem factors have been associated with mortality (birds that died between catching and the moment of slaughter or “dead on arrival”, DOA, live weight loss as well as carcass defects (haemorrhages, bruises and broken bones and meat quality attributes such as colour, texture, and functional properties (Fletcher, 1991; Petracci et al., 2001; Barbut, 2002; Nijdam et al., 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of transport and lairage times on mortality, live weight loss and carcass quality in broiler chickens.

  11. The Effect of Eggshell Quality on Hatchability of Pure Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatchability is affected by a variety of factors. Eggshell quality plays very important role among these factors. In thiswork we analysed eggshell quality, hatchability and embryonic mortality of pure chicken breeds New Hampshire,Oravka, Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red and Sussex Light. Hatchability was significantly lower (P>0.05 inSussex Light in comparison with New Hampshire. The eggshell quality for Sussex Light was significantly decreased(P>0.05 in eggshell thickness (398.73 vs. 356.07 μm and eggshell percentage compared with New Hampshire(10.36 vs. 8.79 %.

  12. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality of chicken meat chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Devalakshmi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat chips with different extenders (Bengal gram flour, Black gram flour and cooked mashed potato each at 15% level and control were prepared and stored up to 8 weeks both at ambient (37+2°C and refrigerated (7+ 1°C temperature. The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 182-184

  13. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (PAfter 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (Pmeat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (Pchanges occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  14. Effect of chronic heat exposure on fat deposition and meat quality in two genetic types of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q; Wen, J; Zhang, H

    2007-06-01

    The effects of chronic heat stress on growth, proportion of carcass and fat deposition, and meat quality were investigated in 2 genetic types of chickens. One hundred and eight 5-wk-old male chickens from a commercially fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres, AA) and a locally slow-growing species (Beijing You chicken, BJY) were kept in the following conditions: constant optimal ambient temperature at 21 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (21AL), constant high ambient temperature at 34 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (34AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature 21 degrees C and pair-fed to the 34AL chickens (21PF). The results showed that feed intakes were decreased by heat exposure in both type of chickens at 8 wk of age (Pchickens were not affected in hot condition. Abdominal fat deposition of BJY chickens was enhanced by heat exposure (Pheat-exposed and pair-fed chickens. Abdominal and intermuscular fat deposition in 34AL birds, however, were enhanced compared with 21PF birds (Pchickens were not affected by treatments. In AA birds, chronic heat stress increased L* values and drip loss compared with 21AL, but pH and shear force were not affected by treatments. The results from this study indicated that the impact of heat stress was breed dependent and that BJY chickens showed higher resistance to high ambient temperature, which could be related to their increased feed efficiency and deposition of abdominal fat under heat exposure.

  15. Identification of differentially expressed genes in chickens differing in muscle glycogen content and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthey Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The processing ability of poultry meat is highly related to its ultimate pH, the latter being mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. The genetic determinism of glycogen and related meat quality traits has been established in the chicken but the molecular mechanisms involved in variations in these traits remain to be fully described. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays (20 K were used to compare muscle gene expression profiles of chickens from Fat (F and Lean (L lines that exhibited high and low muscle glycogen content, respectively, and of individuals exhibiting extremely high (G+ or low (G- muscle glycogen content originating from the F2 cross between the Fat and Lean lines. Real-time RT-PCR was subsequently performed to validate the differential expression of genes either selected from the microarray analysis or whose function in regulating glycogen metabolism was well known. Results Among the genes found to be expressed in chicken P. major muscle, 197 and 254 transcripts appeared to be differentially expressed on microarrays for the F vs. L and the G+ vs. G- comparisons, respectively. Some involved particularly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were selected for further validation studies by real-time RT-PCR. We confirmed that, as in mammals, the down-regulation of CEBPB and RGS2 coincides with a decrease in peripheral adiposity in the chicken, but these genes are also suggested to affect muscle glycogen turnover through their role in the cAMP-dependent signalling pathway. Several other genes were suggested to have roles in the regulation of glycogen storage in chicken muscle. PDK4 may act as a glycogen sensor in muscle, UGDH may compete for glycogen synthesis by using UDP-glucose for glucoronidation, and PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PHKD may impact on glycogen turnover in muscle, through AMP-activated signalling pathways. Conclusions This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular

  16. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, Valérie; Grasseau, Isabelle; Cahier, Karine; Gargaros, Audrey; Harichaux, Grégoire; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Alves, Sabine; Bourin, Marie; Gérard, Nadine; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus) and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC-MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC) and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC) methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ) and seminal plasma (SP). We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP) from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  17. Effects of high pressure treatment on the quality of chicken patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, D.; Cegiełka, A.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Ziarno, M.

    2011-06-01

    The effects of high pressure treatment (500 MPa, 10 min, 20 °C) on the quality of commercial chicken patties (breaded and unbreaded) were evaluated. Physical, chemical and microbiological tests were performed 24 h after high pressure processing (HPP), as well as after 14 and 21 days of storage in refrigerated conditions. It was concluded that the use of high pressures extends the shelf life of vacuum-packaged chicken patties by up to 3 weeks, based on the condition of storage during refrigeration. After this period, the number of mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria in the pressure-treated patties was five to six logarithmic cycles lower than that in the control products. HPP did not considerably influence the amount of storage drip loss, texture or colour of the patties; however, it quickened the process of lipid oxidation.

  18. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation.

  19. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  20. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  1. Application of lavender and rosemary essential oils improvement of the microbiological quality of chicken quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was monitoring of chicken quarters microbiological indicators after treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil, stored under vacuum packaging, at 4 ±0.5°C for a period of 16 days. The following treatments of chicken quarters were used: Air-packaging control samples, control vacuum-packaging samples, vacuum-packaging with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w, control samples, vacuum-packaging with Lavandula angustifolia essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and vacuum-packaging with Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The quality assessment of all samples was established by microbiological analysis. Sampling was carried out after certain time intervals: 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. Chicken quarters were stored under vacuum packaging, at 4 ±0.5°C during experiment. Microbiological analyses were conducted by using standard microbiological methods. Anaerobic plate count were determined using Plate Count Agar, after incubation for 2 days at 35°C under anaerobic condition. Pseudomonas spp. were determined on Pseudomonas Isolation agar after incubation at 48 h at 25°C. For lactic acid bacteria were inoculated into Rogosa and Sharpe agar after incubation 48-78 h at 37°C in an aerobic atmosphere supplemented with carbon dioxide (5% CO2. For members of the family Enterobacteriaceae violet red bile glucose agar were used and samples were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The initial APC value of chicken quarter was 3.00 log CFU.g-1 on 0 day. The number of anaerobic plate count ranged from 3.00 log CFU.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 6.11 log CFU.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The initial LAC value of chicken quarter was 3.00 log CFU.g-1 on 0 day. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.00 log CFU.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 3.58 log CFU.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored

  2. Whole genomic prediction of growth and carcass traits in a Chinese quality chicken population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Xu, Z-Q; Luo, Y-Y; Zhang, H-B; Gao, N; He, J-L; Ji, C-L; Zhang, D-X; Li, J-Q; Zhang, X-Q

    2017-01-01

    By incorporating high-density markers into breeding value prediction models, the whole genomic prediction (WGP) method can effectively accelerate genetic improvement in livestock breeding. However, the performance of WGP varies across species and populations and is affected by the underlying genetic architecture. In particular, very little is known about the performance of WGP for many chicken breeds. Here we estimate the genetic parameters and evaluate the performance of WGP for 18 growth and carcass traits in a Chinese quality chicken population. In total, 435 chickens were systematically phenotyped and genotyped using a 600K genotyping array. Two variance component estimation scenarios, 3 breeding value prediction methods, and 2 validation procedures were compared. The results showed that the heritability of these 18 traits was medium to high (ranging from 0.28 to 0.60) and that deviations existed between the heritability estimated from pedigrees and markers. Compared with conventional breeding methods, WGP could potentially increase the selection accuracy by 20% or more depending on the prediction model used, the trait under consideration, and the genetic connectedness between the training and validation individuals. Our results showed the potential of implementing genomic selection in small breeding herds.

  3. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (psous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  4. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...

  5. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL, KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS, broiler for baeksuk (BL, and broiler for samgyetang (BS were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.

  6. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BURGERS ENRICHED WITH VEGETABLE OILS, INULIN AND WHEAT FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cegielka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to modify the composition of chicken burgers in terms of nutritional value by substitution of 20% of pork jowl with a mixture of rapeseed oil and linseed oil, and addition of inulin (1% or wheat fiber (3%. Substitution of pork jowl with vegetable oils resulted in significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and rosemary extract retarded the oxidation process of lipids. Addition of wheat fiber was helpful in maintaining the thermal processing yield and texture of burgers. Microbiological quality of vacuum packed burgers subjected to 21-day storage at +4°C±1 and -20°C±1 was satisfactory.

  7. Prediction of quality attributes of chicken breast fillets by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy with wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm combined with factor analysis method was tested to predict quality attributes of chicken breast fillets. Quality attributes, including color (L*, a*, b*), pH, and drip loss were analyzed using factor analysis ...

  8. Physiological alteration, quality of anesthesia and economy of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Parag; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Nath, Parsha Jyoti; Singh, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Rita

    2017-05-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% isoflurane with oxygen by endotracheal intubation in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Physiological parameters, viz., cloacal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. The quality of anesthesia was assessed on the basis of induction time, induction behavior, quality of sedation, production of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, palpebral reflex, recovery time, and recovery behavior. The economy of anesthesia was calculated in terms of quantity of isoflurane utilized during 60 min of study. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple range tests. There was significant decrease (peconomy without causing any deleterious effect on the birds. The physiological parameters observed in this study can serve as reference values for the wild and endangered birds.

  9. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts.

  10. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat

  11. Effects of probiotics feeding on meat quality of chicken breast during postmortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Yan, F F; Hu, J Y; Cheng, H W; Kim, Y H B

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality of chicken breast during retail display. A total of 35 birds were randomly obtained from 3 feeding groups (control without probiotic supplement, 250 ppm Sporulin, and 500 ppm PoultryStar). The probiotic supplement had no influence on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain, as well as body weight at 29 and 44 d (P > 0.05). After slaughter, each side of the breast muscles (M. Pectoralis major) was assigned to either one d or 5 d of postmortem storage. Probiotic supplement had no influence on the rate of pH decline of chicken breast muscles during the initial 6 h postmortem (P > 0.05). No interactions between probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality were found (P > 0.05). Postmortem storage decreased drip loss from 25.30 to 18.05% (P Probiotics-fed chicken groups, particularly PoultryStar treatment, had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index than the control group (P probiotic treatments. Decreases in color and lipid stabilities of breast muscles were found during display (P probiotic supplement (P > 0.05). Our result suggests that probiotic supplement had no adverse impacts on proteolysis and oxidative changes during 5 d postmortem display storage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Correlation Analysis on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of CAPN1 Gene and Meat Quality and Carcass Traits in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zeng-rong; ZHU Qing; LIU Yi-ping

    2007-01-01

    The selection of meat quality has received considerable focus in chicken breeding. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of CAPN1 gene on meat quality traits in chicken populations. Primer pairs for 3'UTR in CAPN1 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. A mutation at position 9 950 nt (G/A, locus A) was found among individuals in each population. The allele and genotype frequencies significantly differed among eight lines with higher frequencies of allele A2 and genotype A1A2 (P<0.01). The least square analysis showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in muscle fiber density and some carcass traits among genotypes and that the breast muscle fiber density (BFD) of birds of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of birds of A2A2 genotype. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene was the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or was linked with the major gene. These results were useful for studying the molecular mechanism that influences meat traits and were used as the base of molecular-assisted selection to meat quality traits. So, this site may be a potential marker affecting the muscle traits of chickens.

  13. Microbiological quality of chicken thighs after vacuum packaging, EDTA, Coriandri aetheroleum and Menthae spicata aetheroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was monitoring chicken thighs microbiological quality after treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA, coriander (Coriandri aetheroleum and spearmint (Menthae spicata aetheroleum essential oil, stored under vacuum packaging, at 4±0.5°C for a period of 16 days. The following treatments of chicken thighs were used: Air-packaging control samples, control vacuum-packaging samples, vacuum-packaging with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w, control samples, vacuum-packaging with Menthae crispae aetheroleum essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and vacuum-packaging with Coriandri aetheroleum essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The quality assessment of all samples was established by microbiological analysis. The microbiological parameters as the total viable count, Enterobacteraceae genera counts, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of application the essential oil of Coriandri aetheroleum and Menthae spicata aetheroleum as natural food preservatives and potential sources of antimicrobial ingredients for food industry.

  14. The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Semivanová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of  Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04  mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of  the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0

  15. Effect of EU electrical stunning conditions on breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A

    2017-04-24

    Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effect of different feed supplements on selected quality indicators of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C;  basal diet  plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet  plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the

  17. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.

  18. Breed-related number and size of muscle fibres and their response to carcass quality in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunyarat Koomkrong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the number and size of muscle fibre and their relation to carcass quality traits in chickens (slow- and fast-growing chicken strains. A total of 40 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler (fast-growing and 40 Thai native chickens (slow-growing were reared to 45 and 112 days, respectively. The Arbor Acres broilers had heavier live weight, higher breast and thigh percentage than Thai native chickens (P<0.001. In breast muscle, there was no significant difference in total number of fibres and perimysium thickness. Thai native chickens had smaller fibre diameter and fibre area (P<0.01, and thicker endomysium in comparison with Arbor Acres broiler (P<0.001. The difference between the thigh and breast muscle fibre characteristics was not significant (P>0.05. The fibre diameter was positively correlated with live weight (P<0.05 and breast percentage (P<0.01. Endomysium thickness was correlated with live weight and breast percentage (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for the correlation between muscle fibre characteristics and thigh muscle. These results suggest that muscle fibre characteristics might be related to carcass quality.

  19. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  20. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Labas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC–MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ and seminal plasma (SP. We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  1. Effect of sex on slaughter performance and meat quality of Ermellinata di Rovigo chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this trial male and female chickens belonging to a dual-purpose Italian breed, Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, were reared under a free-range production system (June-October from 47 days of life until slaughter age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. At both ages, the final body weight, the dressing-out percentage and the ready-tocook carcass weight were higher (P<0.01 in males. At II age the female carcass showed higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast and lower (P<0.01 proportion of leg. At both ages, the redness index (a* of breast and thigh were lower (P<0.01 in females, whereas the yellowness index (b* showed the opposite trend; the females showed higher lipids in breast meat (P<0.05, thigh meat (P<0.01 and skin (P<0.01. The breast tenderness did not change. The results indicate that the ER birds have a different live body weight, slaughter performance and meat quality according to sex, both at I and II age. At 168 days, under the studied environmental conditions, the chickens were in prepubertal period and the sex affected the dressing-out percentage, meat colour and skin lipids in particular.

  2. Influence of graded levels of brewers dried grains on pellet quality and performance in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstadli, V; Ballance, S; Knutsen, S H; Westereng, B; Svihus, B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a gradual substitution of wheat and soy with brewers dried grains (BDG) on pellet quality, performance, and organ weights in broiler chickens. Five diets were formulated in which 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% BDG replaced wheat and soy, with a concomitant gradual reduction in the calculated AME level. Each of the 5 experimental diets was fed to 12-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) kept in 6 pens, with 12 birds/pen. The birds had ad libitum access to feed and water until termination of the experiment at d 33. Feed intake was not affected by BDG inclusion and compensatory feed intake did not occur, perhaps having been neutralized by a significant (P durability index. The pellet durability index was 85% in the control diet (0% BDG) and decreased significantly (P feed:gain ratio. The feed:gain ratio was significantly (P feed utilization, and favors the development of a well-functioning gizzard.

  3. Microbiological quality of fresh chicken breast meat after rosemary essential oil treatment and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to develop vacuum packaging incorporated with Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil treatment of fresh chicken breast meat. For this purpose, fresh chicken’s meat breast samples were divided into three groups. First group was kept as a control group with air packaging, others one was with vacuum packaging of samples and last one group was treated with rosemary essential oil. All fresh chickens’ breast meat samples were stored at 4°C and microbiological evaluation was conducted at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days post-storage for lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil 2%, significantly reduced lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts in the fresh chickens breast meat samples. The results indicated that 2% essential oil improved the microbiological quality and prolonged the shelf-life of the fresh chicken’s breast meat to sixteen days of retail displayed at 4°C. The results obtained in this study point to the necessity of continuing investigations to determine the dose of rosemary preparations that would inhibit the growth of microflora being the most frequent cause of raw materials and products spoilage.

  4. Studies on certain quality attributes of meat pickle prepared from spent chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Ranjan Nath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158

  5. Probiotic supplementation and fast freezing to improve quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen chicken breast muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation and fast freezing on quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen/thawed chicken breast meat. Broilers were fed with a basal diet or the basal diet plus 250 ppm Sporulin (three strains of Bacillus subtilis)...

  6. Genetic architecture of bone quality variation in layer chickens revealed by a genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Liang; Shen, Manman; Dou, Taocun; Ma, Meng; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal problems in layer chickens are gaining attention due to animal welfare and economic losses in the egg industry. The genetic improvement of bone traits has been proposed as a potential solution to these issues; however, genetic architecture is not well understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on bone quality using a sample of 1534 hens genotyped with a 600 K Chicken Genotyping Array. Using a linear mixed model approach, a novel locus close to GSG1L, associated with femur bone mineral density (BMD), was uncovered in this study. In addition, nine SNPs in genes were associated with bone quality. Three of these genes, RANKL, ADAMTS and SOST, were known to be associated with osteoporosis in humans, which makes them good candidate genes for osteoporosis in chickens. Genomic partitioning analysis supports the fact that common variants contribute to the variations of bone quality. We have identified several strong candidate genes and genomic regions associated with bone traits measured in end-of-lay cage layers, which accounted for 1.3–7.7% of the phenotypic variance. These SNPs could provide the relevant information to help elucidate which genes affect bone quality in chicken. PMID:28383518

  7. Influence of increasing slaughter age of chickens on meat quality, welfare, and technical and economic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-06-01

    Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P economic profit evaluated through the net gain reached a maximum at 42 d. The moisture and ammonium content of litter increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) rapidly during rearing concomitantly with increased (P < 0.05) occurrence and severity of contact dermatitis and decreased (P < 0.05) walking ability and activity of birds. Thermal comfort also decreased (P < 0.05) greatly as early as 42 d of age. Changes in carcass quality occurred mainly between 35 and 56 d of age, with a progressive increase (P < 0.001) in breast and leg yield, whereas body fatness was barely affected by age. Major changes in breast meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P < 0.01) and 24 h (P < 0.001) postmortem and reduced (P < 0.001) lightness and drip loss. The protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) with age. Taking into account the main aspects of sustainability, we could recommend slaughtering chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.

  8. Quality evaluation of functional chicken nuggets incorporated with ground carrot and mashed sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S S; Biswas, A K; Sahoo, J; Chatli, M K; Sharma, D K; Sikka, S S

    2011-06-01

    This study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of ground raw carrot (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) and mashed sweet potato (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) as functional ingredients on the quality of chicken meat nuggets. The products were evaluated for physicochemical quality, proximate composition, nutritive value, sensory quality as well as color and texture profile analyses. Additions of either raw carrot or mashed sweet potato represent an improvement in the nutritional value and have some beneficial effects due to the presence of dietary fibers and β-carotene. They were also found to be effective in sustaining the desired cooking yield and emulsion stability. Treated samples showed lower (p > 0.05) protein, fat and ash contents but higher (p < 0.05) moisture content than control. There were differences among the nugget samples with respect to sensory qualities, and control samples as well as samples with 10% added carrot/sweet potato had higher overall acceptability scores. Hunter color values (L*, a* and b* values) were higher (p < 0.05) for both the formulated products, while their textural parameters were nearly unchanged. In conclusion, carrot and sweet potato at 10% added level have greater potential as good source of dietary fibers and β-carotene and may find their way in meat industry.

  9. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  10. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  11. Difference Analysis of Egg Quality between Royal Chicken,Guinea Fowl and Commercial Chicken%贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋品质差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芳

    2013-01-01

    This article measured and compared the quality and nutrient content in Royal chicken eggs,Guinea fowl eggs and the commercial chicken eggs. The results showed that the content of protein and fat in Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs was higher than that in the commercial chicken eggs. The content of egg yolk in the commercial chicken eggs was only 59.3% of Royal chicken eggs,and 62.6% of Guinea fowl eggs. So it suggested that children and the old eat more Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs.%对贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋的品质及营养成分含量进行测定,并对各指标进行比较分析。结果表明,贵妃鸡蛋和珍珠鸡蛋的蛋白质及脂肪含量略高于商品鸡蛋,商品鸡蛋蛋黄卵磷脂的含量仅为贵妃鸡蛋的59.3%,珍珠鸡蛋的62.6%,建议儿童和老年人多食用贵妃鸡蛋及珍珠鸡蛋。

  12. Curb Your Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel institut......We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel...... Regions. Our results show that this information-enhancing policy reduces paid premiums by around 15%. This reduced-form effect might arise by higher bargaining power on the demand side or increased competition on the supply side of the insurance market. Validity tests show that our findings are not driven...

  13. Associations between novel polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene and egg production and quality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to characterize polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene, and determine their association with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens. The study was conducted on four strains of White Leghorn chickens, namely IWH, IWI, IWK, and layer control. Overall, there were three alleles (designated A, B, and C) and five genotypes, with genotypic frequencies of 0.09, 0.75, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.07 for AA, AB, AC, BB, and BC, respectively. There were significant differences among genotypes for egg production up to 52 and 64 wk of age, with maximal egg yields for genotypes AA and AC (144.5 ± 5.06 and 143.2 ± 4.67 eggs, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant differences among genotypes for egg quality traits, including egg weight and Haugh unit at 40 wk of age, Haugh unit at 52 wk, and yolk color index and Haugh unit at 64 wk. Birds with AA or AC genotypes had the best egg quality traits. On the contrary, these genotypes had the lowest prolactin expression, whereas this expression was highest in birds with the BB genotype. In conclusion, polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR of prolactin gene were significantly associated with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens.

  14. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and no premiums are required to maintain such policies and provisions in force. Policies...

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Premium Light Soy Sauce Quality Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析的生抽酱油品质综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志锋

    2012-01-01

    30 species of premium light soy sauce were analyzed by 8 quality indicators.The principal component analysis method was used to establish a comprehensive evaluation model for the quality of premium light soy sauce.Results showed that the overall quality level of 30 species of premium light soy sauce was better than the existing national standards.Different degrees of difference existed in the quality indicators that total bacterial count had the largest variation by 281.5%,and water activity had the smallest variation by 2.5%.4 principal components were extracted by principal component analysis,of which accumulative variation was 84.631%.The top 5 samples according to the comprehensive evaluation result by the established model were from 4 different brands in Guangdong province.%对30份市售特级生抽酱油的8个品质指标进行检测分析,并采用主成分分析方法构建生抽酱油品质的综合评价模型。结果显示,30份特级生抽酱油整体质量优于现有酿造酱油国家标准要求,其品质指标存在不同程度的差异,其中细菌总数样品间变异最大,变异系数为281.5%,水分活度变异最小,变异系数为2.5%;利用主成分分析方法提取了4个主成分,累计方差贡献率达到84.631%,利用主成分综合评价模型对生抽酱油品质进行评价,综合评价前5名样品为广东省4个不同品牌的生抽酱油产品。

  16. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums....

  17. Dietary sodium butyrate alleviates the oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W H; Gao, F; Zhu, Q F; Li, C; Jiang, Y; Dai, S F; Zhou, G H

    2011-11-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (SB) and acute pre-slaughter stress, mimicked by subcutaneous corticosterone (CORT) administration, on BW, carcass characteristics, muscle antioxidant status, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 120 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed a control diet (without SB) or a 0.4-g microencapsulated SB/kg diet. On 42 d, half of the birds from each treatment were given 1 single subcutaneous injection of CORT (4 mg/kg of BW in corn oil) to mimic acute stress, whereas the other half were injected with the same amount of corn oil (sham control). Three hours later, BW loss was determined and breast meat samples were collected. The results showed that the BW of the CORT-challenged groups lost much more than the sham control group (P stress (P chickens (P stress treatment on fatty acid composition was insignificant (P > 0.05). In addition, diet and stress did not significantly influence carcass characteristics and the chemical composition of breast meat (P > 0.05). These results suggest that microencapsulated SB was favorable for chickens in the presence of stress, which may be partially ascribed to the ability of SB to decrease catabolism and oxidative injury of tissues.

  18. The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A

    2007-05-01

    The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P < or = 0.001) between skin and breast meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.

  19. 78 FR 44056 - Premium Rates; Payment of Premiums; Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... benefits (UVBs)--the excess of its premium funding target over its assets. The premium funding target and... would small plans enjoy the convenience of a convergence between the premium and Form 5500 due...

  20. Enhancement of microbial quality and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by gamma irradiation of ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallah, Aziz A., E-mail: a_a_falah@yahoo.co [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Zoonotic Diseases, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Siavash Saei-Dehkordi, S. [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Zoonotic Diseases, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahnama, Mohammad [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol 98615 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken consists of cubed chicken breast, lemon juice, salt, red pepper, onion, saffron and vegetable oil with an overall pH value of about 5.5. This product is sometimes consumed under-cooked, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy) on the microbial quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) barbecued chicken samples stored at 4 {sup o}C for 15 days was investigated. Moreover, the effectiveness of irradiation for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated into the samples was also studied. Irradiation of the samples resulted in dose dependent reduction in counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Among the microbial flora, yeasts and molds and Enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to irradiation and got completely eliminated at dose of 3 kGy. D{sub 10} values of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into the samples were 0.680, 0.397 and 0.601 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy reduced the counts of E. coli O157:H7 to an undetectable level in RTC barbecued chicken but was ineffective on elimination of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. However, none of the food-borne pathogens were detected in the samples irradiated at 4.5 kGy. This study showed that irradiation had no undesirable effects on the initial sensory attributes of barbecued chicken. At the end of the storage period, irradiated samples were more acceptable compared to non-irradiated ones.

  1. Enhancement of microbial quality and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by gamma irradiation of ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A.; Siavash Saei-Dehkordi, S.; Rahnama, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken consists of cubed chicken breast, lemon juice, salt, red pepper, onion, saffron and vegetable oil with an overall pH value of about 5.5. This product is sometimes consumed under-cooked, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy) on the microbial quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) barbecued chicken samples stored at 4 °C for 15 days was investigated. Moreover, the effectiveness of irradiation for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated into the samples was also studied. Irradiation of the samples resulted in dose dependent reduction in counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Among the microbial flora, yeasts and molds and Enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to irradiation and got completely eliminated at dose of 3 kGy. D10 values of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into the samples were 0.680, 0.397 and 0.601 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy reduced the counts of E. coli O157:H7 to an undetectable level in RTC barbecued chicken but was ineffective on elimination of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. However, none of the food-borne pathogens were detected in the samples irradiated at 4.5 kGy. This study showed that irradiation had no undesirable effects on the initial sensory attributes of barbecued chicken. At the end of the storage period, irradiated samples were more acceptable compared to non-irradiated ones.

  2. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice.

  3. Effects of the ionizing radiations, freezing and thawing duration on chicken liver cells quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Salum, D. C.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    All food storage processes modify the food. Irradiation reduces and could stop cell division, avoid infestation, reduce contamination and delay food decomposition. The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintains the food at low temperature. Defrosted food shall never be frozen again, the best way being to consume it quickly then avoiding multiplication and acceleration of microbial growth, which causes decay and nutrients damage. The Comet Assay indicates DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall quality of the food and in a certain extent to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation and storage on liver chicken cells. In this work, different thawing temperatures and radiation doses were checked to establish a "DNA damage index" by using the Comet Assay. Samples were irradiated in a 60Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Our results showed that no intact cells were detected in frozen samples: however, irradiated liver samples in natura showed some intact cells depending on the applied radiation doses.

  4. Effects of the ionizing radiations, freezing and thawing duration on chicken liver cells quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, R.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 Zip code, 05508-000 Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: renatocduarte@yahoo.com.br; Araujo, M.M.; Salum, D.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 Zip code, 05508-000 Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil (Brazil); Marchioni, E. [IPHC-UMR 7178-Faculte de Pharmacie, 74 route du Rhin, 67400 Illkirch (France); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 Zip code, 05508-000 Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    All food storage processes modify the food. Irradiation reduces and could stop cell division, avoid infestation, reduce contamination and delay food decomposition. The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintains the food at low temperature. Defrosted food shall never be frozen again, the best way being to consume it quickly then avoiding multiplication and acceleration of microbial growth, which causes decay and nutrients damage. The Comet Assay indicates DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall quality of the food and in a certain extent to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation and storage on liver chicken cells. In this work, different thawing temperatures and radiation doses were checked to establish a 'DNA damage index' by using the Comet Assay. Samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Our results showed that no intact cells were detected in frozen samples: however, irradiated liver samples in natura showed some intact cells depending on the applied radiation doses.

  5. Supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis fmbJ on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Kaiwen; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis fmbJ (BS fmbJ) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 4 treatments and raised for 6 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicate pens with ten birds per replicate. Birds in the control group (CON) were fed diets without BS fmbJ and antibiotics. The BS groups were fed the basal diets with BS fmbJ at 2 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-1 group), BS fmbJ at 3 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-2 group), BS fmbJ at 4 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-3 group) without antibiotics for 42 d. In the study, dietary supplementation with BS fmbJ significantly improved (P chicken breast meat quality, the drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, L*24 h, a*24 h, b*45 min, and b*24 h values were influenced (P < 0.05) by BS fmbJ provided in the diet. Based on these results, Bacillus subtilis fmbJ could be acted as a beneficial feed additive with antioxidant capacity in broiler diets. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color (a* 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).

  7. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders

    OpenAIRE

    MISHRA, BIDYUT PRAVA; CHAUHAN, GEETA; Mendiratta, S. K.; B. D. Sharma; Desai, B. A.; Rath, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat ri...

  8. EFFECT OF FATTY-ACID CONCENTRATE (FAC AND CARNITINE ON PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITION AND MEAT QUALITY OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of fatty acid concentrate (FAC, as a new source of energy and carnitine on performance, physiological condition and meat quality of broiler chickens. In experiment there were four groups of 80 chickens of cross Hubbard each (males: females=40:40 in age period 0-41 days. 1 group (control received in during the periods 0-14, 15-28 and 29-41days, sunflower oil (SO respectively 5.34%, 5.50%, and 6.10%, group 2 received the same amounts of FAC instead SO, 3 group - mixture SO:FAC (50:50, 4 group -FAC + 0,25% carnitine. Final body weight: 1 group = 2574±29 g, 2 group FAC= 2553±27 g 3 group SO + FAC = 2531±34 g., 4 group FAC+0,25 carnitine = 2520±34 g. Feed conversion, digestibility of nutrients, blood hematology and biochemistry, the condition of organs, meat quality and cutting of carcass of chickens on FAC had no any differences from the same signs in chicks on SO. Carnitine had a positive effect on chicken growth only in the period 0-14 and less 15-28 days; in the period 29-41 days daily gain was below, than that in 1-3 groups. Canitine reduced the content of liver fat. Outcome: FAC is a satisfactory source of energy, comparable with vegetable oils. The price of FAC is 30% lower in comparison with sunflower oil and soybean oils, therefore its use in broiler poultry farming instead of vegetable oils will be of great economic importance

  9. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial safety and quality of stir fry chicken dices with hot chili during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Cao, Mei; Chen, Hao; Gao, Peng; Fu, Yi; Liu, Mianxue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Min

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of irradiation with different doses on microbial safety, sensory quality and protein content of ready-to-eat stir fry chicken dices with hot chili (FCC) during one year storage. Fresh chicken meat was cut into small dices and fried at approximately 180 °C for 10 min for preparation of FCC samples. The samples were vacuum-packaged and gamma irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy. The results suggest that irradiation with the doses of 10 and 20 kGy could ensure microbiological safety of the samples without deterioration of sensory quality. Microbial counts, sensory qualities and protein contents of the samples were investigated during one year storage. No viable cells were observed and the samples were completely sterilized. Sensory qualities showed no significant difference after irradiated at the doses of 10 and 20 kGy during the storage period. Protein contents were also not affected by irradiation at the same doses. Our results indicate that gamma irradiation of 10 and 20 kGy are effective to maintain shelf stability of ready-to-eat FCC products with microbial safety, sensory quality and nutritional value.

  11. Comparison of breast muscle traits and meat quality characteristics in 2 commercial chicken hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were

  12. The effect of dietary selenium supplementation on meat quality of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezeliene, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a focus on the development of functional poultry products capable of enrichment by selenium, vitamin E, iodine and fatty acids of the third order. Since there is a lack of data about various selenium sources and its synergistic effect on sensory and other properties of vitamin E enriched poultry, the objective of this research was to examine the effect of addition of selenium in broilers diet on meat quality. The amount of Se in the diet was increased from 0.15 mg.kg-1 feed (control group to 0.5 mg.kg-1 feed. Addition of Se had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cooking and thawing losses, as well as on the majority of sensory attributes, adhesiveness, cohesiveness of chicken breast samples. Aftertaste (p < 0.05, hardness (p < 0.001 and resilience (p < 0.001 of the texture of the samples increased along with the increased amount of Se in bird diet. Mean values of the sensory attributes of thigh muscles showed no significant differences among the samples in case of intensities of odor and taste attributes; however, firmness and chewiness of the tested samples increased by increasing the amount of Se in the feed (p > 0.05. In addition, Se did not have significant influence on meat cooking or thawing losses. The results of this study showed that 0.15 mg and 0.5 mg of selenium in complex with 40 mg of vitamin E could be added to broiler diet without having negative effect on technological or sensory properties of the broiler meat and acceptability.

  13. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section 7.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  14. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality,

  15. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  16. Effect of a free-range raising system on growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of slow-growing chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K H; Shi, S R; Dou, T C; Sun, H J

    2009-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range raising systems on growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of slow-growing chickens. Slow-growing female chickens, Gushi chickens, were selected as the experimental birds. Two hundred 1-d-old female chicks were raised in a pen for 35 d. On d 36, ninety healthy birds, with similar BW (353.7+/-32.1g), were selected and randomly assigned to 2 treatments (indoor treatment and free-range treatment, P>0.05). Each treatment was represented by 3 groups containing 15 birds (45 birds per treatment). During the indoor treatment, the chickens were raised in floor pens in a conventional poultry research house (7 birds/m2). In the free-range treatment, the chickens were housed in a similar indoor house (7 birds/m2); in addition, they also had a free-range grass paddock (1 bird/m2). All birds were provided with the same starter and finisher diets and were raised for 112 d. Results showed that the BW and weight gain of the chickens in the free-range treatment were much lower than that of the chickens in the indoor floor treatments (P0.05). However, the abdominal fat yield and tibia strength (Pmuscle were largely unaffected (P>0.05) by the free-range raising system. The data indicated that the free-range raising system could significantly reduce growth performance, abdominal fat, and tibia strength, but with no effect on carcass traits and meat quality in slow-growing chickens.

  17. Easy Access to Premium Luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lexus Launches Summer Financing Program with Interest Rates as Low as 2.011percent Lexus China has launched its latest financing program with interest rates as low as 2.011 percent for three of its luxury small displacement models:RX270,IS250 and ES240.The program is an additional premium offer presented by Lexus to Chinese consumers

  18. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-12-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired

  20. Effect of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in three genotypes of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R R; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Zhao, J P; Li, P; Hu, J; Wen, J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of dietary supplemental nicotinic acid (NA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were investigated in three genotypes of chicken. Fast-growing AA (Arbor Acres) broilers were compared with two genotypes of a slow-growing local breed, Beijing-You, that had undergone selection for and against intramuscular fat content respectively (BJY+IMF and BJY-IMF). The treatments were arranged 3×4 factorial completely randomized design. Day-old females (n=624) were allocated to four treatments with six replicates per treatment and fed diets (basal contained ~25 mg NA/kg) supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg NA/kg. A sample of 72 birds from each genotype was slaughtered at market time (8 weeks of age for AA and 16 weeks of age for BJY). The breast muscles of AA broilers were darker, had less redness and yellowness, lower drip loss and higher shear force as compared to the BJY genotypes (pabdominal fat but, for most variables, values decreased slightly with 120 mg NA/kg. Increasing supplementation to 60 mg NA/kg decreased (quadratic, pmuscle; (ii) the addition of 30 mg NA/kg meets the requirement of BJY genotypes; and (iii) there seems to be no beneficial effect of NA supplementation on chicken meat quality except for limiting the drip loss.

  1. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Rodak, Olga; Bajzert, Joanna; Kochan, Joanna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC), hypotaurine (HT), and taurine (T) on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T) and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (P < 0.05). There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all treatments (P < 0.01; P < 0.05), when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  2. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality.

  3. Oxidative stability and sensory quality of meat from broiler chickens fed a bacterial meal produced on natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, M; Borge, G I; Vogt, G; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial meal (BPM) produced from bacteria grown on natural gas is a feed source containing approximately 70% CP and 10% lipids with predominantly C16:0 and C16:1 fatty acids. The effect of increasing dietary levels (0, 40, 80, or 120 g/kg) of BPM on fatty acid composition, the profile of volatiles by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sensory quality of frozen-stored broiler chicken thigh meat was examined. Increasing levels of BPM increased (linear, P Dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was a more sensitive method in detecting early lipid oxidation compared with TBA reactive substances and sensory quality analyses in broiler thigh meat.

  4. Effects of Vitamin E Addition to Chicken Semen on Sperm Quality During in Vitro Storage of Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Tabatabaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of the vitamin E addition in different levels to the extender of chicken semen on spermatozoa quality during storage of semen at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours. Eight young Ross broiler breeder strain 308 roosters were used in this experiment. The collected semen from all roosters was mixed together and diluted with modified a Ringer’s solution. The diluted pooled semen was divided into 5 treatments (T. T1 was a control group without any vitamin E addition. For T2 to T5 groups 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % vitamin E (w/v, were added respectively. Treatments were evaluated for sperm motility, sperm viability and probable morphological defects after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours of incubation at 4°C. The evaluations of spermatozoa immediately after semen collection, were revealed no significant differences among values of treatment groups, whereas after incubating the treatments for different spans of time, the sperm progressive motility and viability rates for groups supplemented with vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the control group. In addition, morphological defect rates of chicken spermatozoa in the groups supplemented with different levels of vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than that in control group. According to the results of this study we conclude that, the most excellent level of vitamin E for supplementation to the extended semen of chicken in order to improve the sperm motility and viability plus to reduce the morphological defect rates of the spermatozoa up to 24 hours storage time at 4°C is 2 % (w/v.

  5. Intertextile Goos Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Flora Zhao; WanzyWang

    2012-01-01

    Still a successful trade event, Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics, 28th - 30th March 2012, ushered in a refreshing spring show with a complete range of innovative products targeted towards mass to luxury market industry buyers. Through the years the show garnered a sizeable number of exhibitors from 16 countries and regions, a 22% increase from 2011, now it focuses on improving the quality and the image of the show.

  6. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection.

  7. Combination analysis of genome-wide association and transcriptome sequencing of residual feed intake in quality chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Ji, Congliang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhe; Nie, Qinghua; Xu, Jiguo; Zhang, Dexiang; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-08-09

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a powerful indicator for energy utilization efficiency and responds to selection. Low RFI selection enables a reduction in feed intake without affecting growth performance. However, the effective variants or major genes dedicated to phenotypic differences in RFI in quality chickens are unclear. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and RNA sequencing were performed on RFI to identify genetic variants and potential candidate genes associated with energy improvement. A lower average daily feed intake was found in low-RFI birds compared to high-RFI birds. The heritability of RFI measured from 44 to 83 d of age was 0.35. GWAS showed that 32 of the significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the RFI (P < 10(-4)) accounted for 53.01 % of the additive genetic variance. More than half of the effective SNPs were located in a 1 Mb region (16.3-17.3 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 12. Thus, focusing on this region should enable a deeper understanding of energy utilization. RNA sequencing was performed to profile the liver transcriptomes of four male chickens selected from the high and low tails of the RFI. One hundred and sixteen unique genes were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Some of these genes were relevant to appetite, cell activities, and fat metabolism, such as CCKAR, HSP90B1, and PCK1. Some potential genes within the 500 Kb flanking region of the significant RFI-related SNPs detected in GWAS (i.e., MGP, HIST1H110, HIST1H2A4L3, OC3, NR0B2, PER2, ST6GALNAC2, and G0S2) were also identified as DEGs in chickens with divergent RFIs. The GWAS findings showed that the 1 Mb narrow region of GGA12 should be important because it contained genes involved in energy-consuming processes, such as lipogenesis, social behavior, and immunity. Similar results were obtained in the transcriptome sequencing experiments. In general, low-RFI birds seemed to optimize energy employment

  8. Quality changes of ready-to-eat ginseng chicken porridge during storage at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Keun Taik

    2012-12-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken porridge was heated in a retort with an F-value of 4.0 after being packaged in a gas-tight plastic tray (PP/EVOH/PP) with top film (PET/PA/CPP). Various quality changes were investigated during the storage for 28 weeks at 25 °C. Over the storage period, microorganisms were not detected above 1.0 log cfu/cm² (detection limit). The viscosity increased sharply from 775 to 2025 cp for initial 4 weeks and increased steadily until 16 weeks, with a slight reduction thereafter. During the 28 weeks of storage, the ratio of residual oxygen and pH decreased from 10.8% and 6.49 to 5.7% and 6.05, while retrogradation degree increased from 0% to 55.9%. Hunter L*, b*, and ΔE values increased until 20 weeks and remained for the rest of storage. Based on sensory, microbiological and physicochemical evaluations, the RTE ginseng chicken porridge could be marketable for at least 24 weeks at 25 °C.

  9. Proteome changes underpin improved meat quality and yield of chickens (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ke; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Bryden, Wayne L; Yao, Bin

    2014-12-23

    Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with probiotics may improve carcass characteristics and meat quality. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, 2D-DIGE-based proteomics was employed to investigate the proteome changes associated with improved carcass traits and meat quality of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium. The probiotic significantly increased meat colour, water holding capacity and pH of pectoral muscle but decreased abdominal fat content. These meat quality changes were related to the altered abundance of 22 proteins in the pectoral muscle following E. faecium feeding. Of these, 17 proteins have central roles in regulating meat quality due to their biological interaction network. Altered cytoskeletal and chaperon protein expression also contribute to improved water holding capacity and colour of meat, which suggests that upregulation of chaperon proteins maintains cell integrity and prevents moisture loss by enhancing folding and recovery of the membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. The down-regulation of β-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle isozymes suggests roles in increasing the pH of meat by decreasing the production of lactic acid. The validity of the proteomics results was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reveals that improved meat quality of broilers fed probiotics is triggered by proteome alterations (especially the glycolytic proteins), and provides a new insight into the mechanism by which probiotics improve poultry production.

  10. The conditional size premium and intertemporal risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders the uncondit......The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders...... the unconditional tests about the size premium inaccurate: For example, the unconditional evidence in the literature supporting the intertemporal risk explanation of the size premium is absent in a conditional sense. Indeed, the conditional and unconditional intertemporal hedging properties of the small stocks...

  11. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market.

  12. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Moreno Vaca; Priscila Maldonado Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27)A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T...

  13. Why Do Firms Pay an Overtime Premium?

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Robert A.; Ma, Yue

    2000-01-01

    We develop a rationale for the payment by firms of a wage premium on marginal, or overtime, weekly hours. We examine wage-hours contracts within the framework of a two-period specific human capital model with asymmetric information. The wage premium serves to achieve contract efficiency. For those weekly hours for which a premium is paid, worker compensation exceeds the value of marginal product. There is an optimal automatic compensatory differential rule between straight-time wages and the ...

  14. The Envy Premium in Product Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Niels van de Ven; Marcel Zeelenberg; Rik Pieters

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that elicit their envy. The more people compared themselves to a superior other, the higher the envy premium was. Yet, the emotion envy and not the upward comparison drove the final effects. The envy premium only emerged for a desirable product that the superior other owned (iPhone) when people experienced benign envy. Benign envy is elicited when the other's superior position is deserved, and malicious envy when it is undeserved. When peopl...

  15. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  16. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  17. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... alternative premium funding target to calculate its variable rate premium (VRP). The regulations require that such an election be filed with PBGC before the VRP due date. A plan makes an election by ] checking box... funding target is not in effect, the plan must calculate its VRP using the standard premium funding target...

  18. Bone mass and bone quality are altered by hypoactivity in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aguado

    Full Text Available Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults; sedentarity is now recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Hypoactivity or confinement also decrease bone mass in adults but their effects are largely unknown and only few animal models have been described. We have used 10 chickens of the rapidly growing strain 857K bred in a large enclosure (FREE group; 10 others were confined in small cages with little space to move around (HYPO group. They were sacrificed at 53 days and femurs and tibias were evaluated by texture analysis, dual energy X-ray densitometry, microcomputed tomography (microCT and histomorphometry. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter of the bones. Bone mineral density (BMD, microCT (trabecular bone volume and trabecular microarchitecture and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the animals of the HYPO group. BMD was reduced at both femur and tibia diaphysises; BMD of the metaphysis was significantly reduced in the femur but not in the tibia. An increase in osteoid volume and surfaces was noted in the HYPO group. However, there was no alteration of the mineral phase as the osteoid thickness did not differ from control animals. Bone loss was much more pronounced at the lower femur metaphysis than at the upper metaphysis of the tibia. At the tibia, only microarchitectural changes of trabecular bone could be evidenced. The confined chicken represents a new method for the study of hypodynamia since these animals do not have surgical lesions.

  19. The effects of the dark house system on growth, performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2015-02-01

    Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  1. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Partyka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, hypotaurine (HT, and taurine (T on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (P<0.05. There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO in all treatments (P<0.01; P<0.05, when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (P<0.05. Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly (P<0.05 reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  2. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, sensory quality and acceptability of native chicken and rabbit sausage produced with corn oil, margarine and beef fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewangko Lengkey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the effect of certain oils or fats (corn oil, margarine and beef fat on the physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and sensory quality of native chicken and rabbit sausages as low fat sausages. The sausages were evaluated by physicochemical analysis of pH, aw, moisture content, protein and fat, TPC and Salmonella as microbiological characteristics, as well as flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability as sensory quality, and with regards to diversification of meat products in Indonesia. Three formulations for native chicken (FA and rabbit (FB sausages were prepared: FA1 and FB1 (with 10% corn oil; FA2 and FB2 (with 10% margarine: FA3 and FB3 (with 10% beef fat. Results indicated no significant difference (p<0.05 between the pH and aw values of native chicken and rabbit sausages using different fat sources. The moisture content was significantly different (p<0.05 both between the native chicken and rabbit sausages and the types of fat source (corn oil, margarine and beef fat added. No effect on protein content was found both in native chicken and rabbit sausages. The lowest fat content was found in rabbit sausages (18.79 + 0.70% where corn oil was added as a fat source. Lowest TPC was also observed. Salmonella were not detected in any of the sausage groups. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in various sensory attributes. In conclusion, native chicken and rabbit meat seems to be a suitable alternative for low fat sausages production, particularly with corn oil as fat source.

  3. Effect of chicken skin on the quality characteristics of semi-dried restructured jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Han, Doo-Jeong; Choi, Ji-Hun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of skin on the textural properties of semi-dried jerky produced with different acid treatments. Jerky was prepared with no skin (control) or with 1, 3, or 5% chicken skin. After hand mixing (for 3 min) and tumbling (for 30 min) to distribute the curing ingredients, the cured meats were dried for 180 min at 55°C, for 180 min at 65°C, and finally for 60 min at 75°C. The presence of skin was shown to result in a higher fat content, TBA value, and metmyoglobin due to the high fat content of the skin. In contrast, acid treatment decreased the TBA value and metmyoglobin in jerky relative to samples that were not subjected to acid treatment. The presence of skin also improved the moisture contents, processing yields, and mechanical tenderness.

  4. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT SUPPLEMENTS APPLIED IN CHICKEN NUTRITION ON QUALITY OF THEIR MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the experiment, three groups were created (one control and two experimental groups. We studied the influence of following supplements: alfalfa (Medicago sativa meal (4% - experimental group I and origanum (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp. oils together (0.05% - experimental group II in mutual rate of 3:2:1, on technological and sensorial parameters of poultry meat in nutrition of chickens of Ross 308. Broilers were fattening for 36 days. Chickens were fed by the system ad libitum by the feed mixture HYD-01 from the 1st to the 18th day of age, by the feed mixture HYD-02 from the 19th to the 31st day of age and by the feed mixture HYD-03 from the 32nd day of age to the end of fattening (36th day of age in loose form. By application of plant oils into the feed mixture, we recorded slightly positive influence on decrease of losses of cooling after 24 and 48 h, on decrease of losses of freezing and on shear force in mammary muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of breast and thigh muscle (P≥0.05. Conversely, slightly negative influence was recorded on baking losses and on shear force in thigh muscle (P≥0.05 in compare with control group. In application of alfalfa meal, positive influence (P≥0.05 on losses of cooling (24 and 48 h, losses of freezing, baking losses, on shear force of breast muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of thigh muscle was found. Conversely, shear force of thigh muscle and overall sensorial evaluation of breast muscle after application of alfalfa meal showed slightly negative values (P≥0.05 in compare with control group.

  5. Impact of induced levels of specific free radicals and malondialdehyde on chicken semen quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Bruno R; Shibuya, Fábio Y; Kawaoku, Allison J T; Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Nichi, Marcilio; Pereira, Ricardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, scientists endeavored to comprehend oxidative stress in poultry spermatozoa and its relationship with fertilizing ability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), free-radical scavenging systems, and antioxidant therapy. Although considerable progress has been made, further improvement is needed in understanding how specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic byproduct of LPO) disrupt organelles in avian spermatozoon. Hence, this study examined functional changes in chicken spermatozoa after incubation with different ROS, and their implications for the fertility. First, semen samples from 14 roosters were individually diluted and aliquoted into five equal parts: control, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals, and MDA. After incubation with these molecules, aliquots were analyzed for motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and LPO and DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide was more detrimental for sperm motility than hydroxyl radicals, whereas the superoxide anion and MDA exhibited no differences compared with controls. In turn, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, LPO and DNA integrity rates were only affected by hydroxyl radicals. Thereafter, semen aliquots were incubated under the same conditions and used for artificial insemination. In accordance to our in vitro observations, H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals sharply reduced egg fertility, whereas superoxide anion and MDA only induced slight declines. Thus, chicken sperm function was severely impaired by H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals, but their mechanisms of action seemingly comprise different pathways. Further analysis regarding susceptibility of spermatozoon organelles to specific radicals in other poultry will help us to understand the development of interspecific differences in scavenging systems and to outline more oriented antioxidant approaches.

  6. The effect of vacuum packaging, EDTA, oregano and thyme oils on the microbiological quality of chicken's breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, Adriana; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Rovná, Katarína; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils, on the chicken breast fillets was examined in this study. The chicken breast fillets were stored under vacuum packaging (VP), at 4 ± 0.5 °C for a period of 18 days. There were used the following treatments of chicken breast fillets: Air-packaged (AC, control samples), vacuum-packaged (VPC, control samples), VP with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w (VPEC, control samples), VP with oregano oil 0.20% v/w (VP + O) and VP with thyme oil 0.20% v/w, (VP + T). The quality assessment for vacuum packaging of the product in accordance with the terms above and EDTA treatment, oregano and thyme oil was established by microbiological analyzes. The microbiological properties as the total viable counts on Plate Count Agar, after incubation for 2 days at 37 °C and coliform bacteria on Violet Red Bile Glucose agar incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, lactobacilli on Rogosa and Sharpe agar after incubation 48-78 h at 37 °C in an aerobic atmosphere supplemented with carbon dioxide (5% CO2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Pseudomonas Isolation agar (PIA, Oxoid, UK) after incubation at 48 h at 35 °C were monitored. The using of oregano, thyme oil and EDTA with combination of vacuum packaging has significant effects to reduction of all followed groups of microorganisms compared with control group without vacuum packaging and untreated control group. The natural preservatives can be used as alternatives to chemical additives which could extend the meat and meat products shelf life. The knowledge about them can have an important economic feedback by reducing losses attributed to spoilage and by allowing the products to reach distant and new markets. This study shows how using of natural antimicrobials can extend the shelf-life of the meat product.

  7. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is po

  8. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums. (a... respect to individuals age 65 or over from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund during the succeeding... payable to “CMS Medicare Insurance,” and shows his or her name and the claim number that appears on his or...

  9. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is

  10. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  11. On the characterization of convex premium principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cardin; Graziella Pacelli

    2006-01-01

    In actuarial literature the properties of risk measures or insurance premium principles have been extensively studied . We propose a characterization of a particular class of coherent risk measures defined in [1]. The considered premium principles are obtained by expansion of TVar measures, consequently they look like very interesting in insurance pricing where TVar measures is frequently used to value tail risks.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies Loci and candidate genes for body composition and meat quality traits in Beijing-You chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranran Liu

    Full Text Available Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW, eviscerated weight (EW, dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW and percentage (BrP, thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM and compressed mixed linear (MLM models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E-6 have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome 4 (GGA4, including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1, were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.

  13. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  14. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities

  15. Evaluation of edible polymer coatings enriched with green tea extract on quality of chicken nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathyusha Kristam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of chicken nuggets coated with sodium alginate (SA coatings at refrigerated (4±1°C and frozen (−18±1°C storage condition at regular periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: Chicken meat nuggets were separated into three groups: Uncoated control (C, coated with alginate coating (T1, and coated with alginate coating incorporated with 1% green tea extract (GTE (T2. The nuggets were analyzed at regular intervals of 5days for refrigerated storage and 15 days for frozen storage period in terms of pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, peroxide value (PV, total plate count (TPC, water loss, and sensory characteristics. Results: The results indicated that the nuggets coated with alginate-based coatings effectively reduced the spoilage as indicated by pH, TBA, and PVs. pH values of the formulations ranged from 6.15 to 6.34 at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and 6.49-6.71 at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. TBA value of the treatments ranged from 1.28 to 1.54 mg MDA/kg and 1.34 to 1.50 mg MDA/kg under refrigerated and frozen storage temperatures, respectively. Color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the nuggets differed significantly (p<0.05 with the coated nuggets. The coated nuggets were well acceptable upto 15 days at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and upto 75 days at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. Nuggets coated with GTE incorporated coating solution had a lower TBA-reactive substances values, PVs, and TPCs when compared to the nuggets coated with SA and the control group. Conclusion: Study revealed that incorporation of edible coatings with antioxidants, namely, GTE at 1% level had a significant effect in reducing the fat oxidation. The samples recorded a shelf life of 15 days under refrigerated storage when compared to their controls with 10 days of storage period and 75

  16. Microbiological quality of chicken- and pork-based street-vended foods from Taichung, Taiwan, and Laguna, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguiat, Lydia S; Fang, Tony J

    2013-10-01

    The microbiological quality of chicken- and pork-based street-food samples from Taichung, Taiwan's night markets (50) and Laguna, Philippines' public places (69) was evaluated in comparison to a microbiological guideline for ready-to-eat foods. Different bacterial contamination patterns were observed between 'hot-grilled' and 'cold cooked/fried' food types from the two sampling locations with 'hot grilled' foods generally showing better microbiological quality. Several samples were found to be unsatisfactory due to high levels of aerobic plate count, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest counts obtained were 8.2 log cfu g⁻¹, 5.4 log cfu g⁻¹, 4.4 log cfu g⁻¹, and 3.9 log cfu g⁻¹, respectively, suggesting poor food hygiene practices and poor sanitation. Salmonella was found in 8% and 7% of Taichung and Laguna samples, respectively, which made the samples potentially hazardous. None of the samples was found to be positive for Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157, but Bacillus cereus was detected at the unsatisfactory level of 4 log cfu g⁻¹ in one Laguna sample. Antimicrobial resistance was observed for Salmonella, E. coli, and S. aureus isolates. Food preparation, cooking, and food handling practices were considered to be contributors to the unacceptable microbiological quality of the street foods. Hence, providing training on food hygiene for the street vendors should result in the improvement of the microbiological quality of street foods. The data obtained in this study can be used as input to microbial risk assessments and in identifying science-based interventions to control the hazards.

  17. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Moreno Vaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN 1338:12.

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Mushroom Waste (Agaricus bisporus with or without Probiotic on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Breast Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaheri A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mushroom waste and probiotic levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic supplementation (0 and recommended rate and three levels of mushroom waste inclusion (0%, 3%, and 6% was used in a completely randomized design using male broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain. Different levels of mushroom waste and probiotic had no significant effect on body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in broiler chickens. Neither different levels of mushroom waste nor probiotic independently had any significant effect on carcass characteristics. However, the use of mushroom waste and probiotics significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content in chicken breast meat 30 days after storage (P. Breast meat pH value was significantly reduced by supplementation with probiotic 1 and 30 days after storage (P. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, inclusion of mushroom waste, particularly at 6% level, numerically improved growth performance and was effective in preventing meat oxidation.

  19. The Effect of Ordinary Higher Educational Quality on Skill Premium in China:Based on the Angle of Skill-biased Technological Progress%中国普通高等教育质量对技能溢价的影响--基于技能偏向型技术进步的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 高敬云; 李蕾蕾

    2014-01-01

    基于高技能劳动力的量与质,通过构建技能溢价的决定方程,运用中国地区面板数据进行实证检验。结果表明:中国普通高等教育质量的提高在短期内推动高技能劳动力供给增加以及高层次高技能劳动力比例增加,引致技能偏向型技术进步产生,从而提高技能溢价,且该影响存在明显地区差异;进一步门槛回归表明,当中国普通高等教育质量跨过一定门槛值,技能溢价随着高技能劳动力供给持续增加以及高技能劳动力层次性的加强而降低。%Based on the quantity and quality of high-skilled labor , we empirically test it by constructing the decision equation of skill premium using panel data in China .T he results show that in the short term the improving of Chinas ordinary higher educational quality results in high-skilled labor shortage and high-level and high-skilled labor increase ,prompts the generation of skill-biased technological progress ,and improves the skill premium ,which has obvious regional differences ;Further threshold regression show s that in the long run w hen Chinas ordinary higher educational quality crosses a certain threshold value along with the continued increase in the supply of high-skilled labor and the strengthening of high-skilled labor gradation ,the skill premium will decrease .

  20. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...... estimation on returns and large option samples....

  1. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  2. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment of..., and if such premium was not paid within 31 days after the due date, the insurance lapsed. (c) If...

  3. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.254 Calculation of premiums. (a) General provisions. To calculate the amount of... loss ratio calculation period. (b) Specific provisions. (1) Earned premium for a given period means— (i) Written premiums for the period; plus— (ii) The total premium reserve at the beginning of the period;...

  4. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  5. Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group

  6. Effects of Storage Time on the Quality of Local Chicken Meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research has focused on evaluating meat quality from the local/indigenous ... meat. Cooking loss and meat tenderness were determined for these samples. ..... producing lactic acid as the end product which .... Limited. Final Report, April 2012.

  7. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  8. The effect of holding temperature on live shrink, processing yield, and breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K

    2001-05-01

    The effects of antemortem holding temperatures on live shrink, processing yields, and breast meat quality of broiler chickens were evaluated. A total of 462 broilers was reared to 45 d of age using conventional husbandry practices, removed from feed and water, and cooped 12 h prior to slaughter. During the 12-h feed withdrawal and holding time, the birds were held at 25, 29.5, or 34 C. Birds were individually weighed at cooping, prior to slaughter, and during processing to determine live shrink and processed carcass yields. The breast meat was removed at 2 or 24 h postmortem and was used to determine hot and cold boned meat pH, R-value, sarcomere length, meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), cooked yield, and shear value. The birds held at 34 C showed the significantly greatest live shrink, 5.7%, compared to those held at 29.5 or 25 C with 3.9 and 3.2% shrink, respectively. Birds held at 34 C exhibited significantly lower processed carcass yields based on initial catch weight, but when calculated using postshrink weights, there were no significant differences between treatment groups. For breast meat harvested at 2 h postmortem, the birds held at 25 C had higher R-values, redness, and yellowness values and lower cooked meat yield and shear values. For breast meat harvested at 24 h postmortem, the birds held at 25 C had higher pH, R-values, and redness. These results support earlier reports that holding conditions may dramatically effect live bird shrink and apparent yields (based on calculation denominator) but have relatively little effect on subsequent breast meat quality, regardless of postmortem deboning time.

  9. Effect of sodium alginate coating incorporated with nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and rosemary essential oils on microbial quality of chicken meat and fate of Listeria monocytogenes during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tabaraei, Alijan; Hashemi, Mohammad; Behnampour, Nasser

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to preserve the microbial quality of chicken meat fillets during storage time by using sodium alginate active coating solutions incorporated with different natural antimicrobials including nisin, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and rosemary essential oils (EOs) which were added individually and in combination. The samples were stored in refrigeration condition for 15days and were analyzed for total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, lactic acid bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp. count, psychrotrophic count, and yeast and mold count, as well as fate of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that values of tested microbial indicators in all samples increased during storage. Antimicrobial agents, when used in combination, had stronger effect in preserving the microbial quality of chicken meat samples rather than their individual use and the strongest effect was observed in samples coated with alginate solution containing both cinnamon and rosemary EOs (CEO+REO). However, all treatments significantly inhibited microbial growth when compared to the control (Palginate coating solutions containing nisin, cinnamon, and rosemary EOs as natural preservatives is recommended in meat products especially in chicken meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 76 FR 38389 - Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Act and clarify the effect of the premium provisions of the Act as amended by the FCE Act. See 74 FR... Credit System demonstrates good health and sound risk management and other conditions warrant, and raise... quality of capital, earnings, asset growth, asset quality, loss allowance levels, asset...

  11. The Influence of Mixed Composition and Hole Mould on the Quality of Chicken Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, S.; Susanto, T. A.; Nur, R.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of feed mixturecomposition and shape of mould hole on the quality pellets using a pellet moulding machine with the roller wheel system. Methods of testing were performed to obtain the composition of the feed mixture that was optimal. The method was following: 250 grams of feed ingredients are added to the adhesive (starch) of 50 grams and then mixed with warm water (± 90°C) in quantities of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 cc. Furthermore, the feed mixture materials printed on pellet machines with roller wheel system. Parameter testing is 400 rpm engine rev diameter mould hole 5 mm, and the shape of the hole to a second print. The test results on the optimal material composition testing the feed mixture will be used as a parameter to the next test is a variation form of holes. Measuring the quality of feed pellets based heavily shaped pellet intact and non-intact. A ratio of feed ingredients best to produce pellets occurred in the composition of the feed mixture of 250 grams of feed, 50 grams of adhesive, and 250 grams of warm water with percentage shaped feed pellets of 91%. While the best pellet quality resulting from pellet machine roller wheel system occurs in the form of mould 2nd hole with a percentage of 90% pellets.

  12. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45; 1545-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

  13. Effect of calcium chloride marination on calpain and quality characteristics of meat from chicken, horse, cattle and rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M L; Escalona, H; Guerrero, I

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the quality of meat obtained from four animal species (beef, horse, rabbit and chicken) treated with two concentrations of calcium chloride (75 or 150 mM) were evaluated by a sensory panel. Physicochemical variables analysed were water holding capacity, instrumental colour and pH. Sensory analysis was by recognition index (R-index) by untrained and trained panels. CaCl(2) led to an increase in enzymatic activity, although it was not significantly different in treated compared to untreated samples. Lightness was higher (paler) in treated meat for all species studied. R-index showed that treatment of raw beef with 75mM CaCl(2) had negligible effect on odour compared to fresh, untreated beef. More juicy meat resulted from marination. Treatments with 150 mM CaCl(2) caused a more tender meat. The best combinations of cooking method and CaCl(2) concentration to obtain the most acceptable meat varied from attribute to attribute. The best odour was obtained when beef was treated with 150 mM CaCl(2) and cooked in a convection oven, whereas juiciness was improved if beef was treated with 150 mM CaCl(2) and cooked in a microwave oven. The highest scores for tenderness were for 75 mM CaCl(2)-treated samples regardless of cooking method. Flavour profile showed that the most marked feature in marinated beef is the predominance of a bitter flavour and after taste, which probably masks other flavour attributes. It is concluded that, in accordance with other authors, marination has no adverse effects on beef odour and improves texture, producing more tender material. However, marination at the CaCl(2) levels tested caused a bitter after taste and flavour.

  14. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  15. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  16. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  17. Effects of combined electron-beam irradiation and sous-vide treatments on microbiological and other qualities of chicken breast meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Lucht, L.; Chuaqui-Offermanns, N

    1994-07-01

    The microbiological safety, refrigeration shelf-life, and nutritional quality of chicken breast meat were investigated following combined electron-beam irradiation and cooking under vacuum (sous-vide). Chicken breast meat inoculated with 10{sup 6} CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes was irradiated with an electron beam at doses up to 3.1 kGy under vacuum in barrier bags, cooked in a boiling water bath for 3 min 45 s (previously determined to achieve an internal temperature of 71.1{sup o}C), and stored at 8{sup o}C for up to 5 weeks. Listeria was undetectable in samples treated with combined sous-vide and irradiation at 3.1 kGy, but the organism survived the sous-vide treatment without irradiation and multiplied during storage. A similar study, conducted with uninoculated chicken breast meat, revealed that the product which received both irradiation (3 kGy) and sous-vide treatment had a shelf-life of at least 8 weeks at 8{sup o}C, whereas the unirradiated samples treated sous-vide spoiled in 16 days. Listeria was undetectable in combination treated samples, but some of the unirradiated sous-vide samples tested after long storage showed high levels of Listeria. Some loss of thiamine occurred with the combined treatments. (author)

  18. Effect of storage temperature at 7°C on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality of industrialized cooked chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandriane Pizato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of storage temperature at 7°Con the physical-chemical and microbiological quality of industrialized cooked chicken breast meat was analyzed. Frozen cooked breast meat supplied from a poultry-processing industry was used. Fillets were stored at a prescribed temperature (7°C for 15-17 days and the sample’s chemical composition and initial pH was determined. Color, texture and microbiology were analyzed to determine the shelf-life of the cooked chicken breast meat. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected. The highest values of Chroma a* were observed at 312 and 360 hours, exhibiting an intense red color resulting from meat deterioration. Chroma b* failed to show any significant difference between the first and last day of storage. Lightness (L* was decreased with storage time and revealed a darker color caused by microbial spoilage. Texture decreased from 2.93 to 1.12 kgf. It may be concluded that shelf-life attended to expectations with regard to texture, color and microbiology of cooked chicken breast meat stored at7°C during 13 days.

  19. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  20. Effect of house type on growth performance, litter quality and incidence of foot lesions in broiler chickens reared in varying stocking density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.

  1. Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271

  2. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  3. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

    2014-08-01

    Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  5. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Geun-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Ba, Hoa Van; Seong, Pil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture...

  6. STRENGTH DESIGN OF PREMIUM THREADED CASING CONNECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Lianxin; Jin Ye; Zhang Yi

    2004-01-01

    Using premium casing connections instead of API ones is one of the most effective technique to prevent casing failure.The factors contribute to the strength of premium casing connections are studied with FEA and full-scale test.The criterions are presented that ensure the connection's strength higher than the pipe.At the same time, the method is given to decrease the peak stress of the connection so as to improve its anticorruption property.At last, full-scale tests are done to test the strength of the connections designed with the method described, the results show that the connection's strength is higher than the pipe.This indicated that the method described is effective in designing premium casing connection.

  7. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  8. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and empir......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical...... for empirical research on exporter performance including learning, and the role of non-parametric regressions (stochastic dominance, quantile regressions), fixed costs and productivity distributions....

  9. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  10. 隔离器饲育SPF鸡微生物质量控制方法的建立%Establishment of microbiological quality control methods on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬奋; 张瑞忠; 孙凤萍; 王佳乐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolator. Methods The chickens were bred in the isolator after the eggs from introduced SPF chickens were hatched out. The sera obtained from 10 ,20,40-week-old SPF chickens were used to monitor microbiological quality in order to detect the effectiveness of the current production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on SPF chickens. Results Because the hatching process was not strickly controlled during the early stage of breeding SPF chickens in the isolator,there were the emergence of microbiological contamination. Microbiological condition of the isolator breeding SPF chickens was effectively controlled after improving the operation management during the hatching process. Conclusion If the disinfection during all breeding stages is strengthened ,the microbiological quality of SPF chickens in the isolator could be ensured. The appropriate control on the density of SPF chickens in the isolator is not only beneficial to the breeding of SPF chickens and the recycling of hatching eggs ,but also helpful to the control of environmental microbiology.%目的 建立隔离器饲育SPF鸡生产管理方式,探讨并建立其微生物质量控制方法.方法 对引进的SPF鸡种蛋进行孵化后,将种鸡置于隔离器中进行饲养,在种鸡10、20、40周龄时采取鸡血清进行微生物质量监测,检验当前SPF鸡生产管理和微生物质量控制方法的有效性.结果 隔离器饲育SPF鸡初期由于对孵化环节控制不严出现了微生物污染现象.在对孵化环节操作管理改进后,隔离器饲育SPF鸡的微生物状况得到控制.结论通过加强各个环节消毒,隔离器饲育环境能够保证SPF鸡的微生物质量.适当控制隔离器内SPF鸡的密度不仅有利于SPF鸡的繁育和种蛋回收,而且有利于环境微生物的控制.

  11. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  12. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jean

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG and low (LG growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15 and ultimate pH (pHu, breast color-redness (BCo-R and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral

  13. Effect of supplemental fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves at different levels on growth performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y; Wan, X L; Zhang, X H; Zhao, L G; He, J T; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with different levels of fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FGBL) on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, antioxidant enzyme capacity, and free radical scavenging activities of muscles in broiler chickens. A total of 648 one-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into six dietary treatments, including control group (CON group: basal diet), FGBL1, FGBL2, FGBL3, FGBL4, and FGBL5 groups (basal diet containing 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 g/kg FGBL, respectively). Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 1, 21, and 42 d. At 42 d, 2 birds from each replicate were slaughtered. The results indicated that 3.5 g/kg FGBL diet significantly increased (P muscle, cooking loss in thigh muscle and lower 24 h and 48 h drip loss in both breast and thigh muscles than those of other groups. Furthermore, birds in the FGBL3 and FGBL4 groups increased (P muscles, and the scavenging activities of 2,2΄-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical, OH•, and O2•- in thigh muscle, decreased (P muscle, as compared to the CON group. In conclusion, FGBL had the potential to improve the growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The optimal dose in the present study of FGBL in broiler diets was from 3.5 to 4.5 g/kg. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effect of fast-, medium- and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Castellini, C; Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Franchini, A

    2011-02-01

    The characteristics of meat quality, chemical and fatty acid composition, from fast-growing (FG) and medium-growing (MG) meat-type and slow-growing (SG) egg-type chickens reared under organic conditions were compared. Three-hundred and sixty 1-day-old male chicks, equally divided into three experimental groups represented by strains (FG: Cobb 700, MG: Naked neck Kabir and SG: Brown Classic Lohman) were housed into three poultry houses with outdoor pasture availability of 10 m(2)/bird located in the same Research Centre of the University of Perugia. All the birds were fed ad libitum the same diets formulated according to the European Union (EU) Regulations by using organic raw materials. Birds from the FG and MG groups were raised until 81 days, whereas birds from the SG group were raised until 96 days in order to achieve an acceptable market live weight. SG birds showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher breast meat drip and cook losses, Allo-Kramer shear values and collagen content. In comparison with FG and SG, MG exhibited a higher breast meat pH (5.86% v. 5.79% and 5.78%, respectively; P < 0.01) and a lower lightness (54.88% v. 57.81% and 56.98%, respectively; P < 0.05). Genotype dramatically affected the lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of both breast and thigh meat. SG exhibited the lowest content of lipid, both in breast and in thigh meat, the lowest proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total n-3 PUFA of SG breast meat was double that of FG meat and intermediate with respect to MG birds (8.07% v. 4.07% v. 5.14% total fatty acids; P < 0.01). The fatty acid composition of thigh meat is similar to that of breast meat, but the differences among genotypes are less pronounced. Total saturated fatty acids were not affected by the genotype. In conclusion, meat functional properties of FG and MG strains appeared much more attractive both for industry and consumer

  15. Vitamin E supplementation alleviates the oxidative stress induced by dexamethasone treatment and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Lin, H; Wang, X J; Song, Z G; Jiao, H C

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of long-term exogenous glucocorticoids administration and dietary supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the induction of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle were investigated. Male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 diet treatments: the basal diet supplemented with 20 (low level of vitamin E) or 200 (high level of vitamin E) mg of vitamin E (as DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate)/kg of diet. At 35 d of age, the chickens in each dietary treatment were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 chickens and subjected to the following treatments: daily s.c. injection of dexamethasone (DEX, 2 mg/kg of BW) for 6 d, sham injection of saline (control), or the sham-treated pair-fed control that maintained the same feed intake as DEX treatment (pair-control). The results showed that the growth of chickens was suppressed by DEX, whereas it was improved by the high level of vitamin E treatment. The DEX treatment resulted in augmented plasma concentrations of TBA reacting substances. Muscle TBA reacting substances levels were higher in DEX chickens at both 24- and 48-h time points postslaughter. Vitamin E supplementation suppressed the formation of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and skeletal muscle tissues. Muscle activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by DEX treatment in both musculus pectoralis major and musculus biceps femoris and maintained as such during the initial 48 h postmortem. The result of the present study indicated that DEX treatment increased the saturation level of skeletal muscle fatty acids. These results suggest that vitamin E supplementation was favorable for the performance of broiler chickens by alleviating the oxidative stress induced by DEX treatment.

  16. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  17. 76 FR 50931 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal.... SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit... individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and claim the premium...

  18. 5 CFR 870.405 - Direct premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Cost of Insurance § 870.405 Direct premium... or retirement system must submit all direct premium payments, along with its regular life insurance... some or all of the insurance or to make direct premium payments. An employee, annuitant,...

  19. 49 CFR 260.15 - Credit risk premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium. 260.15 Section 260.15... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.15 Credit risk premium. (a) Where available... pay to the Administrator a Credit Risk Premium adequate to cover that portion of the subsidy cost not...

  20. 42 CFR 408.68 - When premiums are considered paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When premiums are considered paid. 408.68 Section 408.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....68 When premiums are considered paid. (a) Payment by check. The premium is considered paid if...

  1. Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary foods for ... on weight basis according to predetermined proportions of the raw ingredients. ... the chicken powder (an animal source quality protein) in their children's diet, if not ...

  2. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  3. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Federal Guaranteed Student Loan...

  4. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kocenda, Evnen; Zemcik, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies stochastic discount factor methodology to modeling the foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia. We use weekly data on foreign and domestic currency deposits, which coexist in the Armenian banking system. This coexistence implies elimination of the cross-country risks and transact

  5. Response of Argonne Premium coals to heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, L.L.; Abhari, R.; Ledesma, R.; Tsafantakis, E. (City College, New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    The thermal responses of the Argonne Premium Coals and of the inorganic materials separated from the coals were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetry was used to quantify the mass loss induced due to heating. The energetics of several prepyrolytic processes in the coals were calculated. 24 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPOSITS § 329.103 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be... the balance in a demand deposit account and the duration of the account balance shall not be considered the payment of interest on a demand deposit account and shall not be subject to the limitations...

  7. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  8. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  9. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  10. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.

  11. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Geun-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Ba, Hoa Van; Seong, Pil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (psausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (psausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (preplacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet light on biogenic amines and other quality indicators of chicken meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C A; Conte-Júnior, C A; Monteiro, M L G; Canto, A C V S; Costa-Lima, B R C; Mano, S B; Franco, R M

    2014-09-01

    Radiation from UV-C has been demonstrated as a potential surface decontamination method in addition to several advantages over regular sanitation methods. However, UV-C radiation possibly affects the physicochemical properties of meat products. To determine the optimum exposure time for bacterial reduction, 39 chicken breasts, inoculated with a pool of Salmonella spp., were submitted to 3 levels of UV-C intensities (0.62, 1.13, and 1.95 mW/cm²) for up to 120 s. After the optimum exposure time of 90 s was determined, changes in the biogenic amines, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lipid oxidation, pH, and instrumental color were evaluated in 84 chicken breasts that were irradiated (0.62, 1.13, and 1.95 mW/cm²) and stored at 4°C for 9 d. The groups treated with UV-C radiation exhibited an increase in tyramine, cadaverine, and putrescine contents (P meat without negatively affecting the physical and chemical parameters of chicken breast meat. Nonetheless, the increases on the biogenic amines content should be considered as an effect of the UV processing and not as an indicator of bacterial growth.

  14. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  15. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  16. 鸡肉水汆丸子品质影响因素浅析%Analysis of Influencing Factors on Qualities of Water-boiled Chicken Meatballs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡二坤; 李亚欣

    2014-01-01

    影响水汆丸子品质的因素有馅料中淀粉的含量、拌馅料时的加水量以及蛋清的量等,在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验设计,对上述三个影响因素进行了综合试验,得出鸡肉水汆丸子的最佳配方为:淀粉添加量30%、蛋清添加量10%、水添加量为20%。%In this paper, the amount of corn starch and the addition of water and whey protein were studied in order to determine the effect of those factors on the qualities of chicken meatballs. On the basis of single factor , orthogonal tests were designed to obtain the optimum parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: the con-centration of corn starch 30%, the addition of whey protein 10%, and the water 20%. The results indicated that conditions of chicken meatballs would be applied value in the food industry and the family food-cooking.

  17. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  18. Differences between genomic-based and pedigree-based relationships in a chicken population, as a function of quality control and pedigree links among individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Misztal, I; Legarra, A

    2014-12-01

    This work studied differences between expected (calculated from pedigree) and realized (genomic, from markers) relationships in a real population, the influence of quality control on these differences, and their fit to current theory. Data included 4940 pure line chickens across five generations genotyped for 57,636 SNP. Pedigrees (5762 animals) were available for the five generations, pedigree starting on the first one. Three levels of quality control were used. With no quality control, mean difference between realized and expected relationships for different type of relationships was ≤ 0.04 with standard deviation ≤ 0.10. With strong quality control (call rate ≥ 0.9, parent-progeny conflicts, minor allele frequency and use of only autosomal chromosomes), these numbers reduced to ≤ 0.02 and ≤ 0.04, respectively. While the maximum difference was 1.02 with the complete data, it was only 0.18 with the latest three generations of genotypes (but including all pedigrees). Variation of expected minus realized relationships agreed with theoretical developments and suggests an effective number of loci of 70 for this population. When the pedigree is complete and as deep as the genotypes, the standard deviation of difference between the expected and realized relationships is around 0.04, all categories confounded. Standard deviation of differences larger than 0.10 suggests bad quality control, mistakes in pedigree recording or genotype labelling, or insufficient depth of pedigree. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  20. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  1. Risk premium and insalubrity; Periculosidade e insalubridade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portela, Josmael [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Rosania Lucia [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil). Dept. Juridico

    2005-07-01

    The risk premium and insalubrity have been widely discussed in the legal universe/labor. The social and economic impacts interfere on the right of the professional exposed to ionizing radiation to have or not additional rights. Due to the large accidents, with world repercussion, which occurred in recent times, involving workers undergoing these radiation, these professionals are receiving special attention by the competent bodies on the right or not to risk premium and insalubrity. The professional who operates equipment that emit ionising radiation, or those working directly with radioisotopes are undoubtedly under imminent risk, even if they complied with all safety requirements, thus deserving a more careful analysis by our lawyers with respect to receive additional percentages. Recent decisions of higher Courts begin to consolidate a more just and logical reasoning on the subject.

  2. Risk Premium and Expectations in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castex

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes the risk of college participation into context when evaluating the return to college education. College dropout and a higher permanent income shock for those who graduate from college accounts for 51% of the excess return to college education. Using a simple risk premium approach, I reconcile the observed high average returns to schooling with relatively low attendance rates. A high dropout risk has two important effects on the estimated average returns to college education: ...

  3. High quality draft genome sequence of Bacteroides barnesiae type strain BL2(T) (DSM 18169(T)) from chicken caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Lapidus, Alla L; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; Reddy, T B K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pukall, Rüdiger; Markowitz, Victor M; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides barnesiae Lan et al. 2006 is a species of the genus Bacteroides, which belongs to the family Bacteroidaceae. Strain BL2(T) is of interest because it was isolated from the gut of a chicken and the growing awareness that the anaerobic microbiota of the caecum is of benefit for the host and may impact poultry farming. The 3,621,509 bp long genome with its 3,059 protein-coding and 97 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.

  4. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  5. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  6. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Study on quality properties of seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings%7种盐焗鸡翅产品品质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李汴生; 阮征; 郭伟波; 林光明

    2012-01-01

    To compare the quality properties differences among the salt-baked chicken wings in the market,seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings were selected to conduct instrumental analysis,sensory evaluation,correlation analysis and principal component analysis.The result indicated that seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings ranked in the order of product 7,6,1,5,2,4,3 according to the shear force value and hardness.Product 1,5,2,7 ranked in the top four according to the sensory score.The correlation analysis showed that,the sensory score had positive relation with shear force,hardness,chewiness and cohesiveness and negative relation with tear force and weak negative relation with springiness,puncture force,resilience and water content while the correlation coefficient was close to zero.Principal component analysis was performed based on 12 parameters of quality.Top 3 factors were selected and the cumulative contribution to variance was up to 87.902%,muscle shear force and hardness were the dominant factors.%为了研究市场上盐焗鸡翅的品质特性以及差异,对7种盐焗鸡翅的品质进行了仪器分析、感官评价、相关性分析、主成分分析。结果表明,7种盐焗鸡翅的剪切力、硬度大小依次为:产品7〉6〉1〉5〉2〉4〉3,感官得分较高的鸡翅分别为:产品1、5、2、7。相关性分析表明,感官总分与剪切力、硬度、咀嚼性、内聚性呈正相关;但是感官总分与撕裂力呈负相关,与弹性、刺破力、回复性、水分含量呈相关系数接近于零的负相关。主成分分析结果表明,12个仪器指标中可以提取3个主分量,累积方差贡献率达到87.902%,剪切力和硬度是反映鸡翅肉品质的主要因素。

  8. Effect of different curing processing on quality of chicken breast meat%不同腌制工艺对鸡胸肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程榆茗; 符绍辉; 于福满; 张效荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to select suitable production, safety and efficient meat curing process for enterprise. Methods Three methods of curing atmospheric pressure technology were used on chicken breast meat respectively, such as high pressure (150 MPa), vacuum technology (-86 kPa) and normal pressure. Then the relevant quality indexes of chicken breast under these three curing processing were compared. Results By vacuum curing (-86 kPa), chicken breast water retention, volatile base nitrogen, peroxide value, the salt soluble protein and the content of nitrite indicators were optimal compared to those of the other groups. Conclusion Vacuum curing technology improved curing efficiency and the quality of curing food relative to normal pres-sure. Its also more safety, more convenient than high-pressure curing technology.%目的:为了选择适合企业生产实际和安全高效的肉品腌制工艺。方法本文以鸡胸肉为原料,分别以高压技术(150 MPa)、真空技术(-86 kPa)以及常压技术三种不同的腌制方法,对比研究了三种腌制工艺中鸡胸肉相关的品质指标特性。结果真空腌制(-86 kPa)条件下鸡胸肉的保水性、挥发性盐基氮、过氧化物值、盐溶蛋白以及亚硝酸含量等指标相对其他组为最优。结论真空腌制技术相对于常压技术,提高了腌制效率以及改善腌制品品质,较高压腌制技术也更安全,操作更方便。

  9. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on pigmentation, oxidative stability and quality of meat from broiler chickens affected by a coccidiosis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, N; Ali, S; Naeem, M; Khan, M A; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants curcumin (CRM) and lutein (LTN) on the quality of meat from coccidiosis-infected broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old Arbor Acre chicks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 5 replicates. The treatments included a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), with 300 mg/kg CRM, with 300 mg/kg LTN or with a combination (C + L) of 150 mg/kg CRM and 150 mg/kg LTN. All chickens were challenged with Eimeria maxima at 21 d old. 2. The results revealed that the coccidiosis reduced redness of meat, while supplementation with carotenoids improved the fresh meat's redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) and contributed to colour stability maintenance after storage (1 month at -18°C and 3 d at 4°C). 3. Coccidiosis did not produce lipid and protein oxidation in fresh meat, but after storage for one month, the malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl contents were lower in the CRM and C + L birds and the sulfhydryl contents were higher in C + L birds. 4. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding pattern showed equivalent myosin chain fragmentations in all treatment groups, whereas lower intensity actin bands were observed in the control group (CONT). Moreover, myofibril protein denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry) profiles showed a reduction in the CONT myosin and actin peaks. Coccidiosis reduced the meat's water holding capacity in non-supplemented chicken meat and was improved by natural carotenoid. 5. These results emphasise that coccidiosis did not decrease the eating quality of fresh meat, that natural carotenoids are efficient antioxidants and that CRM (300 mg/kg) fed individually or combined with LTN was the most effective supplemented antioxidant compound.

  10. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  11. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  12. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  13. Return of premium term life: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Roccy

    2004-01-01

    Physicians who feel they are wasting their money in paying premiums for a typical 30-year-level term life insurance policy may find help in a return-of-premium term life insurance policy. Premiums are higher, but all the money is refunded at the end of the term if the policyholder has not died. Estimates are that 93 percent of policyholders outlive the term of their life insurance.

  14. The liquidity premium in CDS transaction prices: Do frictions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gehde-Trapp, Monika; Gündüz, Yalin; Nasev, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Based on individual CDS transactions cleared by the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, we show that illiquidity strongly affects credit default swap premiums. We identify the following effects: First, transaction direction affects prices, as buy (sell) orders lead to premium increases (decreases). Second, larger transactions have a higher price impact. This finding stands in stark contrast to corporate bond markets. Third, traders charge higher premiums as a price for liquidity provisio...

  15. Risk Measure and Premium Distribution on Catastrophe Reinsurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN LI; WANG DE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new risk measure which is based on the Orlicz premium principle to characterize catastrophe risk premium.The intention is to develop a formulation strategy for Catastrophe Fund.The logarithm equivalent form of reinsurance premium is regarded as the retention of reinsurer,and the differential earnings between the reinsurance premium and the reinsurer's retention is accumulated as a part of Catastrophe Fund.We demonstrate that the aforementioned risk measure has some good properties,which are further confirmed by numerical simulations in R environment.

  16. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of management of transport and lairage conditions on broiler chicken breast meat quality and DOA (Death on Arrival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of time of broiler chicken transportation and lairage prior to slaughtering on the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and Death On Arrival (DOA under non-commercial conditions in the Brazilian summer. Male birds (n=250 from a commercial line were subjected to different periods of journey (30, 90, and 180 min and lairage (0, 90, and 180 min before slaughtering. The occurrence of PSE was higher in broilers subjected to shorter journeys and lairage periods, whereas DOA was more pronounced upon longer periods of transport and lairage. The DOA occurrence percentage was much higher in comparison to commercially available figures, confirming that broiler chickens are very sensitive to both transport and lairage maneuvers.O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de transporte e período de descanso antes do abate dos frangos na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative: Pálido, Amolecido e Exsudativo e DOA (Dead On Arrival: Morte Na Chegada nas condições não comerciais durante o verão brasileiro. Frangos machos (n=250 de uma linhagem comercial foram submetidos a diferentes periodos de jornada (30, 90 e 180 min e descanso (0, 90 e 180 min antes do abate. A ocorrência do PSE foi maior em frangos submetidos tanto em tempos para as viagens curtas como para o de descanso enquanto que DOA foi mais pronunciada em condições de jornadas longas e maior periodo de descanso. A porcentagem da ocorrência do DOA foi maior ao se comparar com os resultados obtidas por empresas comerciais confirmando que os frangos são sensiveis às condições das viagens e de descanso a que são submetidos.

  18. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  19. 冻藏对不同品种鸡肉品质的影响%Effect of Frozen Storage on Meat Quality of Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱民望; 逢焕明; 王子荣; 李建鲲; 李静

    2012-01-01

    The meat quality changes of three varieties of chicken (egg-lying, three-yellow and free-range) during storage at - 18 ℃ were investigated. Color parameters, total bacterial count, pH value and TVB-N (total volatile brine nitrogen) were determined at 30-d intervals. Physicochemical indices and total bacterial count in chicken meat tended to increase at first and then decrease with prolonged storage time. L * showed a decreasing trend, while a * was observed to increase. After 90 days of frozen storage, the TVB-N of each meat sample was less than 20 mg/100 g, indicating second-grade freshness.%研究3个品种(蛋鸡、三黄鸡、土鸡)鲜鸡肉在-18℃条件下冷冻保鲜过程中的肉品质的变化。通过对肉样色差值、菌落总数、pH值和挥发性盐基氮(totalvolatilebrinenitrogen,TVB-N)值的测定和比较分析,探讨鲜鸡肉在冻藏条件下肉品质的变化情况。结果表明:随着贮藏时间的增加,各项理化指标和细菌总数均呈现先下降后上升的趋势;色差胪值呈下降趋势,而口半值呈上升趋势;经过90d冻藏,各组肉样的TVB-N值都还小于20mg/100g,属于二级鲜度。

  20. Effects of dietary organic zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate supplements on growth performance, meat quality, tissues minerals, and α-tocopherol deposition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Ferket, P

    2016-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with six pens per treatment. The ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, and European production efficiency factor (EPEF) were not affected by dietary treatments. In addition, supplementation of Zn and α-TOA and their interaction did not affect carcass parts yield. Drip loss of the breast and thigh muscles were significantly reduced 1.27 and 1.47% by α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) supplementation, respectively (P TOA or Zn increased deposition of α-TO in liver and the muscles. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the breast and thigh muscles and the liver were diminished by supplementation of α-TOA (P = 0.0001) and there was positive interaction between Zn and α-TOA (P TOA supplementation resulted in a reduction of TBARS values. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg dietary supplementation of α-TOA could improve drip loss, nutritional content, and oxidation stability of muscle without any adverse effect on growth performance of chickens. In addition, 120 mg/kg dietary supplementation of Zn could fortify α-TOA effect to improve oxidation stability of the breast and thigh muscles as well as it resulted to higher muscles Zn enrichment.

  1. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (pfat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (pfat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (pfat chicken sausages (pfat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.

  2. Life Insurance Actuarial Model with Returnable Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanhuaiLang

    2004-01-01

    Insurance is the important aspect of finance. It has been fully developed in the western developed countries. With the fast development of market economy in our country,it is necessary to introduce the alien modern theories and techniques, and at the same time,adapt them to our concrete situation. The model of general life insurance product is to be established in this paper, including deferred life annuities, increasing whole life insurance and returnable premiums. Then through the regulation of various parameters, we can obtain various insurance products.

  3. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; P<0.001) and showed lower feed conversion (1.56 vs. 1.61; P<0.001) than the high-yield broilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (P<0.001). Feed restriction decreased final live weight (3,194 vs. 3,142 g; P<0.01) and feed conversion (1.60 vs. 1.57; P<0.01) compared to ad libitum feeding. At gross examination, feed restriction tended to increase white-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; P<0.10), whereas females showed less wooden breasts than males (8.0 vs. 16.3%; P<0.05). White-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (P<0.05), whereas wooden breast fillets exhibited higher cooking losses (25.6 vs. 22.1%) and AK-shear force (4.23 vs. 2.84 kg/g) compared with normal fillets (P<0.001). At histological examination, 3.1% of pectoralis major were normal, 26.6% mildly degenerated, 45.3% moderately degenerated, and 25.0% severely degenerated. In conclusion, genotype had a moderate effect on growth without modifying myopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in relation to alpha-lipoic acid associated with vitamin C and E in broiler chickens under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid with vitamin C and E on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in broiler chickens under tropical conditions. A total of 288 one-day-old male ROSS 308 chicks (40±0.1 g were used in a completely randomized design and allotted to one of six dietary treatments to form sixe replicates per treatment (eight birds per cage. The six dietary treatments were: a corn-soybean meal-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial compounds added with 8 ppm alpha-lipoic acid (ALA; 150 ppm vitamin C and 75 ppm vitamin E (E-75; E-75 plus ALA (E-75-ALA; 150 ppm vitamin C and 50 ppm vitamin E (E-50 plus ALA (E-50-ALA; and 150 ppm vitamin C and 25 ppm vitamin E (E-25 plus ALA (E-25-ALA. All dietary treatments were continuously provided in liquid form, dissolved in water. Birds were housed in a battery cage (n = 36, and were offered dietary treatments on an ad libitum basis. The ambient temperature was maintained at 32±1 ºC for the first three weeks and reduced gradually to 28 ºC by the end of the experiment (day 35 to induce moderate tropical condition. One bird per pen (n = 6, and another bird per pen (n = 6 were euthanized via cervical dislocation to obtain terminal ileum to measure villus height and crypt depth at day 21, and to harvest breast meat and drumsticks to evaluate meat quality traits at day 35, respectively. Dietary treatment E-75-ALA improved body weight and average daily gain compared with birds fed other dietary treatments from day 1 to day 35. Birds fed dietary treatment E-75-ALA and E-50-ALA had higher villus height than those fed the other dietary treatments at day 21. Dietary treatments E-75-ALA and E-50-ALA reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in drumsticks compared with other dietary treatments, but only treatment E-75-ALA decreased TBARS in breast meat at day 35. Liquid form of antioxidant compounds such as E-75-ALA can improve growth

  5. A meta-analysis of the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Ewijk; H.L.F. de Groot; A.J. Santing

    2012-01-01

    The equity premium is a key parameter in asset allocation policies. There is a vigorous debate in the literature regarding the actual measurement of the equity premium, its size and the determinants of its variation. This study aims to take stock of this literature by means of a meta-analysis. We id

  6. 77 FR 41048 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY..., 2012 (77 FR 30377). The final regulations relate to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of...

  7. 78 FR 7264 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and... coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges...

  8. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11...

  9. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4...

  10. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1...

  11. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  12. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  13. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  14. Risk premiums in cap rates of investment property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Wouwe, van M.; Tansens, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Our research wants to establish links and patterns over time between the constituent components of the cap rates, and between real interest and risk premium in particular. We developed a statistical model to predict and explain the risk premium asked for by investors buying properties throughout Eur

  15. Premium auctions and risk preferences: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Hu, A.; Oechssler, J.

    2014-01-01

    In premium auctions, the highest losing bidder receives a reward from the seller. This paper studies the private value English premium auction (EPA) for different risk attitudes of bidders. We explicitly derive the symmetric equilibrium for bidders with CARA utilities and conduct an experimental stu

  16. The equity risk premium : emerging versus developed markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, R.M.; Grootveld, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an empirical view of the ex-post equity risk premium in a number of international markets with special attention to emerging ones. Our study yields interesting implications for finance. Firstly, we find that the equity risk premium in emerging markets is significantly higher than in

  17. 76 FR 79714 - Premium Changes Based On Recharacterization of Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... PBGC. For single- employer plans, premiums include an amount (the variable-rate premium, or VRP) based... reduces any VRP for the current year. If a contribution is characterized as being for the current year, it does not increase plan assets as of the beginning of the current year and thus does not affect VRP for...

  18. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  19. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTATION METHOD, MICROBES INOCULATION AND CARBON SOURCE PROPORTION ON THE QUALITY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER MADE FROM LIQUID WASTES OF CHICKEN SLAUGHTERHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sastro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine the effect of fermentation, inoculation, and the proportion of carbonsources on the quality of organic fertilizer made from fermentation of liquid waste collected fromchicken slaughterhouse in Jakarta area. The parameters being tested included fermentation, microbialinoculation, and carbon source proportion. The observations were made after three weeks offermentation on the color, odor, pH, contents of elements C, NH4, NO3, total-N, P2O5, K2O andpathogenic microbes (Fusarium sp., Coletotrichum sp., Salmonella sp. and Eschercia coli. The fertilizerwere implemented for green chinese cabbage in six locations. It was found that the aerobic fermentationsystem combined with inoculation of the decomposer microbes (Lactobacillus spp. and the addition20% (v/v of a carbon source was the most appropriate method of fermentation in the production ofliquid organic fertilizers from liquid waste of chicken slaughterhouse. The quality of the fertilizer whichis based on physical, chemical and biological characteristics and crop responses still less than the similarcommercial fertilizer (EM4. Nevertheless, the nitrogen and phosphor contents of this liquid fertilizer(92,000 ppm and 143,000 ppm were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the EM4 (0.07 and 3.22 ppm.

  20. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  1. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A. Pantelous

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percentage of the respective volatility. The optimal controller for the premium is obtained using advanced optimization techniques, and it is finally shown that the respective pricing strategy follows a more balanced development compared with the traditional premium approaches.

  2. Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Claire D’Andre, Hirwa; Paul, Wallace; Shen, Xu; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Liang; Zhang,Xiquan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fat deposits in chickens contribute significantly to meat quality attributes such as juiciness, flavor, taste and other organoleptic properties. The quantity of fat deposited increases faster and earlier in the fast-growing chickens than in slow-growing chickens. In this study, Affymetrix Genechip® Chicken Genome Arrays 32773 transcripts were used to compare gene expression profiles in liver and hypothalamus tissues of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken at 8 wk of age. Real-time...

  3. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  4. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  5. Effect of sodium fluoride and high fluorine fertilizer phosphates on performance of laying chickens and egg shell quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, H.J. Jr.; Sullivan, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Caged layer chickens were placed on corn-soybean meal diets containing the following dietary variables for a period for 16 weeks: monosodium phosphate (MSP); MSP plus 500 ppm F as NaF; diammonium phosphate (DAP); concentrated superphosphate (CSP); and feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Egg production rate was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of F to diets containing MSP. Feed efficiency was not depressed by added F, and was improved by CSP. Egg weight was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of NaF to diets containing MSP. Egg shell breaking strength was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by NaF and DAP. No statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed among treatments in percent checked and cracked eggs; however, the trends corresponded closely with breaking strength. Dietary treatments had not effect on mortality. Fluorine content of the egg was affected by dietary F level and duration of feeding period. After 16 weeks, F content of egg shell was 38 and 35 ppm for MSP and DCP, respectively, 150 ppm for both MSP + NaF and DAP, and 140 ppm for CSP. Fluorine contents of yolk and albumen were not affected by dietary treatments, and mean values were .55 and .35 ppm F, respectively, for yolk and albumen.

  6. Farmgate private standards and price premium: evidence from the GlobalGAP scheme in Kenya's French beans marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, I.M.; Loy, J.P.; Herzfeld, T.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of private quality and assurance schemes in international trade is defining market access in high value chains. The prime concern for small-scale producers is whether price premiums are realizable due to compliance. Using French beans marketing, the authors find that GlobalGAP cert

  7. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  8. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  9. Setting of Agricultural Insurance Premium Rate and the Adjustment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-lin

    2012-01-01

    First,using the law of large numbers,I analyze the setting principle of agricultural insurance premium rate,and take the case of setting of adult sow premium rate for study,to draw the conclusion that with the continuous promotion of agricultural insurance,increase in the types of agricultural insurance and increase in the number of the insured,the premium rate should also be adjusted opportunely.Then,on the basis of Bayes’ theorem,I adjust and calibrate the claim frequency and the average claim,in order to correctly adjust agricultural insurance premium rate;take the case of forest insurance for premium rate adjustment analysis.In setting and adjustment of agricultural insurance premium rate,in order to make the expected results well close to the real results,it is necessary to apply the probability estimates in a large number of risk units;focus on the establishment of agricultural risk database,to timely adjust agricultural insurance premium rate.

  10. Effects of replacing beef fat with pre-emulsified pumpkin seed oil on some quality characteristics of model system chicken meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Nacak, B.; Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tepe, M.; Baykara, I.; Kökmen, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of adding pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in water emulsion to model system chicken meat emulsions (MSME) on product quality and oxidative stability were investigated. MSME were produced by replacing 25% (P25) and 50% (P50) of beef fat with PSO-in-water emulsion (PSO/W) while control treatment was prepared with only beef fat. Addition of PSO/W to the formulation resulted in significant differences in chemical composition and pH values of both raw and cooked MSME treatments. The use of PSO/W produced significant improvements to emulsion stability, oxidative stability and cooking yield of MSME. It was determined that the use of PSO/W formulation results in decreased total expressible fluid values and increased cooking yields of the emulsions. It was observed that the highest cooking yield and the lowest total expressible fluid were found in the sample containing 50% PSO/W. It should be a feasible strategy to produce fat-reduced meat products with healthier lipid profiles by using PSO/W.

  11. 倒毛鸡生物学特性、屠宰性能及肉质性状研究%Study on the Biological Characteristics of Chicken,Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 刘忠伟; 金志强; 文明; 欧德渊

    2016-01-01

    For protection in Guizhou hair down chicken germplasm resources and genetic diversity of on the growth performance and meat value. The test of Guizhou down gross chicken biological characteristics,slaughter performance and meat quality were determined. The results showed that the egg weight of the inverted chicken was(42.75 ± 2.18)g,and the hatching rate was about 75%. But gross chicken at postnatal day 0,the weight differ ̄ence between male and female was not significant ( P>0.05) . After 30 days of age difference reached significant level ( P0.05) . Taste the experiment showed that the hair down chicken meat tender and delicious, is more popular than ordinary chicken. Conclusion: it has good performance of chicken meat, has great development value and development prospects.%为保护贵州地区倒毛鸡的种质资源和遗传多样性,研究其生长性能和肉用价值,试验对倒毛鸡的生物学特性、屠宰性能及肉品质进行了测定。结果表明:倒毛鸡的蛋重为(42.75±2.18)g,孵化率约为75%。倒毛鸡在0日龄时,公、母鸡之间的体重差异不显著(P>0.05),30日龄后差异达显著水平(P0.05)。品尝实验显示,倒毛鸡肉质细嫩、味道鲜美,比普通土鸡更受欢迎。结论:倒毛鸡具有较好的肉用性能,有较大开发价值和发展前景。

  12. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    of exclusively using organic fry for production. If the profitability of the primary organic aquaculture producers should be maintained, then farmers must be able to correspondingly receive higher prices, transmitted through the value chain from the retail market. This study identifies the price premium...... for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  13. 42 CFR 408.210 - Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. 408... Insurance Premium Surcharge Agreements § 408.210 Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. (a... before it can request to enter into another SMI premium surcharge agreement....

  14. Influence of premium versus value brand names on the smoking experience in a plain packaging environment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-01-16

    To examine the effect of branding, as indicated by brand name, on evaluation of the cigarette smoking experience. Between-subjects and within-subjects experimental study. Participants were randomly allocated to smoke a cigarette from a pack featuring a premium brand name and a cigarette from a pack featuring a value brand name. Within each condition, participants unknowingly smoked two identical cigarettes (either two premium or two value cigarettes). Australia, October 2014, 2 years after tobacco plain packaging implementation. 81 current cigarette smokers aged 19-39 years. From apparently premium and value brand-name packs, 40 smokers were allocated to smoke the same actual premium cigarettes and 41 were allocated to smoke the same actual value cigarettes. Experienced taste (flavour, satisfaction, enjoyment, quality, liking, mouthfeel and aftertaste), harshness, dryness, staleness, harm/strength measures (strength, tar, lightness, volume of smoke), draw effort and purchase intent. Cigarettes given a premium brand name were rated as having a better taste, were less harsh and less dry than identical cigarettes given a value brand name. This pattern was observed irrespective of whether the two packs actually contained premium or value cigarettes. These effects were specific: the brand name did not influence ratings of cigarette variant attributes (strength, tar, volume of smoke, lightness and draw effort). Despite the belief that brand names represent genuine differences between cigarette products, the results suggest that at least some of this perceived sensory difference is attributable to brand image. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Influence of premium versus value brand names on the smoking experience in a plain packaging environment: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of branding, as indicated by brand name, on evaluation of the cigarette smoking experience. Design Between-subjects and within-subjects experimental study. Participants were randomly allocated to smoke a cigarette from a pack featuring a premium brand name and a cigarette from a pack featuring a value brand name. Within each condition, participants unknowingly smoked two identical cigarettes (either two premium or two value cigarettes). Setting Australia, October 2014, 2 years after tobacco plain packaging implementation. Participants 81 current cigarette smokers aged 19–39 years. From apparently premium and value brand-name packs, 40 smokers were allocated to smoke the same actual premium cigarettes and 41 were allocated to smoke the same actual value cigarettes. Primary outcome measures Experienced taste (flavour, satisfaction, enjoyment, quality, liking, mouthfeel and aftertaste), harshness, dryness, staleness, harm/strength measures (strength, tar, lightness, volume of smoke), draw effort and purchase intent. Results Cigarettes given a premium brand name were rated as having a better taste, were less harsh and less dry than identical cigarettes given a value brand name. This pattern was observed irrespective of whether the two packs actually contained premium or value cigarettes. These effects were specific: the brand name did not influence ratings of cigarette variant attributes (strength, tar, volume of smoke, lightness and draw effort). Conclusions Despite the belief that brand names represent genuine differences between cigarette products, the results suggest that at least some of this perceived sensory difference is attributable to brand image. PMID:28093441

  16. Effect of high-oxygen atmosphere packaging on oxidative stability and sensory quality of two chicken muscles during chill storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Wen, Jinzhu; Tørngren, Mari Ann;

    2014-01-01

    of secondary lipid oxidation products. However, while breast stored in MAP-O clearly scored lower in tenderness and higher in rancidity compared to breast in non-oxygen storage, the effect of MAP-O for the sensory quality of thigh was negligible. These results show that thigh is more suitable for storage...

  17. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1306 Section 890.1306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary...

  18. The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids, Alabamas CHIP Program Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long...

  19. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  20. Premium variation in the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, B; Pauly, M V

    2001-03-01

    Recent proposals to decrease the number of uninsured in the U.S. indicate that the individual health insurance market's role may increase. Amid fears of possible risk-segmentation in individual insurance, there exists limited information of the functioning of such markets. This paper examines the relationship between expected medical expense and actual paid premiums for households with individual insurance in the 1996-1997 Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. We find that premiums vary less than proportionately with expected expense and vary only with certain risk characteristics. We also explore how the relationship between risk and premiums is affected by local regulations and market characteristics. We find that premiums vary significantly less strongly with risk for persons insured by HMOs and in markets dominated by managed care insurers.

  1. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  2. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., a reconciliation of premiums, benefits, and other costs will be performed as a limited cost... Contractor's bank for payment. (c) Nothing in this chapter will affect the ability of the Contractor to...

  3. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  4. Rising College Premiums in Mexico: How Important Is Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Aashish; Acuna, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The literature on wage inequality in liberalizing developing economies has largely attributed rising skill premiums to trade-induced increases in the demand for skilled labor within "sectors" (industries, occupations, or industry-occupation pairs). Although there is strong evidence from many countries of trade-induced increases in skill demand within manufacturing, we show that in Mexico, the most studied country in this literature, economy-wide increases in college premium can be explained w...

  5. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  6. Correlation Research of Beijing-You Chicken between Polydactyly Characteristic and Product Quality%北京油鸡多趾性状与产品品质相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学泽; 贾亚雄; 胡彦鹏; 赵春颖; 李兴民; 陈继兰; 陈余

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences of the Beijing-You chicken product quality between different dactyly.Through the production performance,egg quality and meat characteristics comparative analysis research,we could get the correlation between the Beijing-You chicken polydactyly characteristic and its product quality.So this research could provide the reference to characteristic breeding and the development of the product quality of Beijing-You chicken.In this test,we selected Beijing-You chicken (for meat and eggs),and divided into 3 groups (four-toed (4F),single five toes (SF)and double five toes (DF))with 4 replicates per gu-oup and 60 hens per replicate,720 hens totally.Then,the production performance (weight,laying rate and egg weight),egg quality (haugh unit)and muscle quality (pH,waterholding capacity, shear force,TPA,andnucleotide metabolites)were determined,respectively.The results showed that the weight of DF Beijing-You chicken in 120 days and 240 days of age were slightly higher than that of 4F and SF Beijing-You chicken,but no significant difference (P > 0.05 );The egg weight of DF Beijing-You chicken in 1 60 days of age was significantly higher than other Beijing-You chicken (P 0.05).The performance of body weight and egg weigh of DF Beijing-You chicken were superior than 4F and SF Beijing-You chicken in the early stage,but had no significant difference.In addition,the muscle quality of different dactyly Beijing-You chicken had their own advantages,overall,the correlation between leg muscle quality and different dactyly was greater than the brisket.%本研究旨在探讨不同趾型北京油鸡产品品质的差异,通过对其生产性能、蛋品质和肉品特征的比较分析,获知北京油鸡多趾特征与其产品品质之间的相关性,为北京油鸡特色养殖及产品品质开发利用提供参考。试验选取肉蛋兼用型北京油鸡,分为3组(双四趾、单五趾和双五趾),每组4

  7. The Forward Premium Anomaly in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nessrine Hamzaoui Aloui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the forward premium anomaly by using two different approaches: the long memory process and Multivariate GARCH. Initially, through the ARFIMA model, we study the properties of the forward premium on foreign exchange markets, including the presence of any long memory. Since the univariate study framework obscures the effect of conditional covariances in the measurement of risk, the transition to a more parsimonious multivariate framework is required. Therefore, we estimate, in a second time, the DCC-MVGARCH model to capture the dynamic links between forward premium series and the spot exchange return. The estimation results argue in favor of a forward premium that exhibits a phenomenon of long memory. In addition, they reveal the existence of a significant correlation sensitivity to shocks following a process of mean reversion and the detection of a strong correlation between these forward premiums and low correlation between the forward premium and the spot exchange return.

  8. Effects of the Dietary Supplementation of Sucupira (Pterodon Emarginatus Vog. and Copaiba (Copaifera Langsdorffii Resinoils on Chicken Breast and Thigh Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate the addition of the oil resins ofsucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vog. and copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii to broiler diets on chicken meat composition, quality, and lipid peroxidation. 350 one-d-old broiler chicks were submitted to seven treatments, consisting of the diets supplemented with copaiba (COP or sucupira (SUC resin oils at three different concentrations (500, 900, and 1300 ppm plus a negative control diet (CONT. At 37 days of age, 10 birds per treatment were selected according to the average weight of the experimental unit and slaughtered to collect breast and thigh meat, which was stored at 4°C for 24 hours to evaluate pH, color (L*, a*, b*, cooking weight loss (CWL, and shear force (SF. Raw meat was vacuum packed and stored frozen until lipid peroxidation analysis. Meat samples were pooled to prepare pre-cooked meatballs (30 ± 0.5g, stored under refrigeration (eight days, and analyzed every two days for TBARS concentration. Results were analyzed using the PROC GLM and MIXED procedures (SAS statistical software. Plant oils increased (p<0.05 breast meat humidity (HU and crude protein (CP levels and reduced (p<0.05 total lipid (TLC and ash (AS levels when compared with the CONT treatment. Plant oils increased (p<0.05 thigh meat HU when compared with the CONT. High COP dietary levels reduced (p<0.05 breast meat CWL, and increased (p<0.05 thigh meat L* values when compared to CONT, except for SUC500 and SUC900. The dietary inclusion of plant oil resins showed a pro-oxidant effect (p<0.01 on breast meat when compared with the CONT. Low SUC dietary supplementation levels significantly reduced (p<0.01 the concentration of secondary oxidation products in thigh meat.

  9. 不同淀粉对速冻卡通鸡块的品质影响研究%Study on effect of different starch on quality of quick-frozen cartoon chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杨; 刘欣; 张萍

    2015-01-01

    以速冻卡通鸡块为研究对象,通过对比相同添加量的玉米淀粉、豌豆淀粉、马铃薯淀粉和木薯淀粉在对鸡块品质的影响发现:添加四种淀粉的产品在色泽、滋气味、手感和口感方面差异性不显著;在改善鸡块的弹性方面,木薯淀粉和马铃薯淀粉显著优于豌豆淀粉与玉米淀粉,其中木薯淀粉效果最好。%Quick-frozen cartoon chicken was taken as an object of study. The effects of different addition of the corn starch, pea starch, potato starch and cassava starch on the quality of chicken nuggets were compared. The results showed that there was no significant difference in color, smell, feel and taste of the products added with the four kinds of starches respectively. In the aspect of improving the elasticity of the chicken nuggets, cassava starch and potato starch were obviously better than the pea starch and corn starch. Among them the effect of cassava starch was best.

  10. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.

  11. Vitamin E and organic selenium enhances the antioxidative status and quality of chicken semen under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of supplemental dietary vitamin E and organic selenium (Se), and their combination, on improving semen quality characteristics and antioxidative status were investigated in cockerels exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 36 Egyptian local cross males, 40 weeks old, were housed individually in cages in an open-sided building (average daily temperature ranged from 33 to 36°C and relative humidity from 60 to 70%). Birds were divided randomly into 4 experimental treatments (n=9 each): (1) control (basal diet without any supplementation with vitamin E or Se); (2) vitamin E (basal diet +200 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg diet); (3) Se (basal diet +0.3 mg organic Se/kg diet); and (4) vitamin E+Se (basal diet +200 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg diet +0.3 mg organic Se/kg diet). 3. Under heat stress conditions, inclusion of vitamin E and/or organic Se in the diets enhanced the semen quality traits, including the spermatozoa count and motility, and reduced the percentage of dead spermatozoa. 4. A combination of 200 mg/kg vitamin E with 0.3 mg/kg organic Se reduced the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration in seminal plasma samples to about 28% of the controls; and also enhanced the seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase activity by two-fold compared with controls. 5. It was concluded that dietary vitamin E in combination with organic Se has a synergistic effect in minimising lipid peroxidation and improving the antioxidative status in seminal plasma of the domestic fowl, which probably translated into enhanced spermatozoa count, motility and reduced percentage of dead spermatozoa under heat stress conditions.

  12. Effects of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Cai, J; Lu, J; Wang, Q; Shao, D; Zou, J M

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 864 twenty one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens, with similar body weight (536±36g), were selected and raised in indoor floor pens that measured 1.42×1.42 m (2 m2, 18 birds/m2) in conventional poultry research houses (36 birds per pen). Two hundred and sixteen birds were allowed outdoor access treatments at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age, respectively (access to outdoor for 35, 28, 21, and 14 days, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 6 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (216 birds per treatment). In the outdoor access treatment, the birds had an outdoor free-range paddock that measured 3×8 m (24 m2, 1.5 birds/m2). The body weight of birds at 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), but there was no effect of the outdoor access days on the body weight at 42 d of age (P=0.161). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed per gain from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.401, P=0.463, P=0.223, respectively). However, the daily weight gain and daily feed intake from 42 to 56 and from 21 to 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.002, P<0.001; P=0.001, P=0.004; respectively), while the feed per gain tended to decrease linearly from 21 to 56 d of age (P=0.060). The mortality from 21 to 56 d of age was unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.261). At 56 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), while the foot yield decreased linearly (P=0.016). The light (L*) and red (b*) values of leg meat color increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.032, P=0.013, respectively). The spleen: the body weight ratio showed a decreasing and then increasing quadratic response to increasing outdoor access days (P=0

  13. Effects of Physical Size of Clinoptilolite on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Litter Quality of Broiler Chickens in the Growing Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizadian Kavan B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 448 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were assigned to seven treatments with four replicates, each containing 16 chicks. The birds were reared from d 21 to 42 and effects of physical sizes (ad libitum by a basal commercial broiler diet with 3050 Kcal/Kg ME and 19.06% CP/Kg from 21 to 42 d. The chickens which received clinoptilolite (1.5% with particle size of 0.4-0.8 mm showed a significant increase in body weight gain compared to the control group birds receiving no  clinoptilolite (P

  14. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p

  15. 麒麟鸡屠宰性能与肉品质相关性分析%Analysis of Correlation between the Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality of Frizzle Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁波; 陶林; 杜炳旺; 杨芬霞; 李乃宾; 朱梓京

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed to evaluate the meat quality of frizzle Chick-en, and to find out the correlation between the meat quality and slaughter perfor-mance. [Method] The slaughter performance such as live chicken weight, carcass weight, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, chest muscle weight, leg mus-cle weight, abdominal fat weight and the meat quality indices like color, pH and shear force of 12-week-old frizzle chickens were measured to analyze the correla-tion between slaughter performance and meat quality. [Result] The carcass percent-age, semi-eviscerated percentage, eviscerated percentage, chest muscle percentage, leg muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, intramuscular fat width and subcu-taneous fat thickness of the male chickens were 89.76%, 81.54%, 67.53%, 7.82%, 11.29%, 2.42%, 0.69 cm and 0.48 cm, of female chickens were 89.78%, 80.87%, 62.94%, 6.19%, 9.92%, 3.91%, 0.78 cm and 0.61 cm. Some of these traits exhibit-ed significant difference between the male and female chickens (P<0.05). In male chickens, the chest muscle color, pH and shear force were 5.93, 6.15 and 3.72 kg, and the leg muscle color, pH and shear force were 6.18, 6.54 and 3.41 kg; in fe-male chickens, the chest muscle color, pH and shear force were 5.77, 6.05 and 3.41 kg, and the leg muscle color, pH and shear force were 6.03, 6.21 and 2.74 kg. The quality of chest and leg muscles of frizzle chickens significantly differed (P<0.05). Carcass weight had significant positive correlations with semi-eviscerated weight and meat color (P<0.05), and an extremely significant positive correlation with pH (P<0.01). Semi-eviscerated weight and pH value shared a significant posi-tive correlation (P<0.05). Eviscerated weight and leg muscle weight shared an ex-tremely significant negative correlation (P<0.01). Abdominal fat weight correlated sig-nificantly and negatively with shear force (P<0.05). Meat color and pH value had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05). [Conclusion

  16. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  17. Occurrence of white striping under commercial conditions and its impact on breast meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Mudalal, S; Bonfiglio, A; Cavani, C

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of white striping (WS) under commercial conditions and assess its effect on some quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In the first experiment, occurrence of WS (absence = normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe) was assessed in a major commercial processing plant on 28,000 breast fillets (pectoralis major muscles) chosen at random from 56 flocks of broilers processed at 45 to 54 d of age. In the second experiment, 153 fillets were selected based on WS degree (normal, moderate, or severe) and used to assess ultimate pH, color, drip loss, cook loss, and Allo-Kramer-shear force on raw meat as well to determine marinade uptake, purge loss, cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer-shear force after tumbling with a 15% (wt/wt) solution containing sodium tripolyphosphate (2.3%) and sodium chloride (7.6%). The total incidence of white striped breast fillets was 12.0% (8.9 and 3.1% in moderate and severe degree, respectively). Considering the effect of genotype, high-breast yield hybrids exhibited a higher overall incidence of WS compared with standard breast yield birds (15.2 vs. 10.0%; P ≤ 0.001). Severe fillets showed higher pH than moderate and normal groups (5.95 vs. 5.88 and 5.86; P ≤ 0.05). Fillets with severe and moderate WS also exhibited lower marinade uptake compared with normal fillets (7.92 vs. 10.97 vs. 12.67%; P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, cook losses increased as the degree of WS increased from normal to severe groups in both raw (21.27 vs. 23.20 vs. 26.74%; P ≤ 0.05) and marinated meat (14.59 and 14.84 vs. 15.93%; P ≤ 0.05). Finally, nonmarinated fillets with severe striping had lower Allo-Kramer-shear force compared with moderate and normal ones (3.69 vs. 4.41 and 4.91 kg/g; P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, this study revealed the importance achieved by WS defects in the production of broiler meat as well as its very negative impact on water holding and binding capacity of breast

  18. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  19. Modeling and Analyzing Taxi Congestion Premium in Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a significant problem in many major cities. Getting stuck in traffic, the mileage per unit time that a taxicab travels will decline significantly. Congestion premium (or so-called low-speed fare has become an increasingly important income source for taxi drivers. However, the impact of congestion premium on the taxicab market is not widely understood yet. In particular, modeling and analyzing of the taxi fare structure with congestion premium are extremely limited. In this paper, we developed a taxi price equilibrium model, in which the adjustment mechanism of congestion premium on optimizing the taxi driver’s income, balancing the supply and demand, and eventually improving the level of service in the whole taxicab market was investigated. In the final part, we provided a case study to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model. The results indicated that the current taxi fare scheme in Beijing is suboptimal, since the gain from the raise of congestion premium cannot compensate for the loss from the demand reduction. Conversely, the optimal fare scheme suggested by our model can effectively reduce the excessive demand and reach the supply-demand equilibrium, while keeping the stability of the driver’s income to the maximum extent.

  20. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  1. Effect of Rubbing Time and Sodium Chloride Concentrations on the Quality of Prepared Chicken%滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑瑞生; 张佳; 王秀江; 李飞燕; 冯晓慧; 罗欣

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of vacuum tumbling on chicken eating quality, values of pH, color, cooking rate , expressible moisture, textural properties and protein extraction by salt of chicken breast were evaluated. The results indicated that under the condition of 0 - 4℃ , increasing the salt concentration ( 0.0% -9.8% ) could significantly increase hydration of protein, content of protein extraction by salt improve the cohesion and springiness of prepared chicken products and reduce hardness, while no significant effect on cohesiveness and gumminess. When extending the tumbling time 0h -14h at 0 -4℃, the content of protein by salt ,the cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess of chicken were increased significantly, while there was no significant effect on the hydration of protein and the hardness of chicken. Tumbling raised the pH value of chicken recuperation products, improved chicken recuperation products color and eating quality.%以鸡胸肉为实验材料,以pH值、肉色、蒸煮出品率、压榨损失、盐溶性蛋白质溶出量和质构特征为评定指标,探讨了滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响。结果表明:在0~4℃环境中,增加食盐水浓度(0.0%~9.8%),可极显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了蒸煮损失率和压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的弹性、咀嚼性和降低肉的硬度,对凝聚性和胶着性影响不显著;延长滚揉时间(0.0h~14.0h)可显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的凝聚性、弹性、咀嚼性和胶着性,而对蒸煮损失率和硬度影响不显著。滚揉处理提高了鸡肉调理制品的pH值、改善了肉色和食用品质。

  2. Qualidade microbiológica no processamento do frango assado em unidade de alimentação e nutrição Microbiological quality in the roast chicken process in nutritional and nourishment unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete O. de Mesquita

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As toxiinfecções alimentares de origem microbiana têm sido reconhecidas como um problema de saúde pública mais abrangente. Os produtos perecíveis protéicos são considerados importantes em relação ao controle higiênico-sanitário. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a qualidade microbiológica do processo produtivo do frango assado. O monitoramento da preparação foi realizado por meio de análises microbiológicas do frango cru e assado, swabs de bancadas, cubas, mãos dos manipuladores. O estudo bacteriológico foi desenvolvido no total de 96 amostras que foram submetidas às seguintes análises microbiológicas: Coliformes totais e fecais, Estafilococos coagulase positivo, Salmonella spp. e Clostrídio Sulfito Redutor somente no frango assado. As amostras das bancadas, cubas e mãos dos manipuladores após a higienização e frango assado demonstraram ausência dos microorganismos pesquisados. Das amostras de frango cru, 9,9% apresentaram Coliformes fecais (>15.000 NMP - limite da legislação e 6,6%, Estafilococus coagulose positivo. Todas as amostras apresentaram ausência de Salmonella spp. As bancadas e mãos, durante a manipulação do frango, apresentaram contaminação por Coliformes fecais, relacionada à contaminação da matéria-prima. Os resultados demonstram que as etapas do processamento estão com qualidade microbiológica adequada, garantido a segurança do produto final.The alimentary toxinfections of microbial source have been recognized as a larger health public problem. Protein perishable products are considered important in relation to the sanitary-hygiene control. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of the procedure of roast chicken. The monitoring of roast chicken preparation was carried out through microbiological analyses of swabs counters, vessels, handlers as row and roast chicken. The bacteriological study was developed in a totality of 96

  3. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

  4. Microbiological quality and other characteristics of refrigerated chicken meat in contact with cellulose acetate-based film incorporated with rosemary essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Alexandre Machado de Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial active packaging delays or inhibits microorganism growth in packed products, and it can be used in a variety of food systems. The objective of the present research was to develop packaging incorporated with natural antimicrobial agents (active film. The effects of the active film on the spoilage, pathogenic microorganism counts, pH and color of the refrigerated chicken breast cuts were analyzed. Cellulose acetate-based active films incorporating two concentrations (20% and 50%, v/w of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil were manufactured and placed in contact with the chicken breast cuts for six days. An analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey's test, p<0.05 were performed on the results. The films that contained 20% essential oil and were intercalated with chicken breast samples did not demonstrate significant effects on the control of psychrotrophic or total coliform microorganisms during the storage period; however, the films incorporated with 50% essential oil demonstrated efficacy toward the control of coliforms during the storage of the samples (6 days, 2 ± 2ºC. The pH was related to the psychrotrophic microorganism count and was not influenced by the treatment. The color was not influenced by the time of storage or the treatment. The results demonstrate that active films incorporating 50% rosemary essential oil are effective at controlling certain microorganisms in chicken breast cuts.

  5. Quality of [omega]-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripudaman Singh; Manish K Chatli; Ashim K Biswas; Jhari Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    ...]-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T^sub 1^), 2% canola flour (T^sub 2^), 3% linseed oil (T^sub 3^), and 4% canola oil (T^sub 4...

  6. Association of polymorphisms in adipocyte fatty acid binding protein gene with fat-related traits in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhong YE; Jie WEN; Honghe CAO; Hongbin LI; Jilan CHEN; Guiping ZHAO; Maiqing ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    PCR-SSCP analysis was used to detect poly-morphic sites in chicken adipocyte fatty acid binding pro-tein (A-FABP) gene. Six Chinese local breeds, Beijing-You chicken, Dwarf chicken, Taihe silky chicken, Chong-renma chicken, Xiayan chicken, Luyuan chicken and an introduced foreign breed, Arbor Acre broiler, were used as test populations. Three PCR-SSCP loci were detected. Statistical results showed that frequencies of genotypes and alleles were significantly different in the test popula-tions. Sequence analysis revealed that C → T, G → A, and C → T transitions were responsible for the polymorph-isms. Some fat-related traits such as body weight, content of intramuscular fat (IMF) and percentage of abdominal fat (AFP) were measured in Dwarf chickens and male Beijing-You chickens. We found out that chicken quality was significantly related to different genotypes in these two populations.

  7. Selection and the marriage premium for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey S; Price, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.

  8. SKEWNESS OF RETURN DISTRIBUTION AND COEFFICIENT OF RISK PREMIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenghua WEN; Xiaoguang YANG

    2009-01-01

    The skewness of the return distribution is one of the important features of the security price. In this paper, the authors try to explore the relationship between the skewness and the coefficient of risk premium. The coefficient of the risk premium is estimated by a GARCH-M model, and the robust measurement of skewness is calculated by Groeneveld-Meeden method. The empirical evidences for the composite indexes from 33 securities markets in the world indicate that the risk compensation requirement in the market where the return distribution is positively skewed is virtually zero, and the risk compensation requirement is positive in a significant level in the market where the return distribution is negative skewed. Moreover, the skewness is negatively correlated with the coefficient of the risk premium.

  9. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  10. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  11. Quantile regression modeling for Malaysian automobile insurance premium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzi, Mohd Fadzli Mohd; Ismail, Noriszura; Jemain, Abd Aziz

    2015-09-01

    Quantile regression is a robust regression to outliers compared to mean regression models. Traditional mean regression models like Generalized Linear Model (GLM) are not able to capture the entire distribution of premium data. In this paper we demonstrate how a quantile regression approach can be used to model net premium data to study the effects of change in the estimates of regression parameters (rating classes) on the magnitude of response variable (pure premium). We then compare the results of quantile regression model with Gamma regression model. The results from quantile regression show that some rating classes increase as quantile increases and some decrease with decreasing quantile. Further, we found that the confidence interval of median regression (τ = O.5) is always smaller than Gamma regression in all risk factors.

  12. Farmgate Private Standards and Price Premium: Evidence From the GlobalGAP Scheme in Kenya's French Beans Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Isaac Maina; Loy, Jens-Peter; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of private quality and assurance schemes in international trade is defining market access in high value chains. The prime concern for small-scale producers is whether price premiums are realizable due to compliance. Using French beans marketing, the authors find that GlobalGAP certification, produce traceability, number of suppliers, competition for supplies, direct procurement, a good road network, and supply contracts have positive farmgate price effects for smallholders. ...

  13. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community...

  14. [Financial and economic principles of assessing enterprises' insurance premium for mandatory social worker's compensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosiants, E V; Bal'nova, L G

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyzed present enterprises' insurance premiums, pointed out the associated drawbacks, defined main financial and economic principles underlying determination of enterprise's insurance premium (principle of sufficiency, principle of justice, principle of collective responsibility and principle of stimulation).

  15. Study on the Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality of Bawang Black-bone Chickens%霸王乌鸡屠宰性能及肉质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良团; 吴科榜; 李笑春; 张敬武; 蒋伟

    2013-01-01

    测定了150日龄霸王乌鸡的屠宰性能及其肉质的理化性状,并对其结果进行了讨论和分析,以探讨霸王乌鸡在海南引进饲养过程中其屠宰性能及肉质理化性状的表现.结果表明,在屠宰性能多项指标中,霸王乌鸡在活体重、屠宰率、半净膛率、全净膛率、胸肌率、腿肌率等方面公鸡大于母鸡,且差异显著(P<0.05);而腹脂率方面公鸡显著小于母鸡(P<0.05).在肉质理化性状方面,公、母鸡在pH、水分、粗蛋白、滴水损失、嫩度等指标方面差异不显著(P>0.05),胆固醇含量方面公鸡极显著高于母鸡(P<0.01).与文昌鸡相比,霸王乌鸡表现独特,具有较好的性状优势.试验结果表明,霸王乌鸡具有多汁、风味独特、肌肉结实、口感好、营养丰富等内质特点,凸显了较大的市场潜力和推广前景.%Bawang black-bone chicken was a good breed of local black-bone chickens which had been introduced into Hainan Island from some part of Sichuan Province.In this study,the slaughter performance and physicochemical properties in meat quality of Bawang black-bone chickens were measured and analysized at the age of 150 days.The results showed that there were significant difference (P<0.05) between the females and the males in live weight,carcass weight,half-eviscerated weight,eviscerated weight,and the values in males was larger than the females.The dressed percentages,half-eviscerated percentage and eviscerated percentage for the males and the females were 91.32%,84.50%,69.55% and 90.21%,79.90%,66.78%,respectively.The percentage of abdominal fat in males was obviously inferior to the females (P<0.05).As for the physicochemical properties of meat quality,there was no significant difference between the males and the females in such determined indexes as pH value,water content,crude protein content,water loss,meat tenderness,while choresterol content of the females was significantly higher than

  16. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  17. On the Determinants of Equity International Risk Premium: Are Emerging Zones Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Guesmi; Ilyes Abid; Mohamed Hedi Arouri; Frédéric Teulon

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the financial literature by investigating the formation of the international stock risk premium in emerging market zones. Our results from the estimation of a dynamic augmented capital asset pricing model show that the currency risk premium is the most important component of the total premium followed by the global market premium. As for the regional risk, our findings show that it is significantly priced for all studied emerging regions but its contribution to the...

  18. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... extra compensation provided by such premium rate will be treated as an overtime premium if the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.264-2 - Single premium life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single premium life insurance, endowment, or..., directly or indirectly, to purchase or to continue in effect a single premium life insurance or endowment... payee of such annuity contract. A contract is considered a single premium life insurance, endowment,...

  20. 38 CFR 8.5 - Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. 8.5 Section 8.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.5 Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. Deductions from...

  1. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from...

  2. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  3. 5 CFR 892.102 - What is premium conversion and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is premium conversion and how does it work? 892.102 Section 892.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... PREMIUMS Administration and General Provisions § 892.102 What is premium conversion and how does it...

  4. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of collec

  5. 46 CFR 308.547 - Application for return premium, Form MA-317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-317. 308.547... for return premium, Form MA-317. An application for the return of premium must be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on Form MA-317, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  6. 46 CFR 308.527 - Application for return premium, Form MA-307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-307. 308.527... for return premium, Form MA-307. An application for the return of premium, which may be obtained from... MA-307....

  7. 42 CFR 406.33 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... increase: Enrollment. 406.33 Section 406.33 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.33 Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment... premium increase are the months from the end of the initial enrollment period through the end of the...

  8. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  9. 26 CFR 1.803-6 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-6 Amortization of premium... company. A life insurance company which adjusts amortization of premium or accrual of discount with... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of premium and accrual of...

  10. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated TRICARE Young Adult program premiums...

  11. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  12. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  13. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P 

  14. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  15. 29 CFR 778.201 - Overtime premiums-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.201 Overtime premiums—general..., the extra compensation provided by the premium rates need not be included in the employee's...

  16. 77 FR 41270 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012...

  17. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equals the amount which bears the same ratio to the capitalization shortfall as the required...) Retired lives reserves. Premiums received by an insurance company under a retired lives reserve... approximated by using the interpolated terminal reserve of the original contract as of the date of the...

  18. Just My Imagination: Beauty premium and the evolved mental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.

  19. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  20. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    2008-01-01

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two objecti

  1. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  2. Portfolio size as funktion of the premium: modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Taksar, Michael I

    An insurance company has a large number N of potential customers characterized by i.i.d. r.v.'s A1,…,AN giving the arrival rates of claims. Customers are risk averse, and a customer accepts an offered premium p according to his A-value. The modeling further involves a discount rate d>r of customers...

  3. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Key words: hatchability, chicken eggs, hurricane lantern incubator. INTRODUCTION .... Ikeme AI (1987). Effect of oil treatment and storage temperature on ... and thyroid hormone levels, gas pressures in air cell, chick quality.

  4. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Keywords: Indigenous chicken breeds, AFLP markers, genetic variation, genetic relationships ... Some of these breeds have unique meat and/or egg qualities, a low susceptibility to stress and other ... early maturing and resistant to heat.

  5. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  6. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LINE EXTENSION STRATEGIES BY PREMIUM BRANDS ON BRAND EQUITY: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lukas SEIZER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Premium markets are expected to outperform other markets throughout the near future. Thus these markets are of high importance for marketers, who already face challenges to manage premium brands due to the hazard of a possible dilution of user’s sense of exclusivity and pride. Premium brand managers must know when it is best to take a pass on short-term growth opportunities that could tarnish the brand's long-term health. Line extensions embody one of the most frequently used vehicles for growth to meet global consumer needs. Though they have advantages, also risks are associated with them. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to identify the influence of line extensions on brand equity in culturally different spheres. The study focuses on premium brands from the automotive industry and asks if and in how far different – vertical (different price & quality level and horizontal (same price & quality level – line extension strategies influence brand equity differently among cultures. A one group pre-test post-test research design is used to measure brand equity before and after an existing brand’s (hypothetical extension. A structured online survey with page logic collected primary data from four hundred students in Germany and Thailand recruited by a matched sampling technique. Culture has to be added to brand equity models as results show distinctive changes of brand equity for both Germany and Thailand. While after vertical downscale extensions, brand equity increases in Germany, it decreases in Thailand. Hence, the research results in managerial recommendations which assess if product policy strategies should be thought ‘regionally’ or ‘globally’.

  8. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  9. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  10. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P flour. The emulsion stability and cooking yield was greater (P flours. The colour and appearance and flavour scores were lower (P flour than canola oil incorporated CMP. The texture scores were not influenced (P flour.

  11. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  12. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  13. Changes in Lipid Oxidation and Sensory Quality in Vacuum-Packaged Goubangzi Roast Chicken during Shelf-Life%真空沟帮子烧鸡贮藏中脂肪氧化及感官品质的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娜; 王乐田; 戴琳; 宋立; 邓亚敏; 董丽; 刘登勇

    2014-01-01

    研究2种品牌真空包装市售沟帮子烧鸡在贮藏中脂肪氧化和感官品质的变化。测定了烧鸡在室温贮藏过程中的硫代巴比妥酸反应值、过氧化物值、pH值的变化情况,并对烧鸡进行感官评定。结果表明:随着贮藏时间的增加,烧鸡的硫代巴比妥酸反应值、过氧化物值呈现上升趋势,pH值则呈现先下降后上升的趋势,感官品质保持较好。真空包装沟帮子烧鸡在常温贮藏条件下,其品质至多可保持15个月,逾期则不利于食用。%The changes in lipid oxidation and sensory quality of two brands of vacuum-packaged Goubangzi roast chicken which had been produced six months before were studied during the remaining 12 months of the shelf life (claimed to be 18 months) at ambient temperature. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) value, peroxide value (POV), pH and sensory evaluation were determined during the storage period The results showed that the TBARs and POV values increased with increasing storage time, while the pH first declined and then increased. The sensory evaluation was not significantly affected. At room temperature, the quality of Goubangzi roast chicken could be maintained for up to 15 months, otherwise the product became unsuitable for consumption.

  14. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  15. On asset pricing and the equity premium puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Presented here are consumption and production related asset pricing models which seek to explain stock market behaviour through the stock premium over risk-free bonds and to do so using parameter values consistent with theory. Our results show that there are models capable of explaining stock market behaviour. For the consumption-based model, we avoid many of the suggestions to artificiall...

  16. The Value Premium on the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    A number of influential studies have documented a strong value premium for US stocks over the period 1963 to 1990 (Fama and French (1992), Lakonishok et al. (1994)). Stocks with low price-earnings multiples, price-book values and other measures of value are reported to have given a higher mean re......,98)) or mispricing as emphasized by the Behavioral Finance School (Chan et al. (2000), Lakonishok et al. (1994) and La Porta et al. (1997))....

  17. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  18. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  19. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  20. Effect of the combinations of eatable gums on the eating quality of microwave-reheat popcorn chicken%食用胶复配对微波复热鸡米花品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彩凤; 孔保华; 张宏伟; 李沛军; 赵钜阳; 刘世欣

    2012-01-01

    针对微波复热鸡米花的加工工艺,在预实验基础上选用黄原胶、卡拉胶以及魔芋胶以不同比例复配,研究其对最终产品品质的影响。微波复热后以鸡米花的脆性作为主要评定指标,同时对制品进行物理性质分析及感官评价,筛选出微波复热后品质最优的胶体复配比例。结果表明,向浸蘸溶液中添加三种食用胶中的任意一种或任意两种食用胶复配添加时,均可以显著改善微波复热后鸡米花的脆性(P〈0.05)。而三种食用胶等比例复配对微波复热鸡米花品质则没有明显改善作用。卡拉胶1.00%的添加量会对产品风味产生不良影响。其中O.50%黄原胶和0.50%卡拉胶复配时,微波复热后鸡米花的脆性显著提高,外壳水分和油分含量显著降低(P〈0.05),感官质量也较高。这表明向浸蘸溶液中添加0.50%黄原胶和0.50%卡拉胶复配食用胶可以很大程度上改善微波复热鸡米花的食用品质。%The processing factors of microwave-reheat popcorn chicken were examined in order to improve the quality of the finished products.Based on the preliminary tests,xanthan gum, carrageenan and konjac gum were chosen as additives into the dipping solution of popcorn chicken. The effect of different combinations of edible gums on the physical properties, especially crispiness, and sensory quality were then evaluated. The results showed that the samples with any one or two of these eatable gums had a significant improvement on crispness (p 〈0.05),as compared to the control sample; while xanthan gum, carrageenan and konjac gum had none significant effect on crispness values. However, an undesirable taste was detected when the amount of carrageenan added to 1.00%.The sensory evaluation showed the combation of 0.50% xanthan gum and 0.50% carrageenan had the highest acceptation, in addition, crust of microwave-reheat popcorn chicken had the best

  1. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  4. Designing Psychological Treatments for Scalability: The PREMIUM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Vellakkal

    Full Text Available Lack of access to empirically-supported psychological treatments (EPT that are contextually appropriate and feasible to deliver by non-specialist health workers (referred to as 'counsellors' are major barrier for the treatment of mental health problems in resource poor countries. To address this barrier, the 'Program for Effective Mental Health Interventions in Under-resourced Health Systems' (PREMIUM designed a method for the development of EPT for severe depression and harmful drinking. This was implemented over three years in India. This study assessed the relative usefulness and costs of the five 'steps' (Systematic reviews, In-depth interviews, Key informant surveys, Workshops with international experts, and Workshops with local experts in the first phase of identifying the strategies and theoretical model of the treatment and two 'steps' (Case series with specialists, and Case series and pilot trial with counsellors in the second phase of enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of its delivery by counsellors in PREMIUM with the aim of arriving at a parsimonious set of steps for future investigators to use for developing scalable EPT.The study used two sources of data: the usefulness ratings by the investigators and the resource utilization. The usefulness of each of the seven steps was assessed through the ratings by the investigators involved in the development of each of the two EPT, viz. Healthy Activity Program for severe depression and Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful drinking. Quantitative responses were elicited to rate the utility (usefulness/influence, followed by open-ended questions for explaining the rankings. The resources used by PREMIUM were computed in terms of time (months and monetary costs.The theoretical core of the new treatments were consistent with those of EPT derived from global evidence, viz. Behavioural Activation and Motivational Enhancement for severe depression and harmful drinking respectively

  5. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  6. The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He-Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Passarella, S; Cerolini, S; Zaniboni, L; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Rosato, M P

    2013-11-30

    The effects of post-thaw Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on mobility and functional integrity of frozen/thawed chicken, pheasant and turkey spermatozoa were investigated. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity was also determined as a measure of the effect of irradiation on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Semen samples from each species were collected, processed and frozen according to the pellet procedure. After thawing, each semen sample was divided into two subsamples: the first one was the control; the second one was irradiated with a single mode continuous He-Ne laser wave (wavelength 632.8 nm; 6 mW; 3.96 J/cm(2)). Then the samples were assessed for sperm mobility (Accudenz(®) swim-down test), viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), osmotic-resistance (HOS test) and COX activity. The irradiation was effective Psperm motility in the turkey semen (0.228 ± 0.01 compared with 0.294 ± 0.02). The irradiation also caused an increase (Psperm, without affecting viability and osmotic-resistance. The COX was positively correlated (Psperm, however no significant interactions were found between mobility and COX activity in the three avian species. Due to the difference in energetic metabolism among avian species used in this study, the He-Ne laser irradiation has a differential action on bio-stimulation of turkey, chicken and pheasant spermatozoa. The present results are the first to elucidate the possibility for restoration of motility of cryopreserved avian spermatozoa by bio-stimulation provided via He-Ne laser irradiation.

  7. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  8. Effect of maternal nutrition on offspring growth, development and meat quality in chicken%鸡母体营养对子代生长发育和肉质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单安山; 李锋

    2012-01-01

    Effects of maternal nutrition on progeny carcass quality and the mechanism of progeny compensation in chicken were analyzed based on recent data in our laboratory. Influence of low maternal nutrition level during laying period on laying performance, growth performance, organ development, and meat quality of offspring were expounded to testify whether the maternal nutritional effects and compensatory growth effects existed in the offspring follow-up growth process. Meanwhile, the influence of restricted maternal nutrition on progeny blood biochemical indicators, hormone level and gene expression were observed in these experiments. Metabolic and molecular mechanism of the maternal effects on progeny growth performance and meat quality traits were analyzed and discussed in this paper as new measures for meat quality improvement in chicken.%文章根据实验室近几年的研究工作,对鸡母体营养与子代胴体品质间的母代效应与子代补偿作用及其机理进行了分析探讨.分析了肉种母鸡产蛋期营养对产蛋性能、子代生长性能、子代内脏器官发育、子代胴体品质及肉质性状等方面的影响,阐述了母鸡产蛋期营养是否对后代产生母体效应、母体效应的延续性以及子代后续生长过程中是否存在补偿生长效应;同时,对子代血液生化指标、激素水平以及肉质相关基因表达的影响进行了分析,探讨了母体效应对子代鸡生长性能及肉质性状影响的代谢机理和分子机理,为改善鸡肉品质提供除遗传和当代营养以外的技术途径.

  9. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  10. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  11. Foreign Exchange Risk Premium; Does Fiscal Policy Matter? Evidence From Italian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Giorgianni

    1997-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional view that foreign exchange risk premiums are small, not volatile, and unrelated to macroeconomic variables. For the Italian lira (1987-94), unconditional risk premiums—constructed using survey data to measure exchange rate expectations—are found to be sizable (relative to the dimension of the forward premium), highly volatile (relative to the variability of the forward bias), and predictable. Estimation of structural models of the risk premium suggests t...

  12. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  13. Impact of Trehalose on the Quality of New Kinds of Mashed Chicken-bone Sliced Meat%海藻糖对鸡骨泥肉脯品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珊珊; 李汴生; 刘伟涛; 刘欣

    2009-01-01

    以鸡骨和小麦蛋白为原料,研究了新型的肉脯加工工艺,通过正交实验确定最佳工艺条件.研究表明:不同含量的海藻糖0%-10%(所有配比均为质量比)对肉脯水分活度和硬度均有影响,新型肉脯的最佳工艺条件是,鸡骨泥:小麦蛋白的质量比=1:1,酵母提取物CH221和RYEC均为小麦蛋白(干基)4%;试验过程中,肉脯中水分活度随着海藻糖添加量的增加不断降低,同时肉脯质构特性发生变化,硬度增加.感官品质以最终水分含量达到20%,海藻糖含量在达到6%-10%时,肉脯品质最佳.%Processing technology of mashed chicken-bone with wheat protein was studied through orthogonal experiment. The results showed that trehalose (0 -10% ) had effects of water activity and hardness. The best formulations of the sliced meat was determined as the fallowings; mashed chicken-bone: wheat protein (both on dry basis) =1: 1 , content of yeast extraction including RYEC and CH221 were 4% of wheat protein (dry basis). With the increasing of trehalose content, water activity (Aw) decreased while hardness increased. When water content reached 20% and trehalose content was from 6% to 10% , the quality of the sliced meat was the best.

  14. Molecular detection of adulteration in chicken products based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzinadah, Osama H A; Yacoub, Haitham Ahmed; El Ashmaoui, Hassan M; Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the fraudulent in chicken products constitutes in order to protect consumers in Saudi Arabia from illegal substitutions. Two different approaches were used in this study, direct sequencing of specific fragments of amplified mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in addition to species-specific PCR primers for confirmation of the obtained Blast search results. The results showed that all processed chicken products were identified as chicken (Gallus gallus) by 90-98% homology depending on obtained sequence quality. Samples labeled with chicken luncheon (samples tested in this study) were identified as turkey meat (Meleagris gallopavo) by 98% homology, suggesting adulteration with inedible parts of turkey in chicken luncheon ingredients. The results showed also that not only chicken luncheon was mixed with inedible parts of turkey but also all chicken products tested in this study (chicken balls, chicken burger, chicken sausage and chicken mined meat) contained this turkey meat. Applying methods used in this study could be useful for accurate and rapid identification of commercial processed meat.

  15. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  16. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  18. 不同包装材料对冷鲜鸡胸肉品质的影响%Effects of Different Packaging Method on Chicken Breast Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫文杰; 李兴民

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the technology of prolonging cooled chicken shelf life,Changes of sensory index、drip loss、Aw、TVBN value、total bacterial count and globulin precipitation of chilled chicken breast at 0-4 ℃were detected after samples were treated with pallet package、PE aseptic bag and high-temperature retort bag vacuum package . The results showed that changes of above indexes of PE aseptic bag and high-temperature re-tort bag vacuum package were better significantly than pallet package. the effect of high-temperature retort bag vacuum was most significant,in ninth days,organoleptic state was secondary fresh meat,drip loss was 5.58%, Aw was 0.987,TVBN value was 11.9 mg/100 g,total bacterial count was less than 106 cfu/g,globulin precipita-tion was minimum.%以冷鲜鸡胸肉为原料,采用托盘包装、PE无菌袋和高温蒸煮袋真空包装处理后,测定样品在0~4℃贮藏过程中感官指标、汁液流失率、Aw、TVBN值、菌落总数和球蛋白沉淀的变化。结果表明:鸡胸肉经PE无菌袋和高温蒸煮袋真空包装处理后,上述指标的变化显著好于托盘包装处理。高温蒸煮袋真空包装处理对抑制鸡胸肉品质下降的效果最显著,在第9天,感官状态显示依然为二级鲜肉,汁液流失率为5.58%,Aw为0.987,TVBN值为11.9 mg/100 g,菌落总数小于106 cfu/g,球蛋白沉淀最小。

  19. 麒麟鸡屠宰性能与肉品质的相关性分析%A Relationship Analysis on Slaughter Performance and M eat Quality of Frizzled Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁波; 陶林; 杜炳旺; 杨芬霞; 李乃宾; 朱梓京

    2014-01-01

    为研究麒麟鸡的肉用性能,探讨麒麟鸡屠宰性能与肉品质的关系。测定了12周龄麒麟鸡的屠宰性能及肉品质特性,并对屠宰性能与肉品质的相关性进行分析。结果表明:(1)屠宰性能:麒麟鸡公鸡的屠体质量、半净膛质量、全净膛质量、全净膛率、胸肌质量、胸肌率、腿肌质量、腿肌率均显著高于母鸡,且腹脂质量、腹脂率、肌间脂肪宽和皮脂厚均显著低于母鸡,屠宰率和半净膛率与母鸡差异不显著。(2)肉品质:麒麟鸡公鸡/母鸡胸肌的肌肉肉色、剪切力与腿肌差异显著;公鸡胸肌肉品质与母鸡腿肌肉品质比较,差异显著。(3)相关性:屠体质量与半净膛质量和肉色呈显著正相关关系,与pH值呈极显著正相关关系;半净膛质量与pH值呈显著正相关关系;全净膛与腿肌质量呈极显著负相关关系;腹脂质量与剪切力呈显著负相关关系;肉色与pH值呈显著正相关关系。由此可见,麒麟公鸡屠宰性能和肉品质优于母鸡,部分屠宰性状与肉品质性状之间存在显著相关性。%In order to study the slaughter performance and meat quality of frizzled chicken ,the slaughter performance ,meat quality characteristic and relationship between slaughter performance and meat quality of 12-week-old frizzle chicken were determinated .The results showed that :(1) as for the slaughtering performance ,slaughtering weight ,half eviscerated weight ,all eviscerated weight ,eviscerated rate ,chest muscle weight ,chest muscle rate ,leg muscle weight ,leg muscle rate ,of cocks was significant higher than hens ,but ,abdominal fat weight ,abdominal fat rate ,mu-scle fat between the width and thickness of sebum were significant lower than hens ,while there was no significant difference between slaughter rate and half eviscerated rate .(2) as for the meat quality ,meat color ,and shear force of cock (and hen) were significantly

  20. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell, J., and S. Thompson (2008): “Predicting the Equity Premium Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?”, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1511-1531, we show that we can improve the forecast performance further...

  1. Ion exchange properties of Wyodak premium coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-08-23

    Low rank coals (lignite and subbituminous) contain exchangeable cations. A sample of {minus}20+200 mesh Argonne Premium Wyodak coal was washed with nitric acid in a burette fitted with a coarse glass frit at the base of the graduations to remove the exchangeable cations from the system. The eluent was passed to a flow-through pH electrode and a titration curve was obtained on a computer file. A series of electrodes (pH, calcium, sodium and potassium) were used in separate experiments to follow the elution from the coal. Some implications for coal structure are also indicated.

  2. The equity premium puzzle and emotional asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Marc; Hartmann, Nora

    2004-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  3. Effects of Different Rearing Systems on Slaughtering Performance and Meat Quality on Huainan Partridge Chicken%饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡屠宰性能和肉质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许月英; 钱坤; 苏世广; 吴义景; 熊国远; 章薇; 吴娟; 张登慧; 唐焰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡屠宰性能和肉品质的影响.[方法]选取20只62周龄笼养和林地散放饲养淮南麻黄鸡母鸡(各10只)进行了屠宰性能和肉品质测定.[结果]饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡老母鸡体重、半净膛率和全净膛率无显著影响;而对产肉性能、消化系统的发育和肉质影响显著,放养组母鸡胸肌率、腿肌率、翅膀率以及肝脏、腺胃、肌胃的相对重量均高于笼养母鸡,其中胸肌率和肌胃的相对重量达到极显著水平;肌肉的系水力和胸肌肉色L*、a *和b*值均显著高于笼养组.[结论]放养方式饲养淮南麻黄鸡,可促进消化器官发育,增加产肉率,提高鸡肉品质.%[ Objective] The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rearing systems on slaughter performance and meat quality of Huainan partridge chicken. [ Method] The total of 20 hens at 62-weeks-old of Huainan partridge chickens reared in cages and pasture (10 each group) were slaughtered and used to determine the slaughter performance and meat quality. [Result] The results showed that there were no significant differences on body weight, percentage of half-eviscerated yield and percentage of eviscerated yield between two groups. Compared to the cages group, the percentage of abdominal fat was lower, the percentage of breast muscle, leg muscle and wing were higher. However, the percentage of breast muscle was significantly higher than that of cage hens. The relative weight of liver, glandular stomach and muscular stomach were higher in pasture group, respectively, and that of the stomach muscles very significant increased compared with the cages group. The shear force of breast and leg muscles from pasture group were higher than that of caged hens,while water holding capacity was significantly higher than that of cages group. The values of L * ,a * and b * of breast muscle in pasture group were higher than that of caged groups

  4. 不同冻藏温度和时间对鸡胸肉食用品质的影响%Effect of different frozen storage temperature and time on the eating quality of chicken breast meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛力; 陈景宜; 黄明; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    通过测定解冻汁液流失率、肉色、蛋白质溶解度、肌球蛋白Ca2+-ATPase活力、TBARS值的变化规律,研究冻藏温度(-35、-25和-15℃)和冻藏时间(0、30、60、90、120、150和180 d)对鸡胸肉食用品质的影响.结果表明:随着冻藏温度升高、冻藏时间延长,鸡胸肉解冻汁液流失率、b*值(黄度值)、TBARS值逐渐升高,L*值(亮度值)、肌原纤维蛋白溶解度、总蛋白溶解度、肌球蛋白Ca2+-ATPse活力逐渐降低(P<0.05);a*值(红度值)在冻藏前30d显著升高,之后逐渐降低,且冻藏温度越高,a*值越低(P<0.05);冻藏温度对肌浆蛋白溶解度无显著影响,但随着冻藏时间的延长,肌浆蛋白溶解度逐渐降低(P<0.05).结论:鸡胸肉食用品质在冻藏过程中逐渐降低,且冻藏温度越高,品质下降越快.%The effects of frozen storage temperature ( -35, -25 and -15 ℃ ) and time(0,30,60,90,120,150 and 180 d) on the eating quality of chicken breast meat were investigated by measuring the changes of thawing loss rate, color , protein solubility, myosin Ca2+-ATPase activity and TBARS value. As frozen storage temperature and time increased, thawing loss rate,6* value(yellowness value) ,and TBARS value of chicken breast meat increased,but L* value( lightness value) , total and myofibrillar protein solubilities, and Ca2+-ATPase activity decreased(P<0.05). A marked increase in a* value( redness value)was observed up to 30 days,followed by continuous decrease up to 180 days of storage(P<0. 05). The a* value decreased with increasing frozen storage temperature as well(P<0.05). Frozen storage temperature had no significant effect on the solubility of sarrcoplasmic proteins,but the sarcoplasmic protein solubility decreased as frozen storage time increased( P<0. 05 ). This confirmed that the eating quality of chicken breast meat deteriorated gradually during frozen storage and that higher temperature resulted in lower eating quality.

  5. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  6. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  8. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  9. 不同种木薯变性淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响%Effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch on the qualities of chicken sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅阳; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 姜珊珊

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different kinds of modified tapioca starch and native starch on the quality characteristics of chicken sausages were investigated.Three kinds of modified starches including starch acetate,cross-linked esterified starch and phosphate starch were added during chopping respectively.The cooking yield,color,texture profile analysis(TPA)and sensory characteristics were measured.The results showed that different modified starch had no significant effect on the cooking yield(P0.05).The sausage with starch acetate had the highest color L value.The textural characteristic of sausages with modified starch were better than sausage with native starch(P0.05).The sausage with cross-linked esterified starch had the highest hardness,springiness,chewiness and cohesiveness.The sensory evaluation showed that the product containing starch acetate had higher sensory scores compared with the products with other starch.Overall,the modified starch could improve the quality attributes of chicken sausage,and starch acetate was more suitable to the meat products.%对比研究了在斩拌过程中添加6%的木薯变性淀粉(醋酸酯淀粉、交酯淀粉和磷酸酯淀粉)和木薯原淀粉对鸡肉肠品质的影响。结果发现:添加变性淀粉的鸡肉肠的产率差异不显著(P〉0.05);添加醋酸酯淀粉的鸡肉肠的L*值最大;添加变性淀粉的产品的质构特性要明显好于添加原淀粉的鸡肉肠(P〈0.05),其中添加交酯淀粉的产品的硬度、咀嚼性、弹性和凝聚性最高。感官评定结果显示,添加醋酸酯淀粉产品的品质优于添加其它种类变性淀粉的产品。醋酸酯木薯淀粉更适合于肉类产品实际生产中。

  10. 5 CFR 550.107 - Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual limitation otherwise applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.107 Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual...

  11. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  12. Optimal dynamic premium control in non-life insurance. Maximizing dividend pay-outs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of finding optimal dynamic premium policies in non-life insurance. The reserve of a company is modeled using the classical Cramér-Lundberg model with premium rates calculated via the expected value principle. The company controls dynamically the relative safety...

  13. Insurance premium reductions. A motivating factor in long-term hypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M; Rafter, J; Gajewski, J

    1984-02-10

    Elevated blood pressure substantially increases mortality and requires, therefore, high premium payments for life insurance coverage. Most life insurance companies are willing to reduce the cost of yearly premiums when blood pressure is successfully treated and controlled for several years. Physicians should bring these facts to their patients' attention as a motivating factor to improve adherence to therapy.

  14. 42 CFR 408.112 - Refund of excess premiums after the enrollee dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... after the enrollee dies. If CMS has received premiums for months after the enrollee's death, CMS refunds... made under paragraph (a) of this section, CMS refunds the premiums to the enrollee's survivors in the... security or railroad retirement benefits on the basis of the same earnings record as the...

  15. Effects of tort reforms and other factors on medical malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, S; Bovbjerg, R R; Sloan, F

    1990-01-01

    We use state-level data on physician malpractice premiums, claims, and awards, provided by insurance companies for the years 1974 to 1986, to evaluate the effectiveness of the various tort reforms that have been legislated during the 1970s and 1980s. In addition to the tort reforms, our analysis of premiums considers insurers' anticipated losses, returns on investments, the type of insurer, and premium regulation. Our results suggest that the only reforms that significantly lower premiums are those that either impose a cap on the amount of physician liability or reduce the amount of time a plaintiff has to initiate a claim. We also find that premiums are lower when states regulate rates by requiring prior approval of premiums. In addition, it appears that the observed cyclicality in premiums is due, in part, to fluctuations in the real interest rates available to insurers as returns on investments. Unfortunately, we did not find as strong a link between the determinants of premiums, claims, and awards as might be expected.

  16. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...-9957-CN; 9964-CN] RIN 0938-AR82; RIN 0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program... Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and Market Standards... and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and...

  17. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  18. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  19. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  20. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  1. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing... of the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA... return to the market by ensuring FHA is not under-pricing its risk. In addition to announcing MIPs for FY...

  2. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  3. Effects of Qiling Ultramicro Powder on Growth Performance and Antioxidant Status of Quality Chickens%芪苓超微粉对优质鸡生长性能及抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陈小国; 王长康; 马玉芳; 黄小红; 黄一帆

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of QiLing ultramicro powder on growth performance and antioxidant status of quality chickens,and to discuss its mechanism. 768 quailty chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group included 3 replicates. The control group was fed with basic diet only. Two QiLing ultramicro powder groups were fed with basic diet supplemented with 0. 5% and 1% of QiLing ultramicro powder respectively. The antibiotic group was fed with basic diet supplemented with 30 mg/kg of bacitracin zinc and 6 mg/kg of polymyxin E. The feeding trial lasted for 140 days. The growth performance and antioxidant indexes were determined. The results showed that (1 )Compared with the control group, the weight of roosters and hens of the two QiLing ultramicro powder groups increased significantly (P 0. 05) ;and all the groups had no significant difference from others in the production performance index( P > 0. 05 ). ( 2 ) In 56 day and 84 day, compared with the control group, the activity of glutanthione peroxidase( GSH-Px) and total anti - oxidative capacity (T-AOC ) of high-dose group increased significantly, and the content of maleicdialdehyde( MDA)decreased significantly(P <0.05). These results indicated that QiLing ultramicro powder could improve growth performance and antioxidant status of quality chickens.%试验旨在研究芪苓超微粉对优质鸡生长性能及抗氧化功能的影响.将768只优质鸡,公母各半,随机分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复64只鸡.空白对照组饲喂基础日粮,低剂量组在基础日粮中添加0.5%芪苓超微粉,高剂量组在基础日粮中添加1.0%芪苓超微粉,抗生素组在基础日粮中添加30 mg/kg杆菌肽锌和6 mg/kg多粘菌素.结果表明,至饲养结束(20周龄),与空白对照组相比,高、低剂量芪苓超微粉均能显著提高公鸡、母鸡体质量(P<0.05),但与抗生素组相比差异不显著(P>0.05);其它生产性能指标,各组差异均

  4. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting

  5. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  6. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  7. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  8. PENGARUH KEBIJAKAN HARGA BBM, JUMLAH SEPEDA MOTOR, PENDAPATAN PERKAPITA TERHADAP KONSUMSI PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi BBM di Indonesia semakin meningkat karena meningkatnya pendapatan masyarakat, jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kebijakan harga BBM, kendaraan bermotor (motor, pendapatan perkapita terhadap konsumsi BBM (Premium. Objek penelitian ini adalah konsumsi BBM di Republik Indonesia kurun waktu 1985-2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier Berganda dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kebijakan harga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap konsumsi premium, pendapatan per kapita  berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, jumlah sepeda motor berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, serta harga BBM, pendapatan perkapita, dan jumlah sepeda motor secara serentak berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium. Fuel consumption in Indonesia is increasing due to rising incomes, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fuel price policy, motor vehicles (motorcycles, per capita income on the consumption of fuel (Premium. The object of this study is the fuel consumption in the Republic of Indonesia period 1985-2014. The design of this research study with a quantitative approach. Analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Ordinary Least Square method (OLS. Based on the results of this study concluded that the pricing policies have a significant effect on the consumption of premium, per capita income has positive influence on consumption of premium, the number of motorcycles positive effect on premium consumption, as well as fuel prices, per capita income, and the number of motorcycles simultaneously positive effect on consumption of premium.

  9. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and... § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a) Effective July 23, 1953, all or any part of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan...

  10. Equity-premium puzzle: evidence from Brazilian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Penha Cysne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 1992:1-2004:2 quarterly data and two different methods (approximation under lognormality and calibration to evaluate the existence of an equity-premium puzzle in Brazil. In contrast with some previous works in the Brazilian literature, I conclude that the model used by Mehra and Prescott (1985, either with additive or recursive preferences, is not able to satisfactorily rationalize the equity premium observed in the Brazilian data. The second contribution of the paper is calling the attention to the fact that the utility function calculated under the discrete-state approximation may not exist if the data (as it is the case with Brazilian time series implies the existence of states in which high negative rates of consumption growth are attained with relatively high probability. This fact is particularly important when the researcher tries to work with high risk-aversion parameters in order to generate high risk premia.Este trabalho usa dados brasileiros do período 1992:1-2004:2 e dois diferentes métodos (aproximação sob a hipótese de lognormalidade e calibração para avaliar a existência de um "equity-premium puzzle" no Brasil. Em contraste com alguns trabalhos prévios da literatura nacional, conclui-se que o modelo usado por Mehra and Prescott (1985, seja com preferências aditivas ou recursivas, não é capaz de gerar o prêmio de risco observado na economia brasileira. A segunda contribuição do trabalho é chamar a atenção para o fato de que a função utilidade calculada sob a hipótese de aproximação discreta do espaço de estados pode não existir se os dados (como é o caso no Brasil implicarem a existência de estados nos quais taxas altamente negativas de crescimento do consumo são alcançadas com probabilidade demasiado elevadas. Este fato é particularmente importante quando se tenta utilizar parâmetros de aversão ao risco altos o suficiente para gerar o prêmio de risco inerente ao caso brasileiro.

  11. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  12. RESEARCHING AND CREATION OF A DEVICE FOR DRYING CHICKEN MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors have proposed a process and arrangement for recycling in the poultry farms of the Krasnodar region of chicken manure and release of mineral fertilizers, аs well as the analysis of existing Russian technologies and devices for drying chicken manure. The study proposed a technology and apparatus for drying chicken manure to not only provide a significant deal of capital investments, but also cut energy costs by the proposed method and apparatus, as well as improving the quality of the finished product (chicken manure. In the method of drying chicken droppings produced removing mechanical impurities, mixing, drying and grinding of the hot gases, wherein the starting slurry is transported in a horizontal direction opposite to the flow direction of the hot gases while performing a gradual heating it with simultaneous comminution and mixing, and then after reaching the zone of maximum temperatures for each of the size fractions of the suspension is achieved by turning its direction on 180ºС and then transported in a direction coinciding with the direction of flow of the hot gases by carrying out the gradual cooling of the heat transfer starting product. We have also presented norms of dry chicken manure application under agricultural crops in the Krasnodar region

  13. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  14. Ruin problems with stochastic premium stochastic return on investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rongming; XU Lin; YAO Dingjun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, ruin problems in the risk model with stochastic premium incomes and stochastic return on investments are studied. The logarithm of the asset price process is assumed to be a Lévy process. An exact expression for expected discounted penalty function is established. Lower bounds and two kinds of upper bounds for expected discounted penalty function are obtained by inductive method and martingale approach. Integro- differential equations for the expected discounted penalty function are ob- tained when the Lévy process is a Brownian motion with positive drift and a compound Poisson process, respectively. Some analytical examples and numerical examples are given to illustrate the upper bounds and the applications of the integro-differential equations in this paper.

  15. A "LHC Premium" for Early Career Researchers? Perceptions from within

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano; Florio, Massimo; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    More than 36,000 students and post-docs will be involved in experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until 2025. Do they expect that their learning experience will have an impact on their professional future? By drawing from earlier salary expectations literature, this paper proposes a framework aiming at explaining the professional expectations of early career researchers (ECR) at the LHC. Results from different ordered logistic models suggest that experiential learning at LHC positively correlates with both current and former students' salary expectations. At least two not mutually exclusive explanations underlie such a relationship. First, the training at LHC gives early career researchers valuable expertise, which in turn affects salary expectations; secondly, respondents recognise that the LHC research experience per se may act as a signal in the labour market. Respondents put a price tag on their experience at LHC, a "salary premium" ranging from 5% to 12% in terms of future salaries compared with...

  16. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-06-29

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pinnovation advances the field but support discussing the "unproven" nature of new implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens.

  18. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  19. The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Francis A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether there is a flight-to-liquidity premium in Treasury bond prices by comparing them with prices of bonds issued by Refcorp, a U.S. Government agency. Since Refcorp bonds are, in effect, guaranteed by the Treasury, they have the same credit as Treasury bonds. We find a large liquidity premium in Treasury bonds, which can be more than fifteen percent of the value of some Treasury bonds. We find strong evidence that this liquidity premium is related to changes in consumer con- fi...

  20. An empirical analysis of the external finance premium of public non-financial corporations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to analyze empirically the relationship between the external finance premium of non-financial corporations in Brazil with their default probability and with their demand for inventories. As for the former relation, we find that corporations that have greater external finance premium have greater probability of default. As for the latter, we find that the external finance premium is positive and statistically significantly correlated. The results confirm previous results of the literature that indicate that the balance sheet channel of monetary policy is relevant in Brazil.

  1. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.

  2. SENSORY EVALUATION OF HUBBARD JV CHICKENS MEAT AFTER PROPOLIS APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hascík; Jozef Garlík; Ibrahim Omer Elamin Elimam; Vladimíra Knazovická; Juraj Cubon; Miroslav Krocko

    2014-01-01

      In this experiment, propolis extract was applied in the diet of Hubbard JV broiler chickens and we tested its influence on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscles prepared by baking at 200...

  3. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  4. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  5. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  6. Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Takahashi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out in the present study. Trial I evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas Trial II evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of Salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. In Trial I, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m²/bird, using four replicates with 35 birds each. The birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. Water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. Birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. In Trial II, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used. The birds were distributed into four treatments: NCC (non-challenged control, NCS (non-challenged supplemented, CC (challenged control and CS (challenged supplemented. There were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to Salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.

  7. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  8. A DEMAND-SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF THE SPANISH EDUCATION WAGE PREMIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel A. Hidalgo

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates education demand for Spain in order to analyze whether variations of the education wage premium between the 1980s and 1990s can be explained within the framework of a supply and demand model. The evidence reveals a stable pattern of growth in the demand for education throughout the eighties and nineties, empirically showing that differences in the evolution of the education wage premium during the two decades can be explained by varying growth in education supply coupled ...

  9. Spatial Risk Premium on Weather Derivatives and Hedging Weather Exposure in Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Osipenko, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Due to dependency of energy demand on temperature, weather derivatives enable the effective hedging of temperature related fluctuations. However, temperature varies in space and time and therefore the contingent weather derivatives also vary. The spatial derivative price distribution involves a risk premium. We examine functional principal components of temperature variation for this spatial risk premium. We employ a pricing model for temperature derivatives based on dynamics modelled via a v...

  10. What drives insurer participation and premiums in the Federally-Facilitated Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; Drake, Coleman; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Simon, Kosali

    2017-04-26

    We investigate determinants of market entry and premiums within the context of the Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces for individual insurance. Using Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) as the conceptual framework, we study how competition and firm heterogeneity relate to premiums in 36 states using Federally Facilitated or Supported Marketplaces in 2016. Our primary data source is the Qualified Health Plan Landscape File, augmented with market characteristics from the American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File as well as insurer-level information from federal Medical Loss Ratio annual reports. We first estimate a model of insurer entry and then investigate the relationship between a market's predicted number of entrants and insurer-level premiums. Our entry model results suggest that competition is increasing with the number of insurers, most notably as the market size increases from 3 to 4 entrants. Results from the premium regression suggest that each additional entrant is associated with approximately 4% lower premiums, controlling for other factors. An alternative explanation for the relationship between entrants and premiums is that more efficient insurers (who can price lower) are the ones that enter markets with many entrants, and this is reflected in lower premiums. An exploratory analysis of insurers' non-claims costs (a proxy for insurer efficiency) reveals that average costs among entrants are rising slightly with the number of insurers in the market. This pattern does not support the hypothesis that premiums decrease with more entrants because those entrants are more efficient, suggesting instead that the results are being driven mostly by price competition.

  11. College wage premium over time: trends in Europe in the last 15 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Crivellaro

    2014-01-01

    While there has been intense debate in the empirical literature over the evolution of the college wage premium in the United States, its evolution in Europe has received little attention. This paper investigates the causes of the evolution of the college wage premium in 12 european countries from 1994 to 2009. I use cross country variation in relative supply, demand, and labour market institutions to examine their effects on the trend in wage inequality. I address possible concerns of endogen...

  12. Combined effect of divergent selection for breast muscle ultimate pH and dietary amino acids on chicken performance, physical activity and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Chabault-Dhuit, M; Bourin, M; Arnould, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2017-02-01

    Responses to changes in dietary Lys and other essential amino acid (AA) concentrations were evaluated in 480 male and female broilers originating from two lines divergently selected for high (pHu+) or low (pHu-) ultimate pH (pHu) of breast muscle. The two genetic lines were fed with two grower isoenergetic diets differing in both true digestible Lys (control=10.2 g/kg and experimental=7.0 g/kg) and amounts of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, which were sufficient for the control diet or in excess for the experimental diet. There were six repetitions per treatment. Birds were weighed individually at days 0, 21, 28 and 43. Feed consumption was recorded per pen and feed conversion was calculated over the growing period. The physical activity and walking ability of broilers were recorded during the whole rearing period. Breast and leg yield, and abdominal fat percentage were measured at 43 days of age, as were pHu, color, drip and cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and curing-cooking yield of the breast Pectoralis major and pHu of the thigh Sartorius muscle. Divergent selection greatly affected most breast meat quality traits without significantly changing growth rate or feed efficiency. When subjected to a variation in dietary intake of AA, birds from the two genotypes responded in a similar way in terms of animal's growth, feed efficiency, body composition and meat quality traits. Although line and diet did not affect physical or feeding activities of the broilers, a significant effect of line-by-diet interaction was observed on gait score. Contrary to the pHu- birds, the walking ability of pHu+ birds was impaired when fed the control diet that favored growth and breast muscle development and limited storage of carbohydrate in muscle.

  13. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  14. Dietary Supplementation of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics Enhances Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) Raised Under High Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alam Zeb; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Liu, Yunhuan; Hamid, Mohammad; Pan, Cuiling; Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Parveen, Fahmida; Huang, Kehe

    2017-07-12

    We investigated the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on broiler meat quality under high ambient temperature and explore their underlying mechanisms. A total of 200 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each with five replicates, in groups of ten birds. These birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet (C), a basal diet plus probiotics supplementation (P), a basal diet plus Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite (SS, 0.30 mg Se/kg), and a basal diet with the addition of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP, 0.30 mg Se/kg). The experiment lasted for 42 days. The birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the breast muscles were removed for further process. Our results showed that SP diet significantly increased (p < 0.05) the physical (pH, colors, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force) and sensory characteristics of breast meat. All P, SS, and SP supplementation enhanced the antioxidant system by increasing (p < 0.05) the Se concentrations, glutathione (GSH) levels, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) whereas decreasing (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, with SP being higher than P and SS. Moreover, SP diet significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) the mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase genes (GPx1, GPx4) while it downregulated heat stress biomarkers such as heat shock protein (HSP) 70 as compared to C, P, and SS diets. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SP may function as beneficial nutritive supplement that is capable of improving meat quality during the summer season.

  15. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  16. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  17. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii.

  18. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans.

  19. The effect of feeding calcium- and phosphorus-deficient diets to broiler chickens during the starting and growing-finishing phases on carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, J P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

    2006-11-01

    There is considerable data on the effect of reducing inorganic Ca and P in broiler finisher diets on carcass quality. However, there is limited information on the effect of reducing dietary Ca and P during the different phases of growout. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 35 d in floor pens. In both experiments, at least 4 replicates per treatment (50 chicks per replicate) were used. Corn-soybean meal and soybean oil-based diets deficient in Ca and P were fed. During the starter phase (ST), from 0 to 18 d, chicks were fed a 23% CP diet containing 0.60% Ca and 0.47% total P (tP). During the grower-finisher phase (GF), from 19 to 35 d, birds were fed a 19% CP diet containing 0.30% Ca and 0.37% tP. A combination of 1,000 phytase units/kg of Natuphos phytase and 5 microg/kg of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (P + 1alpha) was supplemented to some of the feed during the ST and GF. Diets containing adequate Ca and P were also fed during the ST (0.90% Ca and 0.68% tP) and GF (0.80% Ca and 0.67% tP). The level of tibia ash and the incidence of bone disease were measured at 18 and 35 d. At the end of the experiments, birds were processed and evaluated for muscle hemorrhages and broken bones. In both experiments, broilers fed diets that were not P + 1alpha supplemented demonstrated poor bone mineralization, considerable leg problems, and a high incidence of broken bones after processing. Broilers fed P + 1alpha throughout had more broken clavicles and femurs compared with birds fed the adequate diets. Day-18 tibia ash was significantly correlated to broken tibias and femurs during processing. Day-35 tibia ash was better correlated to bloody breast meat than to broken bones. It is concluded that carcass quality depends on the levels of Ca and P fed and the age of the bird. Tibia ash, traditionally used as an indication of bone strength, was better correlated to the incidence of bloody breasts.

  20. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  1. Qualidade da carne de marreco pequim branco (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 comparado a frango de corte Meat quality in white peking mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L. 1758 compared to broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bitencourt Faria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O total de 20 carcaças resfriadas (10 Marrecos Pequim Branco e 10 de frangos de corte foi submetido às análises de composição centesimal, colesterol, cor (sistema CIE L*a*b*, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC. A carne de marreco apresenta (PTwenty refrigerated carcasses (10 Peking mallard and 10 broiler chicken were submitted to analyses of chemical composition, cholesterol, colour (CIE L*a*b* system, weight loss by cooking (PPC and shear force (FC. Mallard meat had lower (P<0.05 humidity in both leg and breast (71.77 and 74.53%, respectively when compared with chicken meat (74.73 and 76.07%, respectively. When different cuts were compared, the breast had a higher (P<0.05 humidity and protein content than the leg in both species. Mallard leg and breast had lower (P<0.05 lightness (37.59 and 35.75, respectively and higher red content (18.48 and 20.67, respectively, than the lightness (40.98 and 45.18, respectively and red content (10.02 and 5.52, respectively observed in chicken. The FC was higher (P<0.05 in mallard breast (4.90 kgf than in chicken breast (2.63 kgf. Meat from White Peking mallard is darker and with a stronger red pigment than meat from broiler chicken. Even though it is less tender than meat from broiler chicken, mallard meat still has an acceptable tenderness.

  2. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  3. Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3 can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24. However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10. Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc, pomegranate peel extract (PPE and pomegranate peel (PP on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration. Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran. Dried powders of peels (2.5 g were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg. In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging

  4. Efecto de la Inclusión de Inulina en Salmueras de Marinado sobre Mermas y Calidad Sensorial de Pechugas de Pollo / Effect of Inulin on Marinated Envelope Brines Including Drip and Sensory Quality of Chicken Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Álvaro Muñoz Ohmen

    2014-03-01

    de derivados cárnicos, y el marinado no determinó un comportamiento diferente al control durante el tiempo estudiado. / In order to determine the nature of the fluid and observe the effect on viscosity, were evaluated brines for chicken marinated with 4% solids , comprising salt (2% constant in the brine, soy protein (PV, phosphates and inulin (I, the latter in concentrations ranging from 0 to 2%, resulting in seven treatments, including a control sample without I. All brines showed rheological behavior of a Newtonian fluid. Brines with the highest percentages of vegetable protein had higher viscosity values. Brine 2 with I at 1% was selected as the best by their viscosity (application conditions and protein concentration and phosphates (Legislation, the brine was applied to eighteen chicken breasts, injected at 5, 10, and 15% to evaluate their effect on retention capacity calculated by thawing and cooking losses; was also conducted sensory analysis to observe their effects on the properties of texture, color, aroma, flavor and overall quality. At a higher level of the brine injection, holding capacity also increases, and this trend is maintained after the cooking process. Retention capacity increased to high levels of injection of brine and this tendency is the same after cooking. The ention capacity of treating brine injection 5% with and without I, showed significant differences between 15% with I. Statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the treatment to 15% compared to injection levels to 5%, with and without inulin. Sensory analysis of color, flavor and aroma to the chicken breasts in all treatments had better values than those of juiciness and hardness, indicating it may be necessary to influence the activation of meat proteins to improve these properties by varying the formulation. The breasts were analyzed within microbiological parameters established by Colombian law for this type of meat products. The marinade did not

  5. Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni cross-contamination via hands, cutlery, and cutting board during preparation of a chicken fruit salad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Beumer, R.R.; Jonge, de R.; Leusden, van F.M.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Using artificially contaminated chicken, the quantitative overall effect of Campylobacter jejuni cross-contamination, either via cutlery, cutting board, or hands, on the microbiological quality of a chicken salad was tested to identify the most critical transfer route. The end contamination level of

  6. Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni cross-contamination via hands, cutlery, and cutting board during preparation of a chicken fruit salad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Beumer, R.R.; Jonge, de R.; Leusden, van F.M.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Using artificially contaminated chicken, the quantitative overall effect of Campylobacter jejuni cross-contamination, either via cutlery, cutting board, or hands, on the microbiological quality of a chicken salad was tested to identify the most critical transfer route. The end contamination level of

  7. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  8. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  9. aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyoshi Komiyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers.

  10. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... After determining the Medicare Part B premium reduction amount for each eligible beneficiary, CMS will— (1) Transmit this information to the Social Security Administration, Railroad Retirement Board,...

  11. In Second Year Of Marketplaces, New Entrants, ACA 'Co-Ops,' And Medicaid Plans Restrain Average Premium Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam T; Weinstein, Daniel S; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Premiums for health insurance plans offered through the federally facilitated and state-based Marketplaces remained steady or increased only modestly from 2014 to 2015. We used data from the Marketplaces, state insurance departments, and insurer websites to examine patterns of premium pricing and the factors behind these patterns. Our data came from 2,964 unique plans offered in 2014 and 4,153 unique plans offered in 2015 in forty-nine states and the District of Columbia. Using descriptive and multivariate analysis, we found that the addition of a carrier in a rating area lowered average premiums for the two lowest-cost silver plans and the lowest-cost bronze plan by 2.2 percent. When all plans in a rating area were included, an additional carrier was associated with an average decline in premiums of 1.4 percent. Plans in the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program and Medicaid managed care plans had lower premiums and average premium increases than national commercial and Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. On average, premiums fell by an appreciably larger amount for catastrophic and bronze plans than for gold plans, and premiums for platinum plans increased. This trend of low premium increases overall is unlikely to continue, however, as insurers are faced with mounting medical claims.

  12. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  13. Relationships between flavour, lipid composition and antioxidants in organic, free-range and conventional chicken breasts from modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Kishowar; Paterson, Alistair; Spickett, Corinne M

    2006-01-01

    Consumers expect organic, free-range and corn-fed chicken to be nutritionally wholesome and have premium flavour characters. Interrelationships between flavour, fatty acids and antioxidants of retailed breasts were explored using simple correlations and chemometrics. Saturated fatty acid C16:0, and n-6 polyunsaturated C20:4 and C22:4 contents were correlated with lipid oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and in partial least-squares regression (PLS1) with 32 high-resonance gas chromatography (flame ionization) flavour components (r2>0.90), and also linked (r2>0.80) to antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, glutathione and catalase). A further 10 high-resonance gas chromatography nitrogen phosphorus detector flavour components were correlated (r2>0.85) with C18:3(n-3) content. Chicken character was correlated with C18:3(n-3), and C18:3(n-6) inversely with oily, off-flavour and lipid oxidation. Sweet, fruity and oily aromas were linked in PLS1 with 13 specific fatty acids (r2>0.6), and bland taste with total summed (six) fatty acid fractions (r2>0.81). Specific antioxidants were correlated with sweet, fruity and chicken aromas, and alpha-tocopherol inversely with lipid oxidation. PLS2 confirmed relationships between fatty acid composition, antioxidants and the subsets of 32 and 10 flavour components. Clear relationships were thus observed between lipid and antioxidant compositions and flavour in chicken breast meat.

  14. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  15. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  16. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  18. Quality Investing in CEE Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using sorting, cross-sectional tests, regression, and tests of a monotonic relation, the study examines the return patterns related to seven distinct quality characteristics: accruals, bid-ask spread, balance sheet liquidity, profitability, leverage, payout ratio and turnover. The investigation of more than 1.300 stocks from 11 Central and Eastern European countries for the period 2002–2014 documents a strong gross-profitability premium and an inverted liquidity premium. Profitable and not heavily leveraged companies provide a partial hedge against market distress. Finally, the paper proposes quality spreads as a forecasting tool and shows that they have predictive abilities over quality premiums related to leverage, profitability and bid-ask spread.

  19. Identification of pork quality parameters by proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Zhang, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    A major parameter for quality of pork is its waterholding capacity (WHC). Prediction of WHC immediately after slaughter would be of benefit both to slaughterhouses for reasons of better logistics and/or branding of premium-meat, and to consumers for improved quality of meat products such as ham. In

  20. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processing contract; and (c) A price or pricing mechanism to determine the value of delivered production. 2... Northern Potato Quality Endorsement. 3. In return for payment of the additional premium designated in the...

  1. Effect of process conditions on quality properties and microstructure of different chicken wings%加工工艺对不同品种鸡翅品质特性和微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李威; 李汴生; 郭伟波; 林光明

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同加工工艺(腌制、焯水、卤制、杀菌)对不同鸡翅原料(蛋鸡、AA肉鸡、白羽肉鸡)的蒸煮损失、剪切力值和微观结构的影响。三种鸡翅原料的蒸煮损失随蒸煮时间的延长先增大而后保持不变。在不同处理条件下,蛋鸡鸡翅均比两种肉鸡鸡翅的剪切力值大,三种鸡翅结构因肌节的收缩而逐渐紧密。蛋鸡鸡翅肌纤维直径大于两种肉鸡鸡翅肌纤维直径,两种肉鸡鸡翅之间肌纤维直径无明显差别。卤制和杀菌之后的三种鸡翅肌纤维密度与原料相比均差异性显著(P〈O.05)。%Effect of process conditions on cooking loss, shear force value and microstructure of different raw chicken wings were evaluated.Cooking loss increased sharply when the samples of layer chicken wings,AA broiler wings and white feather broiler wings were heated in the first ]Omin,after that,cooking loss almost remained constant.The shear force of layer chicken wings increased more markedly compared with the other two broiler wings at different process conditions including curing, blanching, brining, sterilizing.As the changing of four process conditions ,three chicken wings had more compact fiber arrangement with the shrinkage of sarcomere stepwise. The myofiber diameters of layer chicken wings were a bit longer than that of the other two broiler wings. There were big differences between all kinds of chicken wings under brining and sterilizing and raw materials in myofiber density ( P 〈0.05).

  2. Changes of the quality of the starched chicken with pallet packaging stored at low-temperature%托盘包装上浆鸡肉片冷藏中品质的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2011-01-01

    以冷鲜鸡的胸脯肉为原料加工上浆鸡肉片,装入托盘,置4℃条件下冷藏,序时测定其细菌菌落总数、TVBN含量、pH值的变化并作感官检验,结果在放置96h时,细菌菌落数2.1×104cfu/g,肉浸汁TVBN含量16mg/100g,pH值为6.3,超过标准值。对其细菌菌相的鉴定分析表明,由肠杆菌(Enterobacter)、乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus)、假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)构成腐败菌相,其中假单胞菌为优势菌,最终由假单胞菌和肠杆菌履行腐败变质。在此基础上拟定出上浆鸡肉片托盘包装制品4℃下冷藏的适宜保质期为84h。%With chilled fresh chicken breast for processing starched chicken,the low-temperature preservation of starched chicken with pallet packaging at 4 ℃ was measure the total bacteria counts,pH values,TVBN content in timing sequence,and were evaluated based on sensory evaluation.The results showed that the total number of bacteria increased to 2.1×104 cfu/g,TVBN content achieved to 16 mg/100 g,pH value rose to 6.3,it exceeded the standard value for 96h.Further identification showed that the bacterial flora in starched chicken was constituted by Enterobacter,Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas.Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria.Moreover,the corruption of starched chicken was caused by the Pseudomonas and Enterobacter.Accordingly,the shelf life of starched chicken with pallet packaging was chosen for 84 h at 4 ℃.

  3. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  4. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  5. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  6. Dietary supplementation of chelated selenium and broiler chicken meat qualitySuplementação de selênio quelatado na ração e qualidade da carne de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massami Shimokomaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is selenium-containing enzyme, which catalyses the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and lipid hydroperoxides preventing the oxidative damages in animal tissues. The selenium (Se deficiency increases the need for vitamin E. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of chelated Se on the poultry meat quality. Fourteen Cobb chicks with 1 day of age were divided into two groups: C-Control group (without supplementation and S-Supplemented group (with 0.03mg of chelated Se.kg-1 of feed. Birds at 42 days of age were slaughtered and boneless skinless chicken thighs were collected and stored at –18ºC for 30 days. Thighs were analyzed for the cooking loss, lipid oxidation by Thiobarbituric-Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and GSH-Px activity by coupled assay procedure recording the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidation. Samples of Supplemented group presented 33.8% less water after cooking (p ? 0.05 and were 23.6% (p ? 0.10 less oxidized when compared with samples of group Control. The GSH-Px activity of thighs did not differ significantly (p> 0.05 between groups Supplemented and Control. The supplementation with 0.03mg of Se in the kg of feed improved the meat quality by reducing the lipid oxidation and cooking loss, however did not increase the GSH-Px activity.O selênio (Se é componente da enzima glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px que catalisa a redução de peróxido de hidrogênio e peróxido lipídico, prevenindo danos oxidativos nos tecidos animais. A deficiência de Se aumenta a necessidade de vitamina E pelos animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação de selênio quelatado sobre a qualidade da carne de frango. Os 14 pintinhos de corte da linhagem Cobb de 1 dia de idade foram divididos em 2 grupos: C-Controle (sem suplementação e S-Suplementado com 0,03mg Se quelatado. kg-1 de ração. Os frangos com 42 dias de

  7. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  8. What should be the basis for compulsory and optional health insurance premiums? Opinions of Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-02-04

    Little is known about doctors' opinions on how to finance health services. In Switzerland, mandatory basic health insurance currently uses regional flat fees that are unrelated to health and ability to pay, and optional complementary insurance uses risk-based premiums. Our objective was to assess Swiss physicians' opinions on what should determine health insurance premiums. We surveyed doctors in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, about the desirable funding mechanism for mandatory health insurance and complementary health insurance. The proposed determinants of insurance premiums were current health and past medical history, lifestyle, healthcare costs in the previous year, genetic susceptibility to disease, regional average healthcare costs, household income, and wealth and demographic characteristics. Among the 1,516 respondents, only a few (health insurance premium should depend on health risk (health status, previous costs, genetics, and age and sex). More than 30% of respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (34.6%), regional average health expenditures (31.2%), and household income and wealth (39.6%). For complementary health insurance, most respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (74.6%) and on health risk (46.4%), but surprisingly also on household income and wealth (44.9%) and regional average health expenditures (39.4%). The characteristic most influencing the answers was the medical specialty. Doctors' opinions about healthcare financing mechanisms varied considerably, for both mandatory and complementary health insurance. Lifestyle was a surprisingly frequent choice, even though this criterion is not currently used in Switzerland. Ability to pay was not supported by the majority.

  9. The effects of premium changes on ALL Kids, Alabama's CHIP program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Blackburn, Justin; Sen, Bisakha; Becker, David; Kilgore, Meredith L; Caldwell, Cathy; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Describe the trends in enrollment and renewal in the Alabama Children's Health Insurance Plan (CHIP), ALL Kids, since its creation in 1998, and to estimate the effect that an annual premium increase, along with coincident increases in service copays, had on the decision to renew participation. Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long enrollment and contracts with the state's Blue Cross and Blue Shield program for its network of providers and its provider fee structure. In October 2003 premiums for individual coverage were increased by $50 per year and copays by $1 to $3 per visit. This study is based upon a sample of 569,650 person-year observations of 230,255 children enrolled in the ALL Kids program between 1999 and 2009. The study models enrollment as a time series of cross section renewal decisions and specifies a series of linear probability regression models to estimate the effect of changes in the premium shift on the decision to renew. A second analysis includes interaction effects of the premiums shift with demographics, health status, income and previous enrollment to estimate differential response across subgroups. The increases in premiums and copays are estimated to have reduced program renewals by 6.1 to 8.3 percent depending upon how much time one allows for families to renew. Families with a child who has a chronic condition were more likely to renew coverage. However, those with chronic conditions, African-Americans and those with lower family incomes were more price-sensitive. An increase in annual premiums and visit copays had a modest impact on program reenrollment with effects comparable to those found in Florida, New Hampshire, Kansas and Arizona, but smaller than those in Kentucky and Georgia.

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(e)-4 - Contributions for premiums on annuity, etc., contracts and transitional rule for certain excess...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... made under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan on behalf of a self-employed individual... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions for premiums on annuity, etc... TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(e)-4 Contributions for premiums...

  11. Determinants of premiums in aerospace mergers and acquisitions: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John K.

    There is a large body of literature on different aspects of premiums as they relate to mergers and acquisitions. However, there is very little literature that specifically discusses the determinants of premiums in aerospace. Few industries have experienced the prolonged consolidation that the aerospace industry has seen. Today, the industry is dominated by a few large firms, but there is still merger activity continuing especially with second-tier firms attempting to secure their future through growth. This paper examines several determinants as applied to 18 aerospace mergers of publicly held companies and divisions from 1991 through April of 2002.

  12. Impact of Trade Liberalization on Wage Skill Premium in Philippine Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaelita M. Aldaba

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to examine how trade liberalization affects wage premium at the firm level. Using effective protection rate as trade proxy, the paper assumes that in the face of increasing competition, an import-substituting firm may decide to remain at the low value-added stage of the production process which requires relatively less skilled workers and suggests a decline in the wage premium. On the other hand, a firm may move away from the product whose protection rate has fallen and shift a...

  13. Exact and asymptotic results for insurance risk models with surplus-dependent premiums

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecher, Hansjörg; Palmowski, Zbigniew; Regensburger, Georg; Rosenkranz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a symbolic technique to obtain asymptotic expressions for ruin probabilities and discounted penalty functions in renewal insurance risk models when the premium income depends on the present surplus of the insurance portfolio. The analysis is based on boundary problems for linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. The algebraic structure of the Green's operators allows us to develop an intuitive way of tackling the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, leading to exponential-type expansions and Cram\\'er-type asymptotics. Furthermore, we obtain closed-form solutions for more specific cases of premium functions in the compound Poisson risk model.

  14. presence of cryptococcus species in domestic chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-25

    May 25, 2009 ... Conclusion: Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) harbor Pathogenic ... diseases from domestic Chickens for example avian ... emerged as the major cause of death in HIV/AIDS .... The mechanism by which the birds' excreta get.

  15. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  16. The Effects of Floor Rearing with or without Outdoor Access on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Jinghai Yellow Chicken%半舍饲与地面平养对京海黄鸡生产性能及肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁川; 金美东; 王金玉

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究半舍饲、地面平养对京海黄鸡生产性能及肉品质的影响.选择1日龄京海黄鸡80羽,随机分成2组,每组40羽,分别为半舍饲组和地面平养组,均饲喂统一日粮.结果表明,地面平养可以提高京海黄鸡的生产性能;半舍饲可以极显著降低腹脂率、增加腿肌率(P<0.01),显著增加肌肉的剪切力(P<0.05),降低嫩度,具有增加pH、肉色和系水力的趋势.%To investigate the floor rearing with or without outdoor access on growth performance and meat quality of Jinghai yellow chicken. Eighty day-old Jinghai yellow chicken were randomly divided into two groups, the floor rearing with outdoor access and the floor rearing without outdoor access, 40 chicken for each group (20 cocks and 20 hens). The two groups were fed with basal diets. The results showed that the floor rearing without outdoor access could improve growth performance of broilers; the floor rearing with outdoor access could reduce abdominal fat rate and improve leg muscle percentage extremely; the floor rearing with outdoor access could significantly increase shearing force and reduce tenderness , tend to improve pH value, meat color, and water keep ratio.

  17. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  18. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  19. The effects of lentil and chickpea flours as the breading materials on some properties of chicken meatballs during frozen storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Hepsağ, Fatma; Kurt, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential values of yellow lentil flour (Y) and chickpea flour (C) as breading materials the effects of yellow lentil and chickpea flours on the quality of fresh and frozen chicken meatballs were studied...

  20. Poultry farm hygiene: microbiological quality assessment of drinking water used in layer chickens managed under the battery cage and deep litter systems at three poultry farms in southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folorunso, O R; Kayode, Sule; Onibon, V O

    2014-01-01

    Water troughs from deep litter and caged chicken water troughs (drinkers) fixed to each of the different 3-tier cages containing layer chickens in Farms A, B and C were subjected to a 7-day study which involved the monitoring of poultry farm hygiene. Drinkers were washed before filling with water on Day 1. For Days 3, 5 and 7 water was served without prior washing. The occurrence and characterization of the bacteria isolates were investigated and data obtained were analyzed and compared. For the bacterial count on Day 1, for layer chickens on cage system, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the farms and between the farms tier interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Day 5, there was significant difference (p0.05) among the tiers nor between the interactions of the farms and tiers. The bacterial count in water troughs of layer chickens in deep litter system, on Day 1, had no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the farms, water troughs and their interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Days 5 and 7, there were significant difference (p<0.05) and a high significant difference (p < 0.01) between the farms respectively. On Days 5 and 7, no significant differences between the water troughs and between the interaction of the farms and the water troughs. Farm A isolates contained Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus salivarius and Corynebacterium sp. Farm B had Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium sp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Klebsiella sp. while for Farm C, apart from the prevalent bacteria isolates obtained in Farms A and B, additional 2 bacterial isolates, Lactobacillus salivarius and Pseudomonas aeuriginosa were found. In conclusion, water troughs when cleaned on daily basis

  1. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  2. Effect of d-allulose on rheological properties of chicken breast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M; Ogawa, M; Hayakawa, S

    2016-09-01

    d-Allulose (Alu), a rare sugar, was applied to chicken breast sausage as a sucrose (Suc) substitute. The ratio (w/w) of Alu to Suc in sugar that was added to the sausage batter was 0/1 (A0S1), 3/7 (A3S7), 7/3 (A7S3), and 1/0 (A1S0). The total amount of Suc used was 2.5% of the weight of minced chicken breast meat. Substituting Suc with Alu did not affect water content, cooking loss, breaking stress, breaking strain, and modulus of elasticity of chicken breast sausage, but a 100% substitution with Alu caused a 10% decrease in viscosity and a 31% decrease in expressible water. A significant difference appeared in the rheological properties of elasticity, viscosity, and water-holding capacity of chicken breast sausage frozen-stored (-20°C) for 90 d. Particularly, the modulus of elasticity for A1S0 chicken breast sausage was 19% higher than that of the control A0S1 chicken breast sausage, suggesting that Alu appreciably reduced the deterioration in elasticity that is caused by long-term frozen storage of sausage. The quality improvement of frozen-stored chicken breast sausage demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of the application of Alu to frozen foods.

  3. 38 CFR 8.15 - Provision for paid-up insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance policy on any plan other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5... insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Extended Term and Paid-up Insurance § 8.15 Provision for paid-up insurance;...

  4. SENSORY EVALUATION OF HUBBARD JV CHICKENS MEAT AFTER PROPOLIS APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, propolis extract was applied in the diet of Hubbard JV broiler chickens and we tested its influence on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscles prepared by baking at 200 °C for 60 minutes, followed by final baking for 10-15 minutes. Five groups were created: one control (C and four experimental (I, II, III, IV groups. Each group consisted of 100 chickens. Fattening lasted 42 days. Chickens were fed by ad libitum system. The identical starter feed mixture were administered till the 21st day of age. From the 22nd to 42nd day of age, chickens were fed by growth feed mixture in all groups. Feed mixtures were made without antibiotics and coccidiostats. Propolis extract was added to experimental groups at doses of 150 mg.kg-1 (I, 450 mg.kg-1 (II, 600 mg.kg-1 (III and 800 mg.kg-1 (IV. Breast and thigh muscles of 60 chickens from each group were prepared by baking and were anonymously assessed by six-member committee, which evaluated the smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of meat in five-point scale. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 were found in smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of breast and thigh muscles between the control and experimental groups. Sensory quality of chicken meat is one of the most important links for its use in food chain. The results of experiment confirmed, that propolis extract in those quantities can be applied in chicken nutrition, because sensory quality of chicken meat has not been worsen after its application.

  5. 我国名优茶发展现状与趋势%Current Situation and Tendency on the Development of Chinese Premium Teas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智修; 段文华; 吴海燕; 司智敏

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and tendency of the development for Chinese premium teas were investigated in analyzing the results of 3948 tea samples in nine “Zhongcha Cup” country wide premium tea competitions during 1994~2011. All the six types of Chinese tea developed well. Among them, green tea was the main tea, Oolong tea and dark tea increased steadily, black, white and yellow teas were in recovery growth. In the four tea growing areas, the Jiangnan (south Yangtze River) tea area developed strongly and has the highest prize awarded ratio. The premium tea in Zhejiang Province is leading its development in China, the quality of Jiangsu premium tea is at the top, Shandong province, a north tea area, has strong marketing and competition consciousness. And Fujian, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui are also important premium tea producing provinces. The ratio of tea sample made by clonal tea cultivars increased continuously. „Fuding Dabaicha‟, „Baiye 1‟, „Fuding Dahaocha‟, Longjing series clones are main clonal tea cultivars. The quality of premium tea increased steadily. Nevertheless, the tea appearance is becoming similar. Hygian safety (the situation of heavy metal, pesticide residues) was satisfactory, and organic tea developed rather fast. The ratios of machinery processing, producing according to standard, and trade mark increased year by year and reached a higher level.%  通过对1994~2011年连续九届3948只“中茶杯”名优茶评比茶样数据分析,结果表明,我国六大茶类名优茶均呈现发展态势,绿茶是发展的主茶类,乌龙茶、黑茶稳步增长,红茶、白茶和黄茶呈恢复性增长。四大茶区中,江南茶区获奖率最高,发展势头强劲;浙江名优茶产业引领我国名优茶发展,江苏名优茶总体质量位居全国前列,山东显现强烈的市场竞争意识,福建、四川、湖北、贵州、广东和安徽等省也占重要地位。无性系品种茶样

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MALASIAN GIANT SHRIMPS (Macrobrachium rosembergii RAISED WITH CHICKEN MANURE QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE CAMARÕES GIGANTES DA MALÁSIA (Macrobrachium rosembergii CULTIVADOS COM DEJETOS DE AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacteriological quality of Malaysian giant shrimps (Macrobrachium rosnnbergii raised under captivity condition and fed with aviculture residue was studied in the Station of Pisciculture of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Goiás. The following results were observed: research of Salmonella free in 25g, in all samples; Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 2,0 x 10¹ CFU/g; aerobic or aerobic facultative mesophiles counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0³ CFU/g; psicrotrophiles count was < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0 x 10³ CFU/g; MPN of total coliforms was 3 to 15/g; MPN of fecal coliforms was 3 to 7/g. All the values above are in agreement to the national pattern.

    KEY-WORDS: Macrobrachium rosembergii; shrimp; chicken manure.

    No presente experimento verificou-se a qualidade bacteriológica de camarões gigantes da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosembergii cultivados em cativeiro, em consórcio com dejetos de avicultura, na Estação de Piscicultura da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: pesquisa de Salmonella ausência em 25g em todas as amostras; contagem de Staphylococcus aureus - variou de < 1,0 x 10¹ a 2,0 x 10¹ UFC/g contagem de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x l0³ UFC/g ; psicrotróficos - < 1,0 x

  7. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a

  8. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a

  9. Differentiation of expression proifles of two calcineurin subunit genes in chicken skeletal muscles during early postnatal growth depending on anatomical location of muscles and breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yan-ju; XU Wen-juan; SHU Jing-ting; ZHANG Ming; SONG Wei-tao; TAO Zhi-yun; ZHU Chun-hong; LI Hui-fang

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin (Cn or CaN) is implicated in the control of skeletal muscle ifber phenotype and hypertrophy. However, little information is available concerning the expression of Cn in chickens. In the present study, the expression of two Cn subunit genes (CnAα andCnB1) was quantiifed by qPCR in the lateral gastrocnemius (LG, mainly composing of red fast-twitch myoifbers), the soleus (mainly composing of red slow-twitch myoifbers) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mainly composing of white fast-twitch myoifbers) from Qingyuan partridge chickens (QY, slow-growing chicken breed) and Recessive White chickens (RW, fast-growing chicken breed) on different days (1, 8, 22, 36, 50 and 64 days post-hatching). Although CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions were variable with different trends in different skeletal muscles in the two chicken breeds during postnatal growth, it is highly muscle phenotype and breed speciifc. In general, the levels ofCnAαandCnB1gene expressions of the soleus were lower than those of EDL and LG in both chicken breeds at the same stages. Compared be-tween the two chicken breeds, the levels ofCnAα gene expression of the three skeletal muscles in QY chickens were higher than those in RW chickens on days 1 and 22. However, on day 64, the levels of bothCnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the three skeletal muscles were lower in QY chickens than those in RW chickens. Correlation analysis of the levels of CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the same skeletal muscle showed that there were positive correlations for al three skeletal muscle tissues in two chicken breeds. These results provide some valuable clues to understand the role of Cn in the development of chicken skeletal muscles, with a function that may be related to meat quality.

  10. 26 CFR 1.822-10 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies by section 818(b)(1), as amended by the Life Insurance Company Income Tax Act of 1959 (73 Stat... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain... premium required in the computation of taxable investment income by a company subject to the tax imposed...

  11. 29 CFR 778.206 - Premiums for work outside basic workday or workweek-examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for... regular workday or workweek. The extra compensation provided by such premium rates will be excluded...

  12. 75 FR 21329 - Medicaid Program; State Allotments for Payment of Medicare Part B Premiums for Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...), specified low-income Medicare ] beneficiaries (SLMBs), and qualified disabled and working individuals (QDWIs... Medicaid whose family income is at least 120 percent but less than 135 percent of the poverty level. With..., among the States, Federal funds to provide Medicaid payment for Medicare Part B premiums for low-...

  13. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Cancellation...

  14. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by...

  15. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK46 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY:...

  16. Children's health insurance program premiums adversely affect enrollment, especially among lower-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdus, Salam; Hudson, Julie; Hill, Steven C; Selden, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    Both Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which are run by the states and funded by federal and state dollars, offer health insurance coverage for low-income children. Thirty-three states charged premiums for children at some income ranges in CHIP or Medicaid in 2013. Using data from the 1999-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we show that the relationship between premiums and coverage varies considerably by income level and by parental access to employer-sponsored insurance. Among children with family incomes above 150 percent of the federal poverty level, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 1.6-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance may be higher among those children whose parents lack an offer of employer-sponsored insurance than among those whose parents have such an offer. Among children with family incomes of 101-150 percent of poverty, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 6.7-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage and a 3.3-percentage-point increase in uninsurance. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance is even larger among children whose parents lack offers of employer coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Perception and description of premium beers by panels with different degrees of product expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two panels were constituted of...

  18. 78 FR 59366 - Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and... MIPs are the same as in FY 2013. In addition, the Notice clarifies that conventional or FHA-insured... affordability criteria as defined in this Notice, are eligible for the LIHTC MIPs as are projects with new...

  19. Rating a Wildfire Mitigation Strategy with an Insurance Premium: A Boreal Forest Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Rodriguez-Baca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis entails the systematic use of historical information to determine the frequency, magnitude and effects of unexpected events. Wildfire in boreal North America is a key driver of forest dynamics and may cause very significant economic losses. An actuarial approach to risk analysis based on cumulative probability distributions was developed to reduce the adverse effects of wildfire. To this effect, we developed spatially explicit landscape models to simulate the interactions between harvest, fire and forest succession over time in a boreal forest of eastern Canada. We estimated the amount of reduction of timber harvest necessary to build a buffer stock of sufficient size to cover fire losses and compared it to an insurance premium estimated in units of timber volume from the probability of occurrence and the amount of damage. Overall, the timber harvest reduction we applied was much more costly than the insurance premium even with a zero interest rate. This is due to the fact that the insurance premium is directly related to risk while the timber harvest reduction is not and, as a consequence, is much less efficient. These results, especially the comparison with a standard indicator such as an insurance premium, have useful implications at the time of choosing a mitigation strategy to protect timber supplies against risk without overly diminishing the provision of services from the forest. They are also promoting the use of insurance against disastrous events in forest management planning.

  20. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is