WorldWideScience

Sample records for premises opt-out testing

  1. Opt-out HIV testing in prison: informed and voluntary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.

  2. Opting out increases HIV testing in a large sexually transmitted infections outpatient clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, R.L.J.; Stolte, I.G.; Thiesbrummel, H.F.J.; van Leent, E.; Coutinho, R.A.; Fennema, J.S.A.; Prins, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: In January 2007, opt-out HIV testing replaced provider-initiated testing at the sexually transmitted infections (STI) outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The effect of the opt-out strategy on the uptake of HIV testing was studied and factors associated with refusal of HIV

  3. Routine opt-out HIV testing strategies in a female jail setting: a prospective controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kavasery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ten million Americans enter jails annually. The objective was to evaluate new CDC guidelines for routine opt-out HIV testing and examine the optimal time to implement routine opt-out HIV testing among newly incarcerated jail detainees. METHODS: This prospective, controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing was conducted among 323 newly incarcerated female inmates in Connecticut's only women's jail. 323 sequential entrants to the women's jail over a five week period in August and September 2007 were assigned to be offered routine opt-out HIV testing at one of three points after incarceration: immediate (same day, n = 108, early (next day, n = 108, or delayed (7 days, n = 107. The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group consenting to testing. RESULTS: Routine opt-out HIV testing was significantly highest (73% among the early testing group compared to 55% for immediate and 50% for 7 days post-entry groups. Other factors significantly (p = 0.01 associated with being HIV tested were younger age and low likelihood of early release from jail based on bond value or type of charge for which women were arrested. CONCLUSIONS: In this correctional facility, routine opt-out HIV testing in a jail setting was feasible, with highest rates of testing if performed the day after incarceration. Lower testing rates were seen with immediate testing, where there is a high prevalence of inability or unwillingness to test, and with delayed testing, where attrition from jail increases with each passing day. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624247.

  4. A prospective controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing in a men's jail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kavasery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 million Americans enter jails annually. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommends routine opt-out HIV testing in these settings. The logistics for performing routine opt-out HIV testing within jails, however, remain controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal time to routinely HIV test newly incarcerated jail detainees using an opt-out strategy. METHODS: This prospective, controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing was conducted among 298 newly incarcerated male inmates in an urban men's jail in New Haven, Connecticut. 298 sequential entrants to the men's jail over a three week period in March and April 2008 were assigned to be offered routine opt-out HIV testing at one of three points after incarceration: immediate (same day, n = 103, early (next day, n = 98, or delayed (7 days, n = 97. The primary outcome was the proportion of men in each group consenting to testing. RESULTS: Routine opt-out HIV testing was significantly higher for the early (53%: AOR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.5 to 4.7 and immediate (45%: AOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.0 testing groups compared to the delayed (33% testing group. The immediate and early testing groups, however, did not significantly differ (p = 0.67. In multivariate analyses, factors significantly associated with routine opt-out HIV testing were assignment to the 'early' testing group (p = 0.0003 and low (bond > or = $5,000, immigration or federal charges or pre-sentencing > 30 days likelihood of early release (p = 0.04. Two subjects received preliminary positive results and one of them was subsequently confirmed HIV seropositive. CONCLUSIONS: In this men's jail where attrition was high, routine opt-out HIV testing was not only feasible, but resulted in the highest rates of HIV testing when performed within 24 hours of incarceration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624247.

  5. Understanding Patients’ Perspectives on Opt-Out, Incentivized, and Mandatory HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Carey M; Vaughn, Nicole A; Sun, Sirena; Schlecht, Hans P

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, widespread HIV testing is the best preventive action against further spread of the HIV epidemic. However, over 40% of the U.S. population has never been tested for HIV and 25% of those with HIV have never been tested. To increase testing rates, in 2006 the CDC advised healthcare settings to conduct testing on an opt-out basis. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with ten seropositive patients and ten seronegative were conducted to address the lack of studies investigating patients’ acceptance of and attitude towards this and more novel testing models, e.g. incentivized or anonymous mandatory testing. Participants were asked about their HIV testing history and attitudes towards opt-out, incentivized, and mandatory anonymous HIV testing. Results Major themes were identified using grounded theory data analysis. All participants were receptive to opt-out testing, and saw the removal of separate written consent as beneficial as long as patients were given the opportunity to consent in some form. Conclusion Ultimately, both mandatory and opt-out testing were equally indicated by participants as being the most effective testing model at increasing testing rates. A firm understanding of patients’ perspectives allows for development of effective HIV testing initiatives that are patient-sensitive and can substantially reduce HIV infection rates. PMID:26609294

  6. Opt-out HIV testing: an ethical analysis of women's reproductive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Loren; Kaplan, Clair

    2011-09-01

    As the HIV epidemic continues to grow worldwide, women are increasingly and disproportionally affected. With the introduction of anti-retroviral medications that have been found to effectively prevent perinatal transmission of HIV, the approach to HIV testing in pregnant women has grown increasingly more controversial. In recent years, the model of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) has come into question with opt-out testing now advocated for by the Centers for Disease Control and occurring widely in pregnancy. The benefits of opt-out testing are numerous and may justify its use in replacing the VCT that many have come to see as insufficient. An ethical analysis of opt-out testing suggests it may be at odds with true informed consent and involve a degree of coercion that would not be allowed outside the prenatal setting. If opt-out testing is going to remain the standard of care then the ethical issues it raises must be made transparent. Strategies need to be designed for ensuring that HIV counseling and testing in pregnancy is done in accordance with ethical and reproductive rights principles.

  7. Opt-out of voluntary HIV testing: a Singapore hospital's experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene C Chua

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH, the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were screened for HIV unless they declined or were not eligible for screening. We reviewed the implementation of the Opt Out testing policy. There were a total of 93,211 admissions; 41,543 patients were included based on HIV screening program eligibility criteria. Among those included, 79% (n = 32,675 opted out of HIV screening. The overall acceptance rate was 21%. Majority of eligible patients who were tested (63% were men. The mean age of tested patients was 52 years. The opt out rate was significantly higher among females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6, aged >60 years (OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 2.2-2.4 and Chinese ethnicity (OR: 1.7, 95%CI:1.6-1.8. The false positive rate of the HIV screening test is 0.56%. The proportion of patients with HIV infection among those who underwent HIV screening is 0.18%. All 16 confirmed HIV patients were linked to care. CONCLUSION: The default opt-in rate of inpatient HIV testing was low at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Efforts to address individual HIV risk perception and campaigns against HIV stigma are needed to encourage more individuals to be tested for HIV.

  8. 'We didn't have to dance around it': opt-out HIV testing among homeless and marginalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, Stacy; Leslie, Gavin; Boldy, Duncan; Davies, Andrew; Girdler, Sonya

    2017-04-20

    This study explored opt-out HIV testing in an Australian general practice. The aims were to: (1) determine the effect of the opt-out approach on the number of HIV tests performed; and (2) explore the acceptability of opt-out HIV testing from the healthcare providers' perspective. A prospective mixed-methods study of opt-out HIV testing over a 2-year period (March 2014-March 2016) was conducted. Implementation was based on a theoretical framework that was developed specifically for this study. The setting was Homeless Healthcare, a health service in Perth, Western Australia. The number of HIV tests conducted during the control year (usual practice) was compared with the intervention year (opt-out testing). After the intervention, the healthcare providers (n=8) were interviewed about their experiences with opt-out HIV testing. Directed content analysis was used to explore the qualitative data. HIV testing rates were low during both the control year and the intervention year (315 HIV tests (12% of the patient cohort) and 344 HIV tests (10%) respectively). Opt-out HIV testing was feasible and acceptable to the participating healthcare providers. Other health services could consider opt-out HIV testing for their patients to identify people with undiagnosed infections and sustain Australia's low HIV prevalence.

  9. [High time for wide application of an opting-out strategy for HIV testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukers-Muijrers, N H T; Dukers-Muijrers, H T M; Heijman, R L J; van Leent, E J M; Coutinho, R A; Thiesbrummel, H F J; Fennema, J S A

    2007-12-01

    --Despite the current active HIV test policy, the effects of the former policy are still visible, i.e. a relatively low number of individuals that have ever been tested for HIV. --The number of HIV tests and knowledge of current HIV status has increased among visitors to the STI clinic in Amsterdam. --Nevertheless, anonymous HIV surveillance among visitors to the STI clinic shows that a considerable proportion of HIV-infected individuals (24% of men who have sex with men (MSM) and 80% of heterosexuals) are unaware of the infection. --A new opting-out strategy for HIV testing in STI clinics is recommended. --The opting-out strategy may also be applicable to other medical settings, especially those that treat target populations such as MSM, heterosexuals with STI-related symptoms, and persons originating from AIDS-endemic regions. --The opting-out system was initiated in the Amsterdam STI clinic in 2007 in order to further reduce the number of undiagnosed HIV infections.

  10. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.

  11. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally. METHODS: The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection. RESULTS: HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another. CONCLUSION: "Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  12. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O'Connell

    Full Text Available Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively.Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%, 44(0.49% and 447(5.05% HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%, 20(0.22% and 58(0.66% were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively.Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted.

  13. Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamalwa David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. Methods Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Results Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59, not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03, and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86. Conclusion High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women

  14. Does the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Recommendation of Opt-Out HIV Screening Impact the Effect of Stigma on HIV Test Acceptance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anish P; Kinsler, Janni J; Cunningham, William E; James, Saloniki; Makam, Lakshmi; Manchanda, Rishi; Shapiro, Martin F; Sayles, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a key factor impeding patient utilization of HIV testing services. To destigmatize HIV testing, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an 'opt-out' screening strategy aimed at all patients in all clinical settings, regardless of HIV risk. This study assessed whether opt-out screening as compared to opt-in screening was associated with increased uptake of HIV testing among patients with HIV/AIDS-related stigma concerns. This study included 374 patients attending two Los Angeles ambulatory care clinics. Stigma items were grouped into three constructs: Blame/isolation, abandonment, and contagion. Individuals endorsing the blame/isolation subscale (AOR = 0.52; 95 % CI 0.29-0.92; p\\0.05) and abandonment subscale (AOR = 0.27; 95 % CI 0.13-0.59; p\\0.01) were significantly less likely to accept an HIV test. Additionally, the opt-out model did not counter the negative effects of stigma on HIV test acceptance. These findings indicate that stigma remains a barrier to HIV testing, regardless of the opt-out screening approach.

  15. Uptake of voluntary counselling and testing among young people participating in an HIV prevention trial: comparison of opt-out and opt-in strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Baisley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT is an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. However, testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa is still low, particularly among young people. As treatment becomes more widely available, strategies to expand VCT coverage are critically important. We compare VCT uptake using two delivery strategies (opt-in and opt-out within the MEMA kwa Vijana trial in 20 communities in northwest Tanzania. METHODS: We analysed data from 12,590 young persons (median (IQR age 22 years (20-23 to assess the effect of delivery strategy on VCT uptake. Ten communities used an opt-in approach and 10 used opt-out, balanced across intervention and control. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with uptake within each strategy. RESULTS: VCT uptake was significantly higher with the opt-out approach (90.9% vs 60.5%, prevalence ratio = 1.51, CI = 1.41-1.62. Among females, uptake in the opt-out approach was associated with decreased knowledge of HIV acquisition, sex with a casual partner, and being HSV-2 seronegative; among males, uptake was associated with lower education and increasing lifetime partners. In contrast, uptake using the opt-in approach varied by ethnic group, religion and marital status, and increased with increasing knowledge of STI acquisition (males or pregnancy prevention (females. CONCLUSION: VCT uptake among young people was extremely high when offered an opt-out strategy. Sociodemographic and knowledge factors affected uptake in different ways depending on delivery strategy. Increased knowledge may increase young persons' self-efficacy, which may have a different impact on testing uptake, depending on the approach used.

  16. The Diplomacy of Opting Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    How are controversial national opt-outs managed and perceived in the EU? This article argues that the United Kingdom and Denmark compensate diplomatically for the exclusionary effects of their exemptions. A Bourdieudian approach to national diplomacy in the EU is developed to explore how British...... and Danish officials handle their opt-outs. By drawing on extensive interview data, it is demonstrated that the two opt-out champions employ various sophisticated strategies to overcome the dilemma between autonomy and influence. Some diplomatic strategies reduce marginalization while others enhance it....... National opt-outs are ambiguous attempts at avoiding further European integration....

  17. The Diplomacy of Opting Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    to upholding a doxa of ‘ever closer union among the peoples of Europe'. Empirically, the thesis provides the first extensive study of the diplomatic practices of the two champions of opting out - the UK and Denmark - when they handle their most important opt-outs from the Economic Monetary Union and Justice...

  18. Opt-out and opt-in testing increases syphilis screening of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Guy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2005, Australian clinicians were advised to undertake quarterly syphilis testing for all sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM. We describe differences in syphilis testing frequency among HIV-positive MSM by clinic testing policies since this recommendation. METHODS: Three general practices, two sexual health clinics and two hospital HIV outpatient clinics provided data on HIV viral load and syphilis testing from 2006-2010. Men having ≥1 viral load test per year were included; >95% were MSM. We used Chi-2 tests to assess changes in syphilis testing frequency over time, and differences by clinic testing policy (opt-out, opt-in and risk-based. RESULTS: The proportion of men having HIV viral loads with same-day syphilis tests increased from 37% in 2006 to 63% in 2007 (p<0.01 and 68-69% thereafter. In 2010, same-day syphilis testing was highest in four clinics with opt-out strategies (87%, range:84-91% compared with one clinic with opt-in (74%, p = 0.121 and two clinics with risk-based strategies (22%, range:20-24%, p<0.01. The proportion of men having ≥3 syphilis tests per year increased from 15% in 2006 to 36% in 2007 (p<0.01 and 36-38% thereafter. In 2010, the proportion of men having ≥3 syphilis tests in a year was highest in clinics with opt-out strategies (48%, range:35-59%, compared with opt-in (39%, p = 0.121 and risk-based strategies (8.4%, range:5.4-12%, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Over five years the proportion of HIV-positive men undergoing syphilis testing at recommended frequencies more than doubled, and was 5-6 times higher in clinics with opt-out and opt-in strategies compared with risk-based policies.

  19. Impact of a Routine, Opt-Out HIV Testing Program on HIV Testing and Case Detection in North Carolina Sexually-Transmitted Disease Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pamela W.; Messer, Lynne C.; Myers, Evan R.; Weber, David J.; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection. Adults aged 18–64 who received an HIV test in a North Carolina STD clinic July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2011 were included in this analysis, dichotomized at the date of implementation on November 1, 2007. HIV testing and case detection counts and rates were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis, and Poisson and multilevel logistic regression. Pre-intervention, 426 new HIV-infected cases were identified from 128,029 tests (0.33%), whereas 816 new HIV-infected cases were found from 274,745 tests post-intervention (0.30%). Pre-intervention, HIV testing increased by 55 tests per month (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41, 72), but only 34 tests per month (95% CI: 26, 42) post-intervention. Increases in HIV testing rates were most pronounced in females and non-Hispanic whites. A slight pre-intervention decline in case detection was mitigated by the intervention (mean difference [MD]=0.01; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.05). Increases in case detection rates were observed among females and non-Hispanic blacks. The impact of a routine HIV screening in North Carolina STD clinics was marginal, with the greatest benefit among persons not traditionally targeted for HIV testing. The use of a pre-intervention comparison period identified important temporal trends that otherwise would have been ignored. PMID:24825338

  20. 12 CFR 40.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accurately explains the right to opt out under that section. The notice must state: (i) That the bank... a single opt out notice. The bank's opt out notice must explain how the bank will treat an opt out... John's address, the bank may do any of the following, but it must explain in its opt out notice...

  1. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    how representatives manage the stigma of opting out, allowing them to influence even politically sensitive areas covered by their opt-outs. Developing a practice approach to European integration, the book shows how everyday negotiations transform national interests into European ideals. It is usually......European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...

  2. Assessing the impact of opt-out definitions in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    In the current study, we explore the potential impact of using different opt-out definitions in a case study concerning consumer preferences for quality and food safety attributes in chicken fillets. Specifically, we focus on the impact on opt-out effects. Using three different opt-out definitions...... in split samples we find a significant impact on the deterministic part of the opt-out effect whereas we find no impact on the stochastic part of the opt-out effect. Furthermore, to test for respondents' potential use of a simplifying heuristic in terms of resorting to the opt-out when choice tasks...... are difficult, we incorporate the utility balance between the experimentally designed alternatives in the likelihood function. We find that increased utility balance increases the opt-out effect in terms of increased likelihood of a opt-out choice when choices are difficult. Interestingly, we find...

  3. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the mo...

  4. Opting out of an ever closer union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    How is sovereignty managed in the EU? This paper investigates the relationship between sovereignty and European integration through the prism of national opt-outs from EU treaties, addressing an apparent contradiction in contemporary European governance: the contrasting processes of integration...... sovereignty claims are managed in a particular social setting. Rather than seeing opt-outs as classic instruments of international law, accentuating the member states’ unchanged sovereignty, the paper argues that the management of the British and Danish opt-outs quite paradoxically expresses the strength...

  5. Optimizing Opt-Out Consent for Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study testing the effects of different ways of administering an opt-out consent for record linkage in a probability-based Internet panel. First, we conducted cognitive interviews to explore reactions to a draft version of the opt-out consent text. Second, we conducted a two-factor experiment to test the effects of content manipulations and mode. The results indicate that the way in which respondents were informed did not have much effect on opting out. Results from a follow-up survey on attitudes regarding privacy, confidentiality, and trust, along with knowledge questions about the process of linking, showed no evidence that presenting the opt-out consent statement makes respondents more concerned about privacy. Knowledge about the aspects of record linkage is generally not high. When looking at long-term effects of sending an opt-out consent statement, we found no evidence that this leads to higher attrition or lower participation rates.

  6. Opting out of an ever closer union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    on Pierre Bourdieu’s political sociology, the paper argues that to understand how sovereignty is exercised and interpreted in the EU, it is necessary to focus not only on the constitutive and regulative dimensions of sovereignty, but equally on the practice dimension. This entails an exploration of how...... sovereignty claims are managed in a particular social setting. Rather than seeing opt-outs as classic instruments of international law, accentuating the member states’ unchanged sovereignty, the paper argues that the management of the British and Danish opt-outs quite paradoxically expresses the strength...

  7. 12 CFR 332.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods. 332.7 Section 332.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND.... (i) Model privacy form. Pursuant to § 332.2(a) of this part, a model privacy form that meets...

  8. An ethical analysis of opt-out HIV screening for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Cox, Elaine G

    2013-07-01

    Critical advances in prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of the HIV in the perinatal period have changed practice recommendations for HIV screening for pregnant women. Using case studies we illustrate the ethical complexities and implications of opt-out HIV testing for pregnant women. Despite the potential for compromised informed consent, an opt-out HIV screening approach is ethically defensible.

  9. Practical application of opt-out recruitment methods in two health services research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J; Burgess, James F; Fischer, Ellen P; Hodges, Deborah J; Belanger, Lindsay K; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Easley, Siena R; Koenig, Christopher J; Stanley, Regina L; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-14

    Participant recruitment is an ongoing challenge in health research. Recruitment may be especially difficult for studies of access to health care because, even among those who are in care, people using services least often also may be hardest to contact and recruit. Opt-out recruitment methods (in which potential participants are given the opportunity to decline further contact about the study (opt out) following an initial mailing, and are then contacted directly if they have not opted out within a specified period) can be used for such studies. However, there is a dearth of literature on the effort needed for effective opt-out recruitment. In this paper we describe opt-out recruitment procedures for two studies on access to health care within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. We report resource requirements for recruitment efforts (number of opt-out packets mailed and number of phone calls made). We also compare the characteristics of study participants to potential participants via t-tests, Fisher's exact tests, and chi-squared tests. Recruitment rates for our two studies were 12 and 21%, respectively. Across multiple study sites, we had to send between 4.3 and 9.2 opt-out packets to recruit one participant. The number of phone calls required to arrive at a final status for each potentially eligible Veteran (i.e. study participation or the termination of recruitment efforts) were 2.9 and 6.1 in the two studies, respectively. Study participants differed as expected from the population of potentially eligible Veterans based on planned oversampling of certain subpopulations. The final samples of participants did not differ statistically from those who were mailed opt-out packets, with one exception: in one of our two studies, participants had higher rates of mental health service use in the past year than did those mailed opt-out packets (64 vs. 47%). Our results emphasize the practicality of using opt-out methods for studies of access to health care. Despite

  10. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder remove hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Recent papers have suggested that use of a so-called Repeated Opt-Out Reminder (ROOR) might mitigate hypothetical bias in stated Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE), but evidence so far has only been circumstantial. We provide the first comprehensive test of whether a ROOR can actually mitigate...

  11. 17 CFR 248.127 - Renewal of opt out elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.127 Renewal of... expires, you may not make marketing solicitations to a consumer who previously opted out, unless: (i) The... description of the types of eligibility information that may be used to make marketing solicitations to...

  12. Opting-out systems no guarantee for higher donation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2005-01-01

    There are considerable differences in the number of organ donations between countries. It is assumed that opting-out systems have a significantly positive impact on the national organ donation rate. The aim of our study was to establish whether different consent systems explain the difference in org

  13. Opting-out systems no guarantee for higher donation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2005-01-01

    There are considerable differences in the number of organ donations between countries. It is assumed that opting-out systems have a significantly positive impact on the national organ donation rate. The aim of our study was to establish whether different consent systems explain the difference in org

  14. 16 CFR 680.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING § 680.24 Reasonable opportunity to opt out. (a) In general. You must not use eligibility..., such as by posting the notice at an Internet Web site at which the consumer has obtained a product or... conducted on an Internet Web site. The consumer is required to decide, as a necessary part of...

  15. 12 CFR 41.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable opportunity to opt out. 41.24... eligibility information about a consumer that it receives from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the... electronically to the consumer, such as by posting the notice at an Internet Web site at which the consumer...

  16. 12 CFR 334.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable opportunity to opt out. 334.24...) In general. You must not use eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an... Internet Web site at which the consumer has obtained a product or service. The consumer...

  17. Opt-out screening strategy for HIV infection among patients attending emergency departments: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez-Camacho, C; Villafuerte-Gutierrez, P; Pérez-Molina, J A; Losa, J; Gotuzzo, E; Cheyne, N

    2017-07-01

    International health agencies have promoted nontargeted universal (opt-out) HIV screening tests in different settings, including emergency departments (EDs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the testing uptake of strategies (opt-in targeted, opt-in nontargeted and opt-out) to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. We searched the Pubmed and Embase databases, from 1984 to April 2015, for opt-in and opt-out HIV diagnostic strategies used in EDs. Randomized controlled or quasi experimental studies were included. We assessed the percentage of positive individuals tested for HIV infection in each programme (opt-in and opt-out strategies). The mean percentage was estimated by combining studies in a random-effect meta-analysis. The percentages of individuals tested in the programmes were compared in a random-effect meta-regression model. Data were analysed using stata version 12. Quality assessments were performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of the 90 papers identified, 28 were eligible for inclusion. Eight trials used opt-out, 18 trials used opt-in, and two trials used both to detect new cases of HIV infection. The test was accepted and taken by 75 155 of 172 237 patients (44%) in the opt-out strategy, and 73 581 of 382 992 patients (19%) in the opt-in strategy. The prevalence of HIV infection detected by the opt-out strategy was 0.40% (373 cases), that detected by the opt-in nontargeted strategy was 0.52% (419 cases), and that detected by the opt-in targeted strategy was 1.06% (52 cases). In this meta-analysis, the testing uptake of the opt-out strategy was not different from that of the opt-in strategy to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  18. A Comparison of Patient Satisfaction with Emergency Department Opt-In and Opt-Out Rapid HIV Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. E. White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective. To compare patient satisfaction with emergency department (ED opt-in and opt-out HIV screening. Methods. We conducted a survey in an urban ED that provided rapid HIV screening using opt-in (February 1, 2007–July 31, 2007 and opt-out (August 1, 2007–January 31, 2008 approaches. We surveyed a convenience sample of patients that completed screening in each phase. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with HIV screening. Results. There were 207 and 188 completed surveys during the opt-in and opt-out phases, respectively. The majority of patients were satisfied with both opt-in screening (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 92–98 and opt-out screening (94%, 95% CI = 89–97. Satisfaction ratings were similar between opt-in and opt-out phases even after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and test result (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, 95% CI = 0.5–3.1. Conclusions. Emergency department patient satisfaction with opt-in and opt-out HIV screening is similarly high.

  19. DUKUNGAN OPT-OUT DAN PERSEPSI NILAI E-BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Purnami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of perceived firm commitment to privacy and trust in technology on perceived value from the firm with opt-out support as moderating variable. The study was conducted in Denpasar City with  sample size of 120 e-banking user. Sample was determined by purposive sampling and data were collected by using questionnaires distributed directly. The data were processed with Moderate Regression Analysis (MRA. The results of this study indicate that perceived firm commitment to privacy and trust in technology is positively affect perceived value from the firm. Opt-out support are significantly moderate the relationship trust in technology and perceived value from the firm, and the results show a negatif coefficient, which means that the income level weaqken the influence of trust in technology on perceived value from the firm.

  20. Risk Selection under Public Health Insurance with Opt-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthöfer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies risk selection between public and private health insurance when some, but not all, individuals can opt out of otherwise mandatory public insurance. Using a theoretical model, I show that public insurance is adversely selected when insurers and insureds are symmetrically informed about health-related risks, and that there can be adverse or advantageous selection when insureds are privately informed. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I find that (i) public insurance is, on balance, adversely selected under the German public health insurance with opt out scheme, (ii) individuals advantageously select public insurance based on risk aversion and residential location, and (iii) there is suggestive evidence of asymmetric information in the market for private health insurance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 12 CFR 41.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 41.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out notice must be provided... provisions in this subpart or the provisions in section 101 of the Electronic Signatures in Global and...

  2. 12 CFR 571.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 571.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out notice must be... provisions in this subpart or the provisions in section 101 of the Electronic Signatures in Global and...

  3. In the United States, "Opt-Out" States Show No Increase in Access to Anesthesia Services for Medicare Beneficiaries Compared with Non-"Opt-Out" States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Eric C; Miller, Thomas R; Halzack, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, anesthesia care can be provided by anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists. Since 2001, 17 states have exercised their right to "opt-out" of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist, with the majority citing increased access to anesthesia care as the rationale for their decision. By using Medicare data, we found that most (4 of 5) cohorts of "opt-out" states likely experienced smaller growth in anesthesia utilization rates compared with non-"opt-out" states, suggesting that opt-out was not associated with an increase in access to anesthesia care.

  4. 12 CFR 41.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. (a) In general... means to opt out, such as a form that can be electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site... affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such as by calling a single...

  5. 12 CFR 41.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 41.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt-out. (1) In general. Except as... the notice to make solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship. (i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with a bank or its affiliate, an opt-out notice may apply...

  6. Opting out against defection leads to stable coexistence with cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Yu; Fan, Song-Jia; Li, Cong; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent. Our experimental and theoretical results show clearly that the strategies allowing opting out against defection are able to maintain this stable coexistence. PMID:27775099

  7. Evaluation of a HIV voluntary opt-out screening program in a Singapore hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Quan Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV allows for appropriately timed interventions with improved outcomes, but HIV screening among asymptomatic persons and the general population in Singapore remains low. In 2008, Singapore's Ministry of Health implemented HIV voluntary opt-out screening (VOS for hospitalised adults. We evaluated the outcome of VOS and surveyed reasons for its low uptake in our institution. METHODS: We assessed the outcomes of the VOS programme from January 2010 to December 2013 at National University Hospital, a 1081-bed tertiary hospital in Singapore. We also examined reasons for opting-in and opting-out using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire in a representative sample in January 2013. RESULTS: 107,523 patients fulfilled VOS criteria and were offered HIV screening, of which 5215 (4.9% agreed to testing. 4850 (93.1% of those who opted-in had an HIV test done. Three (0.06% tested positive for HIV. 238 patients (14.2% were surveyed regarding reasons for opting-in or out of VOS. 21 (8.8% had opted-in. Patients who opted-in were likely to be younger, more educated and reported having more regular sexual partners. Type of housing, number of casual sexual partners, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, condom use and previous sexually transmitted infection were not associated with deciding to opt-in/out. Patients' most common reasons for opting-out were: belief that they were at low risk (50.2%, belief that they were too old (26.8%, cost (6.9% and aversion to venepuncture (6.5%. The most common reason for opting-in was desire to know their HIV status (47.6%. CONCLUSION: The success of an HIV-VOS program is largely determined by test uptake. Our study showed that the majority of eligible VOS patients opted-out of HIV screening. Given the considerable cost and low yield of this programme, more needs to be done to better equip patients in self-risk assessment and opting in to testing.

  8. Assessing the impact of opt-out definitions in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    In the current study, we explore the potential impact of using different opt-out definitions in a case study concerning consumer preferences for quality and food safety attributes in chicken fillets. Specifically, we focus on the impact on opt-out effects. Using three different opt-out definitions...... that this heuristic has a larger impact when the opt-out is defined as respondents own typical (perceived) purchase than when defined as a none-of-these or a provided hypothetical alternative. We consequently stress the importance for researchers to be aware of these possible implications related to the definition...

  9. 17 CFR 248.123 - Contents of opt out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.123 Contents of opt out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices. (a) Contents of opt out...”; (iii) A general description of the types of eligibility information that may be used to make...

  10. 12 CFR 717.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out... Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b) Examples of reasonable expectation...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 334 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to Part 334 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 334, App. C Appendix C to Part 334—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices...

  12. 12 CFR 334.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.25 Reasonable and simple methods... or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such...

  13. 12 CFR 571.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. (a) In general... out, such as a form that can be electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the... (15 U.S.C. 6801 et seq.), the affiliate sharing opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing...

  14. 16 CFR 680.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. (a) In general. You must not use... a form that can be electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer..., 15 U.S.C. 6801 et seq., the affiliate sharing opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing...

  15. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such...

  16. 12 CFR 334.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer with whom you have a pre-existing business relationship; (2... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 334... OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.21 Affiliate marketing opt-out...

  17. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    reasons why Cheap Talk may fail to effectively remove hypothetical bias, especially in Choice Experiments. In this light, we suggest augmenting Cheap Talk in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder. Prior to each single choice set, the Opt-Out Reminder explicitly instructs respondents...... to choose the opt-out alternative if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical Choice Experiment survey we find the Opt-Out Reminder to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the Cheap Talk applied without the Opt...... Talk with a dynamic Opt-Out Reminder can be an effective and promising improvement in the ongoing effort to remedy the particular types of hypothetical bias that potentially continue to invalidate Choice Experiment surveys....

  18. Opt-out as an acceptable method of obtaining consent in medical research: a short report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vellinga, Akke

    2011-04-06

    Abstract Background A prospective cohort study was set up to investigate a possible association between antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance of E. coli urinary tract infection in the community. Participation of patients with urinary tract infection was obtained through an opt-out methodology. This short paper reports on the acceptability of the opt-out recruitment approach. Methods Participating practices (22) were requested to send a urine sample from all patients presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection. Upon receipt of the sample in the laboratory, a letter explaining the study, an opt-out form and a freepost envelope were sent to all adult patients. A website with additional information and including an \\'opt-out\\' button was set up for the study. Results A total of 1362 urine samples were submitted by the 22 participating practices representing 1178 adult patients of whom 193 actively responded to the letter: 142 opted out by letter, 15 through the website, 2 by phone and 12 sent the letter back without indication, making a total of 171 patients or 14.5% opt-out; the remaining 22 patients (1.9%) explicitly opted in. The total group consisted of 80% women and the mean age was 50.9 years (sd 20.8). No significant differences were found between patients who participated and those who opted out in terms of age, gender or whether the urine sample was positive or not. Conclusions Overall the opt-out method was well received and participation in the study reached 85.5%. The low number of complaints (2) indicates that this is a generally acceptable method of patient recruitment. The 14.5% opt-out shows that it effectively empowers patients to decline participation. The similarity between patients opting out and the rest of the patients is reassuring for extrapolation of the results of the study.

  19. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a... of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b) Examples...

  20. Participant recruitment in sensitive surveys: a comparative trial of 'opt in' versus 'opt out' approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Katherine J; Shlomo, Natalie; Addington-Hall, Julia

    2013-01-01

    ... by returning a reply slip is frequently adopted. However, in observational research the risk to participants is lower than in clinical research and so some surveys have used an 'opt-out' system...

  1. 12 CFR 334.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general... Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b) Examples of...

  2. Inclusion of residual tissue in biobanks: opt-in or opt-out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A A Giesbertz

    Full Text Available Residual samples are an important source of tissue for biobanks. They refer to leftover tissue that is obtained in the course of clinical care. Residual samples can be included through an opt-in method--that is, a person explicitly expresses consent to include residual tissue--or an opt-out method--that is, the tissue is stored unless a person explicitly refuses. At the moment there is a renewed interest in the appropriate method for the inclusion of residual samples in biobanks. The expansion of biobanks and rapid developments in biomedical research underscore the need to evaluate the proper procedure. In this article we revisit the arguments in favor and against opt-in and opt-out methods for residual tissue research. We conclude firstly that an opt-out method is only justifiable when certain conditions are met: (1 awareness has to be raised, (2 sufficient information has to be provided, and (3 a genuine possibility to object has to be offered. An opt-out procedure that fulfills these conditions can be called a "thick" opt-out method. As a consequence, the dichotomy between opt-in and opt-out is less stark than usually suggested, as both methods require a certain amount of effort. Secondly, we conclude that because of the diversity of tissue and research, not every situation can be treated alike. There are at least four situations that require opt-in procedures: (1 research with higher risks or increased burdens, (2 the use of controversial or high-impact techniques, (3 research on sensitive tissue types, and (4 research involving vulnerable patients. We suggest that further interdisciplinary debate should answer the question when to opt-in or when to opt-out.

  3. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...

  4. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    reasons why Cheap Talk may fail to effectively remove hypothetical bias, especially in Choice Experiments. In this light, we suggest augmenting Cheap Talk in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder. Prior to each single choice set, the Opt-Out Reminder explicitly instructs respondents...... Talk with a dynamic Opt-Out Reminder can be an effective and promising improvement in the ongoing effort to remedy the particular types of hypothetical bias that potentially continue to invalidate Choice Experiment surveys.......Hypothetical bias remains a major problem when valuing non-market goods with stated preference methods. Originally developed for Contingent Valuation studies, Cheap Talk has been found to effectively reduce hypothetical bias in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss...

  5. Domestic uptake of green energy promoted by opt-out tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Felix; Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Motivating individuals to choose energy from sustainable sources over conventionally produced power constitutes one of the biggest policy challenges for societies. Here we present the results of a randomized controlled trial in Germany that tested the impact of default rules (that is, a type of `nudging’) on voluntary purchases of `green’ energy contracts that entirely stem from renewable resources. Setting the default choice to more expensive `green’ energy (that is, where consumers have to actively opt out if they do not want it) increased purchases of such nearly tenfold. Furthermore, county-level political preference for the green party uniquely predicted behaviour in the absence of the nudge, suggesting that default setting potentially overrules motivational aspects of green energy purchases. In follow-up experiments, we provide further evidence that the effect does not seem to be driven by unawareness. Summarizing, the present research provides an example of using behavioural science for climate change mitigation and shows alternatives to the use of subsidies or other economic incentives.

  6. A qualitative study exploring why individuals opt out of lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Brandzel, Susan; Wernli, Karen J; Roth, Joshua A; Buist, Diana S M

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer screening with annual low-dose computed tomography is relatively new for long-term smokers in the USA supported by a US Preventive Services Task Force Grade B recommendation. As screening programs are more widely implemented nationally and providers engage patients about lung cancer screening, it is critical to understand behaviour among high-risk smokers who opt out to improve shared decision-making processes for lung cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons for screening-eligible patients' decisions to opt out of screening after receiving a provider recommendation. Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews were performed with 18 participants who met lung cancer screening criteria for age, smoking and pack-year history in Washington State from November 2015 to January 2016. Two researchers with cancer screening and qualitative methodology expertise conducted data analysis using thematic content analytic procedures from audio-recorded interviews. Five primary themes emerged for reasons of opting out of lung cancer screening: (i) Knowledge Avoidance; (ii) Perceived Low Value; (iii) False-Positive Worry; (iv) Practical Barriers; and (v) Patient Misunderstanding. The participants in our study provided insight into why some patients make the decision to opt out of low-dose computed tomography screening, which provides knowledge that can inform intervention development to enhance shared decision-making processes between long-term smokers and their providers and decrease decisional conflict about screening.

  7. 12 CFR 571.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affiliates; the number and/or types of marketing communications that the service provider may send to the... communication. (iii) A credit card issuer makes a marketing call to the consumer without using eligibility... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 571...

  8. 12 CFR 222.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affiliates; the number and/or types of marketing communications that the service provider may send to the... communication. (iii) A credit card issuer makes a marketing call to the consumer without using eligibility... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 222...

  9. Opt In versus Opt Out : A Free-Entry Analysis of Privacy Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    There is much debate on how the flow of information between firms should be organized, and whether existing privacy laws should be amended.We offer a welfare comparison of the three main current policies towards consumer privacy - anonymity, opt in, and opt out - within a two-period model of

  10. The effect of including an opt-out option in discrete choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldwijk (Jorien); M.S. Lambooij (Mattijs); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); G.A. De Wit (G. Ardine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated tradeoffs. Methods: 781 Dutch Type 2

  11. 12 CFR 717.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting... an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of information; (iv... the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such as by calling...

  12. 12 CFR 334.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt... relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with you or your affiliate... continuing relationship or multiple continuing relationships that the consumer establishes with you or...

  13. 17 CFR 248.121 - Affiliate marketing opt out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business relationship with the consumer. (b) Making marketing solicitations—(1) In general. For purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate marketing opt out... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing §...

  14. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    included in the state-mandated curriculum. If administrators are influenced to believe teachers have the academic freedom to teach alternative ideas that are not scientifically valid, they may be intentionally or unintentionaly allowing subject matter relevant to a student's academic success to be suppressed or distorted, which is also a violation of state statute. The implications from this study indicated that many participants would allow a student to opt out of class when evolution is taught, including assigning an alternative assignment. Since the scientific theory of evolution is infused into the biological sciences, and therefore, the Florida State Standards for science, evolution concepts are assessed on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and the Biology End-of-Course exam. Allowing students to opt out of class when evolution is taught may have a negative impact on student success on state mandated assessments, which can directly impact school grades and state and federal funding that is tied to Adequate Yearly Progress.

  15. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    Hypothetical bias continues to be a major challenge for stated preference methods. Cheap Talk (CT) has been found to be an effective remedy in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss reasons why CT may fail to effectively remove specific types of hypothetical bias...... in Choice Experiments. We suggest augmenting CT in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder (OOR). Prior to each choice set, the OOR explicitly instructs respondents to choose the opt-out alternative, if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical survey we...... find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...

  16. The appropriateness of opt-out consent for monitoring childhood obesity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, K; Kremer, P; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Allender, S; Leslie, E; Jones, L; Fornaro, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-10-01

    Childhood obesity monitoring is a fundamental component of obesity prevention but is poorly done in Australia. Monitoring obesity prevalence in children provides important population health data that can be used to track trends over time, identify areas at greatest risk of obesity, determine the effectiveness of interventions and policies, raise awareness and stimulate action. High participation rates are essential for effective monitoring because these provide more representative data. Passive ('opt-out') consent has been shown to provide high participation rates in international childhood obesity monitoring programs and in a recent Australian federal initiative monitoring early child development. A federal initiative structured like existing child development monitoring programs, but with the authority to collect height and weight measurements using opt-out consent, is recommended to monitor rates of childhood obesity in Australia.

  17. Private International Law Issues in Opt-out and Opt-in Instruments of Harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogt, Morten Midtgaard

    2013-01-01

    and territorial scope of application, the optional character as opt-out or opt-in instrument, the mandatory or non-mandatory nature and the interpretation and gap-filling regime. The legal complications and potential conflicts which these differences create are manifold. This article offers a research......This article deals with opt-in and opt-out instruments of harmonization, how they apply and compete. It analyses the Private International Law (PIL) issues which arise and bases the analysis on the two instruments of harmonization – the Vienna Convention on Contract for the International Sale...... of Goods from 1980 (CISG) and the European Commission Proposal for a common European Sales Law from 2011 (CESL). Although the two instruments of substantial harmonization regulate the same area of civil law, they differ with respect to the type of formal instrument of harmonization, the material, personal...

  18. What Do We Know about Explanations for Drop out/Opt out among Young People from STM Higher Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulriksen, Lars; Madsen, Lene Moller; Holmegaard, Henriette T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the literature on understandings of drop out/opt out from science, technology and mathematics (STM) higher education programmes. After outlining the literature on students leaving higher education programmes in general, we then explore the research on drop out/opt out from STM programmes in particular, with…

  19. The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Byker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Debate about an increasing trend in highly educated women dropping out of the labor force to care for children—an opt-out revolution—has been considerable. I use unique features of the of Survey of Income and Program Participation—a large nationally representative sample, longitudinal structure, monthly labor-force outcomes, and repeated panels—to study trends in women's birth-related career interruptions over time and across the education spectrum. Methodologically, I use event studies to compare women's monthly labor-force outcomes on the extensive and intensive margins from twenty-four months before to twenty-four months after births in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Rather than an abrupt change in opting out, I find that the pattern of birth-related interruptions has changed surprisingly little over the past thirty years—substantial and sustained interruptions remain common for mothers in all education categories. Rather than a revolution, I find an opt-out continuation.

  20. Metaphors of organ donation, social representations of the body and the opt-out system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Mary Anne

    2009-11-01

    Organ donation is the only available treatment for end-stage failure of organs such as liver, lung, and heart and therefore increasing the number of organ donors is a priority for most countries. One measure that could be taken by a country to increase the number of organ transplants is to introduce the opt-out system of organ donation. Public opinion is divided on this issue and policy makers need to tread with caution before introducing legislation. This paper proposes that understanding the social representations the public has of organ donation is important in taking the right policy decisions. We propose here that an in-depth study of the views held by people on the issue is essential in this regard and that this can best be done by investigating the metaphors people use to describe organ donation, interpreted within the theory of social representation. In this study, the social representations of organ donation were investigated through five focus groups with 57 participants living in Malta. Analysis of the transcriptions of these focus groups yielded pertinent issues related to organ donation. Moreover, metaphors of organ donations and how these were related to social representations of the body and attitudes towards the opt-out system are discussed. It is being suggested that these findings could be of relevance to the present discussion on the opt-out system in the UK and in other countries.

  1. Opting out: confidentiality and availability of an 'alibi' for potential living kidney donors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Carrie; Kim, Yunsoo A; Formica, Richard; Bia, Margaret; Kulkarni, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Ethicists and guidelines have suggested that potential living kidney donors who withdraw from evaluation be offered an 'alibi.' We sought to determine what potential living kidney donors are told about their ability to opt out, alibi availability and postwithdrawal confidentiality. We reviewed 148 consent forms for living kidney donor evaluation from US transplant centres that performed >5 living kidney transplants in 2010-2011 (response rate 87%). We found that while 98% of centres used evaluation consent forms that indicated that the donor could withdraw, only 21% of these documents offered an alibi. Another 23% of centres' consent forms indicated that the transplant team would be willing to inform the intended recipient that an individual was not a potential donor. Relatively few consent documents explicitly addressed the confidentiality of the donor's health information (31%), candidacy status (18%), decision (24%) or reasons (23%) following withdrawal. To preserve potential donors' autonomy and relationships, we advocate that all transplant centres offer general alibis in their evaluation consent forms. We conclude by offering recommendations for evaluation consent discussions of opting out, alibis and postwithdrawal confidentiality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Private International Law Issues in Opt-out and Opt-in Instruments of Harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogt, Morten Midtgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with opt-in and opt-out instruments of harmonization, how they apply and compete. It analyses the Private International Law (PIL) issues which arise and bases the analysis on the two instruments of harmonization – the Vienna Convention on Contract for the International Sale...... into these questions and argues, inter alia, that the CISG as a global international convention should have priority over the regional CESL, that the choice of the CESL should be based on a PIL choice of binding European ‘Community rules of law’, that both instruments cannot possible overrule the established PIL...... of Goods from 1980 (CISG) and the European Commission Proposal for a common European Sales Law from 2011 (CESL). Although the two instruments of substantial harmonization regulate the same area of civil law, they differ with respect to the type of formal instrument of harmonization, the material, personal...

  3. Parental opinions regarding an opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Danielle M; Roland, Allison P; Morris, Marilyn C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parental opinions regarding opt-out consent for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US. Study design A series of handouts describing hypothetical observational research studies with opt-out consent were reviewed by parents of hospitalized children. A verbal survey explored parental opinions about the proposed consent process. Results A total of 166 parents reviewed the handout and completed the survey. Only 2/166 parents (1.2%) objected to the study described and another 10 (6.0%) cited concern about the privacy of their child’s medical information. A total of 157 parents were asked “Is it okay to tell you about this kind of research using this handout?” – 116 (74%) responded positively, 19 (12%) responded negatively, and 21 (13%) made an indeterminate or neutral response. When parents were asked to recommend a specific consent approach for observational research, 86 (52%) chose an opt-in approach, 54 (33%) chose opt-out, and 25 (15%) chose “no consent needed”. There were no significant associations between parental preferences and whether the child was admitted to the intensive care unit vs. pediatric ward, and no significant difference found based on type of handout reviewed (generic vs. study-specific). Conclusion Few parents voiced objection to a hypothetical opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research. When asked to recommend a specific consent approach, though, approximately half chose an opt-in approach. These data suggest that an opt-out consent process for observational inpatient research is likely to be acceptable to parents, but assessment of an opt-out consent process in a real-world setting is needed. PMID:28176926

  4. 12 CFR 332.14 - Exceptions to notice and opt out requirements for processing and servicing transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to notice and opt out requirements for processing and servicing transactions. 332.14 Section 332.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT... means; (B) The transfer of receivables, accounts, or interests therein; or (C) The audit of...

  5. Barriers to Recruitment in Pediatric Obesity Trials: Comparing Opt-in and Opt-out Recruitment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Mary Beth; Janicke, David; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Robson, Shannon; Bolling, Christopher; Zion, Cindy; Stark, Lori

    2017-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of opt-in versus opt-out recruitment methods in pediatric weight management clinical trials. Recruitment of preschoolers and school-age children across two obesity randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were compared using the same opt-in recruitment approach (parents contact researchers in response to mailings). Opt-in and opt-out strategies (parents send decline postcard in response to mailings if they do not want to participate) were then compared across two preschool obesity RCTs. Opt-in strategies yielded a significantly lower overall recruitment rate among preschoolers compared with school-age children. Among preschoolers, an opt-out strategy demonstrated a significantly higher overall recruitment rate compared with an opt-in strategy with the main advantage in the number of families initially contacted. Opt-out recruitment strategies may be more effective in overcoming the barriers of recruitment in the preschool age-group because it does not rely on parent recognition of obesity.

  6. Is Green better than Blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the Unilateral attempt to attrack highly skilled labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Adamo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    , Denmark has, due to its opt-out in Justice and Home Affairs, chosen its own Green Card Scheme. This article looks into this choice and compares the recent Danish attempt to attract high skilled workers with the Blue Card directive. It analyses the differences and similarities between the two schemes...... and investigates why initiatives to attract highly skilled workers have not been successful at either the Danish nor the European level....

  7. Victims, vectors and villains: are those who opt out of vaccination morally responsible for the deaths of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Handfield, Toby; Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated-including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked whether it is legitimate for states to adopt and enforce mandatory universal vaccination. Yet this neglects a related question: are those who opt out, where it is permitted, morally responsible when others are harmed or die as a result of their decision? In this article, we argue that individuals who opt out of vaccination are morally responsible for resultant harms to others. Using measles as our main example, we demonstrate the ways in which opting out of vaccination can result in a significant risk of harm and death to others, especially infants and the immunosuppressed. We argue that imposing these risks without good justification is blameworthy and examine ways of reaching a coherent understanding of individual moral responsibility for harms in the context of the collective action required for disease transmission. Finally, we consider several objections to this view, provide counterarguments and suggest morally permissible alternatives to mandatory universal vaccination including controlled infection, self-imposed social isolation and financial penalties for refusal to vaccinate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Straitjacket or Sovereignty Shield? The Danish Opt-Out on Justice and Home Affairs and Prospects after the Treaty of Lisbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the perplexing and sometimes even counter-intuitive position of Denmark in relation to Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)? In this article, we attempt to go behind the many myths and misunderstandings involved and analyse the consequences of the Danish opt-out from EU...... cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs. Symbolically, the opt-out plays a major role for large parts of the Danish population as a sort of sovereignty guarantee in the face of European integration. While shifting Danish governments may point out the detrimental effects of opt-outs on Denmark's position...

  9. The new opt-out Dutch National Breast Implant Registry - Lessons learnt from the road to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhorst, Hinne A; Mureau, Marc A M; Cooter, Rodney D; McNeil, John; van Hooff, Miranda; van der Hulst, René; Hommes, Juliette; Hoornweg, Marije; Moojen-Zaal, Laura; Liem, Patricia; Mathijssen, Irene M J

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 1-3% of all women in the Netherlands carry breast implants. Since the introduction five decades ago, problems with a variety of breast implants have emerged with direct consequences for the patients' health. Plastic surgeons worldwide reacted through campaigning for auditing on long-term implant quality, surgeon performance, and institutional outcomes in implant registries. Especially, the PIP implant scandal of 2010 demonstrated the paucity of epidemiological data and uncovered a weakness in our ability to even 'track and trace' patients. In addition, a recent report of the Dutch Institute of National Health showed a lack of compliance of 100% of breast implant producers to CE requirements. These arguments stress the need for an independent implant registry. Insufficient capture rates or dependence from the implant producers made the variety of national and international patient registries unreliable. The Dutch Breast Implant Registry (DBIR) is unique because it is an opt-out registry without the need for informed consent and thus a high capture rate. Furthermore, an estimated 95% of breast implants are implanted by board-certified plastic surgeons. Funding was received from a non-governmental organisation to increase the quality of health care in the Netherlands, and maintenance is gathered by 25 euros per implant inserted. This article describes the way the Dutch have set up their system, with special attention to the well-known hurdles of starting a patient registry. Examples include: funding, medical ethical issues, opt out system, benchmarking, quality assurance as well as governance and collaboration. The Dutch consider their experience and data shareware for others to be used globally to the benefit of patient safety and quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic impact of routine opt-out antenatal human immune deficiency virus screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Everistus; Haigh, Carol; Duncan, Fiona; Fatoye, Francis

    2017-03-02

    To evaluate the economic impact of routine testing of human immune deficiency virus in antenatal settings. Many children are being infected with human immune deficiency virus through mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Most of these infections are preventable if the mothers' human immune deficiency virus status is identified in a timely manner and appropriate interventions put in place. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is widely acclaimed as a strategy for universal access to human immune deficiency virus testing and is being adopted by developed and developing poor income countries without recourse to the economic impact. A systematic review of published articles. Extensive electronic searches for relevant journal articles published from 1998-2015 when countries began to implement routine antenatal HIV testing on their own were conducted in the following databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, JSTOR, CINAHL and PubMed with search terms as listed in Box 2. Manual searches were also performed to complement the electronic identification of high-quality materials. There were no geographical restrictions, but language was limited to English. Fifty-five articles were retrieved; however, ten were eligible and included in the review. The findings showed that many programmes involving routine human immune deficiency virus testing for pregnant women compared to the alternatives were cost-effective and cost saving. Data from the reviewed studies showed cost savings between $5,761.20-$3.69 million per case of previously undiagnosed maternal human immune deficiency virus-positive infection prevented. Overall, cost-effectiveness was strongly associated with the prevalence rate of human immune deficiency virus in the various settings. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is both cost-effective and cost saving compared to the alternatives. However, there are wide variations in the methodological approaches to the studies. Adopting standard

  11. UK National Data Guardian for Health and Care's Review of Data Security: Trust, better security and opt-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tom; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; De Lusignan, Simon; Lo Russo, Daniel; Kuziemsky, Craig; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-12-20

    Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case. UK are adopting guidelines, codes of conduct and regulatory instruments aimed to implement privacy principles into practical settings and enhance public trust. Accordingly, in 2015, the UK National Data Guardian (NDG) requested to conduct a further review of data protection, referred to as Caldicott 3.  The scope of this review is to strengthen data security standards and confidentiality. It also proposes a consent system based on an "opt-out" model rather than on "opt-in.Across Europe as well as internationally the privacy-health data sharing balance is not fixed.  In Europe enactment of the new EU Data Protection Regulation in 2016 constitute a major breakthrough, which is likely to have a profound effect on European countries and beyond.  In Australia and across North America different ways are being sought to balance out these twin requirements of a modern society - to preserve privacy alongside affording high quality health care for an ageing population.  Whilst in the UK privacy legal framework remains complex and fragmented into different layers of legislation, which may negatively impact on both the rights to privacy and health the UK is at the forefront in the uptake of international and EU privacy and data protection principles. And, if the privacy regime were reorganised in a more comprehensive manner, it could be used as a sound implementation model for other countries.

  12. Conference report. Swiss nuclear forum. 2012 annual meeting. Disillusionment about nuclear opt-out; Tagungsbericht. Nuklearforum Schweiz. Jahresversammlung 2012. Ernuechterung ueber Atomausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Matthias [Nuklearforum Schweiz/Forum Nucleaire Suisse, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    One year after the hasty announcement by the Swiss Federal Council to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power, Swiss energy policy is still without any firm contours. Conflicts with climate policy and conflicting interests with the conservation of nature and landscape are becoming evident. At its 2012 Annual Meeting in Berne, Switzerland, the Swiss Nuclear Forum struck a first interim balance. Guests and speakers agreed in their scepticism about the energy turnaround. Urs Naef of economiesuisse drew attention to the economic consequences of the new energy policy and called for realistic scenarios. Psychologist Michael Siegrist proved that the perception of nuclear power was characterized by a surprisingly slight Fukushima effect, and Ralf Gueldner, President of DAtF, the Deutsches Atomforum e.V., reported about some first practical experience indicating the difficulties of the German nuclear opt-out. (orig.)

  13. Antenatal clinic and Stop Smoking Services staff views on "Opt-Out" referrals for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a framework analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Anna Campbell; Katharine Anna Bowker; Felix Naughton; Melanie Sloan; Sue Cooper; Tim Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: UK guidance recommends routine exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) screening for pregnant women and "opt-out" referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) of those with CO ≥ 4 ppm. We explored staff views on this referral pathway when implemented in one UK hospital Trust. Methods: Seventeen semi-structured interviews with staff involved in the implementation of the new referral pathway: six antenatal clinic staff (before and after implementation); five SSS staff (after). Data were analyzed...

  14. Evaluation of Routine HIV Opt-Out Screening and Continuum of Care Services Following Entry into Eight Prison Reception Centers--California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kimberley D; Eckert, Valorie; Behrends, Czarina N; Wheeler, Charlotte; MacGowan, Robin J; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C

    2016-02-26

    Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission. Before 2010, HIV testing was available to inmates in the California state prison system upon request. In 2010, the California Correctional Health Care Services (CCHCS) integrated HIV opt-out screening into the health assessment for inmates entering California state prisons. Under this system, a medical care provider informs the inmate that an HIV test is routinely done, along with screening for sexually transmitted, communicable, and vaccine-preventable diseases, unless the inmate specifically declines the test. During 2012-2013, CCHCS, the California Department of Public Health, and CDC evaluated HIV screening, rates of new diagnoses, linkage to and retention in care, ART response, and post-release linkage to care among California prison inmates. All prison inmates are processed through one of eight specialized reception center facilities, where they undergo a comprehensive evaluation of their medical needs, mental health, and custody requirements for placement in one of 35 state prisons. Among 17,436 inmates who entered a reception center during April-September 2012, 77% were screened for HIV infection; 135 (1%) tested positive, including 10 (0.1%) with newly diagnosed infections. Among the 135 HIV-positive patient-inmates, 134 (99%) were linked to care within 90 days of diagnosis, including 122 (91%) who initiated ART. Among 83 who initiated ART and remained incarcerated through July 2013, 81 (98%) continued ART; 71 (88%) achieved viral suppression (HIV RNA copies/mL). Thirty-nine patient-inmates were released on ART; 12 of 14 who were linked to care within 30 days of release were virally suppressed at that time. Only one of nine persons with a viral load test conducted between 91 days and 1 year post-release had viral suppression. Although high rates of viral suppression were achieved in prison

  15. Straitjacket or Sovereignty Shield? The Danish Opt-Out on Justice and Home Affairs and Prospects after the Treaty of Lisbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in the EU, they still have to guarantee to the Danish public that they respect the protocols. In Denmark, the opt-outs are seen to constitute a bulwark against European integration; underpinning an image of the state with full political and legal authority over people, territory and money. This gives them......-outs. Eurosceptic politicians and media claim that protocols protect national sovereignty and may serve as an example to other member states, whereas British and Danish pro-European ministers argue that they lose political influence when they ‘are sent outside'....

  16. Misguided presumptions: British Medical Association (BMA) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance on organ retrieval and 'opt out' or 'presumed consent'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Fiona; Downie, Robin

    2012-12-01

    Three documents have been produced in an attempt to increase the number of organs available for transplant: a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline, a British Medical Association (BMA) report and a Welsh Government white paper. All three are ethically flawed: NICE and the BMA recommend that whenever there is intention to withdraw life-sustaining treatment and death is expected, patients should instead be stabilised to assess for donation. This is contrary to patients' best interests, the principles of mental capacity legislation and current criteria for accessing intensive care units. Regarding consent, the BMA and Welsh Government recommend an 'opt-out' policy, but consent in law requires information and cannot be 'presumed' or 'deemed' on the basis of failure to express or register 'opting out'. The language of all three proposals is manipulative, and patient trust may be undermined because the doctor's attention must move from the interests of the patient to those of the unknown organ recipients.

  17. Antenatal Clinic and Stop Smoking Services Staff Views on "Opt-Out" Referrals for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: A Framework Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katarzyna Anna; Bowker, Katharine Anna; Naughton, Felix; Sloan, Melanie; Cooper, Sue; Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-12

    Introduction: UK guidance recommends routine exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) screening for pregnant women and "opt-out" referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) of those with CO ≥ 4 ppm. We explored staff views on this referral pathway when implemented in one UK hospital Trust. Methods: Seventeen semi-structured interviews with staff involved in the implementation of the new referral pathway: six antenatal clinic staff (before and after implementation); five SSS staff (after). Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Two themes were identified: (1) views on implementation of the pathway and (2) impact of the pathway on the women. Generally, staff felt that following training, referrals were less arduous to implement and better received than expected. The majority believed this pathway helped engage women motivated to quit and offered a unique chance to impart smoking cessation knowledge to hard-to-reach women, who might not otherwise contact SSS. An unexpected issue arose during implementation-dealing with non-smokers with high CO readings. Conclusions: According to staff, the "opt-out" referral pathway is an acceptable addition to routine antenatal care. It can help engage hard-to-reach women and educate them about the dangers of smoking in pregnancy. Incorporating advice on dealing with non-smokers with high CO into routine staff training could help future implementations.

  18. Joining or opting out of a Lotka-Volterra game between predators and prey: does the best strategy depend on modelling energy lost and gained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staňková, Kateřina; Abate, Alessandro; Sabelis, Maurice W; Buša, Ján; You, Li

    2013-12-06

    Apart from interacting, prey and predators may also avoid each other by moving into refuges where they lack food, yet survive by switching to an energy-saving physiological state. Lotka-Volterra models of predator-prey interactions ignore this option. Therefore, we have modelled this game of 'joining versus opting out' by extending Lotka-Volterra models to include portions of populations not in interaction and with different energy dynamics. Given this setting, the prey's decisions to join or to opt out influence those of the predator and vice versa, causing the set of possible strategies to be complex and large. However, using game theory, we analysed and published two models showing (i) which strategies are best for the prey population given the predator's strategy, and (ii) which are best for prey and predator populations simultaneously. The predicted best strategies appear to match empirical observations on plant-inhabiting predator and prey mites. Here, we consider a plausible third model that does not take energy dynamics into account, but appears to yield contrasting predictions. This supports our assumption to extend Lotka-Volterra models with 'interaction-dependent' energy dynamics, but more work is required to prove that it is essential and that what is best for the population is also best for the individual.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST BED DESIGNATED FOR MODEL STUDIES OF AERODYNAMICS OF PREMISES USING METHOD OF DIGITAL FLOW VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varapaev Vladimir Nikolaevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors present their findings generated at the laboratory of aerodynamic and aero-acoustic testing of structural units of MGSU. The authors provide information about the principle of operation and a brief description of the experimental test bed designated for the physical research of patterns of air flows arising inside building premises of various geometric shapes. The authors also demonstrate the basic parameters of the test bed, the principle of operation of its recording devices and some of its characteristics. The test bed is designated for the identification of characteristics of three-dimensional flows of models under research and for the verification of results of numerical studies. The measurement bed has advanced measurement and registration units. The management principle is based on the method of digital flow visualization, PIV method and Doppler flow meter implemented in the LDA anemometer. The test stand generates two or three component vector fields of turbulent gas flow velocities. It may be applicable to the study of liquids in case of research of hydraulics-related problems. Some results of the flow study are provided in the article, as well.

  20. Opt-in or opt-out to increase organ donation in South Africa? Appraising proposed strategies using an empirical ethics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Harriet; Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer

    2017-05-16

    Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy. We argue that a hard opt-in, opt-out or mandated consent system would be problematic, and we present empirical data from Gauteng Province illustrating barriers to ethically sound practice in soft consent systems. Ultimately, we argue that in spite of some limitations, a soft opt-in system is most realistic for SA because its implementation does not require extensive public education campaigns at national level, and it does not threaten to further erode trust at a clinical level. However, to circumvent some of the clinical-level barriers identified in our empirical study, we propose a contextually sensitive option for "enabling" soft opt-in through "required transplant referral". We argue that this system is legally defensible, enhances ethical practice and could also increase donor numbers as it has in many other countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Testing spatial preferences response patterns in Choice experiments: A comparison between Cheap Talk, Opt-Out Reminder and a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Casper; Ladenburg, Jacob

    responses are related to the use of hypothetical bias mitigation reminders, such as budget reminders, cheap talk (Cummings and Taylor 1999; Loomis et al. 1994). The relevance of this is particularly evident as increasing studies find evidence of the Cheap Talk reminders are less effective in CE (Ladenburg...

  2. Causal premise semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals.

  3. Congress Opts Out of Canning Spam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Shames

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available And in the beginning, there was e-mail! At least, that may be the perception of the millions of people who use electronic mail (“e-mail” every day. In fact, the pervasiveness of the Internet in general, and the World Wide Web and e-mail in particular, has made it difficult for many people to remember the world before these technologies changed the face of communications forever. But it was only a decade ago that e-mail was a novelty outside of academic and scientific settings, the Web was not yet viable as a commercial mechanism, and the promise and exuberance surrounding the developing technologies masked the dangers of the road that would lie ahead.

  4. Conference report. Premature opt-out of nuclear power. Analysis of Fukushima as a counterpoint to Swiss energy policy; Fachtagung des Nuklearforums. Analyse von Fukushima als Kontrapunkt zur Schweizer Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Mathias [Nuklearforum Schweiz/Forum Nucleaire Suisse, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Fast is not always good: The political decision to opt out of the use of nuclear power in Switzerland was taken without any serious analysis of the reasons for the accident in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station in Japan. It neglects the demonstrated performance and safety features of nuclear power in Switzerland and the enormous potential of this technology. This is the conclusion drawn at an expert meeting of the Swiss Nuclear Forum held in Olten about the lessons to be learnt from Fukushima. Less than a year after the natural disaster in Japan and the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station, experts from Switzerland and other countries met for an expert conference organized by the Swiss Nuclear Forum to draw conclusions and learn lessons from that accident. It became obvious that the safety margin against natural disasters is higher by a decisive amount in Swiss nuclear power plants than in Fukushima, and is being further upgraded continuously. In summary, it can be said that, in view of its economic and ecological advantages, nuclear power is being developed further worldwide at the highest level of safety, including the lessons learnt from Fukushima. Unlike Switzerland, numerous European and overseas countries plan to renew, expand or start their nuclear power plant parks in the next few decades by building modern plants of the advanced third generation. Stephan Doehler, Head of the Axpo Nuclear Power Division: ''Nuclear power is a safe, reliable, economic and non-polluting way of electricity generation with a considerable technological potential for the future.'' (orig.)

  5. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  6. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  7. The ethics of feedback of HIV test results in population-based surveys of HIV infection/L'ethique de retroaction des resultats du test VIH dans les enquetes de population a infection de VIH/La etica de informar sobre los resultados de las pruebas del VIH en encuestas de poblacion sobre la infeccion por VIH.(Policy & practice)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maher, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    .... However, in anonymous surveys of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, participants can "opt out" of being given their test results or are offered the chance to undergo voluntary HIV testing in local counselling and testing services...

  8. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  9. Neurotechnology premises, potential, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, James

    2012-01-01

    New technologies that allow us to investigate mechanisms and functions of the brain have shown considerable promise in treating brain disease and injury. These emerging technologies also provide a means to assess and manipulate human consciousness, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, bringing with them the potential to transform society. Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential, and Problems explores the technical, moral, legal, and sociopolitical issues that arise in and from today,s applications of neuroscience and technology and discusses their implications for the future. Some of the issues r

  10. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented......‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....

  11. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented......‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....

  12. On Cuneo's Defence of The Parity Premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.E. Rutten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his book 'The Normative Web' Terence Cuneo provides a core argument for a paradigmatic instance of moral realism. At the heart of this instance lies the ontological thesis that there are irreducible moral facts. The parity premise is the first and main premise of Cuneo's core argument. It claims that 'if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist'. In this paper I first introduce and explain Cuneo's core argument. Subsequently I present and interpret his defence of the parity premise. It will be shown that Cuneo's defence, although intriguing, is not adequate and should therefore be refuted.

  13. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14{sup th} German atomic energy law symposium 2012; Atomrecht nach dem Ausstieg. Lebendig und spannend. Tagungsbericht 14. Deutsches Atomrechtssymposium 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about

  14. 17 CFR 248.126 - Delivery of opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.126 Delivery... electronic disclosures by e-mail from the affiliate providing the notice; or (4) Posts the notice on...

  15. 17 CFR 248.124 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.124 Reasonable... affiliate to make marketing solicitations to a consumer about your products or services unless the consumer... Internet Web site at which the consumer has obtained a product or service. The consumer...

  16. Lean in or Opt Out: Career Pathways of Academic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Ward, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Casual observers of academic environments might conclude that women's problems in higher education have been resolved. Colleges enroll more women than men on an overall basis. There is gender parity in entry-level faculty hires, and the number of women in senior administrative positions continues to rise. A closer look however at the work, lives,…

  17. 16 CFR 642.3 - Prescreen opt-out notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... electronically, on the same page and in close proximity to the principal marketing message; (iii) Located on the... a blank line above and below the statement, and by indenting both the left and right margins...

  18. Opting Out: Losing the Potential of America's Young Black Elite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Maya A.

    2011-01-01

    Why has the large income gap between blacks and whites persisted for decades after the passage of civil rights legislation? More specifically, why do African Americans remain substantially underrepresented in the highest-paying professions, such as science, engineering, information technology, and finance? A sophisticated study of racial…

  19. Cultural Diversity and the Shared Premises Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weyermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. In this paper we defend the shared premises requirement – as a relevant aspect of a legitimate and stable political order – against critiques raised by Michael J. Perry. According to him, the shared premises requirement has overly demanding consequences for religious persons because they cannot refer to their religious beliefs in political debates with non-religious persons. We argue that Perry's critique is problematic because, first, the requirement does not disadvantage religious beliefs in particular, but controversial views in general. Second, religious persons can draw on their religious normative views in political debate – given that these views are overdetermined. Third, religious persons are allowed to refer to all of their most important controversial beliefs, if they support their arguments also with largely shared premises. Finally, the requirement barely disadvantages religious persons because it only applies where religious beliefs become relevant in political debate.

  20. The Search for the Holy Grail: Content-Referenced Score Interpretations from Large-Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Scott F.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement industry is in crisis. The public outcry against "over testing" and the opt-out movement are symptoms of a larger sociopolitical battle being fought over Common Core, teacher evaluation, federal intrusion, and a host of other issues, but much of the vitriol is directed at the tests and the testing industry. If we, as…

  1. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.10 Outer premises and stables. (a) The outer premises of...

  3. Fate of free chlorine in drinking water during distribution in premise plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Muzi; He, Chunguang; He, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i.e. copper, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated for their performance in maintaining free chlorine residual. Free chlorine decay was shown to follow first-order kinetics for all three pipe materials tested. The most rapid chlorine decay was observed in copper pipes, suggesting the need for higher chlorine dosage to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual if copper piping is used. PVC pipes exhibited the least reactivity with free chlorine, indicative of the advantage of PVC as a premise plumbing material for maintaining free chlorine residual. The reactivity of copper piping with free chlorine was significantly hindered by the accumulation of pipe deposits. In contrast, the impact on chlorine decay by pipe deposits was not significant in galvanized iron and PVC pipes. Findings in this study are of great importance for the development of effective strategies for the control of free chlorine residual and prevention of microbiological contamination in premise plumbing.

  4. Indicator disease-guided testing for HIV--the next step for Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazzard, B; Clumeck, N; d'Arminio Monforte, A;

    2008-01-01

    with sexually transmitted diseases should be offered an HIV test, as should patients with certain types of cancers and laboratory abnormalities. Governments should consider adopting opt-out testing for pregnant women. These recommendations should be considered for implementation by all types of health...

  5. Deep repository. Underground design premises. Edition D1/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    This report proposes design premises and methodology for application in the preliminary design of underground excavations within the framework of SKB's site investigations. The design premises and supporting instructions for rock mechanical and hydrogeological analyses are a result of planning work carried out between the autumn of 2002 and the spring of 2003. Other overall planning has also been done at the same time for the Deep Repository Project. The first draft underwent revision following a seminar on 30 June 2003 primarily with respect to structure and coordination aspects within the project, as well as certain factual questions. That version served as a basis for an application exercise based on site descriptive model version 1.1 Forsmark. The purpose of the application exercise was to: Test relevant portions of the proposed methodology for rock engineering for the initial site investigations (ISI); Evaluate the application of preliminary design requirements; Identify and develop proposals for collaboration between design and site and site modelling units for the best possible feedback in future work, especially iterations for meeting the needs of design; Identify and develop proposals for collaboration between safety assessment and design for realistic proposals for site adaptation. The design application exercise was evaluated at the end of 2003 and its results serve as an important basis for revisions. The update was commenced with a workshop in February 2004, where the goals were established.

  6. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  7. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    The sustainable manufacturing of medicines, materials and chemicals is enabled with biotechnology, and the key to the development of new processes, as well as improvement of existing ones, lies in our fundamental understanding of the biological systems we manipulate. Recombinant protein production...... of protein in a sustainable, costefficient manner. In this thesis I report the joined efforts of my colleagues and myself, to improve the premises for cell factory development by optimizing the cloning strategies, improving the awareness of unforeseen side-effects in complex bacterial expression systems......, and building a platform for enhanced expression of certain plant genes in bacteria. The relevance of the conducted research to the field of biotechnology is covered, as well as necessary scientific background and history. Specifically, the surprisingly minor effects of tRNA overexpression on the production...

  8. The Users Office returns to its premises

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The renovation work on the Users Office, which began on 29 November, was completed last week. The Office's staff have now returned to their modernised and more spacious premises in Building 61. For four months, the Users' Office was housed in Building 2-R-030 thanks to the LHCb experiment collaboration, which was kind enough to temporarily loan some office space. For 15 years, the team has been helping Users with their administrative tasks. It provides them with all the information necessary on the procedures to be followed after their arrival at CERN as well as on cultural activities in the region. Since the beginning of January, the team is also looking after the Unpaid Associates. CERN hosts 4489 Users from Member States and 1909 from non-Members States, representing over 50 nationalities.

  9. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY – PREMISES AND EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina\tBRAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is providing an overview of global economy, highlighting following aspects: premises of globalization process in economy, their effects and subsequent reactions which occur, for a proper management of adverse effects. Our approach facilitates understanding of globalization process that begins to be part of our life. We would like to describe globalization, as a phenomenon capable to determine pulse of national economic activities. Globalization is an important issue and the aim of our paper is to describe globalization as a whole, with its lights and its shadows. According to this dual description, in this way, becoming a known process, “survival” ways can be discovered. Globalization is irreversible and we have to “assimilate” it as a model of thinking and to manage it in our own interest, individually or nationally, and before considering it a good or bad intruder in our lives, we must know it. Issue of globalization is that we have limited resources at global level, and an increasing level of consumption, so we need to find a solution.

  10. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  11. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  12. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate...

  13. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... related investments, loans, or indebtedness, as described in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section....

  14. Microbiological investigation of halal butchery products and butchers' premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C; Gillespie, I; de Louvois, J; Mitchell, R

    1999-06-01

    Halal butchers' premises were investigated as they had not been represented in a recent study of butchery products and butchers' premises conducted by the Local Authorities Coordinating Body on Food and Trading Standards and the PHLS. This study examined 183 raw prepared meats and 212 environmental samples from 105 halal butcher premises. Only raw meats were prepared on 97 of the premises visited; and the types of meat prepared on the remaining eight premises was not specified. Four halal butchers sold cooked meats prepared elsewhere. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were detected in 12 (7%) and 52 (28%) of the 183 raw meat products, respectively. Five raw prepared meats (3%) contained both salmonella and campylobacter. Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from a raw meat product that also contained campylobacter. No cooked meat products were available for collection. The physical separation of raw and unwrapped cooked meat products in premises that prepared raw and sold cooked meats was not recorded. Apron cloths were the most heavily contaminated environmental samples examined; hygiene indicator microorganisms indicated an increased risk of cross contamination. Managers in 85 premises had received no food hygiene training and 88 premises had no hazard analysis system in place. Improvements are needed to reduce the risk of cross contamination.

  15. Premise Selection for Mathematics by Corpus Analysis and Kernel Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Alama, Jesse; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Urban, Josef; Heskes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Smart premise selection is essential when using automated reasoning as a tool for large-theory formal verification, formal proof development, and experimental reverse mathematics. A strong method for premise selection in complex mathematical libraries is the application of machine learning to large corpora of proofs. This work develops learning-based premise selection in two ways. First, a newly available minimal dependency analysis of existing high-level formal mathematical proofs is used to build a large knowledge base of proof dependencies, providing new precise data for ATP-based re-verification and for training premise selection algorithms. Second, a new machine learning algorithm for premise selection based on kernel methods is proposed and implemented. To evaluate the impact of both techniques, a new benchmark consisting of 2078 large-theory mathematical problems is constructed, extending the older MPTP Challenge benchmark. The combined effect of the both techniques developed shows 40% improvement on t...

  16. The Quasilinear Premise for the Modeling of Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Gregory G; TenBarge, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    The quasilinear premise is a hypothesis for the modeling of plasma turbulence in which the turbulent fluctuations are represented by a superposition of randomly-phased linear wave modes, and energy is transferred among these wave modes via nonlinear interactions. We define specifically what constitutes the quasilinear premise, and present a range of theoretical arguments in support of the relevance of linear wave properties even in a strongly turbulent plasma. We review evidence both in support of and in conflict with the quasilinear premise from numerical simulations and measurements of plasma turbulence in the solar wind. Although the question of the validity of the quasilinear premise remains to be settled, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the value of the quasilinear premise in modeling plasma turbulence and that its usefulness may also be judged by the insights gained from such an approach, with the ultimate goal to develop the capability to predict the evolution of any turbulent plasma syst...

  17. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  18. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  19. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  20. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Further, a warehouse company or other person may, upon obtaining the consent of the proprietor and the..., establish at the wine premises a bonded wine warehouse for the storage of wine and allied products for..., as amended (26 U.S.C. 5351, 5353, 5361)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  1. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  2. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  3. PREMISES FOR CREATING KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA ANCA FUCEC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition to the knowledge-based economy in Romania is the main path towards obtaining a sustainable economic growth and may even be the feasible solution our country needs in order to exit the current economic crisis. The knowledge-based organizations are the main vector, a necessary and ireplaceable condition and factor for the creation of the knowledge economy, therefore every leader should be at least familiar with the premises needed to increase the number of these kind of organizations in Romania and sustain a propitious environment for their development. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and unfold the premises that need to be fulfilled in order to facilitate Romania’s transition to the knowledge economy. To this end, following the macroeconomic and microeconomic situation, not only from an economical perspectrive, but also from a managerial one, there have been two categories of premises, which are actually conditioning elements for Romania’s transition to the knowledge economy. At macroeconomic level, the main premise is that of the need to substantiate (found, elaborate and implement a genuine strategy for the transition to the knowledge economy; at microeconomic level, the organizations need to embrace a strategic management, relocate their attention towards the human resources, receive support from the IT departments and give the proper importance to organizational culture and the processes related to change management. By emphasizing the details of these premises, the objectives of ilustrating Romania’s vulnerabillities and needs regarding the transition to the knowledge economy have been attained.

  4. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All premises, including... disinfection shall be shared according to the agreement reached under § 53.2 with the State in which the work...

  5. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  6. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ATF officers to enter business premises. 646.153 Section 646.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect the...

  7. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  8. Geostatistical sampling optimization and waste characterization of contaminated premises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnoyers, Y.; Jeannee, N. [GEOVARIANCES, 49bis avenue Franklin Roosevelt, BP91, Avon, 77212 (France); Chiles, J.P. [Centre de geostatistique, Ecole des Mines de Paris (France); Dubot, D. [CEA DSV/FAR/USLT/SPRE/SAS (France); Lamadie, F. [CEA DEN/VRH/DTEC/SDTC/LTM (France)

    2009-06-15

    At the end of process equipment dismantling, the complete decontamination of nuclear facilities requires a radiological assessment of the building structure residual activity. From this point of view, the set up of an appropriate evaluation methodology is of crucial importance. The radiological characterization of contaminated premises can be divided into three steps. First, the most exhaustive facility analysis provides historical and qualitative information. Then, a systematic (exhaustive) control of the emergent signal is commonly performed using in situ measurement methods such as surface controls combined with in situ gamma spectrometry. Finally, in order to assess the contamination depth, samples are collected at several locations within the premises and analyzed. Combined with historical information and emergent signal maps, such data allow the definition of a preliminary waste zoning. The exhaustive control of the emergent signal with surface measurements usually leads to inaccurate estimates, because of several factors: varying position of the measuring device, subtraction of an estimate of the background signal, etc. In order to provide reliable estimates while avoiding supplementary investigation costs, there is therefore a crucial need for sampling optimization methods together with appropriate data processing techniques. The initial activity usually presents a spatial continuity within the premises, with preferential contamination of specific areas or existence of activity gradients. Taking into account this spatial continuity is essential to avoid bias while setting up the sampling plan. In such a case, Geostatistics provides methods that integrate the contamination spatial structure. After the characterization of this spatial structure, most probable estimates of the surface activity at un-sampled locations can be derived using kriging techniques. Variants of these techniques also give access to estimates of the uncertainty associated to the spatial

  9. Premises, principles, and practices in qualitative research: revisiting the foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2004-09-01

    In this keynote address, the author focuses on what we bring to qualitative inquiry and how we conduct our research. What we do, why we do it, and how we do it remain contested issues. She proposes that we look at our methodological premises anew, revisit our principles, and revise our practices. Throughout this address, she draws on Goffman's methodological insights to provide a foundation for reassessing qualitative inquiry. She argues that researchers can build on Goffman's ideas to strengthen their methodological practices and research products. Last, she counters current institutional scrutiny of qualitative inquiry and suggests unacknowledged benefits of this work.

  10. Emergency lighting for industrial, commercial and residential premises

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, X

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Lighting: For Industrial, Commercial and Residential Premises concerns itself with the provision of emergency lighting to facilitate exit routes for people in industrial, commercial, and residential areas. The book covers important topics such as the objectives of emergency lighting systems; the identification of safe routes under low lighting in different areas; and related devices such as luminaires, emergency signs, and way-guidance. Also discussed are the applications of emergency lighting; factors to consider in the design of emergency lighting; electrical installations; and tes

  11. Teacher's asserting premises and possibilities of efficient managerial styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Marian Bunaiasu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of teacher's managerial styles is unitary approached along with educational styles issue and institutional management styles issue, and is part of the class' managerial dimension. Comparative, educational and managerial styles (of the school manager have a theoretical history and benefit from validated techniques and tools, whereas teacher's managerial styles issue are about to gain consistency as part of the pedagogical literature, and present researches emphasize their roles in efficientizing didactic activity. The article Teacher's asserting premises and possibilities of efficient managerial styles is based on multiple specific sub- themes: a analysis of the key-concepts outlining theme's theoretical framework; b teacher's managerial styles typology; c conditions and modalities in order to efficientize managerial styles. Premises of the topic speech consist in: situationally approach the educational process, the relation between teacher's educational and managerial styles, references to a personal research regarding the outline of the constructive teacher's managerial styles. Based on these key-concepts and in accordance with the multidimensional approach (conditions, factors, modalities in order to outline and assert styles, possibilities and modalities are being analyzed in order to efficientize teacher's managerial styles.

  12. Premises for the establishing of the European Administrative Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin-Silviu Sararu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes the premises which made possible the creation of a European Administrative Space in the European Union. Are researched the criteria for belonging to the European Space, the conditions for the existence of a European Public Space and the notion of the European Administrative Space. They emphasize the factors that can determine a unified transnational public law by analyzing the administrative convergences in Europe. Today we find that although the term and concept of law of public administration differ from one national system to another, it is possible an agreement on a common definition of administrative law, as a set of principles and rules that relate to the organization and administration management public and relations between governments and citizens.

  13. 17 CFR 248.122 - Scope and duration of opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.122 Scope and... information received from another affiliate as described in the notice to make marketing solicitations to the... the expectation of engaging in other transactions. (4) Menu of alternatives. A consumer may be...

  14. 17 CFR 248.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for service providers and joint marketing. 248.13 Section 248.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of... out requirements for service providers and joint marketing. (a) General rule. (1) The opt...

  15. 12 CFR 41.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship with the depository institution's securities affiliate for management of the consumer's securities... institution does not have a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer and none of the other... affiliate that has or has previously had a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer; or (ii)...

  16. 16 CFR 680.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has a relationship with the creditor's securities affiliate for management of the consumer's.... The creditor does not have a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer and none of the... affiliate that has or has previously had a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer; or (ii)...

  17. 12 CFR 717.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the affiliate relating to the marketing of your products or services; (D) Your affiliate is... the federal credit union relating to the marketing of the products and services of all affiliates... used by the service provider in marketing products or services to the federal credit union's...

  18. Revenge of the Beta Boys: Opting out as an Exercise in Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing underachieving boys on a high-performing high school campus. Unlike the "laddishness" often seen in studies of underachievement among boys, the boys in this study were quiet, unobtrusive, and compliant within the classroom. Using qualitative interviews and observation conducted over a one-year…

  19. 12 CFR 40.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or transaction; (ii) To protect against or prevent actual or potential fraud, unauthorized...) To provide information to insurance rate advisory organizations, guaranty funds or agencies, agencies... insurance authority, with respect to any person domiciled in that insurance authority's State that is...

  20. 12 CFR 41.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... card companies and the XYZ insurance companies” (ii) A list of the affiliates or types of affiliates... card companies and the XYZ insurance companies”; (iii) A general description of the types of...,” then the notice may indicate that it is being provided by multiple companies with the ABC name...

  1. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  2. 17 CFR 248.125 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.125... consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a marketing solicitation to the consumer about your... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery...

  3. Revenge of the Beta Boys: Opting out as an Exercise in Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing underachieving boys on a high-performing high school campus. Unlike the "laddishness" often seen in studies of underachievement among boys, the boys in this study were quiet, unobtrusive, and compliant within the classroom. Using qualitative interviews and observation conducted over a one-year…

  4. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  5. Evolution of sanctioning systems and opting out of games of life

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Cang, Voltaire; Chen, Xiaojie

    2014-01-01

    In explaining altruistic cooperation and punishment, the challenging riddle is how transcendental rules can emerge within the empirical world. Recent game-theoretical studies show that pool punishment, in particular second-order punishment, plays a key role in understanding the evolution of cooperation. Second-order pool punishment, however, is tautological in nature: the punishment system itself is caused by its own effects. The emergence of pool punishment poses a logical conundrum that to date has been overlooked in the study of the evolution of social norms and institutions. Here we tackle the issue by considering the interplay of (a) cognitive biases in reasoning and (b) Agamben's notion of homo sacer (Agamben, G. 1998. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford Univ. Press), that is, a person who may be killed without legal consequence. Based on cognitive disposition of reversing the cause-and-effect relationship, then we propose a new system: preemptive punishment of homo sacers. This action c...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income,” “account history,” or “credit score” for accuracy, such as “payment history,” “credit history,” “payoff.... Substituting other types of affiliates covered by the notice for “credit card,” “insurance,” or...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 41 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income,” “account history,” or “credit score” for accuracy, such... covered by the notice for “credit card,” “insurance,” or “securities” affiliates. 5. Omitting items...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 717 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income,” “account history,” or “credit score” for accuracy, such as “payment history,” “credit history,” “payoff status,” or “claims history... of affiliates covered by the notice for “credit card,” “insurance brokerage,” or...

  9. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 698 - Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income,” “account history,” or “credit score” for accuracy, such as “payment history,” “credit history,” “payoff.... Substituting other types of affiliates covered by the notice for “credit card,” “insurance,” or...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 571 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income,” “account history,” or “credit score” for accuracy, such... covered by the notice for “credit card,” “insurance,” or “securities” affiliates. 5. Omitting items...

  11. 17 CFR 248.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... providers and joint marketing do not apply when you disclose nonpublic personal information: (1) With the... related to public safety; (5)(i) To a consumer reporting agency in accordance with the Fair Credit....7(f). Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date...

  12. Why do women opt out? Sense of belonging and women's representation in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Catherine; Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2012-04-01

    Sense of belonging to math-one's feelings of membership and acceptance in the math domain-was established as a new and an important factor in the representation gap between males and females in math. First, a new scale of sense of belonging to math was created and validated, and was found to predict unique variance in college students' intent to pursue math in the future (Studies 1-2). Second, in a longitudinal study of calculus students (Study 3), students' perceptions of 2 factors in their math environment-the message that math ability is a fixed trait and the stereotype that women have less of this ability than men-worked together to erode women's, but not men's, sense of belonging in math. Their lowered sense of belonging, in turn, mediated women's desire to pursue math in the future and their math grades. Interestingly, the message that math ability could be acquired protected women from negative stereotypes, allowing them to maintain a high sense of belonging in math and the intention to pursue math in the future. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Promotional and Non-Stereotypical Policing Roles: Are Women Opting Out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1707-99 - General provisions; opt-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (even if the harmonization increases the stringency of the standard or requirement), provided that, if... EPA's initial equivalency determination. In accounting for the emissions effect of OTC State...

  15. 12 CFR 332.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 332.15 Other exceptions... provisions of law and in accordance with the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq... and other applicable legal requirements; (ii) To comply with a properly authorized civil, criminal,...

  16. Prevalence of Legionella in premise plumbing in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Zsófia; Kádár, Mihály; Kálmán, Emese; Scheirich Szax, Anita; Vargha, Márta

    2016-03-01

    Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions.

  17. Conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates the transition between familiar and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to 15-year-olds. Study 2 (n = 366) found a positive effect of simply generating alternatives, but only in 19-year-olds. Study 3 (n = 92) found that 9- to 11-year-olds were able to respond logically with false premises, whereas no such ability was observed in 6- to 7-year-olds. Reasoning with false premises was found to improve reasoning with semiabstract premises in the older children. These results support the idea that alternatives generation with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning.

  18. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  19. Microalgae and Its Premises towards Sustainable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, M. N.; Yahya, L.; Zainal, A.; Boosroh, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    This paper features the use of nature’s element as a tool to combat current global issues on environment. Through research works by TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. (TNBR), marine phototrophic microalgae is used in reducing CO2 emissions from its fossil-fuel based power plants using. The research program commenced in 2011 with the aim to develop capacity, capability and facilities in biological CO2 fixation. The research program focuses on improving and enhancing the CO2 fixation through four core measures; namely species selection, nutrient optimization, flue gas admission and photobioreactor (PBR) design and engineering. The measures lead to the migration and evolution of culture facilities from laboratory conditions to outdoor, from shake flasks to 6 x 250 liter pilot PBR facility at a live coal-fired power plant, from mono species to consortium of species. Increment of CO2 fixation rates is summarized with discussion on comparisons of other achievements reported elsewhere. A considerable amount of work on analysing the bioactive compound present in the algae - protein, amino acids, carbohydrate, lipid, fatty acids - and its encouraging results, as an impetus towards sustainable development, will also be shared. Premises and observations from various microalgae research works are collated and presented in a manner sufficient to highlight the eminent roles of this tiny creature to become our mentor in providing some solutions to our worldly problems.

  20. Effective Power Management in Homes and Premises in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Amuzuvi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient use of electricity in residences and premises has been identified to be largely due to the use of certain household appliances. Household appliances such as refrigerators, deep freezers, television sets etc, have become an integral part of modern life. Though the power ratings of this equipment are not high, its misuse has led to energy wastage. It is therefore prudent to investigate measures aimed at eliminating waste, improving efficiency and reducing electric power consumption in households. It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil fuel energy use. It is realised that strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. This study therefore first discusses the various types of energy meters in use. Next, the study elaborates on the optimal use of some electrical utilisation systems such as lighting systems, heating systems, electronic and electrical appliances, aimed at promoting household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at educating electric power users are also discussed. Finally, this study proposes a public relation model to educate the public on efficient use of domestic power and also ensure that, information on energy management tool is right at the door-step of every consumer in Ghana.

  1. Constructing scientific explanations through premise-reasoning-outcome (PRO): an exploratory study to scaffold students in structuring written explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the design and enactment of an instructional strategy aimed to support students in constructing scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, a new instructional framework called premise-reasoning-outcome (PRO) was conceptualized, developed, and tested over two years in four upper secondary (9th-10th grade) physics and chemistry classrooms. This strategy was conceptualized based on the understanding of the structure of a scientific explanation, which comprises three primary components: (a) premise - accepted knowledge that provides the basis of the explanation, (b) reasoning - logical sequences that follow from the premise, and (c) outcome - the phenomenon to be explained. A study was carried out to examine how the PRO strategy influenced students' written explanations using multiple data sources (e.g. students' writing, lesson observations, focus group discussions). Analysis of students' writing indicates that explanations with a PRO structure were graded better by the teachers. In addition, students reported that the PRO strategy provided a useful organizational structure for writing scientific explanations, although they had some difficulties in identifying and using the structure. With the PRO as a new instructional tool, comparison with other explanation frameworks as well as implications for educational research and practice are discussed.

  2. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... for disinfection to 30 days when request for such extension is received by him prior to the expiration...

  3. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter or...

  4. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of this...

  5. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  6. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  7. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  8. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  9. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  10. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  11. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  12. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be...

  13. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  14. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  15. Food hygiene, deprivation, types of premises and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    To understand more about the relationship between economic deprivation, types of premises, food hygiene scores and rates of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. Data were extracted from the UK Food Standards Agency for about 300 000 UK premises which had hygiene scores based on visits from local authority food safety officers. These scores were analysed by type of premises, deprivation and local authority. Local authority-level average scores were mapped and compared with rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness from the Health Protection Agency. UK. UK premises (n 311 458) from 341 local authority areas that sell or produce food. There was a modest but statistically significant relationship between average food hygiene score and deprivation, which was caused by deprived areas having more of the categories of premises with significantly lower hygiene scores; these were pub/club (n 40 525), restaurant/café/canteen (n 73 052), small retailer (n 42 932) and takeaway (n 36 708). No relationship was established between local authority average food hygiene scores and rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness; however, this result does not preclude a relationship between food hygiene and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses, as laboratory-detected illness rates make up only a small proportion of actual rates of illness in the community. Certain types of UK premises are more likely to have low hygiene scores, which means that they should be targeted more for enforcement. These types of premises are more prevalent in the most economically deprived areas.

  16. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  17. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over 1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength, and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions. One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described, it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub) where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

  18. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p catering premises (p catering premises (p catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The importance of adequate training for food handlers and their managers as a pre-requisite for effective hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) based controls is therefore emphasised.

  19. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  20. Energy statistics for non-residential premises 2012; Energistatistik foer lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data on a number of non-residential premises, heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  1. Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Yee-Fatt; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-06-01

    A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.

  2. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  3. Price elasticity of on- and off-premises demand for alcoholic drinks: A Tobit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how price policies will affect alcohol consumption requires estimates of the impact of price on consumption among different types of drinkers and across different consumption settings. This study aims to estimate how changes in price could affect alcohol demand across different beverages, different settings (on-premise, e.g., bars, restaurants and off-premise, e.g., liquor stores, supermarkets), and different levels of drinking and income. Tobit analysis is employed to estimate own- and cross-price elasticities of alcohol demand among 11 subcategories of beverage based on beverage type and on- or off-premise supply, using cross-sectional data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control Survey 2013. Further elasticity estimates were derived for sub-groups of drinkers based on their drinking and income levels. The results suggest that demand for nearly every subcategory of alcohol significantly responds to its own price change, except for on-premise spirits and ready-to-drink spirits. The estimated demand for off-premise beverages is more strongly affected by own price changes than the same beverages in on-premise settings. Demand for off-premise regular beer and off-premise cask wine is more price responsive than demand for other beverages. Harmful drinkers and lower income groups appear more price responsive than moderate drinkers and higher income groups. Our findings suggest that alcohol price policies, such as increasing alcohol taxes or introducing a minimum unit price, can reduce alcohol demand. Price appears to be particularly effective for reducing consumption and as well as alcohol-related harm among harmful drinkers and lower income drinkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Managerial Analysis Regarding the Strategic Premises of Two Large Tourism Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andres

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some theoretical and practical ideas regarding the application of managerial analysis methods of strategic premises belonging to two large tourism agencies that presently function on profitable bases on the Caras-Severin county territory. The observation refers to the managerial analysis used, which offers the information necessary to obtaining knowledge on the status of the firm and on the establishment of relevant premises and proposals for the viability of business in the tourism domain.

  5. Applying HIV testing guidelines in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan R; Fogler, Jess; Weber, Shannon; Goldschmidt, Ronald H

    2009-12-15

    An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.

  6. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  7. The risk of Aedes aegypti breeding and premises condition in South Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Davies, Clive R; Coleman, Paul G; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Pinkus-Rendón, Miguel; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2013-12-01

    A recent innovation instrumented for the Dengue Prevention and Control program in Mexico is the use of the premises condition index (PCI) as an indicator of risk for the vector Aedes aegypti infestation in dengue-endemic localities of Mexico. This paper addresses whether further improvements for the dengue control program could be made if the prevalence and productivity of Ae. aegypti populations could be reliably predicted using PCI at the household level, as well as medium-sized neighborhoods. We evaluated the use of PCI to predict the infestation with Aedes aegypti (breeding sites and immature productivity) in Merida, Mexico. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey based on a cluster-randomized sampling design. We analyzed the statistical association between Aedes infestation and PCI, the extent to which the 3 components of PCI (house maintenance, and tidiness and shading of the patio) contributed to the association between PCI and infestation and whether infestation in a given premises was also affected by the PCI of the surrounding ones. Premises with the lowest PCI had significantly lower Aedes infestation and productivity; and as PCI scores increased infestation levels also tended to increase. Household PCI was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti breeding, largely due to the effect of patio untidiness and patio shade. The mean PCI within the surroundings premises also had a significant and independent explanatory power to predict the risk for infestation, in addition to individual PCI. This is the 1st study in Mexico showing evidence that premises condition as measured by the PCI is related to Ae. aegypti breeding sites and immature productivity. Results suggest that PCI could be used to streamline surveys to inform control efforts at least where Ae. aegypti breeds outdoors, as in Merida. The effect of individual premises, neighborhood condition, and the risk of Aedes infestation imply that the risk for dengue vector infestation can only be

  8. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  9. PREMISES FOR A MODEL OF DECISION – MAKING ON THE FINANCING OF A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical theory of finance is based on the premises of rationality and maximizing profits that accompany economic decision-making. Complementarily, the modern theory of behavioral finance studies the effect of emotional and psychological factors of decision- maker on the choice of financing sources for economic activities. In opposition with the classical perspective, the contemporary theory of finance brings up to the stage various aspects of decision making, including elements of strategic behavior towards risk. All these contradictory elements are used as premises for modeling the decision making process of financing a project.

  10. Mitochondrial free radical theory of aging: who moved my premise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2014-10-01

    First proposed by D Harman in the 1950s, the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) has become one of the most tested and well-known theories in aging research. Its core statement is that aging results from the accumulation of oxidative damage, which is closely linked with the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria. Although MFRTA has been well acknowledged for more than half a century, conflicting evidence is piling up in recent years querying the causal effect of ROS in aging. A critical idea thus emerges that contrary to their conventional image only as toxic agents, ROS at a non-toxic level function as signaling molecules that induce protective defense in responses to age-dependent damage. Furthermore, the peroxisome, another organelle in eukaryotic cells, might have a say in longevity modulation. Peroxisomes and mitochondria are two organelles closely related to each other, and their interaction has major implications for the regulation of aging. The present review particularizes the questionable sequiturs of the MFRTA, and recommends peroxisome, similarly as mitochondrion, as a possible candidate for the regulation of aging. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Towards Perpetual Peace: an Analysis of the reachability of the basic premises of Kant’s Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Kelly Cruz de Sousa França

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study will seek to analyze Kant’s project with regard, specifically, to its basic premises as conditions of possibility for perpetual peace. Such peace is admittedly an unattainable ideal; however, the attainability of its premises is advocated by Kant. The objective of this article is to verify if the conditions stipulated by it are enough to reach these premises.

  12. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection of... for disinfection to 30 days when request for such extension is received by him prior to the expiration...

  13. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.4 Disinfection of... paid will be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the cleaning and disinfection, except...

  14. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... of Principles Employees âsuffered Or Permittedâ to Work § 785.12 Work performed away from...

  15. Living Off Dead Premises: The Persistence of Enlightenment Mentalities in the Making of Social Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Ringo

    2015-01-01

    Enlightenment beliefs in progress, development, growth, civilizing process and evolution have played a central role in the history of social science. After two world wars, influential scholars like Horkheimer, Adorno and Gehlen came to question Enlightenment premises. Science could no longer be take

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke: views from the Dunedin hospitality industry on prohibition of smoking in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A; Blair, A

    2000-11-24

    To describe Dunedin hospitality industry perceptions of difficulties in enforcement of a prohibition on smoking in licensed premises, and possible effects on staff, customers and business. To identify any need for education to assist transition and reduce compliance difficulties with smoke-free legislation. A reply paid questionnaire was mailed to all 311 licensed premises registered with the Dunedin District Licensing Agency, operational in May 1999. overall response rate (67%) differed significantly by type of premises (bar, club, restaurant and off-licence). Overall, a smoking ban was considered likely to be difficult to enforce (82%), upset customers (74%), reduce business (59%) and negatively effect employees (51%). On each issue, there was a consistent pattern of increasing concern from off-licenses (least concern) through restaurants, to clubs and bars (most concern). Considerable concern exists in the hospitality industry about the effects of extending smoke-free status to licensed premises. To assist transition and future compliance, there is a need to address these concerns and provide reliable information to calm unnecessary fears and develop appreciation of the need for change.

  17. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  18. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  19. 9 CFR 146.53 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants and premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants and premises. 146.53 Section 146.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...-Release Upland Game Birds, and Raised-for-Release Waterfowl § 146.53 Terminology and...

  20. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35...; books and accounts. (a) Operators shall allow Indian mineral owners, their authorized representatives... submit all related reports required by the minerals agreement and applicable regulations. Books...

  1. 25 CFR 700.547 - Consuming intoxicants on Government premises or during duty hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consuming intoxicants on Government premises or during duty hours. 700.547 Section 700.547 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.547 Consuming intoxicants on...

  2. Living Off Dead Premises: The Persistence of Enlightenment Mentalities in the Making of Social Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Enlightenment beliefs in progress, development, growth, civilizing process and evolution have played a central role in the history of social science. After two world wars, influential scholars like Horkheimer, Adorno and Gehlen came to question Enlightenment premises. Science could no longer be

  3. Malthus under a Microscope: Using the Soil Nematode "Coenorhabditis elegans" to Test Darwin's Premises about Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Melinda M.

    2007-01-01

    Biological evolution is one of the over-arching concepts recommended for student learning by the "National Science Education Standards." As with all such complex concepts, student understanding of evolution is improved when instruction includes hands-on, inquiry-based activities. However, even authors writing in strong support of teaching…

  4. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of...-flavor concentrate plant or vice-a-versa, the proprietor must comply with the requirements of §§ 18.39...

  5. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  6. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.7 Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars...

  7. The reduction of intoxication and disorder in premises licensed to serve alcohol: An exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Jonathan P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licensed premises offer a valuable point of intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm. Objective To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the feasibility and acceptability of a premises-level intervention designed to reduce severe intoxication and related disorder. The study also aims to assess the feasibility of a potential future large scale effectiveness trial and provide information on key trial design parameters including inclusion criteria, premises recruitment methods, strategies to implement the intervention and trial design, outcome measures, data collection methods and intra-cluster correlations. Design A randomised controlled trial in licensed premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year preceding the intervention, documented in police or hospital Emergency Department (ED records. Premises were recruited from four study areas by piloting four recruitment strategies of varying intensity. Thirty two licensed premises were grouped into matched pairs to reduce potential bias and randomly allocated to the control or intervention condition. The study included a nested process evaluation to provide information on intervention acceptability and implementation. Outcome measures included police-recorded violent incidents, assault-related attendances at each premises' local ED and patron Breath Alcohol Concentration assessed on exiting and entering study premises. Results The most successful recruitment method involved local police licensing officers and yielded a 100% success rate. Police-records of violence provided the most appropriate source of data about disorder at the premises level. Conclusion The methodology of an exploratory trial is presented and despite challenges presented by the study environment it is argued an exploratory trial is warranted. Initial investigations in recruitment methods suggest that study premises should be recruited with the assistance of police

  8. 12 CFR 40.14 - Exceptions to notice and opt out requirements for processing and servicing transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance: account administration, reporting, investigating, or preventing fraud or material misrepresentation, processing premium payments, processing insurance claims, administering insurance benefits... transaction that are provided by a bank or any other party; (v) To underwrite insurance at the consumer's...

  9. Compulsory school-entry vaccination laws and exemptions: who is opting out in ontario and why does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Guttmann, Astrid; McGeer, Allison; Krahn, Murray; Deber, Raisa B

    2010-05-01

    School-entry vaccination regulations are a policy instrument that has been widely used in some jurisdictions as a mechanism to ensure high immunization coverage rates. Exemptions to school-entry vaccination, which can be allowed on medical or non-medical grounds, present a number of ethical and policy challenges. In this paper, we consider the situation in Canada, where school-entry vaccination laws are rare. We present newly available aggregate-level registry data from Ontario comparing the use of medical and non-medical immunization exemptions to school-entry vaccination and the implications for population health.

  10. Opting Out and Leaning In: The Life Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby Boom Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Manglano, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Most literature on female employment focuses on the intersection between women's labor supply and family events such as marriage, divorce, or childbearing. Even when using longitudinal data and methods, most studies estimate average net effects over time and assume homogeneity among women. Less is known about diversity in women's cumulative work patterns over the long run. Using group-based trajectory analysis, I model the employment trajectories of early Baby Boom women in the United States from ages 20 to 54. I find that women in this cohort can be classified in four ideal-type groups: those who were consistently detached from the labor force (21 %), those who gradually increased their market attachment (27 %), those who worked intensely in young adulthood but dropped out of the workforce after midlife (13 %), and those who were steadily employed across midlife (40 %). I then explore a variety of traits associated with membership in each of these groups. I find that (1) the timing of family events (marriage, fertility) helps to distinguish between groups with weak or strong attachment to the labor force in early adulthood; (2) external constraints (workplace discrimination, husband's opposition to wife's work, ill health) explain membership in groups that experienced work trajectory reversals; and (3) individual preferences influence labor supply across women's life course. This analysis reveals a high degree of complexity in women's lifetime working patterns, highlighting the need to understand women's labor supply as a fluid process.

  11. Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Levine, Cynthia S

    2011-10-01

    American women still confront workplace barriers (e.g., bias against mothers, inflexible policies) that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. However, most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal and that behavior is free from contextual influence. Study 1 reveals that stay-at-home mothers who view their own workplace departure as an individual choice experience greater well-being but less often recognize workplace barriers and discrimination as a source of inequality than do mothers who do not view their workplace departure as an individual choice. Study 2 shows that merely exposing participants to a message that frames actions in terms of individual choice increases participants' belief that society provides equal opportunities and that gender discrimination no longer exists. By concealing the barriers that women still face in the workplace, this choice framework may hinder women's long-term advancement in society.

  12. 75 FR 24802 - Lead; Amendment to the Opt-Out and Recordkeeping Provisions in the Renovation, Repair, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... speech-challenged individuals may access the numbers in this unit through TTY by calling the toll-free... located in the EPA Docket Center (EPA/DC) at Rm. 3334, EPA West Bldg., 1301 Constitution Ave.,...

  13. Curricular premises and strategies in order to develop students’ intercultural competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Marian Bunăiaşu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cultural diversity’s factors and the development of some structures belonging to students’ personality, represents a basic premise in studying intercultural education. One theme of this issue is related to curricular strategies focused on training situations, which enable students’ intercultural learning experiences and social performances awareness, as part of the multicultural society. The article Curricular premises and strategies in order to develop students’ intercultural competences develops the following coordinates: 1 theoretical foundation of the development process of students’ intercultural competences, as part of the school curriculum; 2 results of some previous personal researches in intercultural education, relevant with regard to the theme; 3 suggesting a suite of curricular strategies, which facilitate intercultural learning and structuring of specific competences; 4 the process and results of an empirical research study, which reveal subjects’ expectances and opinions (didactic staff, specialists in intercultural education, students attending Social Sciences regarding the curricular development, from the perspective of intercultural education methodology.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING POLYURETHANE FOAM TO REDUCE HEAT LOSS IN THE PREMISES FOR BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev A.Y.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the use of polyurethane foam insulation for the purpose of walling premises for breeding allows them to halve the deficit of heat in winter. Because of this more efficient use of feed, increases the intensity and the level of growth of young comprehensive energp $rocess in the energy of live weight gain of cattle while increasing the profitability of its cultivation for meat.

  15. Influence of Visitors' Flows on Indoor Air Quality of Museum Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Volodymyr; Lysak, Pavlo

    2012-06-01

    The article considers the influence of visitors' flows on indoor air quality of museum premises and work of ventilation and air conditioning systems. The article provides the analysis of the heat input from visitors, the results of mathematical simulation of visitors flow influence on indoor air quality. Several advice options are provided on application of variable air volume systems for provision of constant indoor air quality.

  16. Premises for a Brazilian energy policy; Premissas para uma politica energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2007-07-01

    The amplitude and variety must not to be faced as an obstacle to the existence of a brazilian energy policy, but as a challenge to be outdone in the construction of a country future who needs energy to be economically developed e to guarantee comfort and welfare of a society. For this objective the first step is to identify some essential premises for the structuration of an energy policy for the country.

  17. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  18. Finishing panels for electromagnetic shielded premises on the basis of nanostructured composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED Abdulbaset Arabi A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A wide utilization of electronic equipment produces the need in integration of building and shielding technologies. This would allow to construct premises and buildings, capable of attenuation of the electromagnetic fields, generated by industrious and household sources. Such kinds of premises would solve the problems of electromagnetic compatibility, uncontrolled effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR on humans’ organisms, protection of critical types of information assets, processed by automatic facilities. In addition to the high shielding effectiveness the materials should ensure the fire safety in the premises. The developed multilayered shielding materials based on composites, which are characterized by high dielectric and magnetic losses, ensure the EMR attenuation 20…35 dB in the frequency range of 0,7…17 GHz. The EMR reflection factor, ensured by the suggested materials, is -5…-1 dB. Open fire (+1700ºС impact on the developed materials was studied and the burning-through time for different samples was determined. The burning-through time is sufficiently increased upto 140 s due to hygroscopic aqueous solutions application in the composite materials content.

  19. The philosophical premises of the second King Report on corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.

  20. 'What mother wouldn't want to save her baby?' HIV testing and counselling practices in a rural Ugandan antenatal clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Eva; Hardon, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on an exploratory qualitative case study investigating everyday practices within an antenatal clinic in rural Uganda, this paper investigates the dynamics of consent and counselling within a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme, from the perspectives of various health professionals involved at different stages of the PMTCT trajectory. The paper contributes to the existing literature by focusing not on clients' views but, rather, by elucidating how different cadres of health workers view and practice the human rights principles of informed consent and opting out, that are reflected in Uganda's HIV testing policies. By investigating the roles and responsibilities of community counsellors, post-test counsellors, and midwives, we illustrate how the practice of counselling in PMTCT is influenced by two hegemonic discourses: the health of a child should be protected, and the health worker knows best. As a result, a directive form of counselling in PMTCT settings, with its focus on the health of the baby, silences women's right to opt out of HIV tests.

  1. Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

  2. Logical Framework for Evaluation of Multiple-premise%评价目标前提的逻辑框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰亭; 韩道军; 边芮; 李磊

    2012-01-01

    The multi-premise problem is an important research field of decision making and its optimal decision reflects the state of the art research of decision theory. Many methods can achieve it in multi-premise decision making,and each method has its own difficulties. This paper first introduced a new concept-premise set,proposed an algorithm to decompose premise set into the simplest form,and proved that the algorithm outputs minimal,non-complete premise sets for any given goal. Next the credibility of each premise was defined for measuring the difficulty of premise set, and the optimal premise set was recommended for the goal. Then this paper gave a formal description of the logical framework O for evaluation of multiple-premise,and proved its computability and reasoning faculty. Finally,a prototype of framework O was implemented in Prolog and its soundness was proved via experiments and application in software engineering.%多前提决策问题是决策领域中重要的研究内容,其决策质量可反映决策理论研究的成果.在多前提决策中,目标会有多种实现方式,每种实现方式都有相应的实现难度.在多前提决策研究中,定义了目标的条件集,提出了将条件集分解到最简单形式的算法,并证明了算法的输出为目标的极小最简不完备条件集.然后,提出了条件集可信度的概念及其计算方式,利用可信度评估目标的所有极小最简不完备条件集的实现难度,并以此确定实现该目标的最优条件集.最后,给出了评价目标前提的逻辑框架O的形式定义,证明了框架O的可计算性和推理能力,并用逻辑程序Prolog实现了框架O的原型,通过对框架O的原理性实验和具体的工程应用验证了框架O的有效性.

  3. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  4. Horizontal Allocation of Decision Rights for On-Premise Applications and Software-as-a-Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till; Brown, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses a major gap in our knowledge about the allocation of information technology (IT) decision rights between business and IT units at the application level, including the governance of applications delivered on-premise versus those delivered with a software-as-a-service (Saa......S) model. Building on the findings from a multicase qualitative study of organizations that had adopted the same SaaS application, we draw on three theoretical lenses (agency theory, transaction cost economics, and knowledge-based view) to develop a theoretically grounded model with three organization......-level governance is operationalized with two dimensions: decision control rights (decision authority) and decision management rights (task responsibility). Three antecedents (origin of the application initiative, scope of application use, business knowledge of the IT unit) were significantly associated...

  5. Health promotion within a sex on premises venue: notes from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debattista, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Despite their historical controversy as perceived public health risks, sex on premises venues (SOPV) such as saunas and sex clubs can afford structured opportunities for on-site sexual health interventions within a supportive, regulated and confidential environment. Building upon previous interventions to deliver on-site clinical and health promotion programmes, an education and referral outreach service was established at one particular SOPV within the inner Brisbane city area. This report outlines the experiences of that on-site education/referral outreach over a five-year period. The service did afford opportunities for a minority of patrons to discuss concerns, resolve misunderstandings, obtain advice and referral, and would suggest that a health promotion presence within such a venue is a useful mechanism for engaging with highly sexually active men.

  6. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h-1 to 0.520 μGy h-1, and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h-1, which is close to 0.04 μGy h-1, which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  7. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-08

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus testing behaviors among US adults: the roles of individual factors, legislative status, and public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2011-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.

  9. Premises Distribution System and Electromagnetic Pulse Protection%综合布线与电磁脉冲防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文锦

    2011-01-01

    阐述了综合布线组成、各个系统布线应注意的问题,以及布线系统的电磁脉冲防护措施,如屏蔽和接地等。电磁脉冲防护的好坏主要取决于综合布线。%The composition of premises distribution system, the distribution problems of each system should be noted and the electromagnetic pulse protection measures, such as shielding and grounding are described. Electromagnetic pulse protection is good or bad depending on premises distribution system.

  10. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  11. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal..., and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other... shipments of animals infested with or exposed to ticks, shall be cleaned and treated within 72 hours of...

  12. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  13. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 355.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... are loaded, and driveways, approaches and alleyways shall be properly paved and drained and the outer... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  14. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  15. On the road toward formal reasoning: reasoning with factual causal and contrary-to-fact causal premises during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the development of conditional (if-then) reasoning is critical for theoretical and educational reasons. Here we examined the hypothesis that there is a developmental transition between reasoning with true and contrary-to-fact (CF) causal conditionals. A total of 535 students between 11 and 14 years of age received priming conditions designed to encourage use of either a true or CF alternatives generation strategy and reasoning problems with true causal and CF causal premises (with counterbalanced order). Results show that priming had no effect on reasoning with true causal premises. By contrast, priming with CF alternatives significantly improved logical reasoning with CF premises. Analysis of the effect of order showed that reasoning with CF premises reduced logical responding among younger students but had no effect among older students. Results support the idea that there is a transition in the reasoning processes in this age range associated with the nature of the alternatives generation process required for logical reasoning with true and CF causal conditionals.

  16. Differential growth of Legionella pneumophila strains within a range of amoebae at various temperatures associated with in-premise plumbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effect of in-premise plumbing temperatures (24, 32, 37 and 41 °C) on the growth of five different L. pneumophila strains within free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri) was examined. Compared to controls only fed E...

  17. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals...

  18. 17 CFR 1.44 - Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises. 1.44 Section 1.44 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE...

  19. Customer premise service study for 30/20 GHz satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, R. T.; Ross, D. P.; Harcar, A. R.; Freedenberg, P.; Schoen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite systems in which the space segment operates in the 30/20 GHz frequency band are defined and compared as to their potential for providing various types of communications services to customer premises and the economic and technical feasibility of doing so. Technical tasks performed include: market postulation, definition of the ground segment, definition of the space segment, definition of the integrated satellite system, service costs for satellite systems, sensitivity analysis, and critical technology. Based on an analysis of market data, a sufficiently large market for services is projected so as to make the system economically viable. A large market, and hence a high capacity satellite system, is found to be necessary to minimize service costs, i.e., economy of scale is found to hold. The wide bandwidth expected to be available in the 30/20 GHz band, along with frequency reuse which further increases the effective system bandwidth, makes possible the high capacity system. Extensive ground networking is required in most systems to both connect users into the system and to interconnect Earth stations to provide spatial diversity. Earth station spatial diversity is found to be a cost effective means of compensating the large fading encountered in the 30/20 GHz operating band.

  20. Proposal for a change of contractor to operate the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to inform the Finance Committee of the final outcome of the negotiations with the firm to which the contract was adjudicated for the operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service and to request approval for the contract placed with the second lowest bidder. In September 2000, the Finance Committee agreed to the negotiation of a contract with VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH) (cf. CERN/FC/4311). For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is now invited to approve a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH) - ISS GEBAEUDESERVICE (DE), the second lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, from 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 7 206 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract includes an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the cont...

  1. PREMISES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore BELOSTECINIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying the principles of sustainable development and ensuring sustainable economic development are of primordial actuality for the Republic of Moldova. Promoting sustainable development presupposes correlating economic growth with improving the quality of life and health, education, social development and environmental protection. The issue of sustainable development as a complex phenomenon is approached under the conditions of the influence exerted by some constraints and restrictions, of the existence of some serious economic, social and technological gaps in regional and European context. The analysis of the external commercial flows of goods highlights the predominance in exports of products from the traditional economic sectors. Improving competitiveness of export is regarded as the decisive factor of sustainable economic growth. For the chapter regarding the reform of the investment climate, modest successes are recorded which did not give the necessary impetus to massive foreign capital entries under the form of foreign direct investments as compared with other Central and Eastern European countries. The low attractiveness for foreign direct investments is attenuated by the small size of the local market and the low purchasing power of the population. Ensuring economic sustainable development is approached within the context of creating the necessary premises and valuing the opportunities provided by the protects for European integration of the Republic of Moldova.

  2. Archaeology in Public and Media: A short introduction to theoretical premises of the dialogue on heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vranić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with many different definitions of archaeology, from the inception of the discipline to the present, it may be valid to assert that it is a kind of complex dialogue on heritage with the public of contemporary societies. In this dialogue, archaeologists have directly constructed social memories and modern identities, this being an exceptional responsibility, and have at the same time been susceptible to ethnocentric transfers of modern values and expectations into the images of the past. In this respect, it may well be said that the public is not only the most important consumer of cultural heritage, but also an active participant indirectly influencing the shaping of archaeological interpretations of the past. Thanks to the global trends in the discipline, but also due to the administrative decisions of the Ministry of Culture and Information, archaeology in Serbia is compelled to intensify contacts with the public and to make the results of our work more readily accessible and economically sustainable. The paper aims to offer a short overview of theoretical premises of various models of collaboration of archaeology and the public, to point to the advantages and shortcomings, as well as the consequences of these approaches, thus warning of the many potential problems stemming from the uncritical dissemination of information on the past and heritage to the general public.

  3. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.

  4. Kant on epigenesis, monogenesis and human nature: the biological premises of anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alix A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant's conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species (monogenesis of the human races); and secondly the existence of 'seeds' which may or may not develop depending on the environment (epigenesis of human natural predispositions). I then turn to Kant's account of man's natural predispositions and show that far from being limited to the issue of races, it encompasses unexpected human features such as gender, temperaments and nations. These predispositions, I argue, are means to the realisation of Nature's overall purpose for the human species. This allows me to conclude that man's biological determinism leads to the species' preservation, cultivation and civilisation.

  5. Descriptive study of California egg layer premises and analysis of risk factors for Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis as characterized by manure drag swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan, David M; Kinde, Hailu; Kass, Philip H; Cutler, Gregg; Breitmeyer, Richard E; Bell, Donald D; Ernst, Ralph A; Kerr, David C; Little, Herbert E; Willoughby, David; Riemann, Hans P; Ardans, Alex; Snowdon, Jill A; Kuney, Douglas R

    2004-09-01

    This cross-sectional, double-blind study reports the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis (SE) on California egg layer premises using single vs. pooled manure drag swabs and presents a description of egg production and management systems in the state and an initial analysis of risk factors for SE. The study included 91% of all known eligible egg premises in California, representing the majority of eggs produced in the state. The overall prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises was 10.5%, while 1.1% of all rows sampled were positive for SE. The percentage of positive rows for SE on any premises never exceeded 25% of the 16 swabs collected per premises. A description of egg production and management on California egg layer premises is presented. Statistically significant associations for SE were not evident and were limited because of sample size and the low prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises. Several biological and management factors, such as flock health, stage of production, manure management, ventilation, and watering systems, show trend associations with premises positive for SE and require further investigation. Manure drag swabs serve as a useful tool to validate the core components of an egg quality assurance program for SE based on process control principles.

  6. Is the absolute requirement for informed consent before HIV testing a barrier to public health? A case report and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, David; Uchendu, Uchendu O; Adeyemi, Oyedeji A; Ideh, Readon C; Ebruke, Bernard E; Mackenzie, Grant; Howie, Stephen; Corrah, Tumani

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa are faced with a major challenge of parental refusal to test their children for HIV. We present a case of a nine-month-old child with a clinical presentation suggestive of HIV infection whose mother persistently declined HIV testing of the child or herself. The case illustrates the difficulties faced by the clinicians caring for the child in an isolated location in West Africa. While not eliminating these difficulties, an opt-out approach to paediatric HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa may increase the proportion of children who access treatment when they need it, particularly when this is backed by the development of more effective national and regional clinical and legislative frameworks for HIV testing in children.

  7. SIMULATION OF FIRE DYNAMICS WITH VARIOUS GROWTH RATE IN PREMISES WITH NATURAL VENTILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nevdakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation of the initial fire stage dynamics with various growth rate have been carried out with the help of FDS software. In case of a quick fire 1055 kW heat liberation has been reached in accordance with quadratic law within 100 seconds, averagely within 250 seconds and within 500 seconds when the fire rate is slow. Source of fire has been located on the floor and at the height of 2 m. A doorway of 0.8×2.0 m size and two 0.8×0.1 m openings have been used as ventilation holes. One opening has been located at the bottom over the floor and the other one has been positioned under the ceiling. It has been established that in the process of their development fires change their character in the following way: at the initial stage they are controlled by inflammable materials and then the fires are controlled by oxygen. At the first stage heat liberation is changed in accordance with the same law which is used for mass rate of an inflammable material and flame combustion is observed only in the field of the fire source. At the second stage heat liberation dynamics has a form of pulsations which are irregular in amplitude and duration and the dynamics becomes dependable on ventilation conditions. At this stage flame combustion in the source zone and/or self-ignition in the smoke layer provide a corresponding contribution in fire heat liberation.It has been determined that two layers have been formed in case of a fire in the premises with ventilation in the spatial distribution of temperature and air fumigation. These top and bottom layers are practically uniform and they are characterized by irregular pulsations of the parameters which are due to smoke self-ignition occurrence. The paper shows relationship of these distributions with spatial distribution of air pressure changes in the premises during a fire. A significant dependence of heat liberation dynamics on fire source location height is observed at all fire growth rates. An increase

  8. SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Anna Zawisławska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse This article describes the preliminary premises of metaphor annotation in SYNAMET - the developing microcorpus of synesthetic metaphors. The analysis is based on the CLST theory (Context-Limited Simulation Theory put forward by D. Ritchie. According to this theory, the metaphor’s vehicle may activate various types of associations between words: semantic relations, perceptual sensations, or emotional simulations. The range of potential associations evoked by the vehicle is limited by the topic, i.e. the lexical context in which the metaphor appears. The relations between the vehicle and the topic may be presented in the form of a semantic frame. To reconstruct the frames within the project, linguistic works devoted to sensory perception- vision, hearing, smell and taste- will be utilized. The corpus annotation will consist of the following stages: 1 metaphor identification, 2 indication of the metaphor cluster (CM - a phrase or a passage of the text, centered around one referent, 3 isolation of the metaphorical units (MU - word forms or phrases combining lexemes primarily belonging to different perceptual frames. The outcome of the MU analysis will include: a general metaphorical scheme of the MU, lexical items activating the frame of the MU (together with their grammatical description, a detailed metaphor scheme of the MU, and the semantic and grammatical categorization of the MU.   SYNAMET – mikrokorpus metafor synestezyjnych. Wstępne założenia opisu metafory w dyskursie Artykuł opisuje wstępne założenia anotacji metafor w powstającym mikrokorpusie metafor synestezyjnych SYNAMET. Podstawą metody opisu będzie teoria CLST (Context-Limited Simulation Theory D. Ritchie’go. W myśl tej teorii nośnik metafory (vehicle może aktywować różne typy powiązania między wyrazami: semantyczne, zmysłowe lub emocjonalne

  9. Learning and recognition of on-premise signs from weakly labeled street view images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hung; Cheng, Wen-Huang; You, Chuang-Wen; Hu, Min-Chun; Tsui, Arvin Wen; Chi, Heng-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Camera-enabled mobile devices are commonly used as interaction platforms for linking the user's virtual and physical worlds in numerous research and commercial applications, such as serving an augmented reality interface for mobile information retrieval. The various application scenarios give rise to a key technique of daily life visual object recognition. On-premise signs (OPSs), a popular form of commercial advertising, are widely used in our living life. The OPSs often exhibit great visual diversity (e.g., appearing in arbitrary size), accompanied with complex environmental conditions (e.g., foreground and background clutter). Observing that such real-world characteristics are lacking in most of the existing image data sets, in this paper, we first proposed an OPS data set, namely OPS-62, in which totally 4649 OPS images of 62 different businesses are collected from Google's Street View. Further, for addressing the problem of real-world OPS learning and recognition, we developed a probabilistic framework based on the distributional clustering, in which we proposed to exploit the distributional information of each visual feature (the distribution of its associated OPS labels) as a reliable selection criterion for building discriminative OPS models. Experiments on the OPS-62 data set demonstrated the outperformance of our approach over the state-of-the-art probabilistic latent semantic analysis models for more accurate recognitions and less false alarms, with a significant 151.28% relative improvement in the average recognition rate. Meanwhile, our approach is simple, linear, and can be executed in a parallel fashion, making it practical and scalable for large-scale multimedia applications.

  10. The project finance model in the supply of residential and commercial premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Juričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of dwellings greater than the demand, a reduction in the availability of housing loans and increased credit risk, caused, inter alia, by the financial crisis: these are the basic features of today’s residential property and commercial premises markets in Croatia today. Built but unsold housing units have exposed private investors, who have organised the supply of units within the balance sheet of their firms, to significant risk of underinvestment. The materialisation of this risk is most manifested in the impossibility of funding the core business because of loans that they have agreed on for the construction of dwelling units meant for sale on the market. The paper then proposes a model that, if it were applied, could insure investors to a greater extent against the risk of underinvestment. The supply of dwelling units with protected rentals by the local public sector organised in the traditional manner, i.e. according to a model in which the local public sector figures in the role of investor, distributes the burden of development costs onto the future generations as well. However, practice has shown that traditional models inequitably expose future generations to the risk of a reduction in the quality of this kind of public service. From this point of view the proposed model transfers to the future generation not only the costs but also the obligations to secure equal qualities of public service in such a way that the private investor long-term assumes the risk of the availability of public building.The problem in this kind of organisation of the supply of a public service is double taxation via VAT, changes in the law concerning which are accordingly proposed.

  11. Pseudo-Scientific Information: Reasons of Spread and Premises of Vitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of pseudo-scientific information, the reasons of its spread and premises of its vitality are discussed in the paper. Pseudo-scientific information is understandable as an attempt to suit a demand, which exists in society, while providing a simple answer to a question, which an individual or society is concerned about, and that answer is not sustained by scientific research. It is showed that the rise and spread of pseudo-scientific information in society are conditioned by objective reasons. Firstly, the lack of information concerning a subject which is significant for society. Secondly, the lack of information for a particular individual (social group concerning a substantial subject. Thirdly, fast spread of scientific and technical inventions and penetration of technological innovations into various spheres of life the understanding of which demands an appropriate informal “processing”, i e it demands provision in an appropriate form, which is partly provided by pseudo-scientific knowledge.The existence of pseudo-scientific information is determined by the fact that it performs important social functions in society. The existence of pseudo-scientific information by official certified scientific information and the fact, that all social groups are affected to a larger or lesser extent, show its ambivalent power and vitality. On the one part, the roots of its vitality lie in the duality of this phenomenon, where opposite things coexist in a strange way – the truth (scientifically verified propositions and speculations which are based on intuition rather than on scientifically verified facts. On the other part, it is maintained by our permanent wish to get an additional and fresher information, though not totally reliable, while seeking to know universally and better the world around us and its phenomena. While meeting this requirement, a pseudo-scientific information stimulates researchers both to enhance their attempts to

  12. Design of a Polynomial Fuzzy Observer Controller With Sampled-Output Measurements for Nonlinear Systems Considering Unmeasurable Premise Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chuang; Lam, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a polynomial fuzzy observer controller for nonlinear systems, where the design is achieved through the stability analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based (PFMB) observer-control system. The polynomial fuzzy observer estimates the system states using estimated premise variables. The estimated states are then employed by the polynomial fuzzy controller for the feedback control of nonlinear systems represented by the polynomial fuzzy model. The system stability of the P...

  13. Cultured Construction: Global Evidence of the Impact of National Values on Piped-to-Premises Water Infrastructure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2016-07-19

    In 2016, the global community undertook the Sustainable Development Goals. One of these goals seeks to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all people by the year 2030. In support of this undertaking, this paper seeks to discover the cultural work done by piped water infrastructure across 33 nations with developed and developing economies that have experienced change in the percentage of population served by piped-to-premises water infrastructure at the national level of analysis. To do so, I regressed the 1990-2012 change in piped-to-premises water infrastructure coverage against Hofstede's cultural dimensions, controlling for per capita GDP, the 1990 baseline level of coverage, percent urban population, overall 1990-2012 change in improved sanitation (all technologies), and per capita freshwater resources. Separate analyses were carried out for the urban, rural, and aggregate national contexts. Hofstede's dimensions provide a measure of cross-cultural difference; high or low scores are not in any way intended to represent better or worse but rather serve as a quantitative way to compare aggregate preferences for ways of being and doing. High scores in the cultural dimensions of Power Distance, Individualism-Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance explain increased access to piped-to-premises water infrastructure in the rural context. Higher Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance scores are also statistically significant for increased coverage in the urban and national aggregate contexts. These results indicate that, as presently conceived, piped-to-premises water infrastructure fits best with spatial contexts that prefer hierarchy and centralized control. Furthermore, water infrastructure is understood to reduce uncertainty regarding the provision of individually valued benefits. The results of this analysis identify global trends that enable engineers and policy makers to design and manage more culturally appropriate

  14. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  15. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert J; Rees, Chris A; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff A; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H

    2016-04-01

    To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected programme data. Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5293/5615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics and 49.4% (6871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71) and inadequate number of HIV counsellors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests that routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardised PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure and human resources. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Premises and evidence in the rhetoric of assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2013-01-01

    In debates about euthanasia and assisted suicide, it is rare to find an article that begins with an expression of neutral interest and then proceeds to examine the various arguments and data before drawing conclusions based upon the results of a scholarly investigation. Although authors frequently give the impression of being impartial in their introduction, they invariably reach their prior conclusions. Positions tend to be clearly dichotomized: either one believes that the practice of euthanasia or assisted suicide is totally acceptable or completely unacceptable in a just and moral society. Where there is some admission of a gray zone of incertitude, authors attempt to persuade us that their beliefs (preferences) are the only sensible way to resolve outstanding dilemmas. The practice of vehemently promoting a "pro" or "con" position may be useful when societies must decide to either legalize certain practices or not. Although only a handful of countries have thus far accepted the legal practice of euthanasia or assisted suicide (Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the U.S. states of Montana, Oregon, Vermont and Washington, and Switzerland), scholarly articles in recent trends mainly promote legalization, to the point of recommending expansion of the current practices. Is this a case of the philosophers being ahead of their time in promoting and rationalizing the wave of the future? Alternatively, does the small number of countries that have legalized these practices indicate a substantial gap between the beliefs and desires of common citizens and the universe of the 'abstracted realm'? For the time being, what we do know is that more countries and states are debating legalization of euthanasia or assisted suicide, the nature of laws and legal practices vary greatly and both ethical and empirical assessments of current practices are the subject of much controversy. This article presents an examination of the premises and evidence in the rhetoric of assisted

  17. How types of premises modulate the typicality effect in category-based induction: diverging evidence from the P2, P3, and LPC effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuling; Chen, Qingfei; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-12-16

    Behavioural studies have indicated that semantic typicality influences processing time and accuracy during the performance of inductive reasoning (i.e., the typicality effect). The present study examines this effect by manipulating the types of premises and conclusions (i.e., general, typical, or atypical) at an electrophysiological level using a semantic category-based induction task. With regard to behavioural results, higher inductive strength was found in typical conclusions in all premise conditions, whereas a longer response time for atypical conclusions was only found in general and typical premise conditions. The ERP results had different response patterns: in the general premise condition, a larger P2, as well as a smaller P3 and LPC (500-600 ms), were elicited by atypical conclusions relative to typical ones; in the typical premise condition, a larger P2 and LPC (600-700 ms) were found for atypical conclusions; in the atypical premise condition, however, only a larger P2 was found for atypical conclusions. The divergent evidence for the typicality effect indicated that the processing of the typicality effect in general, and specific premise conditions, might involve different cognitive processes, such as resource allocation and inference violation, which yielded new insights into the neural underpinnings of the typicality effect in a category-based induction.

  18. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  19. H∞ Observer Design for Continuous-Time Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model With Unknown Premise Variables via Nonquadratic Lyapunov Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kui; Zhang, Hua Guang; Liu, Xiao Dong

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the problem of observer design for continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with unmeasurable premise variables. First, in order to improve the existing results of observer design, a new method is proposed to bound the time derivatives of the membership function. Then, by applying the nonquadratic Lyapunov function and the matrix decoupling technique, the controller gains and observer gains are designed to guarantee that the error system is asymptotically stale. Furthermore, better H ∞ performance can be obtained by solving an optimization problem. All of the results are presented as linear matrices inequalities and three examples are provided to demonstrate the merits of the proposed approach.

  20. Seeking congruity between goals and roles: a new look at why women opt out of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Brown, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Amanda M; Clark, Emily K

    2010-08-01

    Although women have nearly attained equality with men in several formerly male-dominated fields, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We argue that one important reason for this discrepancy is that STEM careers are perceived as less likely than careers in other fields to fulfill communal goals (e.g., working with or helping other people). Such perceptions might disproportionately affect women's career decisions, because women tend to endorse communal goals more than men. As predicted, we found that STEM careers, relative to other careers, were perceived to impede communal goals. Moreover, communal-goal endorsement negatively predicted interest in STEM careers, even when controlling for past experience and self-efficacy in science and mathematics. Understanding how communal goals influence people's interest in STEM fields thus provides a new perspective on the issue of women's representation in STEM careers.

  1. Is green better than blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the unilateral attempt to attract highly skilled labour / Marlene Wind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wind, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Taanis rakendatud rohelise kaardi süsteemist ja kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõu meelitamisest Sinise kaardi direktiivi abil. Kahe süsteemi erinevustest ja sarnasustest ning raskustest meelitada tööle kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõudu Taanis ja kogu Euroopas

  2. Joining or opting out of a Lotka-Volterra game between predators and prey: Does the best strategy depend on energy gained and lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staňková, K.; Abate, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Buša, J.; You, Li

    2013-01-01

    Apart from interacting, prey and predators may also avoid each other by moving into refuges where they lack food, yet survive by switching to an energy-saving physiological state. Lotka-Volterra models of predator-prey interactions ignore this option. Therefore, we have modelled this game of

  3. Joining or opting out of a Lotka-Volterra game between predators and prey: Does the best strategy depend on energy gained and lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Staňková; A. Abate; M.W. Sabelis; J. Buša; Li You

    2013-01-01

    Apart from interacting, prey and predators may also avoid each other by moving into refuges where they lack food, yet survive by switching to an energy-saving physiological state. Lotka-Volterra models of predator-prey interactions ignore this option. Therefore, we have modelled this game of ‘joinin

  4. Is green better than blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the unilateral attempt to attract highly skilled labour / Marlene Wind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wind, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Taanis rakendatud rohelise kaardi süsteemist ja kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõu meelitamisest Sinise kaardi direktiivi abil. Kahe süsteemi erinevustest ja sarnasustest ning raskustest meelitada tööle kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõudu Taanis ja kogu Euroopas

  5. Understanding the factors that influence high science achievers' academic choices and intent to pursue or opt out of the hard sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihuis, Gisell

    Drawing on Eccles and her colleagues' Expectancy-Value model of academic behavior and choice, this dissertation study set out to serve three purposes: (1) to understand how high achieving high school students who aspire to science college degrees compare, in terms of motivational beliefs and social experiences, with other high achievers who do not aspire to science college degrees; (2) to understand why some high school students who excel in the hard sciences are unsure about pursuing a science degree in college; and (3) to examine whether gender differences in motivational beliefs and social experiences found in previous research on math (see Eccles 1984) exist for science among high achieving high school students. Survey and interview data showed that gender differences previously found in Eccles' research on math exist for science among a select group of high achieving high school students. Yet, these gender differences did not explain students' aspirations for science. Motivation, classroom perceptions, science engagement, as well as other science-related experiences at home and school, including parent and teacher influences, were also important factors associated with students' aspirations for science. Results and implications for this study are encouraging because they suggest that both parents and educators can help more high achievers become interested in science. Parents can expose their children, male and female alike, to science at home early on in their childhood and teachers can help students sustain and further develop an interest in science at school. In this manner, both parents and teachers can work together as a team to encourage more high achievers to aspire to science degrees in their future. Lastly, it is important to note that this study found Eccles' model of motivation and choice helpful in understanding not only gender differences in math and the hard sciences, but also aspiration differences that cut across gender among students. Researchers interested in understanding students' motivation and academic-related choices may want to consider the applicability of Eccles' Expectancy-Value model to studies that do not focus on gender differences and that include academic domains aside from mathematics.

  6. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  7. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  8. Effects of shisha smoking on carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations in the indoor and outdoor microenvironment of shisha premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Gam; Bradley, Janet; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria

    2016-04-01

    There has been significant rise in shisha premises in the United Kingdom with an unsubstantiated belief that shisha smoking is harmless and relatively safe. This study aimed to assess the public health situation by evaluating the extent of shisha environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among those that work in, and are customers of shisha businesses. Concentrations of several ETS pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) in shisha premises were measured using real-time sensors inside and outside twelve shisha premises and at 5 pubs/restaurants where smoking is prohibited. Mean concentration of CO (7.3±2.4mg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (287±233μg/m(3)) inside active shisha premises was higher than concentrations measured within the vicinity of the shisha premises (CO: 0.9±0.7mg/m(3) and PM2.5: 34±14μg/m(3)) and strongly correlated (PM2.5 R=0.957). Concentrations were higher than indoor concentrations in pubs and restaurants where smoking is not permitted under UK law. The number of shisha pipes was a strong predictor of the PM2.5 concentrations. The study also assessed the risk perception within patrons and managers, with only 25% being aware of the risks associated to shisha smoking. The study identifies owners, employees and consumers within active shisha premises being exposed to concentrations of CO and PM2.5 at levels considered hazardous to human health. The results and outcome of this research serve as a basis to influence a discussion around the need of developing specific policies to protect consumers and employees of such premises.

  9. Fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ control for continuous-time T-S fuzzy systems under imperfect premise matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Dian, Songyi

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses a fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ control design problem for continuous-time nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model. The stability of the fuzzy closed-loop system which is formed by a T-S fuzzy model and a fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ controller connected in a closed loop is investigated with Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed fuzzy controller does not share the same membership functions and number of rules with T-S fuzzy systems, which can enhance design flexibility. A line-integral fuzzy Lyapunov function is utilized to derive the stability conditions in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The boundary information of membership functions is considered in the stability analysis to reduce the conservativeness of the imperfect premise matching design technique. Two simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why public moralities matter--the relevance of socioempirical premises for the ethical debate on organ markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate about organ markets rests not only on theoretical premises, but also on assumptions regarding public views of and attitudes toward organ donation that need closer socioempirical examination. Summarizing results from our previous qualitative social research in this field, this paper illustrates the ethical significance of such public moralities in two respects: On one hand, it analyzes the implicit bias of the common rhetoric of "organ scarcity" which motivates much of the commercialization debate. On the other hand, it explores the blind spots of the paradigm of "altruistic donation" which informs many arguments against commercialization. We conclude that the ethical discourse has to appreciate the social nature of organ donation as a reciprocal interaction between different parties with irreducibly different but equally relevant viewpoints. We criticize the neglect of such well-founded public considerations in certain philosophical-ethical approaches and stress the need for further systematic and comparative socioempirical studies about peoples' actual perspectives in bioethics.

  11. Advanced embedded nonlinear observer design and HIL validation using a Takagi-Sugeno approach with unmeasurable premise variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, S. C.; Aitouche, A.; Belkoura, L.

    2014-12-01

    The article's goals are to illustrate the feasibility of implementing a Takagi Sugeno state observer on an embedded microcontroller based platform and secondly to present a methodology for validating a physical embedded system using a Hardware In The Loop architecture, where a simulation software replaces the process. As an application, a three water tank system was chosen. For the validation part, LMS AMESim software is employed to reproduce the process behaviour. The interface to the embedded platform is assured by Simulink on a Windows operating system, chosen as it is the most commonly used operating system. The lack of real time behaviour of the operating system is compensated by a real time kernel that manages to offer deterministic response times. The Takagi-Sugeno observer in the case of this process has the complex form that considers the premise variables to be unmeasurable. The embedded system consists of two Arduino boards connected in parallel, thus offering distributed resources.

  12. Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Precut Fruit from Retail and Catering Premises in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Caroline; McLauchlin, Jim; Amar, Corinne; Sadler-Reeves, Lorraine; Elviss, Nicola; Aird, Heather; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit has been associated with a number of foodborne outbreaks in recent years. In particular, a large outbreak of listeriosis in the United States in 2011 was associated with consumption of cantaloupe melon, and an outbreak of Salmonella Newport in the United Kingdom and Europe (also in 2011) was linked to watermelon consumption. A study of precut fruit products from catering and retail premises in the United Kingdom was, therefore, carried out to assess their microbiological safety. Between January and March 2012, samples (1,188) of ready-to-eat precut fruit were collected from retail and catering premises in the United Kingdom, and 99% were of satisfactory microbiological quality. However, four samples (0.3%) were of an unsatisfactory quality (one with 800 CFU/g Listeria monocytogenes and three with >100 CFU/g Escherichia coli), and five samples (0.4%) were of a borderline quality owing to the presence of E. coli (two samples with a level of 20 CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (two samples with levels of >50 CFU/g), or L. monocytogenes (one sample with a level of 80 CFU/g). L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species were detected in a further 54 samples (4.5%) at levels below the threshold considered to be borderline or unsatisfactory. A significantly larger proportion of samples from one national supermarket chain was contaminated with L. monocytogenes than other supermarkets, and two types were, in this study, unique to this supermarket. This study shows that overall, the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat precut fruit was good. However, the presence of Listeria species in 5% of samples highlights the need for good hygiene during preparation and satisfactory temperature and time control during storage of these food products.

  13. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. McCoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA. It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods.

  14. If dancers ate their shoes: inductive reasoning with factual and counterfactual premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J; Gastel, J

    1989-01-01

    This experiment addressed the effect of precue information, which may be either familiar or novel, and either relevant or irrelevant, on the solution of inductive reasoning problems. Sixty undergraduate students each completed 216 verbal inductive reasoning problems and five psychometric ability tests. The reasoning problems were equally divided among analogies, classifications, and series completions, with half of each kind of item presented in a standard, uncued format, and half presented with a precue. With respect to internal validation, it was found that for analogies and classifications, subjects take longer to process irrelevant than relevant information if the precue is familiar, but they take longer to process relevant than irrelevant information if the precue is novel. For series completions, this relation does not hold; rather, both novelty and irrelevance add time to the processing of information, with the time for irrelevance greater than that for novelty. The utility of precues for different tasks was explored, and it was found that familiar relevant precues facilitated solution of the more difficult kinds of items (classifications and series completions), but hampered solution of the easier, more automatically solved items (analogies). With respect to external validation, it was found that the nonentrenched induction tasks overlapped with psychometric tests in terms of abilities measured, that the abilities measured were fluid rather than crystallized, and that the precued (more nonentrenched) items were better measures of fluid abilities than were the uncued items.

  15. Assessment and prevention of radioactive risk due to 222Radon on University Premises in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, D; Gasparini, R; Benatti, U; Gallelli, G

    2006-12-01

    From October 2004 to September 2005, Radon222 activity in high-risk indoor spaces used by employees and students at the University of Genoa was measured with CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The mean concentration in winter (78.9 Bq/m3 +/- 74.92 S.D.) was low in relation to the microenvironment considered. When data were broken down by type and location of the spaces, no significant differences were found, despite the fact that the Genoa conurbation lies on soil of variable geological composition. The dose absorbed by employees was 0.42 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 4.2/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The dose absorbed by students was 0.28 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 2.5/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The level of radon activity detected never exceeded the limit of 500 Bq/m3 established by Italian law. Nevertheless, the value of the compound uncertainty index suggested that the real level of Radon contamination could have exceeded 400 Bq/m3 in selected spaces, a value requiring annual concentration tests.

  16. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  17. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  18. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PRIVACY PRESERVED OFF-PREMISES CLOUD STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Nawaz Brohi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite several cost-effective and flexible characteristics of cloud computing, some clients are reluctant to adopt this paradigm due to emerging security and privacy concerns. Organization such as Healthcare and Payment Card Industry where confidentiality of information is a vital act, are not assertive to trust the security techniques and privacy policies offered by cloud service providers. Malicious attackers have violated the cloud storages to steal, view, manipulate and tamper client’s data. Attacks on cloud storages are extremely challenging to detect and mitigate. In order to formulate privacy preserved cloud storage, in this research paper, we propose an improved technique that consists of five contributions such as Resilient role-based access control mechanism, Partial homomorphic cryptography, metadata generation and sound steganography, Efficient third-party auditing service, Data backup and recovery process. We implemented these components using Java Enterprise Edition with Glassfish Server. Finally we evaluated our proposed technique by penetration testing and the results showed that client’s data is intact and protected from malicious attackers.

  19. Policy-Relevant Behaviors Predict Heavier Drinking in Both On and Off Premises and Mediate the Relationship Between Heavier Alcohol Consumption and Age, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status-Analysis from the International Alcohol Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of behaviors amenable to policy change in mediating the relationship between alcohol consumption in off and on premises, age, and 2 measures of socioeconomic status (education and income). A cross-sectional general population survey was analyzed by using Bayesian path analysis to understand direct and mediating pathways. A total of 1,900 drinkers (past 6 months), aged 18 to 65 years, living in households with landline phones participated in the study. Measures were as follows: typical quantities of alcohol consumed per occasion, frequency of drinking, both off and on premise; gender, age groups; and years of education, personal income, prices paid, time of purchase, and liking for alcohol advertisements. Later times of purchase predicted larger quantities consumed (on and off premise) and more frequent drinking (on premise only). Younger people and males purchased later, and this mediated their heavier consumption. Lower prices paid predicted larger quantities consumed (on premise) and higher frequency of drinking (off premise). Younger and male respondents paid lower prices, and this mediated larger quantities consumed on premise and more frequent drinking off premise. Less well educated paid lower prices, and this mediated drinking more frequently off premise among this group. Liking for alcohol ads predicted drinking larger quantities and higher frequency both off and on premise. Younger and male respondents reported greater liking for ads, and this mediated their consumption of larger quantities and more frequent drinking both on and off premise. Those with higher income drank larger amounts on premise and more frequently on and off, but there were no mediating effects from the policy-relevant variables. Heavier drinking patterns by young people and those less well educated could be ameliorated by attention to alcohol policy. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Novel pharmaceutical rationale against human lymphatic fi-larial parasite:An oxidative premise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.D.Sharma; P.B.Janardhana; D.Gajalakshmi; M.V.R.Reddy; K.Goswami

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Mandate from WHO has boosted up anti-filarial drug research.Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was not known for any direct effect on filarial parasites.However,recent report proposed its direct apoptotic effect.Oxidative stress has been implicated in apoptotic impact.A study was designed to explore the possibili-ty of oxidative rationale to be operative in the direct anti-filarial effect of DEC.Methods:Various doses of DEC and potent oxidant H2 O2 alone were used in vitro to check for the effects on B.malayi microfilariae,fol-lowed by the use of DEC in combination with H2 O2 .Reversal of the oxidative impact of the drug was tested u-sing the antioxidant,vitamin C and also lipid peroxidation levels in the post incubation culture supernatants were assayed.Result:As expected,DEC alone failed to record any anti-filarial effect.H2 O2 alone also failed to show any significant effect until a very high dose was used.However,in combination significant anti-filarial effect was noticed,which allowed even 44% reduction in the dose of H2 O2 .Any significant lipid peroxidation was not found.Vitamin C demonstrated 30 % inhibitory effect.Conclusion:DEC and H2 O2 combination be-ing able to educe synergistic anti-filarial effect and inhibition of the same by vitamin C hinted towards covert oxidative component in the mechanism of DEC.Further implication of non-significant lipid peroxidation was addressed in the perspective of subtle oxidative nexus that seems to be operative in observed anti-filarial effect. Exploration of such rationale might lead to novel drug development.

  1. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  2. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  3. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  4. 47 CFR 68.215 - Installation of other than “fully protected” system premises wiring that serves more than four...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Terminal Equipment Approval Procedures § 68.215 Installation of... telephone network interface(s). Fully-protected premises wiring shall be used to connect equipment entities to the public switched telephone network interface unless the provider of wireline...

  5. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  6. Geo-Electrical Exploration for Groundwater within the Premises of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Olawuyi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings for groundwater search within the premises of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH situated along Ilorin- Jebba road in Kwara State, were carried out with a view to establishing the different subsurface geoelectric layers, the aquifer units and their hydrogeologic properties. Data were collected from 12 VES stations over an area of about 500 m x 650 m. From the quantitative interpretation of the data collected, using the usual method of curve matching with the Orellana-Mooney Master curves and 1-D forward modeling with WinResist 1.0 version software, four Hthologic units were identified. These include: the topsoil, the lateritic layer, the weathered layer/fractured layer and the fresh basement. The weathered and fractured basement constitutes the main aquifer units. The 2-D resistivity structure has elicited 2 lobes of low resistivity which constitutes the prospective zone for water in the area. The first lobe exists below stations 3 and 4 at about 5-15 m depth, with resistivity between 80- 147 ohm-m and over 300m wide, while the other lobe of low resistivity which also signifies a possible borehole location exists below stations 7,8 and 9 at a depth of about 2-14 m, with resistivity between 141-200 ohm-m and over 550 m wide. The study concluded that the area investigated contains two lobes of low resistivity which could be explored for water supply.

  7. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2404/AS/Rev.) was sent on 5 April 2000 to one firm and three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the firm and the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, to enter into force on 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 6 871 850 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-60%, AT-...

  8. The Influence of Mineral Admixtures on Bending Strength of Mortar on the Premise of Equal Compressive Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YAN Peiyu; FENG Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mineral admixtures on bending strength of mortar on the premise of equal compressive strength was investigated.Three mineral admixtures (fly ash,ground granulated blast-furnace slag and steel slag) were used.The adding amount of mineral admixture in this study ranges from 22.5% to 60%,and the water-to-binder ratio ranges from 0.34 to 0.50.With equal compressive strength,different mortars can be arranged in such a descending order with their bending strength:cement-fly ash mortar,cement mortar,cement-GGBS mortar,and cement-steel slag mortar.With the same compressive strength,the higher the steel slag content and water-to-binder ratio,the lower the bending strength of mortars.However,the effect of mineral mixture content and water-to-binder ratio on the bending strength of cement-fly ash mortar and cement-GGBS mortar is far inconspicuous.

  9. The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gripenberg Abdon Johanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08. This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1 demographics, 2 respondents' own drug use experience, 3 respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4 observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-QUALITY ILLUMINATION ENVIRONMENT IN THE PREMISES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEAST CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Stetskiy Sergey Vyacheslavovich; Chen Guanglong

    2012-01-01

    The problem of high-quality illumination of the premises of multistory industrial buildings in the climatic conditions of southeast China is considered in the article, and a new effective system of natural illumination is implemented. The proposed illumination system is based on the existing sources of lateral illumination with addition of supplementary natural illumination incoming through the so-called «illumination wells». Whenever industrial facilities are designed in the hot and sunn...

  11. Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, G; Moshammer, H; Sbrogiò, L; Gasparrini, A; Nebot, M; Neuberger, M; Tamang, E; Lopez, M J; Galeone, D; Serrahima, E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare nicotine concentration in 28 hospitality premises (HPs) in Florence and Belluno, Italy, where a smoking ban was introduced in 2005, and in 19 HPs in Vienna, Austria, where no anti-smoking law entered into force up to now. Airborne nicotine concentrations were measured in the same HPs in winter 2002 or 2004 (pre-ban measurements) and winter 2007 (post-ban measurements). In Florence and Belluno, medians decreased significantly (P hospitality workers of 11.81 and 14.67 per 10,000, respectively. Lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risks for bar and disco-pub workers were 10-20 times higher than that calculated for restaurant workers, both in Italy and Austria. In winter 2007, it dropped to 0.01 per 10,000 in Italy, whereas in Austria it remained at the same levels. The drop of second-hand smoke exposure indicates a substantial improvement in air quality in Italian HPs even after 2 years from the ban. The nation-wide smoking ban introduced in Italy on January 10, 2005, resulted in a drop in second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises, whereas in Austria, where there is no similar nation-wide smoking ban, the exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality premises remains high. Given that second-hand smoke is considered a group 1 carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control strongly recommends the implementation of nation-wide smoke-free policies in order to improve the indoor air quality of hospitality premises and workplaces. Results from our study strongly supports this recommendation.

  12. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial community and food-borne bacteria on restaurant cutting boards collected in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia, and their correlation with grades of food premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Osman, Malina; Ishida, Natsumi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Maeda, Toshinari; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2015-05-04

    This study adopts the pyrosequencing technique to identify bacteria present on 26 kitchen cutting boards collected from different grades of food premises around Seri Kembangan, a city in Malaysia. Pyrosequencing generated 452,401 of total reads of OTUs with an average of 1.4×10(7) bacterial cells/cm(2). Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as the most abundant phyla in the samples. Taxonomic richness was generally high with >1000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) observed across all samples. The highest appearance frequencies (100%) were OTUs closely related to Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida. Several OTUs were identified most closely related to known food-borne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazaki, Cronobacter turisensis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Hafnia alvei, Kurthia gibsonii, Salmonella bongori, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella tyhpi, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica ranging from 0.005% to 0.68% relative abundance. The condition and grade of the food premises on a three point cleanliness scale did not correlate with the bacterial abundance and type. Regardless of the status and grades, all food premises have the same likelihood to introduce food-borne bacteria from cutting boards to their foods and must always prioritize the correct food handling procedure in order to avoid unwanted outbreak of food-borne illnesses.

  13. 以方便为前提的商品包装设计%Commodity Packaging Design All Premised on Convenient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗林; 夏甸清

    2012-01-01

    It analyzed the effects of the development and lifestyle of commodity economy on the modem commercial packaging design, put forward a new concept of commodity packaging design "all for the convenience of the premise". Combined with the daily life of the various types of commodity packaging, the production of goods storage, transport, display, use, carry, recycling and other aspects were discussed, and clarified the importance of new concept "everything which is convenient for premise". It is the premise and principle for all commodity packaging design.%分析了商品经济的发展及生活方式的改变对现代商品包装设计的影响,提出了“一切以方便为前提”的商品包装设计新观念,并结合日常生活中的各类商品包装,从商品的生产、运输储存、陈列、使用、携带、回收利用等方面进行了论述,进而阐明了“一切以方便为前提”这一全新观念的重要性,它是一切商品包装设计的前提和准则。

  14. HIV testing implementation in two urban cities: practice, policy, and perceived barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camden J Hallmark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although funding has supported the scale up of routine, opt-out HIV testing in the US, variance in implementation mechanisms and barriers in high-burden jurisdictions remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a survey of health care organizations in Washington, DC and Houston/Harris County to determine number of HIV tests completed in 2011, policy and practices associated with HIV testing, funding mechanisms, and reported barriers to testing in each jurisdiction and to compare results between jurisdictions. RESULTS: In 2012, 43 Houston and 35 DC HIV-testing organizations participated in the survey. Participants represented 85% of Department of Health-supported testers in DC and 90% of Department of Health-supported testers in Houston. The median number of tests per organization was 568 in DC and 1045 in Houston. Approximately 50% of organizations in both DC and Houston exclusively used opt-in consent and most conducted both pre- and post-test counseling with HIV testing (80% of organizations in DC, 70% in Houston. While the most frequent source of funding in DC was the Department of Health, Houston organizations primarily billed the patient or third-party payers. Barriers to testing most often reported were lack of funding, followed by patient discomfort/refusal with more barriers reported in DC. CONCLUSIONS: Given unique policies, resources and programmatic contexts, DC and Houston have taken different approaches to support routine testing. Many organizations in both cities reported opt-in consent approaches and pre-test counseling, suggesting 2006 national HIV testing recommendations are not being followed consistently. Addressing the barriers to testing identified in each jurisdiction may improve expansion of testing.

  15. Approaches for scaling up human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling in prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission settings in resource-limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolu, Omotayo O; Allread, Virginia; Creek, Tracy; Stringer, Elizabeth; Forna, Fatu; Bulterys, Marc; Shaffer, Nathan

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT) programs have nearly eliminated mother-to-child transmission of HIV in developed countries, but progress in resource-limited countries has been slow. A key factor limiting the scale-up of PMTCT programs is lack of knowledge of HIV serostatus. Increasing the availability and acceptability of HIV testing and counseling services will encourage more women to learn their status, providing a gateway to PMTCT interventions. Key factors contributing to the scale-up of testing and counseling include a policy of provider-initiated testing and counseling with right to refuse (opt-out); group pretest counseling; rapid HIV testing; innovative staffing strategies; and community and male involvement. Integration of testing and counseling within the community and all maternal and child health settings are critical for scaling-up and for linking women and their families to care and treatment services. This paper will review best practices needed for expansion of testing and counseling in PMTCT settings in resource-limited countries.

  16. Perspectives on the ethical concerns and justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waxman Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1 an opt-out approach, (2 removal of separate signed consent, and (3 optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed.

  17. 综合布线系统工程设计教学方法探索%The Research on Teaching Method about Premises Distributed System Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公儒

    2011-01-01

    本文系统研究了综合布线系统工程的设计问题,以透明可视化教学模型为例,探讨了综合布线系统工程的一般设计流程、设计要求与方法、设计具体步骤等。%Abstract: This paper systematically studies the design problems on Premises Distributed System engineering. Taking a transparent visual teaching model for example, the general design processes, design requirements and methods, and the specific design steps etc., of integrated wiring system are explored.

  18. The Premise of Writing Good Composition: the Accumulation and Application of Vocabulary%写好作文的前提:词汇积累和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洁

    2012-01-01

    In order to write good composition, students must start off from vocabulary accumulation. This paper expounds the premise of writing good composition is the accumulation and application of vocabulary based on the author' s teaching practice.%要让学生写出好的作文,首先从词汇积累开始。本文结合笔者的教学实践论述了写好作文的前提就是词汇积累和应用。

  19. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-QUALITY ILLUMINATION ENVIRONMENT IN THE PREMISES OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEAST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetskiy Sergey Vyacheslavovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of high-quality illumination of the premises of multistory industrial buildings in the climatic conditions of southeast China is considered in the article, and a new effective system of natural illumination is implemented. The proposed illumination system is based on the existing sources of lateral illumination with addition of supplementary natural illumination incoming through the so-called «illumination wells». Whenever industrial facilities are designed in the hot and sunny climate of southern provinces of China, particular attention should be driven to the high-quality internal microclimate, which is, to a substantial extent, based on the temperature, light and solar exposure rates inside buildings. In the case under consideration, the solar exposure and protection of the premises from excessive sunlight are addressed as a top priority in terms of excessive heat input, thereafter, the above phenomena are considered in terms of their impact on the internal light environment generated by uncomfortable contrasts, brightness and glare. Basically, the quality of the illumination environment depends on the natural illumination inside the buildings in question, which, in its turn, depends on the system of transmission of natural lighting and luminosity of its individual elements.

  1. Implementing a Public Health Objective for Alcohol Premises Licensing in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of Strategies, Values, and Perceptions of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Niamh; Nicholls, James; Winterbottom, Jo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2017-01-01

    The public health objective for alcohol premises licensing, established in Scotland in 2005, is unique globally. We explored how public health practitioners engaged with the licensing system following this change, and what helped or hindered their efforts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 public health actors, audio-recorded, and analysed using an inductive framework approach. Many interviewees viewed the new objective as synonymous with reducing population-level alcohol consumption; however, this view was not always shared by licensing actors, some of whom did not accept public health as a legitimate goal of licensing, or prioritised economic development instead. Some interviewees were surprised that the public health evidence they presented to licensing boards did not result in their hoped-for outcomes; they reported that licensing officials did not always understand or value health data or statistical evidence. While some tried to give “impartial” advice to licensing boards, this was not always easy; others were clear that their role was one of “winning hearts and minds” through relationship-building with licensing actors over time. Notwithstanding the introduction of the public health objective, there remain significant, and political, challenges in orienting local premises licensing boards towards decisions to reduce the availability of alcohol in Scotland. PMID:28241512

  2. Information Structure and the Premise of Japanese "Wa" and "Ga"%信息结构与日语[は]和[か]的使用前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关春影; 余弦

    2012-01-01

    "Wa" and "Ga" can both be the subject of a sentence, but they have different premises. According to the grammar of Japanese, the subject is "Wa" when an interrogative word is used as predicate in an interrogative sentence, and "Wa" is used as the subject in the answer. When the premise is different, "Ga" is used as the subject. When the subject is an interrogative word, "Ga" is used, and the same in the answer. Based on different premises, the subject can be either "Wa" or "Ga" in an interrogative sentence without an interrogative word. To answer an interrogative sentence without an interrogative word, "Wa" is used in a positive answer. When the premise is different, "Ga" is used. When answering an interrogative sentence with "Ga", the subject is "Ga" for positive and "Wa" for negative answers. In non-interrogative sentences, "Wa" and "Ga" are used on the premise of an interrogative sentence with an interrogative word. The speaker assumes that the listener is using an interrogative sentence with an interrogative word to raise a question. If the interrogative word is the predicate, "Wa" is used. If the interrogative word is the subject, "Ga" is used. This rule in Japanese grammar can be explained by looking from the angle of information structure.%日语[は]和[か]在句中都可表示主语,但它们的使用前提却不同。日语规定,在疑问词疑问句中,疑问词作谓语等时主语用[は],回答时主语也用[は],有时用[か];疑问词作主语时主语用[か],回答时主语也用[か]。在非疑问词疑问句中,主语既可用[は]也可用[か]。回答用[は]提问的句子时,肯定用[は]或[か],否定用[は];回答用[か]提问的句子时,肯定用[か],否定用[は]。在非疑问句中,[は]和[か]的使用通常是以疑问词疑问句为前提的,说话人假设听话人用疑问词疑问句提出问题,如果疑问词在谓语等则使用[は],在主语则使用[か]。日语这种

  3. First evidence of division and accumulation of viable but nonculturable Pseudomonas fluorescens cells on surfaces subjected to conditions encountered at meat processing premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneau, Sophie; Chassaing, Danielle; Carpentier, Brigitte

    2007-05-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of open surfaces in food industry premises leave some microorganisms behind; these microorganisms build up a resident flora on the surfaces. Our goal was to explore the phenomena involved in the establishment of this biofilm. Ceramic coupons were contaminated, once only, with Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in meat exudate incubated at 10 degrees C. The mean adhering population after 1 day was 10(2) CFU x cm(-2) and 10(3) total cells x cm(-2), i.e., the total number of cells stained by DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The coupons were subjected daily to a cleaning product, a disinfectant, and a further soiling with exudate. The result was a striking difference between the numbers of CFU, which reached 10(4) CFU x cm(-2), and the numbers of total cells, which reached 2 x 10(6) cells x cm(-2) in 10 days. By using hypotheses all leading to an overestimation of the number of dead cells, we showed that the quantity of nonculturable cells (DAPI-positive cells minus CFU) observed cannot be accounted for as an accumulation of dead cells. Some nonculturable cells are therefore dividing on the surface, although cell division is unable to continue to the stage of macrocolony formation on agar. The same phenomenon was observed when only a chlorinated alkaline product was used and the number of cells capable of reducing 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride was close to the number of total cells, confirming that most nonculturable cells are viable but nonculturable. Furthermore, the daily shock applied to the cells does not prompt them to enter a new lag phase. Since a single application of microorganisms is sufficient to produce this accumulation of cells, it appears that the phenomenon is inevitable on open surfaces in food industry premises.

  4. Relevance of the study premises in the reliability indexes; Relevancia das premissas de estudo nos indices de confiabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara Neto, Felipe [Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], email: fcamara@furnas.com.br; Schilling, Marcus Th. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: schilling@ic.uff.br; Silva, Armando M. Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia], E-mail: armando@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This article gives subsidies for overcoming the difficulties for the conceptual interpretation of the reliability indexes coming from the probabilistic analysis typical of power systems adequacy. Firstly, it is listed a set of factors that contribute to the generation of significant statistic amplitudes of numerical values. After this, a referential paradigm is obtained for the Brazilian test-system of 107 bars, according to the used methodology in various companies in Brazil. Taking as reference the obtained pattern, a set of experiments is done, and it is obtained the variation range of the severity index, and a set of another traditional indexes in the reliability analysis.

  5. Impact of systematic HIV testing on case finding and retention in care at a primary care clinic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Hanrahan, Colleen F; Bassett, Jean; Fox, Matthew P; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2014-12-01

    Systematic, opt-out HIV counselling and testing (HCT) may diagnose individuals at lower levels of immunodeficiency but may impact loss to follow-up (LTFU) if healthier people are less motivated to engage and remain in HIV care. We explored LTFU and patient clinical outcomes under two different HIV testing strategies. We compared patient characteristics and retention in care between adults newly diagnosed with HIV by either voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) plus targeted provider-initiated counselling and testing (PITC) or systematic HCT at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. One thousand one hundred and forty-four adults were newly diagnosed by VCT/PITC and 1124 by systematic HCT. Two-thirds of diagnoses were in women. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis (251 vs. 264 cells/μl, P = 0.19) and proportion of individuals eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (67.2% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.80) did not differ by HCT strategy. Within 1 year of HIV diagnosis, half were LTFU: 50.5% under VCT/PITC and 49.6% under systematic HCT (P = 0.64). The overall hazard of LTFU was not affected by testing policy (aHR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.87-1.10). Independent of HCT strategy, males, younger adults and those ineligible for ART were at higher risk of LTFU. Implementation of systematic HCT did not increase baseline CD4 count. Overall retention in the first year after HIV diagnosis was low (37.9%), especially among those ineligible for ART, but did not differ by testing strategy. Expansion of HIV testing should coincide with effective strategies to increase retention in care, especially among those not yet eligible for ART at initial diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rDNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, e.g. Legionella pneumophila, via parasitization of free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoebae. Yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise pl...

  7. Anticipatory opt-out of nuclear power at German universities and research centers? Employment and education opportunities in the nuclear field; Vorauseilender Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie an den deutschen Hochschulen und Forschungszentren? Arbeitsplaetze und Studienangebote im kerntechnischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, P.; Closs, K.D.; Kuczera, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Erlenwein, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Koeln (Germany); Langetepe, G. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Philippsburg (Germany); Weiss, F.P. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Wolfert, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    The energy policy objectives of the present German federal government include the regulated, not-to-be-indemnified termination of the use of nuclear power for electricity generation in Germany. This objective was initialed in an agreement between the federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants in June 2000. The criterion it contains for the residual life of existing nuclear power plants are the 'residual electricity volumes' to be generated by existing plants. According to present data, the first nuclear power plant would be decommissioned in late 2002, the last one, in early 2021. A report by an evaluating committee established by the competent German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology published in January 2000 indicates that, even in the light of this medium-term perspective for the use of nuclear power for electricity generation, sufficient competence in terms of manpower in this field must be maintained and promoted in all areas of research, industry, expert consultant organizations, and regulatory authorities far beyond 2021. This makes government support indispensable in the light of the political criteria requiring the preservation of competence in this sector. The 'Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik' (Association for Nuclear Technology Competence) was established within the framework of the Energy Research Division of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren. Its mandate outlines its objectives as follows: 'Irrespective of political decisions establishing criteria for terminating the use of nuclear power in Germany, it is necessary that competence in nuclear safety be preserved for the next few decades. Only this will ensure that the government's provident duties can be fulfilled, and the safety of nuclear installations and waste and spent fuel management pathways can be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art'. (orig.) [German] Die energiepolitischen Zielsetzungen der jetzigen Bundesregierung beinhalten eine geordnete und entschaedigungsfreie Beendigung der Nutzung der Kernenergie zur Stromerzeugung in Deutschland. Dieses Ziel ist in einer Vereinbarung zwischen Regierung und Kernkraftwerksbetreibern im Juni 2000 paraphiert worden und beinhaltet als Kriterium fuer die Laufzeiten der bestehenden Kernkraftwerke abzuarbeitende 'Reststrommengen' fuer die bestehenden Anlagen. Nach den derzeitigen Daten wuerde das erste Kernkraftwerk Ende 2002, das letzte Anfang 2021 vom Netz gehen. Dass selbst mit dieser mittelfristigen Perspektive fuer die Nutzung der Kernenergie zur Energieerzeugung in allen Bereichen von Forschung, Industrie, Gutachterorganisationen und Aufsichtsbehoerden weit ueber das Jahr 2021 hinaus eine ausreichende personelle Kompetenz auf diesem Gebiet erhalten und gefoerdert werden muss - selbst wenn nur die grundlegenden Aufgaben zu bewaeltigen sind - verdeutlicht ein im Januar 2000 veroeffentlichter Bericht einer vom zustaendigen Bundesminister fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) eingesetzten Evaluierungskommission. Die staatliche Foerderung ist daher mit den genannten politischen Vorgaben fuer den Kompetenzerhalt auf diesem Sektor unverzichtbar. Im Rahmen des Forschungsbereichs Energie der Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren hat sich der Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik etabliert. Das Leitmotiv fasst die Ziele zusammen: 'Unabhaengig von den Vorgaben der politischen Entscheidungen ueber die Beendigung der Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland, ist fuer die naechsten Dekaden die Kompetenzerhaltung in kerntechnischer Sicherheit erforderlich. Nur dann kann weiterhin der Schutzauftrag staatlicher Vorsorge erfuellt und die Sicherheit nuklearer Anlagen und Entsorgungswege nach dem internationalen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik gewaehrleistet werden'. (orig.)

  8. Opting out of the nuclear energy program. Impacts on energy prices and energy mix. Contrary to the forecasts; Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Auswirkungen auf Energiepreis und Energiemix. Proportional entgegen den Vorhersagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonenbroeck, Carsten; Donath, Christian [Europa-Univ. Viadrina, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre

    2013-11-01

    At the very latest since the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) the use of nuclear power is questioned critically in Germany. Even prior to the agreed nuclear phase-out numerous analyzes and forecasts have been performed. The conclusions of possible exit scenarios range from a deficit in the supply of up to massive price increases. A new study on the example of electricity exchange between Germany and two neighboring countries shows that these conclusions do not necessarily have to occur.

  9. 简论高校辅导员工作的角色认知%On the Premise of the Work of College Counselors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符琳

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,because of counselors' complexity and particularity of the study area into people,there exist problems like counselor's role conflict,role strain,role ambiguity and role in the loss of other aspects.It generates obstacles to the ideological premise of this issue,which is not a clear understanding of the role of counselor.Thus this paper claims that the solution would be to establish a sound and scientific system to rise counselors' self-awareness.%高校辅导员由于对角色认知不清而导致的角色障碍主要有角色冲突、角色紧张、角色混淆和角色丧失等表现。高校辅导角色认知模糊的原因,主要是不同主体对辅导员有着不同的社会期待以及角色本身的局限性所致。解决高校辅导员角色认知模糊的基本途径,是建立科学、规范的制度体系,提高辅导员的自我认知。

  10. Scientific fundamentation of including the Cuşma area within the ecologic network Nature 2000 – creation of the premises for project development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROOROCU M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As full member state of the EU, Romania also assumed within the area of nature protection the obligation tocontribute to the creation of the “Nature 2000” network, proportionally with representation of the natural andspecie habitates of communitary interest, on the Romanian teritory. The Nature 2000 site Cuşma has an area of44853 Ha and has a special potential for identification of viable populations of communitary interest species.USAMV Cluj-Napoca, started a research project with the title “The scientific fundamentation for includingCuşma (county of Bistriţa - Năsăud area within the ecologic European network Nature 2000” with the aim ofobtaining data concerning the naural patrimony of the Cuşma and promoting these data at European, national andregional level. The project objectives are the following: identification of habitates and species, quantitativeevaluation of the flora and fauna populations, realizing a data base, creating premises for elaboration andimplementation of suitable management plan, eastablishing collaboration relationship with interested factors inthe area. During the first stage of the project, the following activities were realized: depiction of the Cuşma site;elaboration of the work strategy; creation of the web page of the project; organizing communication meetingsand project promotion.

  11. 实践思维:网络舆情研究的逻辑前提%Practical Thinking: Logical Premise of the Network Public Opinion Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁方

    2012-01-01

    Practical thinking is the base and core of Marxist philosophy. From the view of the methodology of the latest achieve- ment of Marxism leading network public opinion, practical thinking is the logical premise of network public opinion research. Practi- cal thinking will be transformed into creative thinking of the new field of network public opinion research, scientific thinking of the evolutionary mechanism of network public opinion and dialectical thinking of the government capacity for network management.%实践思维是马克思主义哲学超越传统思维的标志。在用马克思主义中国化最新成果引领网络舆情研究的方法论层面,实践思维是其研究的逻辑前提,在研究中具体化为:开拓网络舆情研究新领域、把握网络舆情演变机理、提升政府网络问政能力。

  12. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  13. Tyre-pavement contact stress patterns from the test tyres of the Gautrans heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) MK IV+

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available premises. A test matrix of five load levels and six inflation pressures was used on both HVS test tyres at creep speed conditions (<6km/hr). The results indicated that at constant inflation pressure the vertical tyre contactpattern (“fingerprint”) is highly...

  14. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HURWITZ, Justin; Layton, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented...

  15. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...

  16. Purines: from premise to promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M

    2000-07-01

    Geoff Burnstock's remarkable insight and tenacity has established the area of purinergic research as a bona fide target for drug discovery. While efforts in P1 receptor-based medicinal chemistry and biology efforts over the past 25 years have not reached the level of success that the pharmaceutical industry investment may have anticipated, the P2 area, with knowledge of the selective localization of members of the P2X and P2Y family members and data from transgenic knockouts, has identified several potential therapeutic areas of major promise including cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, male contraception and neurodegeneration. In addition, interest in the potential of purinergic therapeutics has extended outside the major pharmaceutical companies to the 'biotech industry' resulting in an environment where the inherent risks of 'first in field' in a therapeutic area may be more appropriately nurtured.

  17. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HURWITZ, Justin; Layton, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...

  18. HIV prevalence and undiagnosed infection among a community sample of gay and bisexual men in Scotland, 2005-2011: implications for HIV testing policy and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A Wallace

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine HIV prevalence, HIV testing behaviour, undiagnosed infection and risk factors for HIV positivity among a community sample of gay men in Scotland. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of gay and bisexual men attending commercial gay venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland with voluntary anonymous HIV testing of oral fluid samples in 2011. A response rate of 65.2% was achieved (1515 participants. RESULTS: HIV prevalence (4.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI 3.8% to 6.2% remained stable compared to previous survey years (2005 and 2008 and the proportion of undiagnosed infection among HIV-positive men (25.4% remained similar to that recorded in 2008. Half of the participants who provided an oral fluid sample stated that they had had an HIV test in the previous 12 months; this proportion is significantly higher when compared to previous study years (50.7% versus 33.8% in 2005, p25 years was associated with HIV positivity (1.8% in those <25 versus 6.4% in older ages group as was a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosis within the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.14. There was no significant association between age and having an STI or age and any of the sexual behaviours recorded. CONCLUSION: HIV transmission continues to occur among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Despite evidence of recent testing within the previous six months, suggesting a willingness to test, the current opt-out policy may have reached its limit with regards to maximising HIV test uptake. Novel strategies are required to improve regular testing opportunities and more frequent testing as there are implications for the use of other biomedical HIV interventions.

  19. Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or "opt-out" HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81% reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%, HIV-related stigma (60%, and violence toward women (55%, and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%. At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9, higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7, more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7, perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5, and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1. Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9 or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76. While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%, lack of perceived HIV risk (43%, and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%.Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce barriers to testing in Botswana. As routine testing is

  20. The House-Tree-Person Test with Kids Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbaugh, Anne M.

    The House-Tree-Person test is based on the premise that unconscious aspects of the personality are exposed through the person's drawings of familiar items. Children who have experienced sexual abuse are often hesitant to respond to direct questioning about this experience. Researchers have studied the H-T-P to determine if these children produce…

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Perception about the 'Opt Out Strategy' for HIV Testing and. Counselling .... scores was same as was done for the knowledge scores. ... This could affect the control of the HIV epidemic ... Don't know n(%) ..... Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi.

  2. The Premise of Leaping“Capitalism Crafting Gorge”%跨越“资本主义制度卡夫丁峡谷”的前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红松

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of debate about the theory of leaping“capitalism Crafting Gorge” created by Marx. One of the controversial issues is the“Russian Revolution” and the“Revolution” mentioned in the theory, which is neither socialist revolution, nor the bourgeois revolution, but a new democratic revolution led by the proletariat, with Russia government as revolution object.This article studies the relevant text to clarify the nature of the“Rus-sian Revolution”, on the basis of which, the author concludes the three essential premise about the theory of lea-ping“capitalism Crafting Gorge” created by Marx and clarify its contemporary value.%马克思跨越“资本主义卡夫丁峡谷”理论中提到的“俄国革命”和“革命”既不是社会主义革命,也不是资产阶级革命,而是由无产阶级领导的、以沙俄政府为革命对象的新民主主义革命。必须坚持无产阶级的领导权、坚持土地公有制和发达资本主义国家的文明成果向实施跨越的国家转移是跨越“资本主义制度卡夫丁峡谷”的三个必要前提。

  3. Cost analysis of tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube test for tuberculosis screening in a correctional setting in Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Ank E; Iroh, Princess A; Brown, Larry S; Winetsky, Daniel; Porsa, Esmaeil

    2016-10-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014. Participants completed a risk questionnaire, TST placement, QFT-GIT testing, and were offered opt-out HIV-Ab testing. LTBI prevalence based on TST and QFT-GIT results, an evaluation of discordant results and a cost analysis are presented. A total of 529 subjects were enrolled. The majority were male (75 %), and 46 % were Black, 29 % White, and 24 % Hispanic. Most (85 %) had been previously incarcerated. Over 28 % of participants were released prior to TST reading, with paired QFT-GIT and TST results available for 351 subjects. Of these, nine (2.6 %) tested positive by TST and 47 (13.4 %) tested positive by QFT-GIT. It costs $23.27 more per inmate per year to screen with QFT-GIT than TST in this population, though the cost per LTBI case detected was nearly three times higher for TST than QFT-GIT ($1247 v $460). We found a substantially higher rate of QFT-GIT positivity compared to TST in this sample of individuals entering the Dallas County Jail. Although no gold standard exists, this finding may indicate under-recognized LTBI in this setting. QFT-GIT as an initial screening tool was more time-efficient, had four-fold fewer labor costs and provided results on more individuals when compared with the TST. The overall cost of QFT-GIT was $23.27 more per inmate per year, though the cost per LTBI case

  4. As nove premissas anestesiológicas da Bíblia Las nueve premisas anestesiológicas de la Biblia Nine Biblical anesthetic premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2003-02-01

    án correlacionadas con el libro citado de la Biblia: I - Jehová, el pionero de la anestesia inhalatoria - Gén 2; II - Efecto hipnótico y amnéstico del alcohol - Prov. 20; Gén 19, Marc. 15; III - El Caos y la Cronobiologia relacionados a la Anestesia - Gén, 1, Ecles 3; IV - La Estereoisomeria de los anestésicos - Ecles, 42; Gén,1; V - La resucitación cardiorrespiratoria realizada por Elias y Eliseo - Gén 2; Reyes III 17, Reyes IV 4; VI - La tocoanalgesia - Gén 3; Apoc, 12; Gén, 35; y muerte materna pós-parto de Raquel - Ex 1; VII - La "prohibición de comer" o transfundir sangre en el testimonio de Jehová - Lev 7, 17; VIII - La acidosis en el tratamiento de convulsión epiléptica - Mat. 17; IX - De la muerte en la cruz por choque hipovolémico - Marc. 15, Juan 19. CONCLUSIONES: De acuerdo con las premisas anestésicas discutidas, la lectura de la Biblia sin la óptica fundamentalista muestra que no hay incompatibilidad entre religión, ciencia y anestesia, excepto la interpretación del testimonio de Jehová sobre el Levítico, acreditando en la pérdida de la vida eterna porque la sangre transfundida es una comida impura prohibida por Jehová.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The authors produced a historical analysis of nine anesthesia-related premises described in the Bible more than 3,500 years ago (Old Testament. Anesthetic drugs and adjuvants, patients, anesthesiologists attitudes and techniques are discussed in the light of Biblical and modern science. CONTENTS: To help understanding, the nine premises evaluated are correlated to the book of Bible citation: I - Jehovah, the pioneer of inhalational anesthesia - Gen 2; II - Alcoholic hypnosis and anesthesia - Prov 20, Gen 19, Marc 15; III - Anesthesia-related Chaos and Chronobiology - Gen 1, Ecles 3; IV - Anesthetic drugs Stereoisomerism - Ecle 42, Gen 1; V - Elijah´s and Elisha´s cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Gen 2, Kings III 17, Kings IV 4; VI - Tocoanalgesia - Gen 3, Rev 12, Gen 35 and Rachel’s post-partum death

  5. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypothetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  6. The re-emergence of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science and the testing of theories of scientific change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Larry; Laudan, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact.

  7. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-08-01

    to the large proportion of low intenders that ended up being tested contrary to their intention before entering the antenatal clinic. PMTCT programs should strengthen women's intention through social approval and information that testing will provide positive consequences for them. However, women's rights to opt-out should be emphasized in any attempt to improve the PMTCT programs.

  8. Missed Opportunities for Repeat HIV Testing in Pregnancy: Implications for Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caiyun; Golden, William Christopher; Anderson, Jean R; Coleman, Jenell S

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing is an effective intervention that is used for reducing perinatal HIV transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a second HIV test during the third trimester of pregnancy for women in settings with an elevated HIV incidence (≥17 cases per 100,000 person-years). We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a single hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, to determine whether a second HIV test was done and to compare HIV retesting with mandated syphilis retesting. Of women who delivered at this hospital, 98.8% received prenatal care. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Among 1632 women, mean age was 27.6 years (standard deviation: 6.3), 59.6% were black, and 55.5% were single. HIV retesting was done in 28.4% of women, which was significantly less often compared with the state-mandated syphilis retesting (78.7%, p < 0.001). The odds of having an HIV retest were 15 times higher among women who received prenatal care at a teaching clinic [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 15.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 11.12-21.81], and they were lower among women with private insurance (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.86). The odds of having a syphilis retest were twice as high among women who received prenatal care at a faculty practice (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.53-3.09), and they were lower among women with private insurance (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88). Emphasizing an "opt-out" HIV retesting approach through state laws may minimize risk perception, and this is one strategy that can be considered in areas of high HIV incidence to reach the goal of eliminating perinatal HIV transmission in the United States.

  9. Premissas histórico-socioculturais sobre a família brasileira em função do sexo e da idade Historic-sociocultural premises about the Brazilian family in relation to sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Maria Leal Assmar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a abordagem etnopsicológica, as premissas histórico-socioculturais, que constituem crenças inquestionáveis consensualmente aceitas por um grupo social, desempenham papel chave na compreensão do comportamento individual. Apoiando-se nessa perspectiva, investigou-se a influência do sexo e idade no grau de adesão a premissas sobre a família brasileira. A amostra compreendeu 393 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, distribuídos em quatro faixas etárias, que responderam à adaptação brasileira do Questionário sobre a Estrutura da Família Mexicana. Os homens endossaram mais fortemente que as mulheres as premissas associadas à dominação masculina, valores tradicionais da família e virgindade feminina. As mulheres revelaram-se mais tradicionais que os homens na aceitação das premissas relacionadas à abnegação feminina. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos de idade em nenhuma das dimensões consideradas. Concluiu-se que, embora a sociedade brasileira venha sofrendo mudanças, os valores e crenças sobre a família, introjetados pelos homens e pelos mais jovens, não acompanharam essas mudanças.In the ethnopsychological approach, historic-sociocultural premises, which are unquestionable beliefs consensually accepted by a social group, play a key role in the understanding of individual behavior. Based on this approach, the influence of sex and age in the endorsement of premises about the Brazilian family was investigated. The sample consisted of 393 individuals of both sexes distributed in four age groups who answered a Brazilian version of the Mexican Family Structure Questionnaire. Men demonstrated greater acceptance of the premises associated with male dominance, traditional family values, and female virginity than women. Women showed greater endorsement of the premises related to female abnegation than men. No differences among age groups were observed. It was concluded that although Brazilian society has been

  10. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise plumbing material is limited. Utilizing 16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, this study characterized the microbial community structure within DW biofilms established on unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and copper (Cu) surfaces and the impact of introducing Legionella pneumophila (Lp) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Mature (> 1 year old) biofilms were developed before inoculation with sterilized DW (control, Con), Lp, or Lp and A. polyphaga (LpAp). Comparison of uPVC and Cu biofilms indicated significant differences between bacterial (P = 0.001) and eukaryotic (P 0.05) but did affect eukaryotic members (uPVC, P < 0.01; Cu, P = 0.001). Thus, established DW biofilms host complex communities that may vary based on substratum matrix and maintain consistent bacterial communities despite introduction of Lp, an environmental pathogen.

  11. Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Simms

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015, 7 primary health clinics (PHCs in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8% children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%-3.1%, and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%-46.2%. Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2% participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%-47.9%. Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified

  12. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    students with a high initial numeracy score did not profit equally from repeated testing, target-group specific opt-out may be offered.

  13. The use of the rapid exchange grip test in detecting sincerity of effort, Part II: validity of the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, O; Taylor, C

    2000-01-01

    The rapid exchange grip (REG) test was developed to identify patients exerting insincere effort. The premise of the REG test is that a maximal, sincere effort yields a "negative REG," in which peak static grip (SG) scores are greater than peak REG scores, and that a submaximal, insincere effort yields a "positive REG," in which REG scores are greater than SG scores. There is disagreement in the literature concerning what constitutes a positive REG test, suggesting that the REG may not be a valid measure of sincerity of effort. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the REG test by examining its premise as well as its sensitivity and specificity values. The 146 uninjured subjects performed a series of randomized grip strength tests, exerting both maximal and submaximal efforts. The tests included the REG at hand switch rates of 45 rpm (REG-45) and 60 rpm (REG-60), the maximal static grip test (MSGT), and the five-rung test (5R). Our findings supported the concept of a "negative REG" for both REG maneuvers and both comparative SG tests. The concept of a "positive REG," however, was supported only when peak REG scores were compared with peak 5R scores. The authors found relatively low sensitivity and specificity values, suggesting that the REG test may not be sensitive or specific enough to effectively detect sincerity of effort. The authors discuss the likelihood that mistakes will be made when the REG test is used to diagnose sincerity of effort and the possible consequences of making such mistakes.

  14. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  15. Test Under Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s national college entrance examination, regarded as a make-or-break test by many students, leaves much to be desired “We’ve bribed the exam supervisors, paying each one 20,000 yuan. They will make everything go smooth during the exams,” Li Feng, a teacher from No.2 High School in

  16. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  17. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  18. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  19. 引文分析的本质与学术评价功能的条件性%The essence of citation analysis and conditioned premise for academic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲

    2013-01-01

    As is a pattern of scientific conversation,the citation is an important method to avoid academic plagiarism and guarantee the reliability of research,which is a must be existing premise for academy.The research based on rationalism,empiricism and utilitarianism manifests that using citation analysis to evaluate academy is rational and reasonable,but to its specific evaluation function,there is no direct connection between the rationality and reliability.Using it as a tool to evaluate academy,the premise is to differentiate the substantial citation,procedural citation and formalistic citation,meanwhile,two kinds of behavioral mistakes,abandoned true errors and take pseudo errors,are often happened during the process of citation,the statistics and analysis on their probability is needed.%引文作为科学对话的一种方式是避免学术剽窃和保证学术研究可靠性的重要方法,其存在具有客观必然性.基于理性主义、经验主义和功利主义知识观的研究表明,引文分析法用于学术评价具有合理性.在微观层面上,引文分析法的合理性与学术评价功能的可靠性之间不存在直接的联系.使用引文分析评价学术的条件是对引文索引数据库中的实质性引文、程序性引文和形式性引文进行区分,同时,还要对引用过程中引用行为发生弃真错误和取伪错误两类错误的概率进行统计分析.

  20. Direct tests of the expectations theory of the term structure: Survey expectations, the term premium and coefficient biases

    OpenAIRE

    Smant, David / D.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A common perception in the literature seems to be that the expectations theory of the term structure of interest rates (ET) is rejected by the empirical tests. However, the overall evidence across countries and time periods is actually mixed between frequent support and occasional rejection of the ET and requires careful interpretation. This paper builds on two premises. First, the general version of the expectations theory does not require a constant term premium. Second, contrary to the cla...

  1. Ni-MH storage test and cycle life test

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, R. Dan; Klein, Glenn C.; Schmidt, David F.

    1994-02-01

    Gates Aerospace Batteries is conducting two long term test programs to fully characterize the NiMH cell technology for aerospace applications. The first program analyzes the effects of long term storage upon cell performance. The second program analyzes cycle life testing and preliminary production lot testing. This paper summarizes these approaches to testing the NiMH couple and culminates with initial storage and testing recommendations. Long term storage presents challenges to deter the adverse condition of capacity fade in NiMH cells. Elevated but stabilized pressures and elevated but stabilized end-of-charge voltages also appear to be a characteristic phenomenon of long term storage modes. However, the performance degradation is dependent upon specific characteristics of the metal-hydride alloy. To date, there is no objective evidence with which to recommend the proper method for storage and handling of NiMH cells upon shipment. This is particularly critical due to limited data points that indicate open circuit storage at room temperature for 60 to 90 days will result in irrecoverable capacity loss. Accordingly a test plan was developed to determine what method of mid-term to long-term storage will prevent irrecoverable capacity loss. The explicit assumption is that trickle charging at some rate above the self-discharge rate will prevent the irreversible chemical changes to the negative electrode that result in the irrecoverable capacity loss. Another premise is that lower storage temperatures, typically 0 C for aerospace customers, will impede any negative chemical reactions. Three different trickle charge rates are expected to yield a fairly flat response with respect to recoverable capacity versus baseline cells in two different modes of open circuit. Specific attributes monitored include: end-of-charge voltage, end-of-charge pressure, mid-point discharge voltage, capacity, and end-of-discharge pressure. Cycle life testing and preliminary production lot

  2. 网络反腐健康发展应以增强正确认识为前提%The Sound Development of the Network Anti-corruption Based on Enhancing the Correct Understanding as the Premise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永洪

    2013-01-01

    网络反腐作为一种新型的社会舆论监督形式,虽有其效度,但也有其限度。网络反腐自身要得以健康发展,一个首要的前提则是需要各类社会政治行为主体增强对其正确认识。正确认识网络反腐,不仅包括对网络反腐基本内涵和内在性质的认识,而且还包括对网络反腐运行机理、功能效限及其与制度反腐关系的认识。%Although the network anti-corruption as a new form of social supervision have itself validities, and also have itself limi-tations. The primary premise of the network anti-corruption is to enhance correct understanding of all kinds of social and political be-havior subject. Correct understanding of the network anti-corruption, includes not only the basic connotation and the intrinsic property, but also the running mechanism, the functional limitations and the relationship between the network anti-corruption and the institutional anti-corruption.

  3. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  4. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  5. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  6. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  7. Student motivation: Premise, effective practice and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Stuart; Campbell, Holly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline how motivation of first year university students can be enhanced through effective pedagogic practices and to discuss policy level decisions that impact upon...

  8. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated...... with a web of meanings encompassed by the central imaginary signification of autonomy, manifested as critique and questioning of established representations, pursuit of truth through rational communication and scientific knowledge, as well as democratic citizenship, conceived of as social and personal self......-determination. But, in addition to Greek Antiquity, on which Modernity drew, the European social imaginary included the central signification of rational control and domination, which is articulated mainly as instrumental rationality, techno-scientific supremacy, capitalism, national state and bureaucracy...

  9. Non Security – Premise of Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the concept of cyber crime. There are detailed the vulnerabilities of IT applications. There are listed the types of Internet fraud. There are analyzed the predisposing factors of cyber crime. There are identified the deficiencies of the security systems. It is build a model for information security management.

  10. Premises of Sustainable Development on Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors want to highlight the opportunity on rural areas and development in termsof durability. The content of sustainable development offers to local communities real and lasting solutions.In this sense for a community to be truly sustainable, it must adopt a holistic approach, taking into accountshort-term environmental and economic sustainability of natural and cultural resources. The authors believethat a sustainable community among its objectives to include their major environmental issues, povertyeradication, improvement of quality of life, developing and maintaining an effective and viable localeconomies, leading to a global vision of sustainable development of all sectors of the community.

  11. Origin of the cell - Experiments and premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Theories and component concepts of the origin of life, i.e., primordial life, have emerged from (1) constructionistic studies on model materials and systems, and (2) reductionistic studies of contemporary cells. The resultant views conflict in a number of aspects; many of the differences are analyzed in this article. Constructionistic experiments are appropriate to asking questions about origins since they are in the same direction as evolution itself. These experiments have revealed self-ordering properties and associated emergent functions, which were not predictable.

  12. Social Networking Sites: A premise on enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANINDERPAL SINGH SAINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article address five constructs that are paramount toward continued evolution of social networking sites (SNS`s they include, - stabilisation, visual, language, security and flexibility. These constructs add to our proposed framework. Firmly grounded research on social networking sites and literature, we propose that user feedback, is the critical component that stimulates the development and growth of social networking sites online. We offer a framework that can aid new and current social networking sites toward success. We conclude that the management of social networking sites should be treated as a process that is pragmatic and paradoxically, be stimulated.

  13. Stylistic Reformulation: Theoretical Premises and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jean Marie

    1994-01-01

    Various aspects of writing style are discussed to propose concrete methods for improving students' performance. Topics covered include the relationship between syntactic and cognitive complexity and classroom techniques and the reformulation technique as applied to student writing samples. (Contains 20 references.) (LB)

  14. SOCIAL PREMISES FOR A SUSTAINABLE LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafir Nicoleta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is not any more a new and un-known subject in the leather business world. There is a certain reorientation and implementation tendency of its requirements at organization level, in the last years. However, there are still some ambiguities and uncertainties related on the approach and practice of all principles included in the concept. That’s why each organization tries to formulate winning strategies on long term, showing an equal importance for human resources, social balance and the environment. This work highlights the efficiency of the human resources in the leather industry’s sustainability, a study created by seven national associations representing the leather industry from Italy, Spain, France, Germany, UK, Sweden and Romania. The analysis of social indicators demonstrates that tanneries in Europe are increasingly committed to the ethical and social aspects of their business, and that, through continuous investments, they have been able to ensure substantial improvements in process efficiency and in pollution prevention and control. All the efforts made by European tanneries over the years have resulted in improving the sustainability of their production. The excellent results achieved deserve to be valued more by stakeholders and better incentivised through measures encouraging new and future investments. The environmental and social values demonstrated by European leather help to keep European tanners ahead of international competition.

  15. Institute of Microbiology moves to new premises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The CAS Institute of Microbiology, which is originally located in northeast Beijing's Zhongguancun, a suburb northwest to the downtown, has recently moved to its new buildings in the northern suburbs of Beijing, where most of the CAS institutes in life sciences and geosciences in Beijing area herd together.

  16. Challenging the premises of international policy review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Læssøe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education...

  17. AGEISM STEREOTYPING AS A SOCIAL POLICY PREMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Klymanska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with socio-cultural factors of the problems of "social status of older people". The aim of the paper is to analyze the socio-cultural values of elements of social gerontology in order to identify the factors that determine the basis for the formation of social policy of old age in modern society. We have indicated the basic attitudes and behaviours that affect the regulation of the social problem of the status of older people.

  18. Artistic characteristics and artistic premise of music and music learning strategies%音乐的艺术特性与艺术学前提及音乐学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2016-01-01

    The music is an indispensable part of social life, music teaching has specific methods, but for music appreciating the music has not qualitative, the main reason is that music is more than just an art relies on sensory to appreciate, is a kind of knowledge requires a ful range to mobilize the resources. Music is a comprehensive discipline, it has the aesthetic discipline of art, but also with the music of the rhythm and the regular pattern. This paper mainly discussed the relationship of artistic characteristic and artistic premise and music, aimed at a comprehensive understanding and explain of the three, in order to more perfectly reflect the music's comprehensive and unique.%音乐是现在社会生活中不可缺少的一部分,对于音乐教学而言,其有着特定的方法,但对于音乐欣赏而言,音乐又具有不定性,主要原因是音乐不仅仅是一门可以靠感官去欣赏的艺术,更是一种需要全方位调动资源来进行的学问。音乐是一种综合性学科,它具有艺术学科的审美性,同时又具备音乐学本身的韵律性和规律感。本文主要探讨的就是音乐的艺术特性和艺术前提以及音乐学三者问题间的关系,旨在将三者进行综合性的理解和阐述,使音乐的综合性和独特性得到更完美的体现。

  19. Test Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  20. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... people avoid harmful reactions to medication. What Is Pharmacogenomics? Did you ever wonder why a medicine doesn' ...

  1. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  2. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  3. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  4. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypoethetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  5. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  6. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  7. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2012-02-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  8. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2010-01-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  9. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  10. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  11. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , Parvovirus B19 All content on Lab Tests Online has ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . ^ Back to top When is it ordered? ...

  12. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Malnutrition Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Symptoms | Tests | Treatment | Related Pages Tests Malnutrition will often be noticeable to the doctor's trained ...

  13. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... may be a sign parasite infection such as giardia . ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. Hill DR, Nash TE. Giardia lamblia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  14. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  15. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may recommend you have an invasive test, like amniocentesis , to confirm the results. Chorionic villus sampling (also ... done at 15 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Amniocentesis (also called amnio). Tests the amniotic fluid from ...

  16. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page helpful? Also known as: VMAU Formal name: Vanillylmandelic Acid, urine Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , Urine ... I should know? How is it used? The vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) test is primarily used to detect and ...

  17. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  18. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  19. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  20. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  1. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Serum Ferritin Formal name: Ferritin, serum Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , Hematocrit , Serum Iron , TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin , Iron Tests , Zinc Protoporphyrin , Soluble Transferrin ... else I should know? How is it used? The ferritin test is ordered to assess a person's iron ...

  2. Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, John A.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

  3. Cytosine arabinoside, vinblastine, diethylstilboestrol and 2-aminoanthracene tested in the in vitro human TK6 cell line micronucleus test (MNvit) at Institut Pasteur de Lille in support of OECD draft test guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice; Marzin, Daniel

    2010-10-29

    The reference genotoxic agents Cytosine arabinoside, Vinblastine, Diethylstilboestrol and 2-Aminoanthracene were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells, without cytokinesis block, at the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Lille, France. This was done in support of the toxicity measures recommended in the late 2007 version of the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the testing of chemicals. All four reference agents were positive in the assay at concentrations giving approximately 50% toxicity or less as assessed by draft Test Guideline 487 recommended measures, relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts. Accordingly, this work supports the premise that relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts are appropriate measures of toxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.

  4. Completion of an Online Library Module Improves Engineering Student Performance on Information Literacy Skills Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Zhang, Q., Goodman, M., & Xie, S. (2015. Integrating library instruction into the Course Management System for a first-year engineering class: An evidence-based study measuring the effectiveness of blended learning on students’ information literacy levels. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 934-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.934 Objective – To assess the efficacy of an online library module and of blended learning methods on students’ information literacy skills. Design – Multi-modal, pre- and posttests, survey questionnaire, and focus groups. Setting – Public research university in London, Ontario, Canada. Subjects – First-year engineering students. Methods – Of 413 students enrolled in Engineering Science (ES 1050, 252 volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to complete the online module, a pretest, a posttest, an online follow-up survey, and to take part in a focus group. Researchers generated a pretest and a posttest, each comprised of 15 questions:; multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions which tested students’ general and engineering-specific information literacy skills. The pretest and posttest had different, but similarly challenging, questions to ensure that students involved in the study would not have an advantage over those who had opted out. While all components of the study were voluntary, the posttest was a graded course assignment. In-person tutorials were offered on 4 occasions, with only 15 students participating. Both tutorial and module content were designed to cover all questions and competencies tested in the pretest and the posttest, including Boolean operators, peer review, identifying plagiarism, engineering standards, engineering handbooks, search strategies, patents, article citations, identifying reliable sources, and how to read journal articles. The posttest survey was delivered in the CMS immediately after the posttest was completed. It

  5. Preoperative psychological testing--another form of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Favretti, Franco; Segato, Gianni

    2008-10-01

    Preoperative psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates has become routine, and a significant proportion of patients have their surgery deferred as a consequence. If psychological testing is being used as a form of preoperative triage, both patients and surgeons are entitled to know whether there is sufficient evidence to justify its use in this way. We define the argument for psychological screening as consisting of four premises (p1-p4) and a conclusion (C) as follows: (p1) A significant minority of obese patients will not be successful in losing weight following bariatric surgery-the "failure" group; (p2) A significant minority of patients will exhibit abnormal psychological profiles during preoperative testing; (p3) The majority of individuals referred to in (p2) will be found in group (p1) i.e., abnormal psychological profiles identified preoperatively predict less favorable weight loss outcomes postoperatively; (p4) Identifying patients with adverse psychological profiles preoperatively would allow either exclusion of those at high risk of failure or provide a more secure rationale for targeted pre- and postoperative support; (C) Psychological screening should be part of the routine preoperative assessment for patients undergoing obesity surgery. We reviewed the literature to find evidence to support the premises and show that (p1) can be justified but that (p2) is problematic and can only be accepted in a heavily qualified version. We find no evidence for (p3) and since (p4) and (C) are predicated on (p3), the argument clearly fails. There is no evidence to suggest that preoperative psychological screening can predict postoperative outcomes and no justification for using such testing as a means of discriminating between candidates presenting themselves for bariatric surgery.

  6. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the notion of fair testing, a formal testing theory in the style of De Nicola and Hennessy where divergences are disregarded as long as there are visible outgoing transitions. The usual testing theories, such as the standard model of failure pre-order, do not allow such fair interpretations because of the way in which they ensure their compositionality with respect to abstraction from observable actions. This feature is usually present in the form of a hiding-operator (CSP, ACP...

  7. test title

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Realistic replication of such attacks is necessary to thoroughly test detection and defense mechanisms. The common response to this risk is to...particular user, desired behavior may be to deny service or disrupt connectivity in the experimental network, to test a new worm or to maintain some...scripting environment whose syntax enables specification of control flows that depend on controlled program outputs, thus automating system testing

  8. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Differential Ability Scales Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Functioning abilities that are measured by these tests ...

  9. Online listening tests on sound insulation of walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Holm; Antunes, Sonia; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    As part of the COST Action TU0901 WG 2 activities a listening test was made on the annoyance potential of airborne noise from neighbours heard through walls. 22 assessors from 11 countries rated six simulated walls with four types of neighbour noise online at the assessor’s premises using the ISO....../TS 15666 annoyance scale. A simple “calibration” procedure based on adjusting a speech sample to natural level for approximate calibration was used. Dose-response curves for neighbour noise, i.e. the annoyance potential of neighbour noise heard on the receiving side of the walls as function of the A......-weighted levels or the loudness levels was found with high correlations between levels and annoyance. For the combination of the selected walls and noise types a high correlation was also found between the annoyance potential of the neighbour noise and the R’w-values for the simulated walls....

  10. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  11. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Serum Iron; Serum Fe Formal name: Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor ... I should know? How is it used? Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) , and/or ...

  12. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 2 Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, H.; Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-04-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life even though they commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current design standards. One of the basic premises of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is that the low gearbox reliability results from the absence of critical elements in the design process or insufficient design tools. Key goals of the GRC are to improve design approaches and analysis tools and to recommend practices and test methods resulting in improved design standards for wind turbine gearboxes that lower the cost of energy (COE) through improved reliability. The GRC uses a combined gearbox testing, modeling and analysis approach, along with a database of information from gearbox failures collected from overhauls and investigation of gearbox condition monitoring techniques to improve wind turbine operations and maintenance practices. Testing of Gearbox 2 (GB2) using the two-speed turbine controller that has been used in prior testing. This test series will investigate non-torque loads, high-speed shaft misalignment, and reproduction of field conditions in the dynamometer. This test series will also include vibration testing using an eddy-current brake on the gearbox's high speed shaft.

  14. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from...... a model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively...

  15. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  16. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially as a result of taking non-human (animal or synthetic) insulin, these can interfere with insulin testing. In this case, a C-peptide may be performed as an alternative way to evaluate insulin production. Note also that ...

  17. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CRP) , cultures (e.g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal ... of procalcitonin can be seen with medullary thyroid cancer , but the test is not used to diagnose ...

  18. Albumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interfere with its production, increase protein breakdown, increase protein loss, and/or expand plasma volume (diluting the blood). Depending on the person's medical history, signs and symptoms, and physical exam, additional testing ...

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  20. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syphilis . The bacteria that cause syphilis is called Treponema pallidum. Your health care provider may order this test ... 59. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC. Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  1. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  2. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  3. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  4. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  5. PTH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  6. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  7. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  8. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  9. Tests computarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  10. RPR test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune disorders Tuberculosis (TB)

  11. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Magnesium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D ...

  12. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  13. Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells - Pap; AGUS - Pap; Atypical squamous cells - Pap; HPV - Pap; Human papilloma virus - Pap cervix - Pap; Colposcopy - Pap ... test to check for the presence of the HPV virus types most likely to cause cancer Cervix cryosurgery- ...

  14. Test report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  15. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  16. Antithrombin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homocysteine ; Lupus Anticoagulant ; Proteins C & S ; PT ; PT 20210 ; Factor V Leiden All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... such as a protein C or S deficiency , a factor V leiden mutation , or oral contraceptive use, then the person ...

  17. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  18. Test report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  19. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Triglycerides Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: TG; TRIG Formal name: Triglycerides Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct ...

  20. Tensilon test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called Tensilon (also called edrophonium) or a dummy medicine (inactive placebo) is given during this test. The health care provider gives the medicine through one of your veins (intravenously, through an ...

  1. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory; VDRL; Rapid Plasma Reagin; RPR; Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption ... test for treponemal antibodies is positive (see below). VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory)--in addition to blood, ...

  2. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is broken) Considerations Other tests used to detect pancreas diseases may include: Serum amylase Serum lipase Alternative Names ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cystic Fibrosis Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  4. Runflat Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Yuma Test Center 301 C Street Yuma, Arizona 85365-9498 8. PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 02-2-698 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command CSTE-TM...tire assembly tread life combat flat central tire inflation system (CTIS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  5. St. Joseph's Hospital, Lifford Road, Ennis, Clare.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.

  6. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  7. 马克思哲学之思想史前提的广义理解%Broad Understanding of Premise of Ideological History of Marx's Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何中华

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the rich connotation of Marx's philosophy comprehensively and deeply, it is necessary to re-understand and redefine the premise of ideological history. This should emphasize two aspects: one of them is transcending classical (;erman philosophy, to investigate the connection of ideological history of Marx's philosophy and ancient Greece and its philosophy, Romantic trend, Christian tradition; the second aspect is to re-excavate the richness connection of ideological history between Kant, Hegel and Marx. Marx proposed the question of "how could be transcendent regulation's historical construction", which is similar with a Kant's problem, but not limited in the range of epistemology, and change to a problem of ontology; so it endows transcendent the meaning of practice to experience world's creative construction. With exception to transform speculative dialectic of Hegel to practical dialectic, Marx also transformed his phenomenology of absolute mind to phenomenology of human existence.%为了全面深刻地领会马克思哲学的丰富内涵,有必要重新理解和厘定马克思哲学的思想史前提。这需要着眼于两方面:一是扩展,二是深化。既要超越德国古典哲学的范围,考察古希腊及其哲学、浪漫主义思潮、基督教传统与马克思哲学的思想史联系;又要重新挖掘康德、黑格尔同马克思之间思想史联系的丰富性。古希腊哲学中的理想主义、自我意识、自由意志、自由、时间等思想因子,影响了马克思哲学的致思取向和风格。作为马克思人的存在的现象学原初范畴的实践所固有的敞开性和生成性,更本然地表达着浪漫主义所推崇的表征“生命”的“推动原则”和“创造原则”。马克思拒绝了基督教带给人的满足的虚拟性质,却保留了满足本身并追求其历史真实性,他终其一生致力于人性和历史在辩证否定的意义上的

  8. Premises and Tendencies of Cultural Consciousness from Perspective of Environmental Philosophy%以环境哲学为研究视域的文化自觉之前提与趋向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国文

    2015-01-01

    In modern era when social life and natural environment are increasingly interpenetrating and overlapping, the proposal of cultural consciousness from the perspective of environmental philosophy is to explore the meaning of ecological connotation and to change the current condition in which ecology has long been absent in the philosophical context in the same way as nature is excluded in cultural studies. It is essential to understand the prerequisite of environmental philosophy and then to clarify the premise of cultural consciousness in certain context:the basic connotation and framework of environmental philosophy with direction to eco⁃civilization;material life means of a well⁃off society;virtue, affection and action close to natural environment;cognition about the trend and origin of global ecological crisis in post⁃industrial era and the balance of impacts of modernity and post⁃modernism on environmental philosophy. The tendencies of cultural consciousness in the context of environmental philosophy research are reflected in the following: to get rid of the control of malignant capital over eco⁃environment so as to constitute the guidance of eco⁃environment protection mentality for benign capital;to maintain moral factors in the context of environment so as to establish moral consciousness in eco⁃culture;to realize the transformation from ecological human to ecological citizen based on human life;to form the philosophical pattern of ecological culture in accordance with specific conditions of life geography;to establish harmonious relations of human, environment and nature in the face of complicated climate changes, to recognize the boundaries of human��s rational activities with introspection on human activity trace;to consider cautiously the practical effect and basic limit of science and technology;to improve the building of society as a medium of eco⁃culture so as to realize the back feeding of nature to social consciousness, and to take

  9. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a solution to the long-standing problem of characterising the coarsest liveness-preserving pre-congruence with respect to a full (TCSP-inspired) process algebra. In fact, we present two distinct characterisations, which give rise to the same relation: an operational one based on a De Nicola-Hennessy-like testing modality which we call should-testing, and a denotational one based on a refined notion of failures. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the should-t...

  10. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Rose, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  11. The Construction of Premises and a Concept Model for Theoretical Study of Crowdsourcing:A Perspective of Service-Dominant Logic%众包理论研究前提与概念模型构建--基于服务主导逻辑的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩清池; 赵国杰

    2014-01-01

    尝试应用服务主导逻辑建立众包理论研究的前提与概念模型。首先对比众包的代表性概念并归纳其基本要素,然后对服务主导逻辑的内涵进行分析;在此基础上提炼基于服务主导逻辑视角的众包理论研究前提,并建立概念模型。%The paper tries to construct premises and a concept model for theoretical research on crowdsourcing on the basis of the service -dominant logic.It firstly compares representative definitions and summarizes the basic elements of crowdsourcing,then analyses connotations of service-dominant logic.Based on the above analysis,the paper extracts the premises for further theoretical research on crowdsourcing from the perspective of service-dominant logic,and proposes a concept model at last.

  12. 现代医学的生命伦理学前提:对生命权与人格权的尊重和保护%The bioethical premise of modern medicine:respecting and protecting rights of life and personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方兴

    2014-01-01

    Modern medicine confers the contemporary bioethics new task. Modern medicine shows one ethical space, which is a nature system of bioethical rights. The conflicts of principles of bioethics are conflicts of moral rights. For handling these conflicts, we must base on the premise of respecting and protecting rights of life and personality. In this sense, rights of life and personality are the premise of modern medicine ethics.%现代医学赋予当代生命伦理学全新的时代任务。现代医学所展现的伦理空间,是一个具有普遍伦理本质的生命权利体系,生命伦理学原则之间存在冲突的实质是生命权利体系中道德权利的冲突,沟通这些冲突的前提是对生命权与人格权的尊重与保护。从这个意义上说,生命权与人格权是现代医学的生命伦理学前提。

  13. From Experience Reflection to Rational Intuition: on Methodological Premise of Cartesian Principle of Universal Skepticism%从经验反省到理智直观——论笛卡尔普遍怀疑的方法论前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈常燊

    2011-01-01

    Skepticism is the starting point of Cartesian metaphysics. Universal skepticism is based on conscience and gives us sound reason. It starts with reflection of common experience and is actually a rational self-reflection. The premise of universal skepticism is sound conscience, which implies three public theoretical presuppositions. Universal skepticism does not mean opposition to experience but to re-examine the experience. Its starting point is the demonstration of sensory unreliability; it presupposes eight self-evident premises.%怀疑论是笛卡尔形而上学的起点。普遍怀疑基于良知为我们提供的健全理智,始于对经验常识的反省,实际上是理智的自我反省。普遍怀疑的前提是诉诸健全的良知,其中暗含了三重公共性的理论预设;普遍怀疑并不等于反对经验,而是重新审视经验;普遍怀疑的起点是对感官不可靠的论证;普遍怀疑中预设了八个不证自明的前提。

  14. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  15. Paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoja, A M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic techniques have found application in virtually all areas of medicine, including criminal investigations and forensic analysis. The techniques have become so precise that it is now possible to conclusively determine paternity using DNA from grand parents, cousins, or even saliva left on a discarded cigarette butt. This is a broad overview of paternity testing.

  16. Homocysteine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may recommend homocysteine testing in malnourished individuals, the elderly, who often absorb less vitamin B12 from their diet, and individuals with poor nutrition, such as drug or alcohol addicts. Homocysteine may be ordered as part of a screen for people at high risk for heart attack or stroke . ...

  17. Testing Hubbert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Adam R. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The Hubbert theory of oil depletion, which states that oil production in large regions follows a bell-shaped curve over time, has been cited as a method to predict the future of global oil production. However, the assumptions of the Hubbert method have never been rigorously tested with a large, publicly available data set. In this paper, three assumptions of the modern Hubbert theory are tested using data from 139 oil producing regions. These regions are sub-national (United States state-level, United States regional-level), national, and multi-national (subcontinental and continental) in scale. We test the assumption that oil production follows a bell-shaped curve by generating best-fitting curves for each region using six models and comparing the quality of fit across models. We also test the assumptions that production over time in a region tends to be symmetric, and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions than in smaller regions. (author)

  18. Troponin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    TroponinI; TnI; TroponinT; TnT; Cardiac-specific troponin I; Cardiac-specific troponin T; cTnl; cTnT ... your heart not getting enough blood flow.) The troponin test may also be done to help detect ...

  19. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Putting Tests To The Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣

    2005-01-01

    Tests are usually a big part of a teacher's life. They are part of the ritual of the classroom. Students expect them. Administrators, school boards and legislators require them. They are important to us in our work; we think about them often and have a lot to say about them.

  1. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  2. SLS Flight Software Testing: Using a Modified Agile Software Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Albanie T.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is an advanced launch vehicle for a new era of exploration beyond earth's orbit (BEO). The world's most powerful rocket, SLS, will launch crews of up to four astronauts in the agency's Orion spacecraft on missions to explore multiple deep-space destinations. Boeing is developing the SLS core stage, including the avionics that will control vehicle during flight. The core stage will be built at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA using state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment. At the same time, the rocket's avionics computer software is being developed here at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. At Marshall, the Flight and Ground Software division provides comprehensive engineering expertise for development of flight and ground software. Within that division, the Software Systems Engineering Branch's test and verification (T&V) team uses an agile test approach in testing and verification of software. The agile software test method opens the door for regular short sprint release cycles. The idea or basic premise behind the concept of agile software development and testing is that it is iterative and developed incrementally. Agile testing has an iterative development methodology where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between cross-functional teams. With testing and development done incrementally, this allows for increased features and enhanced value for releases. This value can be seen throughout the T&V team processes that are documented in various work instructions within the branch. The T&V team produces procedural test results at a higher rate, resolves issues found in software with designers at an earlier stage versus at a later release, and team members gain increased knowledge of the system architecture by interfacing with designers. SLS Flight Software teams want to continue uncovering better ways of developing software in an efficient and project beneficial manner

  3. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  4. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic versus diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure ...

  5. The Benevolent Can Enjoy Longevity, the Virtue Embellishes the Self-cultivation:The Moral Premise of Health from the Confucianism Viewpoint%仁者寿、德润身:儒家视野中健康的道德前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广宽

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the relationship between health and longevity and ethics and moral from the Confucianism viewpoint. Morality is one of value premises of physical well-being, that is to say, morality is a cru-cial factor to maintain and recover health. The pursuit for health and longevity is worthwhile only if it is moral.%从儒家传统的视角,对健康长寿与伦理道德的关系进行探讨。道德是健康的价值前提之一,良好的道德修养是保持和恢复健康的重要因素,对健康长寿的追求只有符合道德才具有价值。

  6. APU diaphragm testing. Test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) fuel (hydrazine) tanks have had to be removed from the Columbia Shuttle (OV-102) because they have been in service for 11 years, which is the limit of their useful life. As part of an effort to determine whether the useful life of the fuel tanks can be extended, examination of the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) diaphragm and the metal from one of the APU tanks is required. The JSC Propulsion and Power Division has requested White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to examine the EPR diaphragm thoroughly and the metal casing generally from one tank. The objective is to examine the EPR diaphragm for signs of degradation that may limit the life of its function in the APU propellant tank. The metal casing will also be examined for signs of surface corrosion.

  7. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  8. The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility towards SPIDER operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toigo, V.; Dal Bello, S.; Gaio, E.; Luchetta, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Zaccaria, P.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Aprile, D.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Battistella, M.; Boldrin, M.; Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Lorenzi, A.; Delogu, R.; De Muri, M.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Gambetta, G.; Grando, L.; Jain, P.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marconato, N.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pilan, N.; Pimazzoni, A.; Piovan, R.; Recchia, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Sartori, E.; Siragusa, M.; Spada, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Taliercio, C.; Valente, M.; Veltri, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zaupa, M.; Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Svensson, L.; Schunke, B.; Decamps, H.; Urbani, M.; Kushwah, M.; Chareyre, J.; Singh, M.; Bonicelli, T.; Agarici, G.; Garbuglia, A.; Masiello, A.; Paolucci, F.; Simon, M.; Bailly-Maitre, L.; Bragulat, E.; Gomez, G.; Gutierrez, D.; Mico, G.; Moreno, J.-F.; Pilard, V.; Chakraborty, A.; Baruah, U.; Rotti, C.; Patel, H.; Nagaraju, M. V.; Singh, N. P.; Patel, A.; Dhola, H.; Raval, B.; Fantz, U.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.; Cavenago, M.; Croci, G.; Gorini, G.; Rebai, M.; Muraro, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Hemsworth, R.

    2017-08-01

    SPIDER is one of two projects of the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility under construction in Padova, Italy, at the Consorzio RFX premises. It will have a 100 keV beam source with a full-size prototype of the radiofrequency ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) and also, similar to the ITER diagnostic neutral beam, it is designed to operate with a pulse length of up to 3600 s, featuring an ITER-like magnetic filter field configuration (for high extraction of negative ions) and caesium oven (for high production of negative ions) layout as well as a wide set of diagnostics. These features will allow a reproduction of the ion source operation in ITER, which cannot be done in any other existing test facility. SPIDER realization is well advanced and the first operation is expected at the beginning of 2018, with the mission of achieving the ITER heating and diagnostic NBI ion source requirements and of improving its performance in terms of reliability and availability. This paper mainly focuses on the preparation of the first SPIDER operations—integration and testing of SPIDER components, completion and implementation of diagnostics and control and formulation of operation and research plan, based on a staged strategy.

  9. A1C test

    Science.gov (United States)

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  10. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is generally not recommended for detecting low-risk HPV infections. ... Human papilloma virus - testing; Abnormal Pap smear - HPV testing; LSIL-HPV testing, Low-grade dysplasia - HPV testing; HSIL - HPV testing; High-grade dysplasia - HPV testing; HPV ...

  11. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  12. Mean Abnormal Result Rate: Proof of Concept of a New Metric for Benchmarking Selectivity in Laboratory Test Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher T; Guo, Maggie

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to develop and validate new metrics to access the appropriateness of laboratory test requests. The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) is a proposed measure of ordering selectivity, the premise being that higher mean abnormal rates represent more selective test ordering. As a validation of this metric, we compared the abnormal rate of lab tests with the number of tests ordered on the same requisition. We hypothesized that requisitions with larger numbers of requested tests represent less selective test ordering and therefore would have a lower overall abnormal rate. We examined 3,864,083 tests ordered on 451,895 requisitions and found that the MARR decreased from about 25% if one test was ordered to about 7% if nine or more tests were ordered, consistent with less selectivity when more tests were ordered. We then examined the MARR for community-based testing for 1,340 family physicians and found both a wide variation in MARR as well as an inverse relationship between the total tests ordered per year per physician and the physician-specific MARR. The proposed metric represents a new utilization metric for benchmarking relative selectivity of test orders among physicians. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  14. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  15. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  16. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  17. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  18. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test; Prolactinoma - prolactin test; Pituitary tumor - prolactin test ... hypothyroidism ) Kidney disease Pituitary tumor that makes prolactin (prolactinoma) Other pituitary tumors and diseases in the area ...

  19. Standard practice for verification of constant amplitude dynamic forces in an axial fatigue testing system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the dynamic verification of cyclic force amplitude control or measurement accuracy during constant amplitude testing in an axial fatigue testing system. It is based on the premise that force verification can be done with the use of a strain gaged elastic element. Use of this practice gives assurance that the accuracies of forces applied by the machine or dynamic force readings from the test machine, at the time of the test, after any user applied correction factors, fall within the limits recommended in Section 9. It does not address static accuracy which must first be addressed using Practices E 4 or equivalent. 1.2 Verification is specific to a particular test machine configuration and specimen. This standard is recommended to be used for each configuration of testing machine and specimen. Where dynamic correction factors are to be applied to test machine force readings in order to meet the accuracy recommended in Section 9, the verification is also specific to the c...

  20. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W.B.

    1980-03-14

    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  1. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  2. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  3. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  4. Electrodril system field test program. Phase II, task B: deep drilling system demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-15

    The effort included the design, fabrication and Systems Verification Testing of the Deep Drilling System. The Systems Verification Test was conducted during October 1978 in a test well located on the premises of Brown Oil Tools Inc., Houston, Texas. In general, the Systems Verification test program was an unqualified success. All of the system elements of the Deep Drilling System were exercised and evaluated and in every instance the system can be declared ready for operational well demonstration. The motor/bit shaft combination operated very well and seal performance exceeds the design goals. The rig floor system performed better than expected. The power cable flexural characteristics are much better than anticipated and longitudinal stability is excellent. The prototype production connectors have functioned without failure. The cable reels and drive skid have also worked very well during the test program. The redesigned and expanded instrumentation subsystem also functioned very well. Some electronic component malfunctions were experienced during the early test stages, but they were isolated quickly and repaired. Subsequent downhole instrumentation deployments were successfully executed and downhole data was displayed both in the Electrodril instrumentation trailer and on the remote control and display unit.

  5. Test-particle simulations in increasingly strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.; Gray, P. C.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Quasi-linear theory supposes that the energy in resonant fluctuations is small compared to that in the mean magnetic field. This is evident in the fact that the zeroth-order particle trajectories are helices about a mean field B(sub o) that is spatially uniform over many correlation lengths. However, in the solar wind it is often the case that the fluctuating part of the field is comparable in magnitude to the mean part. It is generally expected that quasi-linear theory remains viable for particles that are in resonance with a region of the fluctuation spectrum having only small energy density, but even so, care must be taken when comparing simulations to theoretical predictions. We have performed a series of test-particle simulations to explore the evolution of ion distributions in turbulent situations with varying levels of magnetic fluctuations. As delta-B/B(sub o) is increased the distinctions among absolute pitch angle (defined relative to B(sub o)), local pitch angle (defined relative to B(x)), and magnetic moment become important, some of them exhibiting periodic sloshing unrelated to the nonadiabatic processes of interest. Comparing and contrasting the various runs illustrates the phenomena that must be considered when the premise underlying quasi-linear theory are relaxed.

  6. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the deceptive practices of direct-to-consumer tests, calling the results of such tests as "misleading and ... Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2000. US Government Accountability Office Nutrigenetic testing: tests purchased from four ...

  7. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  8. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal name: Helicobacter pylori Related tests: Gastrin At a Glance Test Sample ... else I should know? How is it used? Helicobacter pylori testing is used to diagnose an infection due ...

  9. Heart Health Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify ... diseases. There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or ...

  10. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  11. Prochievement Testing of Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Barbara Gonzalez

    1989-01-01

    Presents a practical oral testing model that fits speaking tests into the syllabus and course grade, links teaching and testing approaches, tests interactive and individual performance, uses new and old materials, and compares impromptu and prepared performance. (Author/CB)

  12. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with the fungus ...

  13. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  14. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  15. New premise in science get the word out quickly, online

    CERN Multimedia

    Harmon, A

    2002-01-01

    "A group of prominent scientists is mounting an electronic challenge to the leading scientific journals, accusing them of holding back the progress of science by restricting online access to their articles so they can reap higher profits" (1 page).

  16. Planned Home Births in Iceland: Premise, Outcome, and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir 1973

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitalization of childbirth in Iceland in the 20th century reduced home birth rates to less than 0.1% in 1990. Icelandic home birth rates have risen rapidly in the new millennium and were 2.2% in 2014. Recent studies in other Western countries have consistently shown lower rates of interventions and maternal morbidity in planned home births than in planned hospital births, while neonatal outcomes are dissimilar in different countries. These study results have been met with scept...

  17. PREMISES FOR CLASS STRUCTURES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MOCANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study represents by its content a competent sum up of the processes which have unfolded in Moldova for more than two decades of transition and it is focused on social stratification dimension. The social stratification itself proves to be a complex phenomenon, including a differentiated system of hierarchies which form up an integral entirety, determining the positioning of an individual within a social group. The opportunity of this monographic study dedicated to bringing out the processes of social stratification is determined by the need to identify the existence and theoretical grounding of the formed up groups or which are in process of being formed up, them being subjected to research by developing scales based on more criteria. The indispensable nature of the investigations is amplified by the development of a new methodology, which would ensure the emphasis being placed on new social structure compatible with reality, approached through the prism of certain measurement indicators. While in Soviet period the social structure was grounded in occupation, there being present a simpliste picture with no consideration for internal hierarchy, neither for the diversity of the activities, nowadays there is an absolutely innovative approach, grounded on the complexity of the processes from within and out of the society, there being pointed out both the traditional dimension and the trends derived from creating a knowledge based society. The work undertakes a multiaspectual analysis of stratification, including economic and political, professional and cultural dimensions.

  18. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one ha

  19. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing ...

  20. Inclusive physical education – premises for the development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Stănesc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In last years, one of the major educational interests was to assure conditions for inclusion in normal school for children withspecial educational needs. This paper is part of a national research project (CNCSIS 931/2007 that finally intends toelaborate „Models of curricular design for adapted and inclusive physical education”. By starting from this project, thepresent study aims, on the one hand, at identifying the way in which the physical education teachers in mass schoolsperceive the integration of children with some disabilities into the physical education class, and, on the other hand, atidentifying the way in which the teachers working in special schools manage to involve them into the sport activitiespracticed by normal children, so that one could talk about integrated physical activities, where each pupil, with or without adisability, is equally important. Knowing the way of approaching the activity within the inclusive sport activities can facilitatethe disabled children’s better involvement into the respective practice and their better social integration.To this purpose, weinitiated two parallel studies. They were based on questionnaires and on direct observation, and were conducted on a 4-month period. The integration models through inclusive school determine the specialists to pay more attention to physical forall, where the disabled children are integrated in normal school classes.