WorldWideScience

Sample records for premilking teat disinfectant

  1. Field trial evaluation of premilking teat disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Wildman, E E; Drechsler, P A; Hogan, J S

    1987-04-01

    Efficacy of premiliking teat disinfection (predipping) with good udder preparation was compared with good udder preparation alone on four well-managed, commercial dairy farms. Three teat dip formulations containing iodophor were used for predipping. Predipping reduced the rate of intramammary infection with major mastitis pathogens approximately 54%. Infection rate with esculin-positive streptococci and coliforms was reduced more than 51%. Udder infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci were not controlled by predipping.

  2. Milk iodine residues in herds practicing iodophor premilking teat disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D M; Petersson, L G; Erb, H N

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to determine effects of different concentrations of iodophor teat dips on milk iodine residues, when teat dips were used both premilking and postmilking. Eighty cows in each of seven herds were assigned to one of four treatments. Each treatment received postmilking teat dip at .1 or 1% iodophor concentration. Two groups received no premilking dip, and the other two groups received premilking teat dip at the same concentration as the postmilking teat dip. Premilking teat dipping was followed by manual drying of teats. Noniodophor postmilking dips and no premilking inodophor udder sanitizers were used during an 8-d adjustment period. Milk was collected for milk iodine determination from each cow from weigh jars or milk meters at p.m. milkings during the last 3 d of the adjustment period and d 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment period. Premilking and postmilking teat dipping with .1% iodophor dip did not significantly increase milk iodine residue above postmilking teat dipping with .1% iodophor dip alone. However, 1% iodophor postmilking teat dip significantly increased milk iodine residue over use of .1% iodophor dip used as a premilking and postmilking teat dip. Adding a 1% iodophor premilking teat dip significantly increased iodine residues.

  3. Efficacy of a new premilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination for the prevention of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Ivey, S J; Almeida, R A; Luther, D A; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Moorehead, H D; Dowlen, H H

    2001-06-01

    A teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination was evaluated in a natural exposure study in two dairy research herds. Premilking teat disinfection was compared with a negative control using a split-udder experimental design. In both herds, premilking and postmilking teat disinfections with the phenolic combination were significantly more effective in preventing new intramammary infection (IMI) than was postmilking teat disinfection only. Clinical mastitis and new IMI by Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Gram-negative pathogens, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were significantly lower in quarters of cows with teats predipped and postdipped than in quarters with teats postdipped only. No chapping or teat skin irritation was observed. Premilking teat disinfection with the phenolic combination in association with good udder preparation and postmilking teat disinfection can further reduce the occurrence of new IMI by numerous mastitis pathogens during lactation.

  4. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  5. Evolution of udder hygiene. Premilking teat sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Drechsler, P A

    1993-11-01

    Compared with post-milking teat dipping, predipping is in its infancy. Few controlled studies have been published on premilking teat disinfection/sanitation. Experimental challenge procedures resulted in consistent reductions for predipping compared with no udder preparation and conventional udder preparation, indicating a potential for effectiveness. Challenge studies that included the treatments of predip only and postdip only indicated that interactions during the milking process require elucidation. Positive benefits have been observed for predipping in field trials among some herds, but wide variation has been observed between herds in all field trial evaluations. Parity, DIM, and season of the year had major interactions on efficacy of predipping in Pankey et al's 1987 report; other trials have been of shorter duration and precluded analysis of these interactions. Interactions among these variables influenced incidence of mastitis by environmental pathogens. The length of time after milking before teats are contaminated probably is a major influence on predip efficacy. Predipping has reduced incidence of new IMIs and new cases of clinical mastitis. Unfortunately, certain factors negated these positive effects. These factors need to be defined. Producers should monitor effects of predipping to determine whether the investment in product and time has an economic return under the conditions of their dairy.

  6. Effect of pre-milking teat preparation procedures on the microbial count on teats prior to cluster application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of six pre-milking teat preparation procedures on lowering the staphylococal, streptococcal and coliform microbial count on teat skin prior to cluster application. The teat preparations included 'Iodine', 'Chlorhexidine' teat foam, 'Washing and drying' with paper, 'No preparation', 'Chlorine' teat foam, and disinfectant 'Wipes'. Teat preparations were applied for five days to 10 cows for each treatment during two herd management periods (indoors and outdoors). Teats were swabbed on day four and five before teat preparation and repeated after teat preparation. The swabs were plated on three selective agars: Baird Parker (Staphylococcus spp.), Edwards (Streptococcus spp.), and MacConkey (coliform). Following incubation, microbial counts for each pathogen type were manually counted and assigned to one of six categories depending on the microbial counts measured. The results were analysed by logistic regression using SAS [28]. The main analysis was conducted on binary improvement scores for the swabbing outcomes. There were no differences for staphylococcal, streptococcal and coliform bacterial counts between treatments, measured 'before' teat preparation. Treatments containing 'Chlorhexidine' teat foam (OR = 4.46) and 'Wipes' (OR = 4.46) resulted in a significant reduction (P teats compared to 'Washing and drying' or 'No preparation'. 'Chlorine' teat foam (OR = 3.45) and 'Wipes' (3.45) had the highest probability (P disinfectant treatments applied in reducing coliforms. Thus, the use of some disinfectant products for pre-milking teat preparation can have beneficial effects on reducing the levels of staphylococcal and streptococcal pathogens on teat skin. PMID:21851738

  7. Effect of premilking teat disinfection on mastitis incidence, total bacterial count, cell count and milk yield in three dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, R W; Collis, K

    1992-02-29

    An iodophor teat disinfectant was applied before milking by dip or spray to 50 cows and 50 cows were left untreated in each of three commercial herds. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis was reduced by 57 per cent, the total bacterial count by 70 per cent and the count of thermoduric organisms by 32 per cent. These results were not statistically significant, except that one herd showed a significant decrease in total bacterial count. There was no effect on somatic cell count, milk production or milk iodine residues. Atmospheric iodine concentrations increased in the two herds which applied the treatment as a spray, but the levels attained were not likely to be detrimental to human health.

  8. Effect of pre-milking teat preparation procedures on the microbial count on teats prior to cluster application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of six pre-milking teat preparation procedures on lowering the staphylococal, streptococcal and coliform microbial count on teat skin prior to cluster application. The teat preparations included 'Iodine', 'Chlorhexidine' teat foam, 'Washing and drying' with paper, 'No preparation', 'Chlorine' teat foam, and disinfectant 'Wipes'. Teat preparations were applied for five days to 10 cows for each treatment during two herd management periods (indoors and outdoors. Teats were swabbed on day four and five before teat preparation and repeated after teat preparation. The swabs were plated on three selective agars: Baird Parker (Staphylococcus spp., Edwards (Streptococcus spp., and MacConkey (coliform. Following incubation, microbial counts for each pathogen type were manually counted and assigned to one of six categories depending on the microbial counts measured. The results were analysed by logistic regression using SAS 28. The main analysis was conducted on binary improvement scores for the swabbing outcomes. There were no differences for staphylococcal, streptococcal and coliform bacterial counts between treatments, measured 'before' teat preparation. Treatments containing 'Chlorhexidine' teat foam (OR = 4.46 and 'Wipes' (OR = 4.46 resulted in a significant reduction (P

  9. Effect of 2 different premilking teat sanitation routines on reduction of bacterial counts on teat skin of cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, C; Guarín, J F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-04-01

    Premilking teat sanitation reduces the load of bacteria on teat skin before milking and it is a fundamental practice used to ensure collection of high-quality milk. The objective of this study was to compare reduction in bacterial populations of teat skin after premilking preparation using either predipping with 0.5% iodine followed by drying (conventional; CONV) or using a semiautomated teat scrubber that uses chlorine dioxide (TS; FutureCow, Longwood, FL). Ten farms currently using a commercial teat scrubber system were enrolled. Cows (n=40 per farm) were assigned to CONV (n=198) or TS (n=196) premilking udder preparation. Teat skin swabs were collected before and after udder preparation and analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Reduction (RED) of each bacterial group was defined as the difference in the number of bacteria measured before and after udder preparation. Before udder preparation, Staphylococcus spp. (15,036 cfu/mL) and Streptococcus spp. (12,621 cfu/mL) were the most numerous microflora. Gram-negative bacteria were less numerous (1,538 cfu/mL). A significant treatment by farm interaction was identified for RED of all bacterial counts. Compared with teats prepared using TS, teats prepared using CONV preparation had greater RED of TBC on 3 farms, of Streptococcus spp. on 2 farms, and of Staphylococcus spp. on 1 farm. On all other farms, RED in TBC, Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. did not differ based on teat preparation method. Use of TS resulted in greater RED of GNB of teats on 3 farms, but RED in GNB was greater for teats cleaned by CONV on 1 farm; for the other 6 farms, RED of GNB did not differ between methods. For all bacterial counts, an effect of chlorine dioxide concentration used in the teat scrubber was observed. Results from this study suggest both CONV and TS can effectively reduce bacterial counts, but farm conditions and management practices can

  10. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation ...

  11. Disinfection properties of some bovine teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Neave, F K; Westgarth, D R

    1977-02-01

    The efficacy of 18 disinfectant teat dips was tested on teats artificially contaminated with a milk suspension of Staphylococcus aureus. A solution of Na hypochlorite with 40 g/l available chlorine was significantly more bactericidal than one containing 1 g/1 available chlorine and than most other disinfectants tested. The method was not able to distinguish differences in efficacy between solution containing 40g/1 and 10g/1 available chlorine nor between these and some of the iodophors containing 5 g/1 available iodine. The additon of 190-416 g/1 (15-33% v/v) glycerol significantly reduced the bactericidal properties of 3 iodophors (5 g/1 available iodine), but soluble lanolin at approximately 20 g/1 did not appear to lower the efficiency of NaOC1 (45 g/1 available chlorine) or of an iodophor (5 g/1 available iodine).

  12. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, P L; Dohoo, I R

    1997-10-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation of the trial and on an approximately bimonthly basis throughout the duration of the trial. There was no difference in the prevalence of isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. from composite milk samples obtained during the 6 herd cultures. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the control group was 1.38 cases per 1000 cow days. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the treatment group was 1.06 cases per 1000 cow days. The ratio of these 2 was 1.3, suggesting a higher rate in the control group, but the ratio was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the effect of treatment group was not significant, although the coefficient suggested that predipping reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. The benefit to cost ratio of 0.37 indicated that the benefit of reduced incidence of clinical cases of mastitis would not have justified the added expense required to predip the herd.

  13. Automatic application of teat disinfectant through the milking machine cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindal, R J; Priest, D J

    1989-08-01

    An automatic device, which infuses disinfectant into the mouthpiece of the liner of the milking machine cluster as teatcups are removed, is described. Application at this time avoids any delay in disinfection, reduces the workload in the parlour and increases reliability of application. The teats of 20 cows were contaminated before each milking by immersion in a suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae and then disinfected manually or automatically with iodophor after milking. Str. agalactiae was recovered from less than 5% of swabs and there was no difference between the results from the two methods. Neither method of disinfection was as effective against Staph. aureus and the recovery rate was significantly greater for the automatic method for both swabs from teat barrel (P less than 0.05) and teat apex (P less than 0.001). Rates of intramammary infection for quarters automatically or manually disinfected were similar and low (3/40 v. 6/40 respectively). The automatic method facilitates cluster removal by relieving vacuum and decreasing frictional contact at the mouthpiece lip, and utilizes approximately half the quantity of disinfectant used by manual dipping (0.9 v. 1.9 ml/teat). However, iodine contamination in the milk from the iodophor teat disinfectant was significantly increased from 14.4 to 102.2 micrograms 12/100 ml milk when no backflushing was practised.

  14. [The clinical effectiveness of a post milking teat disinfection method with a foaming iodophor teat dip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, U; Tenhagen, B A; Heuwieser, W; Kalbe, P; Klünder, G; Baumgärtner, B

    2003-02-01

    The effect of postmilking teat dipping with a foaming iodophor agent on incidence of intramammary infections (IMI), incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell count and the characteristics of udder tissue and teat was investigated in a positively controlled field study. Two groups of animals were compared. Teats were dipped with a foaming iodophor in the treatment group (TG, 122 animals) while teats in the control group (CG, 121 animals) were dipped with a conventional iodophor teat dip with the same iodine content. A bacteriological examination of quarter milk samples divided the study period in two parts. The incidence of new IMI did not differ between the groups (1st part of trial: TG vs. CG: 6.84% vs. 9.16%, 2nd part of trial: 7.78% vs. 7.82%). There were no differences between the treatment groups regarding incidence of clinical mastitis. We detected 0.64 clinical cases per 100 days in the treatment group vs. 0.50 in the control group. The development of SCC was comparable in both groups. Teat skin and teat duct conditions showed variation during the study period. Clinical efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection with a foaming iodophor was comparable to the treatment with a conventional iodophor product.

  15. Investigations about different methods of teat disinfection in milking hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A negative controlled field study (part I) was conducted to determine potential iodine residues in milk after predipping with a foaming teat disinfectant containing .27 % polyvidone iodine. The teats of 9 lactating dairy cows were alternately predipped and conventionally cleaned over a period of 12 days. Due to this study design the animals were there own negative controls. An iodine selective electrode was used to measure the iodine concentration in milk of all bucket milk samples in the stu...

  16. [Udder disinfection and mastitis in cattle: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J; van Vliet, J H; Schukken, Y H

    1995-07-01

    Postmilking teat disinfection is accepted as an important part of standard preventive measures against mastitis in dairy cattle. The efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection against infections with contagious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae is beyond doubt. However, the efficacy of teat disinfection against infections with environmental pathogens such as Escherichia coli is disputed, and a negative effect has even been described in some situations. This article reviews the practice of teat disinfection in dairy cattle. Premilking and postmilking teat disinfection are discussed, as is the efficacy, different ways of teat disinfection, and different disinfectants. It is concluded that post-milking teat disinfection is an effective management measure in most herds. Selection of teat disinfectants should be based on proven efficacy, which is required for registration of the preparation as a veterinary medical product in the Netherlands.

  17. Intramammary infections and teat canal colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci after postmilking teat disinfection: species-specific responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, T; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Capper, J; Wenz, J; Park, J

    2012-04-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows. We hypothesized that postmilking teat disinfection would reduce microbial colonization of the teat canal and thus reduce the prevalence of IMI caused by certain CNS species. The efficacy of iodine postmilking teat dip was tested against CNS colonization of the teat canal, and incidence of IMI was measured. Using an udder-half model, 43 Holstein cows at the Washington State University Dairy were enrolled in the trial; postmilking teat dip was applied to one udder-half, treatment (TX), and the remaining half was an undipped control (CX). Teat canal swabbing and mammary quarter milk samples were taken in duplicate once a week for 16 wk for microbial culture. Isolates from agar cultures were presumptively identified as CNS and then speciated using PCR-RFLP and agarose gel electrophoresis. Colonization of the teat canal and IMI by CNS were assessed. Thirty CNS IMI were diagnosed and the number of new IMI in CX quarters (21) was significantly greater than that in TX mammary quarters (9). The majority of CNS IMI were caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes (30%) and Staphylococcus xylosus (40%), and the latter were appreciably reduced by teat dip. Except for S. xylosus, an association was observed between teat canal colonization and IMI by all CNS species in this study, in which the majority of IMI were preceded by teat canal colonization. The total number of CNS IMI was greater for CX group cows compared with TX group cows. However, the effect of disinfection on IMI did not appear to be the same for all CNS species.

  18. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity

  19. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity

  20. Evaluation of a postmilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination for the prevention of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Lewis, M J; Gillespie, B E; Ivey, S J; Coleman, L H; Almeida, R A; Fang, W; Lamar, K

    1999-11-01

    A trial was conducted for 12 months in a herd of 120 Holstein cows in order to determine the efficacy of a teat disinfectant, which contained a phenolic combination, for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections during lactation. Postmilking teat disinfection was compared to a negative control using a split-udder experimental design. The percentage of quarters newly infected by mastitis pathogens was 45% lower in mammary glands with teats that had been dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant after milking than it was in undipped controls. New infections caused by Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and Corynebacterium bovis were significantly lower in mammary glands with teats that had been dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant than in undipped controls. No statistical differences in the incidence of clinical mastitis between treatment groups were observed. No irritation or chapping of teats dipped in the experimental teat disinfectant were observed. The results of this study suggest that the experimental teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination is an effective postmilking teat disinfectant for use in the prevention of new intramammary infections by both contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens.

  1. Defining standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukken, Y H; Rauch, B J; Morelli, J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to define standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The standardized protocols describe the selection of cows and herds and define the critical points in performing experimental exposure, performing bacterial culture, evaluating the culture results, and finally performing statistical analyses and reporting of the results. The protocols define both negative control and positive control trials. For negative control trials, the protocol states that an efficacy of reducing new intramammary infections (IMI) of at least 40% is required for a teat disinfectant to be considered effective. For positive control trials, noninferiority to a control disinfectant with a published efficacy of reducing new IMI of at least 70% is required. Sample sizes for both negative and positive control trials are calculated. Positive control trials are expected to require a large trial size. Statistical analysis methods are defined and, in the proposed methods, the rate of IMI may be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The efficacy of the test product can be evaluated while controlling for important covariates and confounders in the trial. Finally, standards for reporting are defined and reporting considerations are discussed. The use of the defined protocol is shown through presentation of the results of a recent trial of a test product against a negative control.

  2. Use of lyophilized skin for testing the bactericidal activity of teat disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, A J; Hogben, E M

    1983-02-01

    The bactericidal activities of various concentrations of 3 disinfectants commonly used for teat disinfection were compared in vitro using small discs of pig skin previously contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. Solutions containing 40 g/l Na hypochlorite, 25 or 50 g/l chlorhexidine digluconate or iodophor containing 5 g/l iodine were found to have equivalent or superior bactericidal activity to a solution containing 10 g/l Na hypochlorite. This in vitro technique offers a convenient alternative to in vivo tests for teat disinfectants and with minor modifications could be applicable to the testing of skin antiseptics in general.

  3. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity dip versus barrier dip, and application method (dip vs. spray) to ensure safe iodine levels in dairy milk when these products are used. The iodine exposure study was performed during a 2-wk period. The trial farm was purged of all iodine-based disinfection products for 21 d during a prestudy "washout period," which resulted in baseline milk iodide range of 145 to 182 ppb. During the experiment, iodine-based teat dips were used as post-milking teat disinfectants and compared to a non-iodine control disinfectant. Milk iodide residue levels for each treatment was evaluated from composited group samples. Introduction of different iodine-based teat disinfectants increased iodide residue content in milk relative to the control by between 8 and 29 μg/L when averaged across the full trial period. However, residues levels for any treatment remained well below the consumable limit of 500 μg/L. The 0.5% iodine disinfectant increased milk iodide levels by 20 μg/L more compared to the 0.25% iodine. Compared to dip-cup application, spray application significantly increased milk iodide residue by 21 μg/L and utilized approximately 23% more teat dip. This carefully controlled study demonstrated an increase in milk iodide concentrations from iodine disinfectants, but increases were small and within acceptable limits.

  4. The effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection in low somatic cell count herds. II. Dynamics of intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J; van Vliet, J H; Schukken, Y H; Grommers, F J; van Velden-Russcher, A; Barkema, H W; Brand, A

    1997-06-01

    Results of a 20 month split-udder trial on the effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection on intramammary infections (IMI) with major and minor pathogens in seven dairy herds with a low somatic cell count are described. The incidence of Escherichia coli IMI was found to be significantly lower, whereas the incidence of IMI with Staphylococcus aureus and minor pathogens was significantly higher in quarters for which postmilking teat disinfection was discontinued than in disinfected quarters. It was concluded that discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection decreased the incidence of E. coli IMI, accompanied by a, from a practical point of view, acceptable rise in somatic cell count. However, the possible increase in the incidence of S. aureus IMI calls for careful monitoring of the dynamics of IMI with contagious pathogens, when postmilking teat disinfection is discontinued in an attempt to reduce E. coli mastitis.

  5. The effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection in low somatic cell count herds. I. Incidence of clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J; van Vliet, J H; Schukken, Y H; Grommers, F J; van Velden-Russcher, A; Barkema, H W; Brand, A

    1997-06-01

    Results are described of a split-udder trial on the effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection on the incidence of clinical mastitis in seven dairy herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count and a high incidence of clinical mastitis. Overall incidence of clinical mastitis was non-significantly lower (18%), whereas the incidence of the most prevalent pathogen associated with clinical mastitis, Escherichia coli, was significantly lower in quarters for which postmilking teat disinfection was discontinued. We concluded that discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection may decrease the incidence of clinical Escherichia coli mastitis in herds for which standard mastitis prevention measures are executed adequately, bulk milk somatic cell count is low, and incidence of clinical mastitis is high. However, because an increase in intramammary infections with contagious pathogens may occur, care is recommended when advising discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection.

  6. Preventing bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerton, J E; Cooper, J; Morelli, J

    2007-03-01

    A split-herd study was performed to determine if an acidified, sodium chlorite teat disinfectant, UDDERgold Platinum Germicidal Barrier Teat Dip (UG Pt, Ecolab Inc., Redmond, WA), was effective in preventing new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating dairy cows compared with a licensed, iodophor teat disinfectant (Iosan, Novartis Animal Health, Ltd., Whittlesford, UK), and to show that the test product was tolerated equally well by teat skin. The study lasted 114 d and covered all weather conditions. The teats of 176 cows were dipped after each milking in UG Pt and the teats of 172 cows were dipped in Iosan, the positive-control product. Routine milk samples were taken from each quarter of every cow every 4 wk. Additional samples were taken from newly calved cows joining the trial and from cows with clinical signs of mastitis. Milk samples were cultured for the presence of bacteria and the cause of clinical mastitis. Each quarter was eligible for only 1 infection during the trial. The number of clinical cases was identical in each group (n = 13) and the number of subclinical infections was slightly lower in the UG Pt group than in the Iosan group (n = 27 and 31, respectively). These rates of infection suggest that the products did not differ in their ability to prevent a new IMI. At least 203 cows were assessed for skin integrity before the start of the trial and every 28 d throughout. The UG Pt teat dip had no adverse effects on teat condition. The prevalence of hyperkeratosis did not change with time for both groups (0.90 +/- 1.08 and 0.95 +/- 1.06 at wk 0 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.87 and 0.49 +/- 0.74 at wk 16 for fore and hind teats, respectively, for UG Pt and 1.02 +/- 1.25 and 1.16 +/- 1.11 at wk 0 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.71 and 0.45 +/- 0.65 at wk 16, respectively, for Iosan); no redness of the skin was observed in either group. Application of recommended statistical methods to demonstrate noninferiority was problematic.

  7. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid)

  8. Mathematical modeling to estimate efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection in split-udder trials of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J; DeJong, M C; Schukken, Y H; Brand, A

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate the efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection from observations in split-udder trials with natural exposure. Data were studied from an outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus IMI during a split-udder trial in a commercial herd with low SCC. The efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection was similar when calculated based on incidence density rates or on transmission rates of IMI in dipped and control quarters. If, however, first and subsequent S. aureus IMI in a cow were not assumed to be independent and were therefore treated separately in the models, the efficacy of post-milking teat disinfection was calculated as being higher with the modeling procedure. The analysis using mathematical modeling, which includes the effect of the number of existing IMI on the number of new IMI, is presented and discussed. This analysis also allows estimation of the basic reproduction ratio. The impact of postmilking teat disinfection on transmission of pathogens is quantified, and proposals for additional preventive measures can be generated. We concluded that efficacy estimations from split-udder trials, assuming quarters to be independent observations, might underestimate the effect of postmilking teat disinfectants on udder pathogens.

  9. Short communication: Effect of automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster flushing on the milking work routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnstad, I; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Hogewerf, P; de Koning, C A J M; Barkema, H W

    2012-05-01

    The importance of a consistent and comprehensive milking routine as a critical component of any mastitis control program is well documented. However, as pressure on time increases, farmers are faced with 3 options: (1) adjust the milking routine to suit the time available, (2) undertake the task less thoroughly, or (3) examine which elements of the milking routine can be automated and substitute capital expenditure for labor. A study was undertaken on 5 farms in the United Kingdom in October and November 2007 to assess the effect on milking time of installing a commercial automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster back flushing system (ADF). Two of the farms recruited for the study were intending to purchase the ADF system in the near future and 3 farms had already invested in the technology. The farms ranged in size from 120 to 550 cows and included three 90° rapid exit parlors, a herringbone parlor, and an abreast parlor. All 5 farms were visited for 2 successive milkings before the ADF was installed or disabled, and a detailed time and motion analysis was undertaken. After ADF was installed or the system reactivated, a further 2 milkings were monitored. All monitored farms showed a measurable reduction in milking time after the ADF system was installed. However, the magnitude of the reduction was greater than would be expected by simply removing the elements of postmilking teat disinfection and cluster sanitization. The benefits of ADF are greater than simply disinfecting teats and back flushing clusters and the time saving obtained may allow a more structured milking routine that may have additional benefits in terms of mastitis prevention and control.

  10. Mathematical modelling to estimate efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection in split-udder trials in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.J.G.M.; Schukken, Y.H.; Brand, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate the efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection from observations in split-udder trials with natural exposure. Data were studied from an outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus IMI during a split-udder trial in a commercial herd with low SCC. The efficacy of

  11. Mathematical modelling to estimate efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection in split-udder trials in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.J.G.M.; Schukken, Y.H.; Brand, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate the efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection from observations in split-udder trials with natural exposure. Data were studied from an outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus IMI during a split-udder trial in a commercial herd with low SCC. The efficacy of postmil

  12. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens.

  13. An examination of teat drying with disinfectant impregnated cloths on the bacteriological quality of milk and on the transfer of Streptococcus agalactiae before milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, C H; Higgs, T M; Bramley, A J

    1985-08-01

    Total bacterial counts of the milk from individual cows were measured for three groups of ten winter housed cows at three milkings. The teats were either (i) left unwashed or (ii) washed with disinfected water (60 ppm available iodine) and dried with individual paper towels or (iii) washed with plain water and then dried with a single fabric cloth impregnated with a polymeric bisguanide and a quaternary ammonium compound. The mean total bacterial counts/ml for the groups were 5820, 2108 and 1116 respectively. Treatments (ii) and (iii) were also compared for their ability to prevent the inter-teat transfer of bacteria. Before teat washing and drying, one teat of each cow was deliberately contaminated with Streptococcus agalactiae. Significantly fewer teats (5/30) became contaminated with Str. agalactiae when treatment (iii) was used for teat washing and drying compared with treatment (ii) (20/30).

  14. Short communication: Efficacy of glycolic acid-based and iodine-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectants for prevention of new intramammary infections in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Bruno, D R; Lopez-Benavides, M; Leibowitz, S

    2016-09-01

    A positive-control, natural exposure noninferiority field study was conducted to test the efficacy of a novel glycolic acid-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectant compared with a commercial iodine-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectant (positive control). Cows from 2 pens from a California Central Valley dairy farm were dipped after milking either with the positive-control product (PC) or the experimental product (EX) over 12 wk. New intramammary infections (NIMI) were determined by biweekly sampling of all quarters of study cows and classified as a NIMI based on somatic cell count and milk bacteriological culture results. The mean quarter-level incidence risks during a 2 wk study period were 3.50% (EX) and 4.28% (PC). The majority of NIMI were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by non-agalactiae streptococci. The study results indicated that EX was noninferior to PC, with a 17% relative efficacy (improvement) in reducing NIMI compared with the PC group. Also, quarter somatic cell count was not affected by the postmilking teat disinfectant used. Finally, the EX product was safe in terms of teat conditioning: teat condition scores were not different between study groups. The study concluded that the glycolic acid-based experimental post-dip barrier was noninferior to the control, and could be considered a safe and effective postmilking teat disinfectant. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of teat skin disinfection on the rate of infection and interval to infection in cows exposed to high levels of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, R F; Hoare, R J

    1981-02-01

    All teats of a herd of lactating cows were contaminated after each milking with Staphylococcus aureus. Two teats of each cow were subsequently dipped in an iodine solution, while the remaining 2 teats were not dipped. For cows with a single infection the interval to infection in dipped and undipped quarters was 64 and 60 d respectively, while for the first infected quarter of cows with multiple infections the interval to infection in dipped and undipped quarters was 50 and 39 d respectively. For the second quarter infected in cows with multiple infections, the period between the first and second infection was 21 and 12 d for dipped and undipped quarters respectively. It is suggested that while teat skin disinfection was effective in reducing the rate of new infection, it had little effect on the process of infection in those quarters becoming infected. The occurrence of an infection in one quarter doubled the rate of infection in the other quarters.

  16. Short communication: Teat skin pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L K; Oura, L Y; Ames, C R

    2003-12-01

    Changes in teat skin surface pH were studied over 12 wk in 99 lactating Holstein cows. Half the udder of each cow routinely received postmilking disinfection, and the other half served as control. Measures of pH were made on all teats at weekly intervals. Teat skin pH was affected by treatment but not week. Mean teat skin pH measures were: 7.18 (+/- 0.64) and 7.53 (+/- 0.46) for treatment and control teats. In study II, pH teat skin measures were made hourly on 16 cows, starting 2 h before milking, immediately before a milking, immediately after a milking, and for 2 h postmilking. Teat skin pH was significantly lower for treatment teats and was lower for all teats postmilking.

  17. The effect of post-milking teat dipping on teat canal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Preez, J H

    1987-09-01

    Teat canal infection (TCI) or colonization, subclinical mastitis (SCM) cases and other forms of intramammary infections (IMI) may persist despite regular post-milking teat disinfection. Spontaneous healing of TCI can occur and this points to the dynamic state of the reactions of TCI etc. Disinfecting teat dipping does not necessarily prevent new TCI and IMI. Teat dipping may, however, be applied with good effect in the prevention of new udder and teat canal infections. Several factors predispose to TCI e.g. poor management, hygiene and animal husbandry.

  18. Screening tests for new teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, R J; Johnson, D W; Dewey, L

    1976-11-01

    Increased use of after-milking teat dips has resulted in the appearance of many new teat dips and a need for methods of evaluation of efficacy. A method was developed for determining the ability of a disinfectant to kill bacteria on the teat ends. Results from several known efficacious products indicated an approximate 95% reduction in bacterial flora. Additional data are presented on some experimental products. This method will provide a measure of effectiveness of a producton teat-skin disinfection. The effect of some changes in the testing procedure on bacterial reduction is demonstrated: 1) Increased times between inoculation and dipping and between dipping and swabbing tended to decrease recoveries on control teats. 2) Saline dips on controls teats provided increased recoveries of test organisms.

  19. Effect of omitting teat preparation on bacterial levels in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of omitting teat preparation prior to milking on the bacterial levels in milk directly after milking and after a period of milk storage. Eighty Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were assigned to two pre-milking teat preparation treatments: (i washing of teats and drawing of foremilk, followed by drying with paper towels and (ii no teat preparation. Individual cow measurements included individual quarter somatic cell count (SCC and teat swabs for the presence of Bacillus cereus sensu lato. On seven monthly occasions, all milk produced over a 24 h period from each treatment group was segregated into a separate tank and sampled. Sub-samples of this milk were stored at 4 °C for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, and the milk was analysed for total bacterial count (TBC, thermoduric bacterial count and the presence of B. cereus s. I. Individual quarter SCCs were numerically higher for unprepared teats (159,000 cells/mL compared with those for prepared teats (133,000 cells/mL; P < 0.09. A similar trend was observed for bulk tank SCC, with the unprepared teat treatment tending to have a higher SCC (155,857 cells/mL compared to the prepared teat treatment (102,286 cells/mL; P< 0.09. The TBC was not significantly higher from unprepared teats (3,152 cfu/ mL compared with milk from prepared teats (1,678 cfu/mL (P< 0.10. Milk TBC was significantly higher after storage for 72 h compared with that after 0, 24 and 48 h (P< 0.01. The results of this study indicate that under good hygienic conditions in an outdoor grazing situation, the omission of pre-milking teat preparation has a minimal effect on TBC and SCC.

  20. Avaliação da eficiência da desinfecção de teteiras e dos tetos no processo de ordenha mecânica de vacas Efficiency of the disinfection of teatcups and teats during mechanic milking of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. do Amaral

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a eficiência do processo de desinfecção de teteiras por imersão em solução desinfetante utilizando duas fontes de cloro, hipoclorito de sódio e cloro orgânico, a dinâmica de cloro residual nesses dois tipos de soluções, ao longo do processo de ordenha, e a eficiência de três métodos de desinfecção: imersão, spray e esponja na remoção de microrganismos dos tetos de vacas em lactação, utilizando o cloro como desinfetante. Foram determinados os números de coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus sp e microrganismos mesófilos nas amostras colhidas das teteiras, dos tetos e da solução desinfetante. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a prática da desinfecção de teteiras entre vacas, utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio ou dicloroisocianurato de sódio como fontes de cloro, na concentração em torno de 150ppm não foi eficiente na redução dos microrganismos presentes nas teteiras. A solução desinfetante a base de dicloroisocianurato de sódio apresentou maior estabilidade. Os métodos de desinfecção dos tetos proporcionaram redução nos números de microrganismos pesquisados, em todos os tratamentos utilizados, mostrando ser uma ferramenta simples para minimizar o risco de transmissão de patógenos durante a ordenha e aumentar a qualidade microbiológica do leite produzido.The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of the teatcup disinfection process by immersion into a disinfectant solution, using sodium hypochlorite and organic chlorine, to verify the residual chlorine dynamics in both solutions during milking time, and to evaluate three premilking disinfection methods: immersion, spray and sponge. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus sp and mesophilic microorganism counting was done. The results showed that the disinfecting clusters between individual cows, using immersion in sodium hypochlorite or organic chlorine

  1. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis.

  2. APPLICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR PRE-MILKING TREATMENT OF COW UDDER AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICATION FOR POST-MILKING TREATMENT OF DUGS OF COW UDDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov V. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the main research results of investigation of the means of pre-milking and postmilking treatment of cow udder and dugs are presented. The treatment of cow udder dugs produces great effect on the milk quality, the incidence level of mastitis of cows in the herd, extension and pathogenic agents transmission from sick to healthy animals; and also udder treatment provides hygienic protection of udder dugs. Tree concentrations of detergent of chloride dioxide were tested. Whereof, dilution of detergent with concentration of 90 mg/l chloride dioxide proved effective disinfective effect in pre-milking treatment of udder dugs. The developed medication for post-milking treatment of cow udder dugs presented high preventive efficiency against mastitis and provided longer hygienic protection of cow udder dugs after milking

  3. Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J. P.; Haas, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater disinfection for 1978. This review covers areas such as: (1) mechanisms of inactivation of negative microorganisms by chlorine and ozone; and (2) the effects of various treatment on over-all water quality. A list of 61 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J. P.; Haas, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater disinfection for 1978. This review covers areas such as: (1) mechanisms of inactivation of negative microorganisms by chlorine and ozone; and (2) the effects of various treatment on over-all water quality. A list of 61 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Contagem bacteriana da superfície de tetas de vacas submetidas a diferentes processos de higienização, incluindo a ordenha manual com participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite Bacterial counts on the surface of the teats of cows milked under different methods of udder preparation, including cows milked by hand and stimulated by suckling a calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renaldi Feitosa Brito

    2000-10-01

    practices for preparing the udder, including the use of calf suckling to stimulate the letdown of milk. Thirty-six cows milked by machine were included in one experiment. Two teats of each cow were sampled for bacteriology before and after using one of three methods of udder preparation, as follows: rinsing with water and drying with single paper towels (A; method A plus pre-dipping with an iodine teat dip (4,000ppm and drying with single paper towels (B; wiping teats using a commercial wet non-woven wipe pre-soaked with a solution containing chlorexidine (C. The second experiment included 16 cows milked by hand. The calf of each cow was allowed to suck the four teats for a few seconds, and then two teats per cow were sampled for bacteriology. Samples were collected before, after calf sucking and following teat pre-milking treatment (as for group C, above. Statistical analysis was conducted on transformed (log10 data with tTBC=log10(TBC+0.5 using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Each treatment was analysed considering the difference in tTBC after the use of either method of preparation of the udder or calf sucking. For groups A, B and C (first experiment, tTBC values were reduced 1.8, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. In the second experiment, tTBC increased significantly (P<0,05 after calf sucking (from 3.2 to 4.3. After disinfection the tTBC was significantly reduced to 2.0. These results show that: (a teat rinsing with water and wiping dry reduces the number of microorganisms on the teat skin, but the reduction is significantly higher when teats are disinfected; (b calf sucking before milking increases significantly the number of microorganisms on teat skin; (c the number of microorganisms on teat skin can be reduced more than 10 times after calf sucking if teats are disinfected. Very low numbers or no growth of coliforms were observed in all cases.

  6. Evidence of penetration of the bovine teat duct by Escherichia coli in the interval between milkings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, A J; Godinho, K S; Grindal, R J

    1981-10-01

    In 3 consecutive experiments, each using 20 cows, the application of Escherichia coli to teat ends after milking led to high rates of intramammary infection. These infections were not prevented by disinfection of the teats before milking, by the installation of shields in the short milk tubes of th milking cluster or by the use of an individual quarter milking cluster. Rates of infection were significantly lower when teat contamination was applied 1 h before milking compared to contamination applied immediately after milking. These data suggest that penetration of te teat duct by the E. coli occurred in the period between contamination and milking. Seventy four percent of infections occurred in hindquarters and there were variations in the susceptibility of cows to infection.

  7. Disinfectant effect of Methylated Ethanol against Listeria species

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the disinfectant effect of Methylated spirit® (95% methanol and 5% ethanol) as a teat dip against Listeria species. Hand milking was employed to collect 576 (288 x 2) raw milk samples from different lactating cows within Sokoto metropolis (Nigeria). 288 samples were collected before disinfecting the udder teats with Methylated spirit®, while the other 288 were collected after disinfection with Methylated spirit®. The ...

  8. Invasive Teat Surgery in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Donald; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Pennock, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to identify the nature and management of teat abnormalities in cows presented to a referral teaching hospital during a three year period. All cattle (n = 60) admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College for teat problems were evaluated by physical examination; in 53 teats, contrast radiography or xeroradiography were obtained. Surgery was performed on 52 teats from 51 cows and a prosthesis was implanted in 27 teats. Short term (under two weeks) complications included intraoperative bleeding (n = 6), milk leakage through the incision (n = 4), and failure to milk by machine in 26 cases. Histopathological diagnosis of sections taken from obstructive lesions included fibrous tissue (n = 8), normal mammary tissue (n = 3), fibropapilloma, mammary polyps, and inflamed mucosa (one each). The lesion could be classified into five types: 1) focal teat cistern obstruction, 2) diffuse teat cistern obstruction, 3) membranous obstruction, 4) diffuse teat and gland cistern obstruction, or 5) leakage of milk through an abnormal route (i.e. teat fistula, webbed teat, or lacerations). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 4. PMID:17422937

  9. Personality types and teat order in piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether piglets show different personality types due to teat position, a number ofexperiments were performed on 21 different litters, 9 to 31 days old. The tests included threefocal piglets in each litter with different teat position, anterior, middle and posterior, inobservations on suckling behaviour, undisturbed behaviours, a novel object test and a straw-testwhere thirteen behaviours were observed. The tests found an effect on teat position on frequencyof disputes between p...

  10. Disinfectant effect of Methylated Ethanol against Listeria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yakubu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to determine the disinfectant effect of Methylated spirit® (95% methanol and 5% ethanol as a teat dip against Listeria species. Hand milking was employed to collect 576 (288 x 2 raw milk samples from different lactating cows within Sokoto metropolis (Nigeria. 288 samples were collected before disinfecting the udder teats with Methylated spirit®, while the other 288 were collected after disinfection with Methylated spirit®. The samples were analyzed using selective culture and isolation technique in which the 288 samples collected before disinfection, 114 (39.6% were positive for Listeria species. Among the positive samples 44 (38.6% were Listeria innocua, 16 (14.0% Listeria ivanovii, 36 (31.6% Listeria monocytogenes, 11 (9.6% Listeria welshimeri and 7 (6.1% Listeria seeligeri, while none of the 288 samples collected after disinfection was positive. The study has shown high prevalence of Listeria species in milk collected without washing/disinfecting the teats and has also established the sensitivity of Listeria species to methylated ethanol which can be used as dip for disinfecting udder teats before milking in order to prevent contamination with Listeria species and other methylated spirit-sensitive organisms. This study is essential to educate Fulani herdsmen and other milk handlers on the importance of disinfecting udder teats before milking. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 91-93

  11. Effect of post - milking teat dipping on hygienic quality of cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of teat disinfection (dipping treatment) after milking on hygienic quality of row milk. The research was conducted on the farm with 30 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Animals were kept in a tied housing system. Milking is done by a bucket milking units using vacuum line. The research was carried out during the period of 2 months from 26.11.2012 till 25.01.2013. Results showed that milk immediately after leaving the u...

  12. Susceptibility of Vaccinia Virus to Chemical Disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Coelho Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. Some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by BV to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. To date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against VACV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. Sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium combined with glutaraldehyde were effective in inactivating the virus at all concentrations tested. Iodine and quaternary ammonium as the only active component were partially effective. The presence of bovine feces as organic matter and light decreased the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. These results show that an appropriated disinfection and asepsis of teats and hands may be helpful in the control and prevention of BV and other infections with VACV. PMID:21734141

  13. Short communication: Removal of hair from the mammary gland: Recovery of bacteria from teat skin and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L K

    2016-02-01

    It has been assumed that the presence of udder hair can interfere with safe milking practices and reduce the wholesomeness of milk relative to bacterial content. This study determined the effect of removal by singeing udder hair on the microflora of teat skin (total bacteria, coliform, and esculin-positive and esculin-negative streptococci) and milk (total bacteria, coliform, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric counts) as opposed to not singeing udder hair, using different pre-and postmilking disinfection (predip, postdip, or both) combinations. The 4 different pre-and postmilking disinfection combinations were predip and postdip, postdip only, predip only, and no predip and no postdip. Differences in bacterial numbers recovered from teat skin and milk in singed and not singed glands were not significantly affected by treatment. Findings of this trial do not support the concept that udder hair removal results in improved milk quality as measured by bacterial content.

  14. Estimating teat canal cross-sectional area to determine the effects of teat-end and mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penry, J F; Upton, J; Mein, G A; Rasmussen, M D; Ohnstad, I; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat-end congestion. The secondary objective was to assess the interactive effects of mouthpiece chamber vacuum with teat-end vacuum and pulsation setting on teat-end congestion. The influence of system vacuum, pulsation settings, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, and teat-end vacuum on teat-end congestion were tested in a 2×2 factorial design. The low-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEL) were 40 kPa system vacuum (Vs) and 400-ms pulsation b-phase. The high-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEH) were 49 kPa Vs and 700-ms b-phase. The low-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBL) was created by venting the liner mouthpiece chamber to atmosphere. In the high-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBH) the mouthpiece chamber was connected to short milk tube vacuum. Eight cows (32 quarters) were used in the experiment conducted during 0400 h milkings. All cows received all treatments over the entire experimental period. Teatcups were removed after 150 s for all treatments to standardize the exposure period. Calculated teat canal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to assess congestion of teat tissue. The main effect of the teat-end treatment was a reduction in CA of 9.9% between TEL and TEH conditions, for both levels of teat-barrel congestion risk. The main effect of the teat-barrel treatment was remarkably similar, with a decrease of 9.7% in CA between TBL and TBH conditions for both levels of teat-end congestion risk. No interaction between treatments was detected, hence the main effects are additive. The most aggressive of the 4 treatment combinations (TEH plus TBH) had a CA estimate 20% smaller than for the most gentle treatment combination (TEL plus TBL). The conditions designed to impair circulation in the teat barrel also had a deleterious effect on circulation at the teat end. This experiment highlights the importance of elevated mouthpiece

  15. Machine milking: experimental observations on the life of teat-cup liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffo, G; Sangiorgi, F

    1976-01-01

    The useful life of neoprene teat-cup liners used in milking machines was determined by physico-mechanical, optical and microbiological studies. The various tests showed that after more than 1,000 hrs' use, that is the milking time plus disinfection time, there were physico-mechanical and biological changes that could have an adverse effect on the health of the udder as a result of a loss of elasticity and a dissemination of mastitis-producing microorganisms (S. agalactiae, S. aureus) which settle in cracks in the surface of the rubber.

  16. [Obliteration of all teat cisterns in a cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, L

    1982-01-01

    A rare case of agalactia in a 7 year old cow is described. At the start of the 5th lactation all the teat cisterns were obliterated. Post mortem x-ray examination, with bariumsulfate contrast deposition in the glandular--and the teat cisterns, showed horizontal membranes in the proximal half of the teat cisterns. The membranes were 13--20 mm thick and consisted of fibrous tissue. Glandular tissue, distal parts of teat cisterns and teat canals were normal, and there was no sign of mastitis Obliteration of the teat cisterns, which had developed during the dry period, between the 4th and 5th lactation periods, were assumed to be a result of improper machine milking. The importance of overmilking is discussed.

  17. Bacterial counts on teat skin and in new sand, recycled sand, and recycled manure solids used as bedding in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-08-01

    On modern dairy farms, environmental mastitis pathogens are usually the predominant cause of mastitis, and bedding often serves as a point of exposure to these organisms. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine bacterial populations of 4 different bedding types [deep-bedded new sand (NES), deep-bedded recycled sand (RS), deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS), and shallow-bedded manure solids over foam core mattresses (SBMS)] and of teat skin swabs of primarily primiparous cows housed in a single facility over all 4 seasons. Samples of bedding were collected weekly (n=49wk) from pens that each contained 32 lactating dairy cows. Throughout the length of the same period, composite swabs of teat skin were collected weekly from all cows before and after premilking teat sanitation. Median numbers of streptococci and streptococci-like organisms (SSLO) were >8.6×10(6) cfu/g and >6.9×10(3) cfu/teat swab for all bedding types and teat swabs, respectively. Numbers of SSLO were greatest in samples of SBMS (2.1×10(8) cfu/g) and least in samples of NES (8.6×10(6) cfu/g), RS (1.3×10(7) cfu/g), and DBMS (1.7×10(7) cfu/g). Numbers of gram-negative bacteria in bedding (5.5×10(4) to 1.2×10(7) cfu/g) were fewer than numbers of SSLO (8.6×10(6) to 2.1×10(8) cfu/g). Numbers of coliform bacteria were greatest in samples of DBMS (2.2×10(6) cfu/g) and least in samples of NES (3.6×10(3) cfu/g). In general, the relative number of bacteria on teat skin corresponded to exposure in bedding. Numbers of gram-negative bacteria recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were greatest for cows bedded with DBMS (1.0×10(4) cfu/swab) and RS (2.5×10(3) cfu/swab) and least for cows bedded with NES (5.8×10(2) cfu/swab). Median numbers of coliform and Klebsiella spp. recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were below the limit of detection for all cows except those bedded with DBMS. Numbers of SSLO recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were least for cows bedded with DBMS (6.9

  18. Raised herd somatic cell count due to Staphylococcus aureus following the failure of an automatic teat spraying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, P W

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the failure of a single jet exit race automatic teat spray (ATS) system resulting in the spread of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a 135-cow dairy herd, which showed an increased herd somatic cell count from 91,000/ml to 554,000/ml over a nine-month period. S aureus was isolated from 34 of 46 high cell count cows. The milking procedures were modified and manual teat spraying was restarted. Bacteriology was used to identify S aureus positive high cell count cows, and first and second lactation cows were treated during lactation. If their cell counts were not reduced, these were then culled. High cell count S aureus cows in lactation three or above were culled. The three-month geometric mean cell count fell to below 150,000/ml within five months. As all replacements were home-bred, S aureus infection must have spread from within the herd itself. All other causes have been eliminated, and this spread is attributed to the failure of the ATS to carry out effective postmilking teat disinfection. The advantages and disadvantages of ATS systems are discussed, especially in relation to robotic or voluntary milking systems.

  19. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the piglets suckling normal teats, although the difference was not statistically significant. Piglets nursing small teats had lower weaning weight (4.8 kg) and the corresponding mammary tissue also had lower weight (335 g). This study

  20. Relationship between teat morphological traits and subclinical mastitis in Frieswal dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Sukhbir; Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K

    2017-07-27

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between selected morphological traits of teat and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Frieswal crossbred dairy cows. A total of 1040 quarters from 261 lactating cows were evaluated for teat shape (bottle/fleshy/collapsed/conical/normal/pencil and short), teat-end shape (dished/flat/funnel/pocketed/pointed and rounded), teat orientation (aligned/misaligned) and teat position (front and rear; left-sided and right-sided). Each udder quarter was screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) for the purpose of defining quarter health status. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression procedure. An overall prevalence of SCM (CMT positive) at quarter level was 30.6%. Most of the teats had normal or cylindrical shapes (48%), dished teat-ends (40.7%), and aligned (central or squared) in orientation (65%). At bivariable level, significant association of SCM with teat shape, teat position, teat orientation, parity, and stage of lactation was observed (P mastitis in this breed.

  1. Short communication: Subtyping of Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates from milk and corresponding teat apices to verify the potential teat-skin origin of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Van Coillie, Els; Braem, Gorik; Piessens, Veerle; Verbist, Bert; De Vuyst, Luc; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and they colonize the teat skin. Staphylococcus haemolyticus, one of the more common CNS, has been identified as a highly versatile opportunistic species. The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the adaptation of S. haemolyticus subtypes to the udder ecosystem with respect to IMI development. During a longitudinal observational study conducted over 13 mo on 6 Flemish dairy herds, S. haemolyticus isolates were recovered from milk and teat apices. A total of 44 S. haemolyticus isolates originating from milk (24 isolates) and teat apices (20 isolates) of 6 selected udder quarters were singled out and analyzed using a combined methodology of (GTG)5-PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting to determine intraspecies differences. Combining both fingerprinting methods, 4 S. haemolyticus subtypes were obtained (I to IV). Subtypes I, II, and IV were recovered from both milk and teat apex samples and were found to be associated with persisting IMI. Subtype III, not apparently related to IMI, was isolated solely from teat apices and not from milk. In general, S. haemolyticus subtypes found in milk from infected quarters could be recovered from the corresponding teat apices, although the latter could be colonized with up to 3 different subtypes. Comparing subtypes from milk and teat apices indicates that the IMI-causing agent likely originates from the teat skin.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationship of these features with microbiological quality of milk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teat morphology and size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiological quality of milk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm3 of milk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001. The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001. The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001. The experiment showed no statistically significant correlations between teat’s length, width, morphological structures and total bacteria count (p > 0.05. Therefore, the application of these features in a rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of sheep milk is unusable.  

  4. Technical note: Effects of attachment of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats on milking characteristics in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, J; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2017-04-01

    Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats. The hypothesis was based on the fact that hind quarters have usually a longer milking time than front quarters. Starting the milking of hind quarters while the front teats are being cleaned may reduce the difference in the end of milking between front and hind quarters and thus reduce total milking time. Both routines were tested on 5 Swedish dairy farms equipped with AMS in a 4-wk experiment in which treatments were alternated weekly. Total milk yield did not differ between treatments. Machine-on time (MOT) was longer in ALTMR than in STDMR because the difference in milking time between hind and front quarters was less than the time needed to prepare the front teats. However, the longer MOT in ALTMR was compensated by a shorter total preparation time, including the attachment of the first teat cup, as only the hind teats (instead of all 4 teats) were cleaned before milking was started. This resulted in a similar total milking time from start of cleaning of the first quarter until the end of milking of the last quarter in both treatments. Because of the prolonged MOT, average milk flow rate was lower in ALTMR than STDMR. Peak flow rate was higher in ALTMR than STDMR, but only in teat cups 1 (first attached, hind quarter) and 3 (third attached, front quarter), whereas main milk flow was higher in

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Eating Assessment Tool (T-EAT-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Numan; Serel Arslan, Selen; İnal, Özgü; Karaduman, A Ayşe

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish Eating Assessment Tool (T-EAT-10) among patients with swallowing disorders. One hundred and five patients completed the T-EAT-10 and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity of T-EAT-10 were investigated. The internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value with 95 % confidence intervals was calculated for test-retest reliability. The criterion validity of the T-EAT-10 was determined by assessing the correlation between T-EAT-10 and FOIS. All the patients in the study completed the T-EAT-10 without assistance. The mean time to complete the instrument was 1.8 ± 0.9 min. The internal consistency of the T-EAT-10 was found to be high with 0.90 Cronbach's alpha for test and 0.91 Cronbach's alpha for retest reproducibility. No difference between the test and retest scores of the T-EAT-10 was found (p = 0.14). A negative, moderate correlation between T-EAT-10 and FOIS was detected (r = -0.365, p EAT-10 is a reliable and valid symptom-specific outcome tool for dysphagia in adult Turkish patients. It can be used in clinical practice and research.

  6. The effect of post milking test dip and suckling on teat skin condition, bacterial colonisation, and udder health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Larsen, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The teat skin of cows was scored (1 : smooth as silk; 2: smooth; 3: slightly rough; 4: rough; 5: cracked; and 6: sores) by trained technicians who moved their fingers down the barrel of the teat with a light touch. Technicians ranked the same population of teats in the same rank order, but their ......The teat skin of cows was scored (1 : smooth as silk; 2: smooth; 3: slightly rough; 4: rough; 5: cracked; and 6: sores) by trained technicians who moved their fingers down the barrel of the teat with a light touch. Technicians ranked the same population of teats in the same rank order......, but their mean values differed by half a score which probably could be related to the skin condition of their own fingers. Half udder experiments were carried out for 6 months at 4 farms with 35 to 52 cows each. A postmilking teat spray with 10% glycerol improved teat skin condition (p...

  7. Relationship between California Mastitis Test score and ultrasonographic teat measurements in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, I; Risvanli, A; Yuksel, M; Saat, N; Ozmen, O

    2009-12-01

    The majority of published studies about mastitis are related to the control and prevention of mastitis, with particular emphasis on eliminating predisposition factors. The objective of the current study was to determine the role of teat morphology as an important factor in the aetiology of mastitis. Ultrasonographic measurements were taken from 190 teats from 100 dairy cows of different breeds. Mastitis in cows was diagnosed by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological tests. The data were evaluated in the light of the clinical history of the animals. Main effects of breed on teat diameter at the position of the Furstenberg rosette (FTD) and teat cistern diameter (CD), that of age on FTD and overall teat diameter (OTD), and that of CMT score on CD and OTD were significant (P CMT-positive udder lobes than that in CMT-negative lobes. No difference was detected in canal length, CD, teat wall thickness, OTD or FTD between the CMT-positive and -negative lobes. The occurrence of mastitis could be related to specific ultrasonographic teat measurements (e.g. CD, OTD and FTD) and these may be important in the breeding of cows with a predisposition to mastitis, as well in the evaluation of in-herd cows in terms of udder/teat deformities.

  8. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity

  9. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity w

  10. The effect of post milking test dip and suckling on teat skin condition, bacterial colonisation, and udder health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Larsen, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The teat skin of cows was scored (1 : smooth as silk; 2: smooth; 3: slightly rough; 4: rough; 5: cracked; and 6: sores) by trained technicians who moved their fingers down the barrel of the teat with a light touch. Technicians ranked the same population of teats in the same rank order, but their ...

  11. A main factors affecting average number of teats in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Krupa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of factors (breed, year and season of farrowing, herd, parity order, sire of litter, total number of born piglets - TNB, number of piglets born alive - NBA, number of weaned piglets - NW, and linear and quadratic regression on the number of teats, found for all piglets in the litter till ten days after born, expressed as arithmetic mean for each litter as sum of all teats number of each piglet in appropriate litter divided by number of piglets in this litter at first litter (ANT1 and second and subsequent litters (ANT2+ were analysed. The coefficient of determination was 0.46 and 0.33 for ANT1 and ANT2+, respectively. The statistically high influence (P<0.001 on ANT1 and ANT2+ was determined for year and season of farrowing, herd, parity order (only for ANT2+ and sire of litter effects. Impact of breed was found only on ANT2+ (P<0.001. The rest of factors have negligible of no impact on traits. Based on the data available for analyses, obtained results will serve as a relevant set-up in developing the model for genetic evaluation for these traits.

  12. Teat lesions and their relationship to intramammary infections on small-scale dairy farms in Kiambu district in Kenya : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mulei

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammary gland quarters of 139 lactating dairy cows from small-scale dairy herds were examined visually and by palpation for teat lesions and by California mastitis test (CMT and bacterial culture for subclinical mastitis. Teat lesions were observed in 97 teats. These included teat chaps (39.2 %, teat papillomas (23.7 %, teat erosions (22.7 %, teat fistulae (5.1 %, inverted teats (5.1 % and blocked teats (4.2 %. According to the CMT, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 33.4 % in all the mammary gland quarters, 71.0 % in quarters with teat lesions and 24.5%in quarters without teat lesions. There was a significant (P < 0.01 association between teat lesions and the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The mammary gland quarters with teat lesions were 7.2 times more likely to have a positive CMT (P < 0.01 and 5.6 times more likely to have bacterial organisms (P < 0.01 isolated from them than those without any teat lesions. The bacterial organisms most frequently isolated from the CMT-positive milk samples from both the mammary gland quarters with teat lesions and those without teat lesions were Staphylococcus aureus (50.0 %, Streptococcus spp. (34.8 % and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (6.2 %.

  13. Short communication: Effect of automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster flushing on the milking work routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohnstad, I.; Riekerink, R.G.M.O.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Barkema, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of a consistent and comprehensive milking routine as a critical component of any mastitis control program is well documented. However, as pressure on time increases, farmers are faced with 3 options: (1) adjust the milking routine to suit the time available, (2) undertake the task les

  14. Germicidal activity of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip and a sodium chlorite teat dip during experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Adkinson, R W

    1998-08-01

    Three postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in two separate studies using experimental challenge procedures that were recommended by the National Mastitis Council. The first study evaluated a barrier teat dip product containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide as the germicidal agent, and the second study evaluated a sodium chlorite product with a barrier component as well as a sodium chlorite product without a barrier component. The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%. The barrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae by 41.0 and 0%, respectively. The nonbarrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus by 65.6% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 39.1%. Teat skin and teat end conditions were evaluated before and after the second study; no deleterious effects among dipped quarters compared with control quarters were noted for the two sodium chlorite products.

  15. SÜTÇÜ İNEKLERDE TEAT DIPPING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETSütçü ineklerde meme başının antiseptikli solusyonlara batırılması (teat dipping- TD) ile meme derisi üzerindeki bakteri sayısı önemli ölçüde azalmaktadır. Bu nedenle TD mastitis kontrol programlarının önemli basamaklarından birini oluşturmaktadır. Çevresel ve bulaşıcı mastitis etkenleri üzerinde etkili olan bu işlem tüm dünyada yaygın olarak kullanılan etkili, ucuz ve kolay bir uygulamadır. Bu derlemede meme başı dezenfeksiyonunun önemi ve özellikleri son yıllarda yürütülen çalışmaların ...

  16. The Usability of a Pressure-Indicating Film to Measure the Teat Load Caused by a Collapsing Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Demba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of damage to the teat and mastitis requires determination of the teat load caused by a collapsing liner. The aim of this study was to test a pressure-indicating film designed to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and artificial teats. The Ultra Super Low and the Extreme Low pressure-indicating films were tested on two types of artificial teat. The experiments were performed with a conventional milking cluster equipped with round silicone liners. For each teat and film type, 30 repetitions were performed. Each repetition was performed with a new piece of film. Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to detect differences between the pressure values for the different teats. The area of regions where pressure-indication color developed was calculated to determine the most suitable film type. Both film types measured the pressure applied to both artificial teats by the teat cup liner. Thus, the pressure-indicating films can be used to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and an artificial teat. Based on the results of the present investigation, a pressure-indicating film with the measurement ranges of both film types combined would be an optimal tool to measure the overall pressure between an artificial teat and a collapsing liner.

  17. Relationship of sow udder morphology with piglet suckling behavior and teat access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Agnese; Cordell, Heather J; Edwards, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the latency to the first suckling and udder and teat morphology and to assess the extent to which piglet and sow characteristics influence teat pair position preference. Udder morphology trait measurements, piglet suckling behavior, and sow productive and behavioral traits were recorded from a population of 74 Large White X Landrace sows of different parities. The interteat distance within the same row was larger between the teats that were suckled at the first contact with the udder compared with the unsuckled teats (P = 0.04). There was a tendency for piglets to suckle first from teats placed closer to the abdominal midline. A high proportion of siblings (64%) suckled for the first time on a teat previously chosen by another piglet. Most neonates suckled first from a teat located in the posterior part of the udder (41%) or in the anterior part (33%), rather than the middle section. Latency from birth to suckling and the time from the first udder contact to locate a teat and suckle was shorter for piglets first suckling the anterior (28:03 and 9:48 minutes) and posterior teats (26:31; 8:38 minutes) than for those sucking the midsection teats (34:30 minutes, F7,256 = 1.99, P = 0.05; 10:30, F7,256 = 2.37, P = 0.05). To avoid possible confounds, other potential causes of delay in successful suckling were studied. The latency to suckle was not influenced by piglet vitality score at birth, weight, or provision of human assistance to place it at the udder. It was shorter when the piglets were born later in the litter (P piglets born dead (P = 0.001) and from a sow with an induced farrowing (P = 0.007). Moreover, there was a tendency for piglets born from a multiparous sow (P = 0.06) and in a large litter size (P = 0.07) to have a longer latency to find a teat and suckle once they had made the first contact with the udder. Although suckling itself is clearly an instinctive

  18. Cow Teat Skin, a Potential Source of Diverse Microbial Populations for Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Geneviève; Bornes, Stéphanie; Monsallier, Françoise; Veisseire, Philippe; Delbès-Paus, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of the microbial community on cow teat skin was evaluated using a culture-dependent method based on the use of different dairy-specific media, followed by the identification of isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This was combined with a direct molecular approach by cloning and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study highlighted the large diversity of the bacterial community that may be found on teat skin, where 79.8% of clones corresponded to various unidentified species as well as 66 identified species, mainly belonging to those commonly found in raw milk (Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Aerococcus, and Staphylococcus). Several of them, such as nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), Staphylococcus, and Actinobacteria, may contribute to the development of the sensory characteristics of cheese during ripening. Therefore, teat skin could be an interesting source or vector of biodiversity for milk. Variations of microbial counts and diversity between the farms studied have been observed. Moreover, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus devriesei, Staphylococcus arlettae, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus equinus, Clavibacter michiganensis, Coprococcus catus, or Arthrobacter gandavensis commensal bacteria of teat skin and teat canal, as well as human skin, are not common in milk, suggesting that there is a breakdown of microbial flow from animal to milk. It would then be interesting to thoroughly study this microbial flow from teat to milk. PMID:22081572

  19. Relationship of udder and teat conformation with intra-mammary infection in crossbred cows under hot-humid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Bharti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship of udder shape, teat-end shape, teat length, and teat diameter with intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows under hot-humid climate. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were evaluated for udder shape (pendulous/regular and teat-end shape (flat/inverted/pointed by visual examination, while teat length and teat diameter were measured using vernier caliper. Monthly milk sampling was done for 4 months of duration. Few quarters were found as blind or nonfunctional and so, a total of 366 quarter wise milk samples were collected at the monthly interval and subjected to somatic cell count (SCC microscopically. The data on SCC were transformed into log scale and analyzed. Results: There was a significant (p<0.01 effect of udder shape and teat-end shape on SCC level. The mean SCC level for pendulous udder was significantly (p<0.05 higher as compared to the regular shaped udder. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05 a higher level of mean SCC was found in flat teat-end shape. A significant (p<0.01 correlation was found between SCC and teat length as well as teat diameter. Conclusion: In conclusion, pendulous udder, flat and inverted teat-end, very long and thick teat were more susceptible to intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows and these traits must be considered accordingly while selecting dairy animals for future milk production.

  20. Development of a control system for the teat-end vacuum in individual quarter milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströbel, Ulrich; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra; Oz, Hülya; Brunsch, Reiner

    2013-06-13

    Progress in sensor technique and electronics has led to a decrease in the costs of electronic and sensor components. In modern dairy farms, having udders in good condition, a lower frequency of udder disease and an extended service life of dairy cows will help ensure competitiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a teat-end vacuum control system with individual quarter actor reaction. Based on a review of the literature, this system is assumed to protect the teat tissue. It reduces the mean teat-end vacuum in the maximum vacuum phase (b) to a level of 20 kPa at a flow rate of 0.25 L/min per quarter. At flow rates higher than 1.50 L/min per quarter, the teat-end vacuum can be controlled to a level of 30 kPa, because in this case it is desirable to have a higher vacuum for the transportation of the milk to the receiver. With this system it is possible for the first time to supply the teat end with low vacuum at low flow rates and with higher vacuum at increasing flow rates in a continuous process with a three second reaction-rate on individual quarter level. This system is completely automated.

  1. Dry cow therapy with a non-antibiotic intramammary teat seal - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispie Fiona

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry cow antibiotic therapy is used to eliminate existing intramammary infections and to prevent new infections in the dry period. It is implemented as part of a total management system known as the 'Five-Point Plan' for mastitis control. Recent public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics, coupled with an increasing interest in organic farming, have lead to a re-evaluation of the treatment of cows at drying-off. As a result, attention has focussed on the use of novel alternatives to antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation. One such therapy involves the application of a non-antibiotic bismuth-based intramammary teat seal designed for use in cows with low cell counts at the end of lactation. Like the keratin plug that forms naturally in teats of cows that have been dried-off, teat seal forms a physical barrier to invading pathogens. To date, a number of independent studies have shown that teat seal is as effective as traditional dry cow antibiotic products in preventing the occurrence of new infection during the dry period in cows with somatic cell counts of ≤200,000 cells ml-1 at drying-off. This paper reviews the efficacy of teat seal in preventing dry period mastitis in both conventional and organic dairying systems.

  2. Safety of food contact silicone rubber: Liberation of volatile compounds from soothers and teats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kirsten H.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2002-01-01

    The release of volatile compounds from soothers and teats made from silicone rubber has been investigated. Firstly, measurements of the total release of volatiles were performed according to the method in the draft European standard (CEN). Weight losses of 0.17-0.80% after four hours at 200 degre......) detectors. The main compounds were siloxane oligomers and aliphatic hydrocarbons. One teat released about 0.1 mg diethyl phtalate (DEP), which is considered to be quite a high quantity. Limited amounts of the antioxidant 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) were found in most samples....

  3. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

  4. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  5. Relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chandrasekar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to find out the relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers were selected from Buffalo Farm, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Regional Station- Bir Dosanjh, Nabha, Patiala, Punjab. The udder length (UL, udder width (UW, udder depth, teat length (TL, teat diameter (TD, and teat distances were measured at fortnightly interval from 60 days prepartum until calving. After calving, 60 days total milk yield (TDMY, peak yield (PY, and days taken to attain PY (DPY were also recorded. The correlation coefficients of various prepartum udder and teat measurements since 60 days prepartum to calving with 60 days TDMY, PY, and DPY were calculated to find out the relationship between the traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Results: The result envisaged that all udder and teat measurements were increased gradually toward the date of calving in primiparous buffaloes. The UL, UW, left fore (LF and right rear (RRTL, RRTD, and the distance between LF to left rear (LR teat were positively correlated with 60 days TDMY. The UL and UW depicted positive but nonsignificant correlation with PY. Fore TLs showed positive correlation where as TDs and teat distances had a negative correlation with the DPY in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Conclusion: It was concluded that milk production performance could be assessed on the basis of prepartum udder and teat measurements in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

  6. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  7. Effect of Modified Pre-Milking Sanitizing Approaches on Raw Milk Quality Obtained from the Dairy Farmers of Tawau Area, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Kheng Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the raw milk hygiene and quality among the small holder dairy farmers in Tawau area. A total of 216 samples were collected from the respective dairy farmers and milk collecting centre located at Mile 15, Tawau. Preliminary results indicated that the quality of the raw milks obtained at farm level contained were inferior with high bacteria load (> than 107 CFU/ml. The total coliform (2.9-3.8 CFU/mL and Staphylococcus count (2.3-3.6 CFU/mL were relatively high in certain samples. However, none of the food borne pathogens was found. Trace back study revealed that the causes of contamination were attributed by poor hygienic handling among the dairy farmers and insufficient for immediate chilling of raw milk. A significant reduction in bacteria load was observed if the raw milk chilled immediately at farm. The implementation of modified pre-milking sanitizing practices improved the microbiology quality of the raw milks obtained from respective dairy farms. Future study will focus more on the effect of prolong storage towards the microbiological quality of raw milk.

  8. Development of a Teat Bio-sealant and Evaluation of its Technological and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Pabón-Rodríguez, Omar Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    A teat bio-sealant was developed using Weissella cibaria, and the bio-sealant's technological and functional properties were assessed. The development included four experimental phases that were analyzed using independent experimental designs. Initially, sterilized or pasteurized Aloe vera gels were used, and the effect of heat treatment was investigated. In the second phase, the effects of time, storage temperature, and addition of cryopreservatives on the viability of the probiotic were observed. The third phase consisted of evaluating the synergistic effects of the cryopreservatives. The fourth phase involved selecting a material that would provide viscosity to the teat sealant. Technological and functional properties were measured in terms of viability of W. cibaria, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was also analyzed. A mixture of milk powder and glycerol preserved this antimicrobial activity. Pullulan provided greater viscosity and maintained the technological and functional properties of the bio-sealant for 29 days. This teat bio-sealant can be used as an alternative for the prevention of bovine mastitis.

  9. Disinfection methods used in decontamination of bottles used for feeding powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle decontamination have changed in recent years and the aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of four current disinfection methods using bottles that had contained reconstituted PIF spiked with either a representative mixed bacterial culture or specific pathogens. Initially, bottles (n = 6) of reconstituted formula were spiked with 10(5) cfu/ml representative mixed culture. For subsequent experiments, reconstituted formula was spiked with either 10(2) and 10(4) cfu/ml of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter), Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Before disinfection, bottles were cleaned according to recommended guidelines. Disinfection procedures tested included a hypochlorite-based chemical solution and three heat-based methods. Bottles were sampled in four sites. Before cleaning and disinfection, the inner screw cap and inner-teat were the most heavily contaminated sites with 1.6-7.4 x 10(3) cfu/per-area-sampled; the bottle interior was more contaminated overall with 1.2 x 10(4) cfu/per-area-sampled. After disinfection, adherence to recommended procedures (combined with good hygiene) enabled effective decontamination to be achieved using all methods. Small differences in disinfection ability were not significant (p > 0.05). Cumulatively, 800 sites were sampled and no B. cereus or E. sakazakii were isolated. S. aureus was isolated from 0.1% of sites with one site exceeding 1 cfu/ml. Findings indicate the potential for bottle contamination and that strict adherence to four currently used methods allowed effective decontamination. This highlights the importance of effective consumer

  10. Applications of Photocatalytic Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gamage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the superior ability of photocatalysis to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms, it is being examined as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorination, which can produce harmful byproducts. Photocatalysis is a versatile and effective process that can be adapted for use in many applications for disinfection in both air and water matrices. Additionally, photocatalytic surfaces are being developed and tested for use in the context of “self-disinfecting” materials. Studies on the photocatalytic technique for disinfection demonstrate this process to have potential for widespread applications in indoor air and environmental health, biological, and medical applications, laboratory and hospital applications, pharmaceutical and food industry, plant protection applications, wastewater and effluents treatment, and drinking water disinfection. Studies on photocatalytic disinfection using a variety of techniques and test organisms are reviewed, with an emphasis on the end-use application of developed technologies and methods.

  11. Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, David E; O'Callaghan, Edmond J; Rath, Myles V

    2004-05-01

    : Friesian-type dairy cows were milked with different machine settings to determine the effect of these settings on teat tissue reaction and on milking characteristics. Three teat-cup liner designs were used with varying upper barrel dimensions (wide-bore WB = 31.6 mm; narrow-bore NB = 21.0 mm; narrow-bore NB1 = 25.0 mm). These liners were tested with alternate and simultaneous pulsation patterns, pulsator ratios (60:40 and 67:33) and three system vacuum levels (40, 44 and 50 kPa). Teat tissue was measured using ultrasonography, before milking and directly after milking. The measurements recorded were teat canal length (TCL), teat diameter (TD), cistern diameter (CD) and teat wall thickness (TWT).Teat tissue changes were similar with a system vacuum level of either 50 kPa (mid-level) or 40 kPa (low-level). Widening the liner upper barrel bore dimension from 21.0 mm (P design had a bigger effect on teat tissue changes and milking characteristics than pulsation settings.

  12. Effects of teat cistern mural biopsy and teatoscopy stab versus longitudinal incision with or without tube implant on incisional healing in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulleners, E; Hamir, A

    1990-08-01

    Effects of teat cistern mural biopsy and full-thickness stab and longitudinal incisional healing were evaluated experimentally on clinically normal teats in 12 lactating dairy cattle. Each teat on each cow was assigned by Latin-square design to 1 of 4 surgical interventions: (I) teatoscopy only; (II) teatoscopy, stab incision, and mural biopsy; (III) longitudinal incision and mural biopsy; and (IV) longitudinal incision, mural biopsy, and tube implantation. Teatoscopy was done with a 4-mm OD arthroscope introduced through the teat canal and attached to a television camera. Teatoscopy was quicker to perform and provided a more detailed videotaped examination of the teat and gland cistern, compared with gross inspection through a longitudinal incision. In intervention-II cows, the Ferris-Smith biopsy instrument jaws introduced through a longitudinal 1-cm midteat stab incision were easy to visualize and manipulate accurately. Stab incisions closed with only 1 or 2 skin sutures healed without complications in all 12 teats. On palpation, stab incisions were significantly (P less than 0.01) less thick than longitudinal incisions at 8 weeks and were microscopically indistinguishable from the normal tissue. However, in 24 teatoscopically examined teats, 9 (38%) had microscopic evidence of teat canal injury and 12 (50%) of the quarters developed mastitis. This was attributed to trauma resulting from introduction of the arthroscope through the teat canal. Intervention III yielded satisfactory results with the least complications. All 12 longitudinal incisions healed by primary intention, and all teats remained patent. Mastitis developed in 4 (33%) quarters. Intervention IV caused considerable complications associated with the tube implant and no improvement in biopsy site healing, compared with interventions II and III. Eleven longitudinal incisions healed by primary intention. One incision dehisced, 2 (17%) tube implants dislodged, 2 (17%) became obstructed proximally, and

  13. Short communication: quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens and spoilage microorganisms can be transmitted to milk via dirt (e.g., feces, bedding material, soil, or a combination of these) attached to the exterior of the cows¿ teats. To determine the relevance of this pathway and to perform quantitative microbial risk analysis of the microbial cont

  14. Short communication: quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens and spoilage microorganisms can be transmitted to milk via dirt (e.g., feces, bedding material, soil, or a combination of these) attached to the exterior of the cows¿ teats. To determine the relevance of this pathway and to perform quantitative microbial risk analysis of the microbial cont

  15. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  16. Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Friesian-type dairy cows were milked with different machine settings to determine the effect of these settings on teat tissue reaction and on milking characteristics. Three teat-cup liner designs were used with varying upper barrel dimensions (wide-bore WB = 31.6 mm; narrow-bore NB = 21.0 mm; narrow-bore NB1 = 25.0 mm. These liners were tested with alternate and simultaneous pulsation patterns, pulsator ratios (60:40 and 67:33 and three system vacuum levels (40, 44 and 50 kPa. Teat tissue was measured using ultrasonography, before milking and directly after milking. The measurements recorded were teat canal length (TCL, teat diameter (TD, cistern diameter (CD and teat wall thickness (TWT. Teat tissue changes were similar with a system vacuum level of either 50 kPa (mid-level or 40 kPa (low-level. Widening the liner upper barrel bore dimension from 21.0 mm (P

  17. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis.

  18. Disinfection Tests of MF-2 Disinfectant on Nature Water Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinlan; LIU Qingzeng; CUI Ying

    2002-01-01

    Objective To furnish evidence for practical application by examining the disinfection effect of MF - 2 disinfectant on different degree of contaminated water. Methods According to the determining methods of total bacterial count and coli - index of drinking water stimulated by the state conduct the forthwith disinfection experiments and accumulate disinfection experiments. Results Adding the MF - 2 into water resource to specific concentration according with the water resource sanitation criterion stipulated by the sater, after pointed time, it can chang water quality of severe contaminated water and questionable contaminated water into that of clean water, the quality of less contaminated water into that of drinking water. Conclusions MF - 2 disinfectant is applicable for disinfection of nature contaminated water resource in an outlying district and field - operation especially for urgent drinking water disinfection the area where there is neither clean water nor heating condition.

  19. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  20. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI SPECIES ON TEAT SKIN AND IN MILK SAMPLES FROM DAIRY COWS IN AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    milking systems (AMS) may have increased risk for teat colonization and IMI because more than 60 cows are milked several times daily with the same milking unit. The objectives of this study are (1) to investigate patterns of CNS species in milk samples and teat skin swabs in nine AMS herds and (2......) to identify the predisposing cow level risk factors for specific CNS IMI and teat colonization.In each herd, 30- 40 cows with somatic cell counts > 200,000 cells/ml in the previous milk recording are randomly selected and teat skin swabs and aseptic quarter foremilk samples are taken. Teat skin swabs...... are collected using a modified wet-dry method. First a wet swab immersed in ¼ Ringer’s solution followed by a dry swab are rotated 360° around the teat canal orifice and both swab tips transferred into one tube with 2 ml of ¼ Ringer’s solution. Samples are transported on ice for culturing in the laboratory...

  2. Dental unit waterlines disinfection using hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant

    OpenAIRE

    Irfana Fathima Shajahan; Kandaswamy, D; Padma Srikanth; L Lakshmi Narayana; R Selvarajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a new disinfectant to disinfect the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: New dental unit waterlines were installed in 13 dental chairs, and biofilm was allowed to grow for 10 days. Disinfection treatment procedure was carried out in the 12 units, and one unit was left untreated. The dental unit waterlines were removed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Result: On examina...

  3. Commercial Disinfectants During Disinfection Process Validation: More Failures than Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumber, Sushil Kumar; Khanduri, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Disinfection process validation is mandatory before introduction of a new disinfectant in hospital services. Commercial disinfection brands often question existing hospital policy claiming greater efficacy and lack of toxicity of their products. Inadvertent inadequate disinfection leads to morbidity, patient’s economic burden, and the risk of mortality. Aim To evaluate commercial disinfectants for high, intermediate and low-level disinfection so as to identify utility for our routine situations. Materials and Methods This laboratory based experiment was conducted at St Stephen Hospital, Delhi during July-September 2013. Twelve commercial disinfectants: Sanidex®, Sanocid®, Cidex®, SekuSept Aktiv®, BIB Forte®, Alprojet W®, Desnet®, Sanihygiene®, Incidin®, D125®, Lonzagard®, and Glutishield® were tested. Time-kill assay (suspension test) was performed against six indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium fortuitum). Low and high inoculum (final concentrations 1.5X106 and 9X106 cfu/ml) of the first five bacteria while only low level of M. fortuitum was tested. Results Cidex® (2.4% Glutaraldehyde) performed best as high level disinfectant while newer quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (Incidin®, D125®, and Lonzagard®) were good at low level disinfection. Sanidex® (0.55% Ortho-pthalaldehyde) though mycobactericidal took 10 minutes for sporicidal activity. Older QAC containing BIB Forte® and Desnet® took 20 minutes to fully inhibit P. aeruginosa. All disinfectants effectively reduced S. Typhi to zero counts within 5 minutes. Conclusion Cidex® is a good high-level disinfectant while newer QACs (Incidin®, D125®, and Lonzagard®) were capable low-level disinfectants. PMID:27656441

  4. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Food Poisoning from Marine Toxins Water Disinfection for Travelers Howard D. Backer RISK FOR TRAVELERS ... of iodine and chlorine (see Halogens below). Chemical Disinfection HALOGENS The most common chemical water disinfectants are ...

  5. Disinfection and sterilization: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization.

  6. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Disinfectants used for environmental disinfection and new room decontamination technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of several key health care-associated pathogens. Effective and thorough cleaning/disinfecting of the patient environment is essential. Room decontamination units (such as ultraviolet-C and hydrogen peroxide systems) aid in reducing environmental contamination after terminal room cleaning and disinfection.

  8. Determining a diagnostic cut-off on the Teate Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Michela Balsamo, Aristide SagginoDepartment of Psychological Sciences, Humanities and Territory, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: A small but growing body of literature suggests that the Teate Depression ­Inventory (TDI may be an “objective” measure of depression compared with other commonly used scales. Furthermore, the TDI has strong psychometric properties in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study aimed to extend the use of TDI by identifying cut-off scores that could differentiate varying levels of depression severity in a group of clinically diagnosed depression disorder patients (N=125. Three receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated cut-off scores of 21 (sensitivity =0.86, specificity =0.94, and classification accuracy =0.90; 36 (sensitivity =0.84, specificity =0.96, and classification accuracy =0.92; and 50 (sensitivity =0.81, specificity =0.93, and classification accuracy =0.90, for minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. Results suggest that the TDI measures depression severity across a broad range with high test accuracy and may be appropriately used to screen for depression.Keywords: major depression, ROC curve, self-report scales, Rasch analysis, depression screening

  9. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS. The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (PObjetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da climatização na pré-ordenha sobre o acondicionamento térmico, fisiologia, produção de leite e relação custo/benefício do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE automatizado. Os tratamentos adotados foram os tempos de exposição dos animais ao SRAE no curral de espera, 20; 30; 40 min e o tratamento-controle. Utilizaram-se 16 vacas com produção de 19 kg de leite dia-1, adotando-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4 e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Foram registradas as variáveis ambientais temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs e umidade relativa (UR a cada minuto, o que permitiu determinar a eficiência do sistema por meio do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU. A frequência respiratória (FR, temperatura retal (TR e temperatura de pelame (TP foram medidas antes e depois da climatização. O tratamento 40 min permitiu manter as variáveis ambientais e os índices de conforto entre os limites recomendados. As variáveis fisiológicas (FR, TR e TP mostraram valores inferiores no tratamento 40 min, com aumento de 3,66% na produção de leite, quando comparado com o controle. O investimento promoveu acréscimo na receita mensal de R$ 1.992,67 com tempo de retorno do capital de 43 dias.

  10. USE OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi IN PRE- AND POST-MILKING ANTISEPSIS OF THE TEAT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Faccin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as an alternative treatment for health problems. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a median tree that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The antibacterial effect of leaves extract of this plant has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test a substance derived from this plant to be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis. The hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian pepper tree was used in opposite quarters for twelve consecutive weeks, and commercial iodine was used as control. None of the indices analyzed – black background mug, CMT, intramammary infections, skin health, and teat health – showed a statistical difference between the treatments, suggesting that the plant extract can be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis, as a substitute for conventional products for herds in an agroecological production system.

  11. The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection, clinical mastitis, and somatic cell counts in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of internal teat sealant products containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal and Orbeseal; Pfizer Animal Health, West Ryde, Australia) when used alone, or in the presence of antibiotic dry cow therapy (ADCT), before or at drying off on the incidence of new intramammary infections (IMI), clinical mastitis, and milk somatic cell count (SCC) during lactation. The literature search identified 18 English-language publications on the use of Teatseal in dairy cattle. A total of 12 studies with 17 subtrials or comparisons including 13 positive control subtrials (internal teat sealant and ADCT vs. ADCT) and 4 negative control subtrials (internal teat sealant vs. untreated) examining IMI were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants, alone or in the presence of ADCT, reduced the risk of acquiring new IMI after calving by 25% [risk ratio (RR)=0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67 to 0.83]. Internal teat sealants reduced the risk of IMI by 73% compared with untreated cows (RR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.55). The results of both meta-analyses of IMI, with positive and negative controls, were heterogeneous [I(2) (a statistic that describes the proportion of total variation in study effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity)=65.4 and 92.1%]. No farm or cow factors studied significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. A total of 16 studies (21 subtrials), including 14 positive control subtrials and 7 negative control subtrials, examining clinical mastitis were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants alone and in the presence of ADCT reduced the risk of clinical mastitis after calving in lactating cows by 29% (RR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82), and 48% (RR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.75), respectively. The results of the meta-analysis on clinical mastitis with positive controls were homogeneous (I(2)=33.6%), whereas the results of studies with negative controls were heterogeneous (I(2)=60.4%). No farm

  12. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...

  13. Disinfecting capabilities of oxychlorine compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Noss, C I; Olivieri, V P

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial virus f2 was inactivated by chlorine dioxide at acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH values. The rate of inactivation increased with increasing pH. Chlorine dioxide disproportionation products, chlorite and chlorate, were not active disinfectants. As chlorine dioxide solutions were degraded under alkaline conditions, they displayed reduced viricidal effectiveness, thereby confirming the chlorine dioxide free radical as the active disinfecting species.

  14. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  15. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  16. The structural identifiability and parameter estimation of a multispecies model for the transmission of mastitis in dairy cows with postmilking teat disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L J; Evans, N D; Lam, T J G M; Schukken, Y H; Medley, G F; Godfrey, K R; Chappell, M J

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transmission of two interacting classes of mastitis causing bacterial pathogens in a herd of dairy cows is presented and applied to a specific data set. The data were derived from a field trial of a specific measure used in the control of these pathogens, where half the individuals were subjected to the control and in the others the treatment was discontinued. The resultant mathematical model (eight non-linear simultaneous ordinary differential equations) therefore incorporates heterogeneity in the host as well as the infectious agent and consequently the effects of control are intrinsic in the model structure. A structural identifiability analysis of the model is presented demonstrating that the scope of the novel method used allows application to high order non-linear systems. The results of a simultaneous estimation of six unknown system parameters are presented. Previous work has only estimated a subset of these either simultaneously or individually. Therefore not only are new estimates provided for the parameters relating to the transmission and control of the classes of pathogens under study, but also information about the relationships between them. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  17. Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

  18. 9 CFR 96.9 - Casings admitted on disinfection; sealing; transfer and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casings admitted on disinfection; sealing; transfer and disinfection. 96.9 Section 96.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.9 Casings admitted on disinfection; sealing; transfer and disinfection. Foreign animal...

  19. Studies on egg disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, H E; DaMassa, A J; Scott, W F

    1979-07-01

    Various concentrations of alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (QAC), Na2CO3, and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for antimicrobial activity singly and in combination against Escherichia coli, Arizona hinshawii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity of the reagents were evaluated in embryonating eggs, trypticase soy broth, and a medium containing lecithin. Toxicity of the chemicals was assayed in embryonating eggs. An appraisal was made of an egg-washing solution composed of 250 ppm QAC, 100 ppm Na2CO3, and 10 and 100 ppm EDTA. The mixture was effective and nontoxic for this purpose. All egg treatments had an adverse effect on fertility and hatchability. Using the temperature differential procedure in egg dipping, the disinfectant mixture was relatively nontoxic if 10 ppm EDTA was used with 3000 ppm tylosin tartrate. One hundred parts per million of the chelator in the dip solution caused excessive embryo mortality due to synergistic toxicity with the antibiotic. The germicidal action of the QAC solution was markedly increased with Na2CO3. Ten parts per million EDTA did not improve the biocidal effect of QAC solutions in distilled water but increased bactericidal activity in tap water that contained 16 ppm Ca and 22 ppm Mg.

  20. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  1. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-04-01

    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  3. Associations of soft flooring materials in free stalls with milk yield, clinical mastitis, teat lesions, and removal of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to test if there was an association between free-stall base softness and milk yield, incidence of clinical mastitis (CM), teat lesions, and removal of cows. In a questionnaire sent to 1,923 dairy farms presumed to be using free-stall housing, farmers were asked for information regarding housing and stall base; for example, the year of installation and the product name or brand of their mats or mattresses. This information was merged with data for milk yield, CM, teat lesions, and removal of cows extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System for the years after installation of mats or mattresses. After exclusion of invalid contributions, the data set consisted of 29,326 lactations for milk yield distributed over 363 free-stalled herds in Norway. The farms were stratified into 5 categories according to the softness of the stall surface measured as millimeter impact of a sphere with a diameter of 120 mm at 2-kN load: 1=concrete, softness of 0mm; 2=rubber, softness of 1 to 8mm; 3=soft mats, softness of 9 to 16 mm; 4=multilayer mats, softness of 17 to 24 mm; and 5=mattresses, softness over 24 mm. Lactation curves were estimated as modified Wood's lactation curves using test-day data and mixed models with repeated measurements, adjusting for days in milk, parity, and softness of free-stall flooring. Herds on concrete free-stall bases yielded 6,727+/-146 kg of milk from 5 to 305 days in milk. In comparison, herds showed a decrease of 0.3% on rubber, an increase of 2.4% on soft mats, an increase of 4.5% on multilayer mats, and an increase of 3.9% on mattresses. Compared with concrete, the hazard ratio (HR) of CM was less on rubber, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.89 (0.79-0.99), 0.85 (0.73-0.996), and 0.80 (0.73-0.88), respectively]. Compared with concrete, the HR of teat lesions was less on rubber, soft mats, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.41 (0.26-0.65), 0.33 (0.24-0.44), 0.12 (0.04-0.38), and 0.47 (0.33-0.67), respectively]. The

  4. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefit of alcohol-based disinfectant used on normal skin has been debated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant, a detergent and an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately for 10...... days, including noninvasive measurements in the evaluation. Skin reactivity in irritated skin after a 4-week interval was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detergent, disinfectant and alternate disinfectant and detergent were applied twice daily every 10 min for 1 h to the ventral upper arms......: On day 5 the detergent caused a higher visual score than either disinfectant applied alone or alternate disinfectant and detergent, P disinfectant and detergent caused a higher score than disinfectant, P

  5. Genome-wide QTL mapping for three traits related to teat number in a White Duroc × Erhualian pig resource population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Huashui

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teat number is an important fertility trait for pig production, reflecting the mothering ability of sows. It is also a discrete and often canalized trait presenting bilateral symmetry with minor differences between the two sides, providing a potential power to evaluate fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability. The knowledge of its genetic control is still limited. In this study, a genome-wide scan was performed with 183 microsatellites covering the pig genome to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for three traits related to teat number including the total teat number (TTN, the teat number at the left (LTN and right (RTN sides in a large scale White Duroc × Erhualian resource population. Results A sex-average linkage map with a total length of 2350.3 cM and an average marker interval of 12.84 cM was constructed. Eleven genome-wide significant QTL for TTN were detected on 8 autosomes including pig chromosomes (SSC 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12. Six suggestive QTL for this trait were detected on SSC6, 9, 13, 14 and 16. Eight chromosomal regions each on SSC1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 showed significant associations with LTN. These regions were also evidenced as significant QTL for RTN except for those on SSC6 and SSC8. The most significant QTL for the 3 traits were all located on SSC7. Erhualian alleles at most of the identified QTL had positive additive effects except for three QTL on SSC1 and SSC7, at which White Duroc alleles increased teat numbers. On SSC1, 6, 9, 13 and 16, significant dominance effects were observed on TTN, and predominant imprinting effect on TTN was only detected on SSC12. Conclusion The results not only confirmed the QTL regions from previous experiments, but also identified five new QTL for the total teat number in swine. Minor differences between the QTL regions responsible for LTN and RTN were validated. Further fine mapping should be focused on consistently identified regions with small

  6. Waterborne outbreak control: which disinfectant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, E W; Hoff, J C; Lippy, E C

    1982-12-01

    Drinking water disinfection was shown to be an important public health measure around the turn of the century. In the United States, it was perhaps the single most important factor in controlling typhoid fever, a waterborne disease that was rampant throughout the world during the last century. It may also be assumed that disinfection was important in limiting the number of cases of other diseases known to be capable of waterborne transmission, i.e., cholera, amebiasis, shigellosis, salmonellosis, and hepatitis A. Even though modern treatment has eliminated water as a major vehicle of infectious disease transmission, outbreaks still occur. In fact, the annual number has been increasing since 1966. Interruption in chlorination or failure to achieve adequate levels of chlorine residual is the most often identified deficiency of the involved water supplies. This finding indicates that waterborne microbial pathogens remain as a potential health threat and underscores the importance of disinfection. From the outset, chlorination has been the drinking water disinfectant of choice in the country. Numerous studies have demonstrated its ability to inactivate bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens when applied under proper conditions. However, the finding that chlorinated organics that are potentially carcinogenic are formed has prompted an evaluation of alternative disinfectants. The viable alternatives to chlorine currently under consideration for widespread use are ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines. In terms of biocidal efficiency, ozone is the most potent of the three. Chlorine dioxide is about the equivalent of free chlorine in the hypochlorous acid form but much more efficient than the hypochlorite form of free chlorine. The chloramines are weaker biocides than hypochlorite. Although this general order of ranking of efficiency holds for diverse types of microorganisms, quantitative comparisons vary with different microorganisms and experimental conditions.

  7. Low cost driver device for microclimate maintenance in the pre-milking of dairy cattle Dispositivo controlador de baixo custo para a manutenção do microclima na pré-ordenha de bovinos leiteiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of the environment on animal production and thus environmental control, the study aims to build a system for monitoring and control the meteorological variables, temperature and relative humidity, low cost, which can be associated with an evaporative cooling system (ECS. The system development included all the stages of assembly, test and laboratory calibration, and later the validation of the equipment carried in the field. The validation step showed results which allowed concluding that the system can be safely used in the monitoring of these variables. The controller was efficient in management of the microclimate in the waiting corral and allowed the maintenance of the air temperature within the comfort range for dairy cattle in pre-milking with averaged 25.09 ºC during the afternoon. The equipment showed the lower cost (R$ 325.76 when compared to other middle market (R$ 450.00.Devido à importância do ambiente na produção animal e, portanto, do controle ambiental adequado, objetivou-se com este trabalho a construção de um sistema de monitoramento e controle das variáveis meteorológicas, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, de baixo custo, associado a um sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE. O desenvolvimento do sistema controlador compreendeu as etapas de montagem, teste e aferição em laboratório e, posteriormente, a etapa de validação do equipamento realizada a campo. A etapa de validação apresentou resultados que permitiram concluir que o sistema pode ser utilizado com segurança no monitoramento e controle dessas variáveis por meio dos atuadores. O controlador mostrou-se eficiente no manejo do microclima no curral de espera e permitiu a manutenção da temperatura do ar dentro da faixa de conforto para bovinos leiteiros na pré-ordenha, apresentando média de 25,09 ºC durante o turno da tarde. O equipamento apresentou custo inferior (R$ 325,76 quando comparado à média de outros

  8. Predicting of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants using disinfection activity coefficient of solution

    OpenAIRE

    Gjorgjeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    There is the need for defining standard technique for quantitative determination of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectant substances, as well as the need for defining parameter for comparing various chemical disinfectants. The methods which are usually used for evaluation of antiseptic activity of disinfectant aqueous solutions are microbiological.

  9. Disinfection of gloves: feasible, but pay attention to the disinfectant/glove combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, S; Häfner, H; Seef, R; Seef, S; Hilgers, R D; Lemmen, S

    2016-11-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is complicated by indications for hand disinfection in rapid succession during the care of one patient. In such situations, disinfection of gloves could facilitate better workflow and optimize compliance rates. We analysed the efficacy of disinfecting gloves by comparing an individual effect of five different hand disinfectant solutions in combination with three different glove types. The investigation was performed in accordance with DIN EN 1500:2013. For all combinations, ten analyses were performed, including (1) right/left-hand examination disinfection efficacy after the first and fifth contamination with E. coli K12 NCTC 10538, (2) recovery rates after contamination, (3) reduction efficacy, (4) fingertip immersion culture, and (5) check for tightness. Disinfection of the ungloved hands was taken as an additional benchmark. The disinfection efficacy for all disinfectant/glove combinations was better with rather than without gloves. For eight combinations, the disinfection efficacy was always >5.0 log10. There were significant differences within the gloves (P=0.0021) and within the disinfectant product (P=0.0023), respectively. In detail, Nitril Blue Eco-Plus performed significantly better than Vasco Braun (P=0.0017) and Latex Med Comfort (P=0.0493). Descoderm showed a significantly worse performance than Promanum pure (P=0.043). In the check for tightness, only the Vasco Braun gloves showed no leaks in all samples. There were relevant qualitative differences pertaining to the comfort of disinfecting gloves. The disinfection efficacy for the different disinfectant/glove combinations was greater than for the ungloved hands. However, various disinfectant/glove combinations produce relevant differences as regards disinfection efficacy. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be achieved using data that are routinely available. To assess whether this is feasible in practice, farmers were invited to submit milk samples from mastitis cases to their veterinary practice for bacteriological culture. Among 624 culture-positive samples, 251 were positive for Streptococcus uberis. Using cow-level data, cases were classified as severe, first nonsevere, repeat, or subclinical. Additional data were collected at the cow level [somatic cell count (SCC), parity, lactation stage, milk yield, fat and protein contents, treatment] and at the herd level (housing, bedding, premilking teat disinfection, postmilking teat disinfection). Severe cases were overrepresented among heifers and animals in early lactation, and repeat cases were overrepresented in cows with 3 or more lactations. The probability of cure was higher among first- and second-parity animals than among older cows, and was higher in animals with a single elevated cow-level SCC than in animals with multiple high SCC records. Results obtained in the current study are similar to those previously described for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Thus, routinely available cow-level information can help to predict the outcome of antimicrobial treatment of the most common causes of gram-positive mastitis.

  11. Investimento em climatização na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando e seus efeitos na produção de leite Investment in system in the pre-milking of girolando cows and its effects on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da climatização na pré-ordenha sobre o acondicionamento térmico, fisiologia, produção de leite e relação custo/benefício do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE. Utilizaram- -se 16 vacas com produção de 18 kg de leite d-1, adotando-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4 e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cooling of pre-milking cows on production, physiology, thermal conditioning and the cost-benefit of the Adiabatic Evaporative Cooling System (AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk production of 18 kg, distributed in 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey test (P<0.05 was utilized for comparison of means. The treatments (0, 10, 20 and 30 min. consisted of exposure of pre-milking cows to the AECS. The dry bulb temperature (DBT, ºC and relative humidity (RH, % were recorded every minute, which allowed the determination of the efficiency of the AECS through the temperature and humidity Index (THI and enthalpy (h. The respiratory rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT and temperature of the coat (TC were measured before and after cooling. The 30 min. treatment kept the environmental variables and the comfort indexes within recommended limits. The physiological variables (RR, RT and TC were lower in the 30 min treatment and reflected positively on milk production, which increased 4.35% compared to the control treatment (0 min. The investment was profitable having a 58 day return on investment and a monthly revenue increase of R$ 1,266.84.

  12. Interaction of disinfectant residues on cleanroom substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, H; Klein, D; Kopis, E; Leblanc, D; McDonnell, G; Tirey, J F

    1999-01-01

    This study will determine the levels of disinfectant residues on stainless steel surfaces after simulated manual cleaning activities. Additionally, this study will determine if chemical interactions between different chemical agents, representative of commonly used cleanroom disinfectant technologies, subsequently applied to the same surfaces exist, and to what degree these interactions impact sporicidal performance of an oxidizing biocide against Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  14. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  15. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  16. How to improve instrument disinfection by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatzwauk, L; Schöne, H; Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    Ultrasound technologies have a wide range of hospital and dental applications which include cleaning and disinfection of surgical and dental instruments. We measured the germicidal efficacy of sonication, with or without chemical disinfectants, in an ultrasonic bath delivering a frequency of 35 kHz and an intensity of 0.66 W/cm2. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were exposed to ultrasound and to an amine-based disinfectant in non-bactericidal concentrations. Ultrasonication for 60 min alone did not cause a significant killing of the bacteria and yeast. However, we were able to show that sonication can act as a powerful synergistic agent to increase the cidal efficacy of the disinfectant against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. C. albicans was more resistant to the combination of ultrasound and chemical disinfection. The key role in the action of ultrasound in cleaning of instruments and perhaps in enhanced disinfection is played by cavitation phenomena. The distribution of cavitations in an ultrasonic bath is not homogenous. We found a similar synergistic effect of ultrasound and disinfectant in positions with low cavitation. The synergistic effect was not reduced inside rubber tubes. Before ultrasound can be accepted as an integral part of the cleaning and disinfection process of medical instruments, the influence of intensity and frequency of sonication and the effects of cavitation must be clarified.

  17. 7 CFR 301.89-12 - Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. 301.89-12... Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. (a) Mechanized harvesting equipment that has been used to harvest... and, if disinfection is determined to be necessary by an inspector, disinfected in accordance with...

  18. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of....5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials... cost of disinfection would exceed the value of the materials or disinfection would be impracticable for...

  19. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfection. 83.7 Section 83.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by...

  20. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    OpenAIRE

    Lívio R. Molina; Costa,Hudson. N.; Leão,Juliana M.; Malacco,Victor M.R.; Facury Filho,Elias J.; Carvalho,Antônio U.; Lage,Camila F.A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA) associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA), in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation), with four functional udder quarters withou...

  1. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 3...

  2. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 135 et seq.), with tuberculocidal claims, as disinfectants...

  3. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... prevent recontamination during storage Table 2-10. Microorganism size and susceptibility to filtration ORGANISM AVERAGE SIZE (µm) ...

  4. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  5. [Formaldehyde sediment in incubators following disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartner, R; Kegel, M; Meyer, H D; Schlüter, G; Wegner, J; Werner, E

    1983-12-01

    Measurements in incubators revealed the presence of formaldehyde concentrations involving a health risk for premature and normal newborns kept and cared for in incubators. Prior to measurements, the incubators had been disinfected by means of formaldehyde vapours in an "Aseptor" disinfecting cabinet (Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck) and then ventilated in strict adherence to operating instructions. The elevated formaldehyde concentrations found had been due to residues of paraformaldehyde and urotropin on the surfaces of the disinfected apparatus, liberating formaldehyde by hydrolysis depending on temperature and relative humidity. There should be a basic reconsideration of the present practice of incubator disinfection. From experiments with activated-carbon filters in incubators it would seem that there is a chance of reducing such formaldehyde concentrations.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF DISINFECTION METHOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. The efficiencies of three disinfection methods namely boiling, water guard and pur purifier were assessed. ... Water is an indispensable resource for supporting life systems [2- ...... developing country context: improving decisions.

  7. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  8. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  9. [Elimination of microscopic filamentous fungi with disinfectants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciaková, A; Laciak, V

    1994-01-01

    The antifungal effectivity of three single-component (Persteril, Septonex, Glutaraldehyd) and of three combined (Persteril+Septonex, Pesteril+Glutaraldehyd, Glutaraldehyd+Septonex) commercially available disinfectants was monitored by the diffuse method on five fen of the microscopic filamentous fungi Aspergillus alternata, Aspergillus niger, Mucor fragillis, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium glabrum. The highest antifungal activity was observed in 2% Persteril while 2% Persteril + 1% Septonex were the most effective among the combined disinfectants. M. fragilis was the most resistant strain.

  10. Effectiveness of Dry Cow Therapy Comprising Antibiotic Treatment, Internal Teat Sealant, and α-Tocopherol Against New Intramammary Infections in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of dry cow therapy based on antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol administered separately or in various combinations at drying-off The study was performed on 322 uninfected quarters of 95 cows originating from three dairy herds. The new intramammary infection rates after calving were measured to evaluate the effectiveness. The quarters were divided into six groups differing in treatment, namely: control group (group C, n = 40 and five treatment groups. Treatment groups were arranged as follows: group A (antibiotic alone, n = 81, group AS (antibiotic + sealant, n = 40, group AST (antibiotic + sealant + α-tocopherol, n = 40, group T (α-tocopherol alone, n = 40, group S (sealant alone, n = 81. New infection rate amounted to 47.5% in group C. The treatment in group AST significantly prevented from the occurrence of new intramammary infections (12.5%, P 0.05, although the use of the sealant alone (group S decreased the risk of new infection (24.7%, P 0.05. Increased α-tocopherol level (P < 0.05 was detected after calving in the quarters from cows that received α-tocopherol injections. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol used in dry cow therapy showed a significantly better preventive effect against new intramammary infections, than the therapeutics administered separately.

  11. Likelihood and Bayesian analyses reveal major genes affecting body composition, carcass, meat quality and the number of false teats in a Chinese European pig line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Pascale

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses were performed using both maximum likelihood – via a Quasi Newton algorithm – (ML-QN and Bayesian – via Gibbs sampling – (Bayesian-GS approaches in the Chinese European Tiameslan pig line. Major genes were searched for average ultrasonic backfat thickness (ABT, carcass fat (X2 and X4 and lean (X5 depths, days from 20 to 100 kg (D20100, Napole technological yield (NTY, number of false (FTN and good (GTN teats, as well as total teat number (TTN. The discrete nature of FTN was additionally considered using a threshold model under ML methodology. The results obtained with both methods consistently suggested the presence of major genes affecting ABT, X2, NTY, GTN and FTN. Major genes were also suggested for X4 and X5 using ML-QN, but not the Bayesian-GS, approach. The major gene affecting FTN was confirmed using the threshold model. Genetic correlations as well as gene effect and genotype frequency estimates suggested the presence of four different major genes. The first gene would affect fatness traits (ABT, X2 and X4, the second one a leanness trait (X5, the third one NTY and the last one GTN and FTN. Genotype frequencies of breeding animals and their evolution over time were consistent with the selection performed in the Tiameslan line.

  12. Photocatalytic Water Disinfection with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichel, C.; Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S.

    2006-07-01

    Drinking water disinfection is the final treatment phase before supplying drinking water to customers. Actually, the most widely employed disinfecting method is the chlorination. Even though it has high efficiency and long residual effects, chlorine presents the drawback of the high potential to produce chloro-organic compounds, which are hazardous. In order to find a safe method to disinfect drinking water, a number of so-called {sup n}ew technologies{sup a}re being developed by researchers from the entire world. Among these emerging technologies, the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation is becoming more and more important, mainly for applications in isolated and arid areas of developing countries. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation via TiO2, when the semiconductor is suspended or immersed in water and irradiated with near UV (?<385 nm), OH radicals are generated by the reaction of holes and electrons respectively with electron donor and acceptor molecules. The OH radical is highly toxic towards microorganisms and very reactive in the oxidation of organic substances. Therefore, a solar photocatalytic treatment can be a disinfecting method but at the same time a process to degrade organic matter. This contribution demonstrates the feasibility of using the photocatalytical processes to inactivate microorganisms present in water for potential applications in drinking water disinfection for solar systems. This work shows the main results on solar photocatalytic disinfection with solar photo-reactors, using the solar radiation and TiO2 as a photocatalyst. (Author)

  13. Amoebicidal effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen V; Shi, Guang-Sen; Lai, Sindy; Cho, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To compare the traditional manual hemacytometer method and an automated counter (Vi-cell) to enumerate and distinguish between viable and non-viable amoeba, and to determine the efficacies of contact lens (CL) disinfecting solutions against three species of Acanthamoeba. The efficacies in the presence of a bacterial food source and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated. Four brands of multipurpose solutions and a hydrogen peroxide disinfecting system (Oxysept) for soft CLs, and four disinfecting solutions for Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) lenses were tested against three species of Acanthamoeba. Page's amoebic saline was included as a negative control and standard solutions of disinfecting agents, 6% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% chlorhexidine, as positive controls. The effects of the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and BSA on effectiveness were assessed. None of the CL solutions tested achieved a 1-log reduction in viability of all three Acanthamoeba species within the manufacturer's recommended disinfection times. The presence of P. aeruginosa did not significantly affect disinfecting capacity of multipurpose solution solutions but reduced activity of RGP solutions and the hydrogen peroxide system. BSA reduced trophozoicidal activity of all solutions. Bland and Altman analysis showed good agreement between Vi-cell and hemacytometer. The Vi-Cell analyzer offers a simple and effective method of determining amoebicidal activity. Our results show that the CL solutions tested could not satisfactorily kill Acanthamoeba.

  14. Análise espacial das condições térmicas do ambiente pré-ordenha de bovinos leiteiros sob regimes de climatização Spatial analysis of thermal conditions of the pre-milking dairy cattle under climatization regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se, com este trabalho, caracterizar a variabilidade espacial da temperatura do ar na sala de pré-ordenha a partir de diferentes tempos de operação do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo automatizado. A variável temperatura do ar foi registrada em 35 pontos equidistantes 1 m, na forma de malha, para o estudo da variabilidade espacial e a construção de mapas por krigagem. Foram considerados diferentes tempos de exposição dos animais a climatização no curral de espera, 20, 30, 40 min e controle (0 min. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível verificar que o uso da geoestatística possibilitou definir áreas com diferentes variabilidades espaciais para temperatura do ar, definindo áreas específicas na sala de pré-ordenha que apresentaram valores acima do recomendado para o conforto térmico animal. O sistema de climatização garantiu melhor acondicionamento térmico no tempo de exposição de 40 min, obtendo temperatura média dentro da condição de conforto térmico para vacas em lactação.The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of air temperature in pre-milking room for different operation times of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system. The air temperature was monitored at 35 points, in regular intervals of 1 m, as a grid, to study the spatial variability and construction of kriging maps. Different times of exposure of the animals to the cooling system in the waiting room (20, 30, 40 min and control - 0 min were considered. Through the results, it was observed that use of geostatistics enabled to define areas with different spatial variability for temperature, identifying specific areas in the pre-milking room that showed values above the recommended levels for the thermal comfort. The cooling system ensured the better thermal condition with the 40 min exposure, obtaining on average temperature within the thermal comfort condition for lactating cows.

  15. [Spanish disinfectants for the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo Cabrera, R

    2000-01-01

    There are two chemical disinfectants patents from Spain that permit to obtain advantageous products on other disinfectants: Nduopropenide (two iodures of quaternary ammonium) and "Peroxidine" (hydrogen peroxide that active to lactic acid and a surfactant mixture). The first product is used as an antiseptic or disinfectant, but the second, only act as disinfectant. DISINFECTION: It is studied (by germ-carrier methods), the microbicide effect on different microorganisms (Gram positive cocci, Gram negative bacilli, fungus, Mycobacteria and B subtilis spores), comparing these two products with different disinfectants as 2% glutaraldehyde, 1/8 phenate-glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid compounds, 11% oxygen peroxide and 2% sodium hypoclorite. It is obtained that 1/4 Peroxidine in 5 minutes or 1/6 Peroxidine in 10 minutes, are the most effective disinfectant on all microorganisms used (includes the most resistant) since it produces destruction of 4 log-10 of spores and 5 log-10 of Mycobacteria. Moreover, it can destroy, completely, the inoculum of commercial spores, routinely used for sterilization process evaluation, in 20 minutes, when 2% glutaraldehyd needs 3-10 hours. ANTISEPSIE: It is studied the "hygienization" and surgical handwashing with Nduopropenide solution, in comparison with classical washing methods (neutral soap in routinely handwashing and 5% chlorhexidine or 10% iodine-povidone in surgical washing): 1) Nduopropenide and alcohol solution is more effective that routinely handwashing. 2) This product is more effective and persistent, after surgical washing that chlorhexidine or iodine-povidone. Moreover, it does not must be applied with brush. 3) The mixture Nduopropenide and chlorhexidine makes a synergy, then it can be used in hand or skin washing, on heath personnel or patient people, being advantageous on the other products.

  16. [Comparison of the quality and toxicity of wastewater after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-sha; Zhang, Tong; Hu, Hong-ying

    2005-11-01

    The effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections on quality and toxicity of wastewater were compared. The experiment results showed that chlorine disinfection had no obvious effect on wastewater color, while chlorine dioxide disinfection decreased wastewater color observably. The DOC of wastewater did not change much after chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections. Chlorine disinfection significantly increased UV230 of wastewater and chlorine dioxide disinfection slightly decreased UV230 of wastewater. When the disinfectants dosage was 30 mg/L, UV230 increased about 0.7 cm(-1) after chlorine disinfection and decreased about 0.05 cm(-1) after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The acute toxicity of wastewater increased with increasing disinfectants dosage for both chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections and the acute toxicity after chlorine disinfection is much stronger than that after chlorine dioxide disinfection. The genotoxicity of wastewater increased slightly after chlorine disinfection and decreased slightly after chlorine dioxide disinfection.

  17. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  18. Disinfection for small water supplies: a technical guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Solsona, F

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This guide will present some disinfection systems, which will be useful in supporting disinfection programmes. The description of the different systems will provide a guideline for the selection of equipment base on balancing the simplicity...

  19. Basic Information about Chloramines and Drinking Water Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  20. Wettability changes in polyether impression materials subjected to immersion disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, 2% glutaraldehyde proved safe for 10 min of immersion disinfection while 0.05% iodophor holds promise as an effective disinfectant without affecting the wettability of the material.

  1. Overview STUDY AND APPLICATION OF HERBAL DISINFECTANTS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO-BIN CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants[1]. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty[2]. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils[3]. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  2. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  3. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  4. Formation and Occurrence of Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of drinking water. There is concern about D...

  5. Loengud. Kontsert. Koorid. Teated

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Loengust "Muusikaesseistika I" 19. sept. Lai t 34 aud 72. Kontsertidest: Tartu raekojas 22. sept. esineb hispaania ansambel Zarabanda, TÜ aulas 20. sept. esinevad "Meistrite akadeemia" sarjas Pille Lille Muusikute Toetusfondi laureaat Anna-Liisa Bezrodnõi viiulil ja Thea Nestor klaveril. TÜ Kammerkoor ja Tartu Akadeemiline Meeskoor võtavad vastu uusi liikmeid (info: www.ut.ee/TYKK ja www.tam.eu). Tartu Ülikooli rahvakunstiansambel ootab uusi tantsijaid (info: www.ut.ee)

  6. Loengud. Koorid. Teated

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Loengust "Muusikaesseistika I" 19. sept. Lai t 34 aud 72. TÜ Kammerkoor, Tartu Akadeemiline Meeskoor, naiskoor Emajõe Laulikud ja Tartu Üliõpilassegakoor võtavad vastu uusi liikmeid (info: www.ut.ee/TYKK, www.tam.eu, www.laulikud.ee, www.hot.ee/uliopilassegakoor)

  7. Loengud. Kontsert. Koorid. Teated

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Loengust "Muusikaesseistika I" 19. sept. Lai t 34 aud 72. Kontsertidest: Tartu raekojas 22. sept. esineb hispaania ansambel Zarabanda, TÜ aulas 20. sept. esinevad "Meistrite akadeemia" sarjas Pille Lille Muusikute Toetusfondi laureaat Anna-Liisa Bezrodnõi viiulil ja Thea Nestor klaveril. TÜ Kammerkoor ja Tartu Akadeemiline Meeskoor võtavad vastu uusi liikmeid (info: www.ut.ee/TYKK ja www.tam.eu). Tartu Ülikooli rahvakunstiansambel ootab uusi tantsijaid (info: www.ut.ee)

  8. Disinfection for infection prevention over the course of time

    OpenAIRE

    Hell, M.; Pauser, G

    2007-01-01

    In recent years and decades increasingly more emphasis has been placed on alcohol-based solutions for hygienic and surgical hand disinfection. Traditional handwashing with soap and water has been largely replaced in the everyday clinical setting, as has the use of disinfectant soap-based solutions for surgical hand disinfection. It has been possible in recent years to reduce the exposure time for alcohol-based hand disinfection in surgery from 5 to 3 minutes, and there are plans to reduce thi...

  9. Trends in sterilization and disinfection procedures in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R G

    1990-10-01

    The present survey is a repetition of a 1987 survey examining the sterilization/disinfection procedures of Georgia's orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in orthodontic sterilization/disinfection procedures. Orthodontists in Georgia have dramatically changed their sterilization and disinfection procedures. The major changes represented are greater use of protective barrier wear by doctor and staff members; increased heat sterilization methods for instruments, pliers, and handpieces; and increased disinfection of alginate impressions.

  10. An insight of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by alternative disinfectants for swimming pool disinfection under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linyan; Schmalz, Christina; Zhou, Jin; Zwiener, Christian; Chang, Victor W-C; Ge, Liya; Wan, Man Pun

    2016-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions. The result reveals that halogen stabilizer, TCCA, had the advantages of slower free chlorine degradation and lower DBP concentration compared to NaClO, which makes it a good alternative disinfectant. BCDMH was not recommended mainly due to the highly reactive disinfecting ingredient, hypobromous acid (HBrO), which fails to sustain the continuous disinfection requirement. Total disinfectant dosage was the main factor that affects residual chlorine/bromine and THM/HAA formation regardless of different disinfectant dosing methods, e.g. shock dosing (one-time spiking) in the beginning, and continuous dosing during the whole experimental period. Two-stage second-order-kinetic-based models demonstrate a good correlation between the measured and predicted data for chlorine decay (R(2) ≥ 0.95), THM (R(2) ≥ 0.99) and HAA (R(2) ≥ 0.83) formation. Higher temperature was found to enhance the DBP formation due to the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Thus, temperature control of pools, especially for those preferring higher temperatures (e.g. hydrotherapy and spa), should take both bather comfort and DBP formation potential into consideration. It is also observed that chlorine competition

  11. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  12. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinfection of imports. 71.42 Section 71.42 Public... FOREIGN QUARANTINE Requirements Upon Arrival at U.S. Ports: Sanitary Inspection § 71.42 Disinfection of imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the...

  13. Disinfection of an infrared coagulation device used to treat hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2012-02-01

    Infrared coagulation devices are used to treat internal hemorrhoids, and as semicritical items should undergo high-level disinfection between patients. We developed and validated a method for disinfecting an infrared coagulation device that cannot be immersed in disinfectant solution.

  14. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used to...

  15. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  16. Survival of Viral Biowarfare Agents in Disinfected Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    disinfection at small systems AWWA water quality division disinfection systems committee,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, vol. 92...no. 5, pp. 24–31, 2000. [2] G. F. Connell, J. C. Routt, B. Macler et al., “Committee report: disinfection at large and medium-size systems AWWA water

  17. Activity and action screening of selected disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Balharová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed to monitoring of selected disinfectants´activity in operational conditions. Hereby there have been monitored two acidic disinfectants Despon K and Mikasan D, which have had-by their producer-stated different recommended concentration. These solutions were monitored in viewpoint of their activity at different temperature, time of circulation, pH and water hardness. In this work there were measured pH of solutions in unloaded medium to be compared with pH of solutions in loaded medium and this measuring was carried out regularly each week within a one month period. During this period there was also monitored total plate count (TPC, which was stated in the dairy, where samples were taken two-times monthly. It has been found, that the disinfectants Mikasan D and Mikal 94D are effective even by high water hardness.

  18. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  19. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  20. [Sterilization and disinfection in clinical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, I; Haydar, B

    1989-11-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the spread of hepatitis b and aids viruses and the high risk of contamination of these viruses during the dental operations has made orthodontists more aware of the necessity of sterilization and disinfection. This article discusses the methods of sterilization and disinfection. Avoidance of corrosion of instruments and the use of a ultrasonic cleaner to avoid contamination has been explained. In the conclusion the measures that the orthodontist has to take in order to protect himself is discussed.

  1. Experimental study on disinfection effect of different dose of rapid hand disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Li

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In an effort to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infection, the medical personnel should sufficiently dry hands following handrubbing with disinfectant in a strict accordance with the six part washing technique for antiseptic handrubbing.

  2. SDBD plasma jet for skin disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Verweij, P.E.; Zanden, F. van der; Leenders, P.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for skin and wound disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation

  3. Action of commonly used disinfectants against enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H K; Codd, A A

    1983-06-01

    The virucidal effect of some of the most commonly used hospital disinfectants against Coxsackie B4, Echovirus 11, Poliovirus type 1 and Rotavirus have been evaluated. It was found that 'Chloros', 'Totacide 28' and methylated spirits were completely virucidal to all the viruses under study. 'Stericol' and 'Lysol' had a limited effect while 'Hibiscrub' and 'Savlon' had no effect at all.

  4. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment must be sufficient to ensure at least 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system....9 percent (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and at least 99.99 percent...

  5. Virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Terpstra, P.; Koopmans, M.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. Chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against enteric and respiratory viruses. Aim: To measure the

  6. Virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Terpstra, P.; Koopmans, M.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. Chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against enteric and respiratory viruses. Aim: To measure the vir

  7. symptoms in health personnel exposed to disinfectants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... (31.7%), watering of eyes (25%), skin rash (10%) and chronic cough (8.3%). Among users ... Further studies involving larger sample sizes, are necessary to ... exposure to disinfectants among health personnel in some. Kenyan health ..... Sun H.W., Feigal R.J. and Messer H.H. Cytotoxicity of gutaraldehyde ...

  8. SDBD plasma jet for skin disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Verweij, P.E.; Zanden, F. van der; Leenders, P.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for skin and wound disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation met

  9. Role of Disinfection in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Sansebastiano; R Zoni; R Zanelli; L Bigliardi

    2006-01-01

    At present microbiological risk are still the most frequent in the food industry and the disinfection is one of the procedures that can be carried out in the general prevention of foodborne infectious diseases. In the industrial process of food transformation the cleaning and disinfection procedures of surfaces and machinery have to be considered an integrate system with food production, a technological aspect that surely affects the finished product quality and safety. First of all to carry out properly these operations it is necessary that the factory and the equipment have been designed and constructed with high standard of hygiene to reduce the risk of contamination and to facilitate the sanitation. The procedures involve several stages which generally include pre-washing with water, cleaning, real disinfection, and a final rinsing with water. In order to assure a right disinfections of surfaces areas and of processing equipment the choice of disinfectant takes on particular importance. Some of the most widely used disinfectants include the hypochlorous acid, the chlorine dioxide and the peroxides like peracetic acid; the latter is widely used in soft drink and mineral water industries. The efficiency of these chemical agents depends on various factors as pH, temperature and the presence of organic substances with which the disinfectants can react to give by-products which can reduce the activity and can present toxicity. The use of hypochlorite may led to the formation of carcinogenic substance such as trialomethanes (THM) while the use of chlorine dioxide may lead to the formation of chlorites and chiorates. The peracetic acid is a good alternative compounds and it doesn't lead to the formation of carcinogenic by-products. In our researches we evaluated the effectiveness of peracetic acid to inactivate some resistant micro-organism like hepatitis A virus; our results show that in practical application in CIP (cleaning in place) it's necessary to use

  10. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  11. 40 CFR 141.541 - What are significant changes to disinfection practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disinfection practice? 141.541 Section 141.541 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Benchmark § 141.541 What are significant changes to disinfection practice? Significant changes to disinfection practice include: (a) Changes to the...

  12. 40 CFR 141.540 - Who has to develop a disinfection benchmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who has to develop a disinfection... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Benchmark § 141.540 Who has to develop a disinfection benchmark? If you are a subpart H system required to develop a disinfection profile under §§ 141...

  13. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent.

  14. Proteobacteria become predominant during regrowth after water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Macedo, Gonçalo; Silva, Adrian M T; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-12-15

    Disinfection processes aim at reducing the number of viable cells through the generation of damages in different cellular structures and molecules. Since disinfection involves unspecific mechanisms, some microbial populations may be selected due to resilience to treatment and/or to high post-treatment fitness. In this study, the bacterial community composition of secondarily treated urban wastewater and of surface water collected in the intake area of a drinking water treatment plant was compared before and 3-days after disinfection with ultraviolet radiation, ozonation or photocatalytic ozonation. The aim was to assess the dynamics of the bacterial communities during regrowth after disinfection. In all the freshly collected samples, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla (40-50% and 20-30% of the reads, respectively). Surface water differed from wastewater mainly in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria (17% and disinfected samples presented a shift of Gammaproteobacteria (from 8 to 10% to 33-65% of the reads) and Betaproteobacteria (from 14 to 20% to 31-37% of the reads), irrespective of the type of water and disinfection process used. Genera such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter or Rheinheimera presented a selective advantage after water disinfection. These variations were not observed in the non-disinfected controls. Given the ubiquity and genome plasticity of these bacteria, the results obtained suggest that disinfection processes may have implications on the microbiological quality of the disinfected water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghashri, K; Kumar, Prasanna; Prasad, D Krishna; Hegde, Rakshit

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microwave disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. A total of 120 casts were prepared from a silicone mold using Type III dental stone. Of the 120 casts, 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Then, the casts were disinfected with microwave irradiation and chemical disinfection using the microwave oven and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacteriologic procedures were performed; the cfu/ml for each cast was calculated as a weighted mean. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. The untreated casts showed Brain heart infusion broth counts of 106 log cfu/ml compared to irradiated and chemically disinfected casts, in which 105 log reduction of cfu/ml was seen. These results satisfied the requirements of current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory. The results obtained for chemical disinfection were in equivalence with microwave disinfection. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it was found that microwave disinfection of casts for 5 min at 900 W gives high-level disinfection that complies with the current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory and microwave disinfection method is an effective and validated method as chemical disinfection. How to cite the article: Meghashri K, Kumar P, Prasad DK, Hegde R. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):56-60 .

  16. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode

  17. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, P A; Rota, N; Locatelli, C; Colombo, L; Pollera, C; Giacinti, G; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Arpinelli, A; Brossette, V; Facchi, M; Patelli, A; Ruggeri, A; Barberio, A; Potenza, G; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to compare 2 commercial dry cow mastitis products at the quarter level, with concurrent internal teat sealant application, evaluating the cure risk difference, odds of a cure, odds of a new intramammary infection (NIMI) during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis (CM) case between calving and 60d in milk (DIM). A total of 590 cows (2,360 quarters) from 8 commercial dairy herds in Italy were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments at dry off: Cefovet A (CF; 250mg of cephazoline; Merial Italia SpA, Milan, Italy), and Cepravin (CP; 250mg of cephalonium dehydrate MSD Animal Health Srl, Segrate, Italy). Quarter milk samples were collected before dry cow therapy treatment at dry off, 2 to 9 DIM, and 10 to 17 DIM. Quarter milk samples from CM cases were collected during the first 60 DIM. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the risk difference of a bacteriological cure during the dry period, the primary outcome. The odds of cure, developing a NIMI during the dry period, and the risk of a CM event within 60 DIM were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and hazard analysis, respectively. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of NIMI at dry off was 15.3%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative staphylococci. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on the risk difference for a cure between dry off and both postpartum samples, difference was 0.013. The least squares means from the multivariable model evaluating the odds of cure was 94% for CF and 95%for CP. We observed no effect of treatment on the odds for the presence of a NIMI at 2 to 9 DIM (least squares means: CF=0.09 and CP=0.07), nor did we note a difference in risk of experiencing a CM event between calving and 60 DIM (hazard ratio=0.8). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the 2 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned outcomes in

  18. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITY CHANGES ON UV DISINFECTION OF WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Vaezi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR has been accepted as an attractive alternative to chlorination for the disinfection of wastewater. In this study the effluent from Sahebgaranieh treatment plant was subjected to changes in UV transmission and turbidity in order to correlate these commonly measured parameters with the performance of a submerged -UV- reactor employed in disinfecting the effluent. Studies have shown successful performance of the reactor in disinfecting typical secondary effluents. Highly significant correlations are observed between TJV- transmission, turbidity, and the degree of coliforms inactivation which depend upon disinfection limit. Besides, the method was regarded suitable in disinfecting effluent samples, having suspended solids twice as much the discharge quality at disinfection detention time of 102 seconds. Average UV dosages ranged from 230 to 580 milliwatt - second per square centimeter.

  19. Reaction of silver nanoparticles in the disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhihua; Chen, Yunbin; Li, Tingting; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the dissolution, aggregation, and reaction kinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with the three types of water disinfectants (ultraviolet, sodium hypochlorite, and ozone) under the different conditions of pH, ionic strength, or humic acid (HA). The physicochemical changes of AgNPs were measured by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The results showed that when AgNPs contacted the disinfectants, oxidative dissolution was the primary reaction. In addition, the reaction kinetics studies revealed that the reaction rate of AgNPs with disinfectants was significantly influenced by different disinfectants along with different pH and the presence of sodium nitrate and HA. Our research demonstrated the potential effect of disinfectants on AgNPs, which will improve our understanding of the fate of AgNPs in the disinfection processes in the water and wastewater treatment plant.

  20. 75 FR 49487 - Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... AGENCY Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray AGENCY: Environmental Protection... period for the draft document ``Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray'' (EPA.... ] ADDRESSES: The draft ``Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray'' is available...

  1. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  2. Silver-based Antibacterial Surfaces for Drinking Water Disinfection - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risks associated with current disinfection techniques, including the formation of disinfection by-products and multi-drug resistant bacterial species, have prompted the exploration of advanced disinfection methods. One such technique employs silver nanoparticles incorporation on ...

  3. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in this paragraph (a): Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Bromate Control of ozone... source water: Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and... disinfection byproducts. 141.64 Section 141.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. Water disinfecting; Desinfection d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, F

    2009-04-15

    The Soxitis equipment is an innovating alternative to the use of chemical products for disinfecting cooling tower circuits. This equipment is based on a higher temperature electrolysis of the salt molecules contained in water. Present electrodes (titanium, tungsten, silver, copper or gold) used in similar systems are limited in voltage to 1.5 V. The Soxitis electrode can sustain 3 V which enlarges the spectrum of chemical reactions: chloride, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, persulfates, per-carbonates and hydroxide radicals are produced. The combining effect of all these products generates a disinfecting effect 4 times as high as chloride alone. As a consequence Soxitis uses 4 times less salt than present equipment and releases less corrosive water in the system. (A.C.)

  5. Proteomic adaptations to starvation prepare Escherichia coli for disinfection tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhe; Nandakumar, Renu; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Li, Xu

    2015-02-01

    Despite the low nutrient level and constant presence of secondary disinfectants, bacterial re-growth still occurs in drinking water distribution systems. The molecular mechanisms that starved bacteria use to survive low-level chlorine-based disinfectants are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate these molecular mechanisms at the protein level that prepare starved cells for disinfection tolerance. Two commonly used secondary disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine, both at 1 mg/L, were used in this study. The proteomes of normal and starved Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655) cells were studied using quantitative proteomics. Over 60-min disinfection, starved cells showed significantly higher disinfection tolerance than normal cells based on the inactivation curves for both chlorine and monochloramine. Proteomic analyses suggest that starvation may prepare cells for the oxidative stress that chlorine-based disinfection will cause by affecting glutathione metabolism. In addition, proteins involved in stress regulation and stress responses were among the ones up-regulated under both starvation and chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. By comparing the fold changes under different conditions, it is suggested that starvation prepares E. coli for disinfection tolerance by increasing the expression of enzymes that can help cells survive chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. Protein co-expression analyses show that proteins in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway that were up-regulated under starvation are also involved in disinfection tolerance. Finally, the production and detoxification of methylglyoxal may be involved in the chlorine-based disinfection and cell defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of ultrasound enhancement on chlorine dioxide consumption and disinfection by-products formation for secondary effluents disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Junyuan; Li, Zifu; Lan, Juanru; Li, Yajie; Yang, Xin; Wang, Dongling

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been promoted as an alternative disinfectant because of its high disinfection efficiency and less formation of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, particle-associated microorganisms could be protected during the disinfection process, which decreases the disinfection efficiency or increases the required dosage. Besides, the formation of inorganic disinfection by-products is a significant concern in environment health. Ultrasound (US)-combined disinfection methods are becoming increasingly attractive because they are efficient and environmentally friendly. In this study, US was introduced as an enhancement method to identify its influence on ClO2 demand reduction and to minimize the production of potential DBPs for secondary effluents disinfection. Fecal coliform was used as an indicator, and DBPs, including trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), chlorite (ClO2(-)), and chlorate (ClO3(-)), were analyzed to observe the potential DBPs formation. Results show that US pretreatment could reduce half of ClO2 dosage compared with ClO2 disinfection alone for the same disinfection efficiency, and that an input power density of 2.64 kJ/L pretreatment with the 1.5mg/L ClO2 was enough to meet the discharge requirement in China (i.e., fecal coliform below 1000 CFU/L for Class 1A) for secondary effluent disinfection, and the ClO2(-) concentration in the disinfection effluent was only 1.37 mg/L at the same time. Furthermore, the different effects of US on the two processes (US as pretreatment and simultaneous US/ClO2 disinfection) were also analyzed, including deagglomerating, cell damage, and synergistic disinfection as well as degasing/sonolysis. It was proved that the production of TCM, DCAA, and TCAA was insignificantly influenced with the introduction of US, but US pretreatment did reduce the production of ClO2(-) and ClO3(-) effectually. In general, US pretreatment could be a better option for

  7. Hand disinfection in hospitals - benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2010-12-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of noso-comial infections. The hygienic hand disinfection has a superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to hand washing and should be performed as the treatment of choice before and after a variety of activities at the point of patient care. Washing hands should be preferred when the hands are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap and long lasting occlusion. Compliance with hand disinfection in clinical practice is often low. Measures to improve compliance include training, provision of hand rubs where they are needed, and the responsibility of doctors to set a good example. Improved compliance in hand hygiene and targeted use of alcohol-based hand rubs can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by up to 40 %. The benefit of hand disinfection is therefore much larger than possible risks. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basman, Adil; Peker, Ilkay; Akca, Gulcin; Alkurt, Meryem Toraman; Sarikir, Cigdem; Celik, Irem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10). Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control). The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  9. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil BASMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10. Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p < 0.05. The most effective method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control. The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  10. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, E.

    1986-11-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.

  11. Spiral-shaped reactor for water disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2016-04-20

    Chlorine-based processes are still widely used for water disinfection. The disinfection process for municipal water consumption is usually carried out in large tanks, specifically designed to verify several hydraulic and disinfection criteria. The hydrodynamic behavior of contact tanks of different shapes, each with an approximate total volume of 50,000 m3, was analyzed by solving turbulent momentum transport equations with a computational fluid dynamics code, namely ANSYS fluent. Numerical experiments of a tracer pulse were performed for each design to generate flow through curves and investigate species residence time distribution for different inlet flow rates, ranging from 3 to 12 m3 s−1. A new nature-inspired Conch tank design whose shape follows an Archimedean spiral was then developed. The spiral design is shown to strongly outperform the other tanks’ designs for all the selected plug flow criteria with an enhancement in efficiency, less short circuiting, and an order of magnitude improvement in mixing and dispersion. Moreover, following the intensification philosophy, after 50% reduction in its size, the new design retains its properties and still gives far better results than the classical shapes.

  12. The catheter hub disinfection cap as esophageal foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Myer, Charles M; Shikary, Tasneem; Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Disinfection caps are increasingly being used to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. These devices, designed for continuous passive disinfection of catheter hubs, are typically small and often brightly colored. As such, they have the potential to become pediatric airway and esophageal foreign bodies. We report two patients who developed esophageal foreign body following ingestion of disinfection caps. Given the increasing use of these devices, it is imperative that health care providers be aware of this potential iatrogenic problem. We propose that the use of disinfection caps may not be appropriate in pediatric patients with risk factors for foreign body ingestion.

  13. Current and emergent strategies for disinfection of hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana C; Tavares, Rafaela R; Borges, Anabela; Mergulhão, Filipe; Simões, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A significant number of hospital-acquired infections occur due to inefficient disinfection of hospital surfaces, instruments and rooms. The emergence and wide spread of multiresistant forms of several microorganisms has led to a situation where few compounds are able to inhibit or kill the infectious agents. Several strategies to disinfect both clinical equipment and the environment are available, often involving the use of antimicrobial chemicals. More recently, investigations into gas plasma, antimicrobial surfaces and vapour systems have gained interest as promising alternatives to conventional disinfectants. This review provides updated information on the current and emergent disinfection strategies for clinical environments.

  14. Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  15. Resistance to chemical disinfection under conditions of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchin, George L.

    1998-01-01

    In unit gravity, bacteria and disinfecting resin beads co-sediment to the septum in a fluid processing apparatus (FPA) resulting in effective chemical disinfection. In microgravity bacteria in suspension have access to a larger volume of the FPA because of a lack of sedimentation. Further, when disinfecting resin beads are added to the FPA they also remain in suspension reducing their effective concentration. Typically, therefore, disinfection experiments in microgravity return larger numbers of viable bacteria than ground-based controls. Preliminary experiments aboard the MIR Space Station with Pseudomonas aeruginosa additionally suggest that the longer bacteria are retained in microgravity the more resistant they become to chemical disinfection. This phenomenon is probably due to additional time to develop resistant biofilms on the interior of the FPA. To partially solve these problems we have developed additional disinfecting materials to use in conjunction with polyiodide containing resin beads. One of these materials carbon beads coated with 3-trimethoxy silylpropyl dimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Dow-Corning 5700®), acts synergistically with polyiodide resin disinfectants. Carbon beads so treated are still able to remove aqueous iodine from the water stream while providing an additional level of chemical disinfection. This additional capability prevents contamination of the carbon beads with heterotrophic bacteria and insures that bacteria surviving iodine disinfection are efficiently devitalized.

  16. Impact of food disinfection on beneficial biothiol contents in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Demirkol, Omca; Ercal, Nuran; Adams, Craig

    2005-12-14

    In this work we investigated the impact of food disinfection on the beneficial biothiol contents in a suite of vegetables consumed daily, including spinach, green bean, asparagus, cucumber, and red pepper. Four disinfection technologies commonly studied and/or used in food processing and preservation, including hydrogen peroxide, free chlorine, and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone, were examined with common dosages and contact times. Results indicate that the common disinfection technologies may result in significant loss of beneficial biothiols in vegetables which are essentially important to human health. For example, as much as 70% of biothiols were lost when spinach was treated with hydrogen peroxide (5.0 wt %) for 30 min. Approximately 48-54% of biothiols were destroyed by free chlorine and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone under typical contacting conditions. In red pepper, about 60-71% of reduced glutathione was oxidized by the disinfectants. The potential decrease in biothiols during disinfection was dependent upon the biothiol type, the disinfectant, and the vegetable. The effectiveness of total bacterial inactivation by the four disinfection technologies was concurrently evaluated. Results show that free chlorine is most effective, achieving disinfection efficiencies of greater than 4 log for all study vegetables. This study may provide important information for the food industry to design optimum contacting methods for vegetables to simultaneously achieve sufficient bacterial disinfection while minimizing loss of beneficial biothiols.

  17. The Clinical Observation of the Chinese Medicine Teat Disinfectant for Cows%奶牛纯中药乳头消毒剂的临床应用效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保臣; 秦卓明; 李建基; 刘锡武; 刘翠艳

    2005-01-01

    将93头奶牛分成3组,1组31头用碘伏进行乳头药浴,2组32头用鱼腥草、红花和明矾组成的中药乳头消毒剂进行药浴,30头作为对照组,35 d的临床应用,结果如下:中药乳头消毒剂和碘伏能使临床型乳腺炎发病率降低,差异不显著(P>0.05);1组隐性乳腺炎的发病率,由药浴前的58.1%下降到48.4%,与对照组差异显著(P<0.05),2组隐性乳腺炎的发病率由药浴前的81.3%下降到药浴后的75%,与对照组差异显著(P>0.05);1组和2组隐性乳腺炎的乳区发病率差异不显著(P>0.05),与对照组差异极显著(P<0.01);中药乳头消毒剂药浴后体细胞数和LDH活性明显降低,与药浴前差异显著(P<0.05);NAGase的活性药浴前后差异不显著(P>0.05),该中药乳头消毒剂对奶产量无显著影响.

  18. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jun, Myung-Jin; Lee, Man-Ho; Lee, Min-Hwan; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid), haloacetonitriles (HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a technique that uses electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMOs). The correlations between DBPs and other environmental factors such as with total organic carbon (TOC), KMnO(4) consumption, free residual chlorine, pH, and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the pools were examined. The geometric mean concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pool waters were 183.1±2.5μg/L, 32.6±2.1μg/L, and 139.9±2.4μg/L in pools disinfected with chlorine, ozone/chlorine, and EGMO, respectively. The mean concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs), total HAAs (THAAs), total HANs (THANs), and CH differed significantly depending on the disinfection method used (P<0.01). Interestingly, THAAs concentrations were the highest, followed by TTHMs, CH, and THANs in all swimming pools regardless of disinfection method. TOC showed a good correlation with the concentrations of DBPs in all swimming pools (chlorine; r=0.82, P<0.01; ozone/chlorine; r=0.52, P<0.01, EGMO; r=0.39, P<0.05). In addition, nitrate was positively correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pools disinfected with chlorine and ozone/chlorine (chlorine; r=0.58; ozone/chlorine; r=0.60, P<0.01), whereas was negative correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs (r=-0.53, P<0.01) in the EGMO-treated pools.

  19. Design and characterisation of a polyethylene oxide matrix with the potential use as a teat insert for prevention/treatment of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sushila; Alany, Raid G; Bunt, Craig R; Abdelkader, Hamdy; Rathbone, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports (for the first time) on antibiotic-free polymeric inserts for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based inserts were prepared using different concentrations of various hydrophilic polymers and water-soluble and water-insoluble drug-release-modifying excipients. A simple and scalable melt-extrusion method was employed to prepare the inserts. The prepared inserts were characterised for their dimension, rheological and mechanical properties. The in vitro release of a model bacteriostatic drug (salicylic acid) from the prepared inserts was studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and reproducibility of the melt-extrusion manufacturing method. Further, the in vitro stability of the inserts was evaluated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to monitor any change in molecular weight under real-time and accelerated storage conditions. The investigated inserts were stable at accelerated storage conditions over a period of 6 months. PEO inserts have the potential to serve a dual purpose, act as a physical barrier against pathogens invading the teat canal of cows and possibly control the release of a drug.

  20. Mode of action and in vitro susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to macedocin ST91KM and preparation of a teat seal containing the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Pieterse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most economically costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Regular dosage of animals with antibiotics, including use of prophylactic concentrations, may select for resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the mode of action of a new bacteriocin (macedocin ST91KM, to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens to antibiotics commonly used in treatment remedies, and to introduce the possible use of an alternative antimicrobial agent. The bacteriocin macedocin ST91KM, produced by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus ST91KM, is bactericidal to Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis infections, including strains resistant to methicillin and oxacillin. Sensitive cells were deformed and secreted nucleotides, K+ and β-galactosidase when exposed to macedocin ST91KM. Adsorption of the peptide to target cells decreased in the presence of solvents, suggesting that receptors on the cell surfaces have lipid moieties. No adsorption was recorded in the presence of MgCl2, KI and Na2CO3, suggesting that ionic strength plays an important role. A teat seal preparation containing macedocin ST91KM effectively released the peptide and inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae. Macedocin ST91KM could form the basis for alternative dry cow therapy to prevent mastitis infections in dairy cows as it is effective against pathogens that display resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy.

  1. ACTION OF NEWER DISINFECTANTS ON MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current procedures for infection control in hospital environments have not been successful in curbing the rise in infections by multi-drug-resistant (MDR pathogens. Emergence of resistance to chemical disinfectants is increasing steadily and has been reported worldwide. So prevention of multidrug-resistant health care associated infections (HAI has become a priority issue and great challenge to clinicians. This requires appropriate sterilization and disinfection procedures and strict adherence to protocol in infection control policy. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy of newer disinfectants which have come into the market for better control of HAI. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare disinfection efficacy of three newer disinfectants– Novacide (didecyldimethylammonium chloride and polyhexamethylene biguanide, Silvicide a strong oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide and silver nitrate and Virkon, a powerful oxidizing agent (a stabilized blend of peroxygen compounds and potassium salts, pitting them against two time-honored conventional disinfectants phenol and lysol and testing them against common MDR clinical isolates, reference strains and spores. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the disinfectants at different dilutions were tested for bactericidal efficacy by liquid suspension time-kill tests. A heavy initial microbial load was simulated by preparing bacterial inoculum. Numbers of viable cells were counted and reduction in microbial colony counts before and after disinfectant exposure was expressed as log reduction. RESULTS: Among the disinfectants, Novacide was most effective. All clinical MDR bacterial isolates and reference strains were killed within 30 seconds of exposure at 0.156% solution, whereas spores got killed after 30 minutes of exposure at 2.5% solution which is the recommended concentration. For Silvicide all vegetative bacteria were killed at 5% solution after 20 minutes contact time

  2. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  3. Comparing irradiation parameters on disinfecting enterrecoccus faecalis in root canal disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp, Ayşe. S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Although conventional method carries all the debris, studies on persisting infections in root canals show bacteria and their toxins spread from the root canal and contaminate the apical region. Thus developes apical periodontitis or symptoms, and loss of tooth. Even if the treatment has adequate success, anatomy of root canal system can be very complexwith accessory canals. The disinfecting effect of laser radiation has only recently been used in dentistry. Laser irradiation has a bactericidal effect. Each wavelength has its own advantages and limitations according to their different absorption characteristics, depending on their 'absorption coefficient'. The sterilizing efficiency of two types of wavelengths, a new fiber laser 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser and an 2940 nm Er:YAG Laser were compared in this study. Irradiation with a power of 0.50 W with 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser disinfected 95,15% of bacteria, however irradiation with same laser power with Er:YAG Laser caused a reduction of 96,48 %. But there was no significant difference in the disinfection effect of two different laser groups ( p < 0.05, Mann- U-Whitney Test). In addition to this, Er :YAG Laser caused three times more reduction from its own positive control group where 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser caused 2,5 times effective disinfection.

  4. TRIBROMOPYRROLE, BROMINATED ACIDS, AND OTHER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS PRODUCED BY DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER RICH IN BROMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  5. [Genotoxicity of drinking water during chlorine and chloramine disinfection and the influence of disinfection conditions using the umu-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Nie, Xue-Biao; Zhang, Su-Xia; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of disinfectant dosage, reaction time and the ratio of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) during chlorine or chloramine disinfection were investigated using umu-test. It was found that, the genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC before disinfection ranged from 20-70 ng/L, and it increased after disinfection by chlorine or chloramines. With the same reaction time(24 h), genotoxicity after chlorination (40-95 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramination (20-40 ng/L) under same initial dosage. For chlorination, with initial dosage increasing from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L, genotoxicity increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 0.5-1 mg/L dosage, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 3-5 mg/L dosage, and finally increased again. For chloramination, genotoxicity didn't change that much. With the dosage of 3 mg/L and reaction time increasing from 0 h to 72 h, no matter for chlorine or chloramines disinfection, genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC both increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 2 h, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 18 h, and finally increased again, and genotoxicity after chlorine disinfection (83-120 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramines disinfection (20-62 ng/L) under same reaction time. Further more, effects of the different ratios of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC were also studied. Results of this study demonstrate that under test conditions, chloramine disinfection is safer than chlorine disinfection in the aspect of genotoxicity for drinking water, and the changes of genotoxicity are different from those of total HAAs.

  6. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) has become a favoured alternative to chlorination in the disinfection of municipal waste water in recent years. It is also commonly used in the food industry as a disinfectant. Based on PAA concentration, the disulfide linkage in enzymes and proteins of microorganisms can be bro...

  7. Mass Disinfection of Documents Affected by Microorganisms: One Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrusina, Svetlana; Velikova, Tatiana

    This paper presents the results of disinfecting treatment of more than 200,000 documents damaged by microorganisms in connection with moving the documents from depositories to a new building of the National Library of Russia. For disinfection, a preparation Metatin GT made by a Swedish firm ACIMA was applied. Metatin GT meets three basic…

  8. 9 CFR 53.6 - Disinfection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of animals. 53.6 Section 53.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.6 Disinfection...

  9. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls - requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A. J.; Been, M. H.; Borgers, R. P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Peters, F. T. M.; Limburg, A. J.; Degener, J. E.

    Background and study aims: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  10. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  11. Biofilm and siderophore effects on secondary waste water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, N; Kouki, S; Mehri, I; Ben Rejeb, A; Belila, A; Hassen, A; Ouzari, H

    2011-10-01

    The efficiency of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection of wastewater effluent using a large-scale pilot system was studied. The relationship between biofilm and siderophore production and UV doses received by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ATCC 15442 was determined. UV decreased pyoverdine production and enhanced biofilm production. Consequently external factors conditioned by both pyoverdine and biofilm may affect the UV effect on bacterial disinfection.

  12. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  13. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  14. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  15. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31 Disinfecting... brucellosis, must be properly cleaned and disinfected in accordance with recommendations of the APHIS or State... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the...

  16. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls - requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A. J.; Been, M. H.; Borgers, R. P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Peters, F. T. M.; Limburg, A. J.; Degener, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and study aims: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  17. Characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefacien contaminating 75% alcohol disinfectant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanming ZHANG; Yuesha YUAN; Cangli BIAN; Wen ZHANG; Lan WANG; Xianyu TU; Huqiang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The clinical characterization of Bacillus amy-loliquefacien contaminating 75% alcohol disinfectants were studied. The bacteria were cultured and observed by using bacterial examination under the hospital infec-tion monitor. According to the regulations, the resistance of bacterial to physical and chemical factors was tested. Drug sensitivity tests for 20 commonly used medicines were carried out using a K-B method. The bacterial plas-mids were analyzed using the Birnboim method. The bac-teria were found after being cultured in the clinically-used 75% alcohol disinfectant fluid. Their total number was more than 800 cfu/mL and they were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefacien. The bacteria were also found to be resistant to boiling for 5 min. It grew well in 95% alcohol disinfectant and was insensitive to 84 disinfectant fluids containing chlorine (1000 mg/L) and such disinfec-tants as ozone. They were able to be sterilized better through routine ultraviolet exposure for 30 min or gas pressure. The bacteria contained a 2.5 kb plasmid and were sensitive to 13 drugs and insensitive to 7 drugs of the 20 drugs tested. It was suggested that alcohol dis-infectant fluid was easily contaminated by Bacillus amy-loliquefacien, and the bacteria was resistant to disinfectant fluids such as alcohol and 84 disinfectants.

  18. The Viral Efficacy of three Disinfectants on Hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arami Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Hepatitis B is an important infection route in dentistry requiring different disinfectants to prevent its transmission. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of chemical disinfectants (FD366, ISORAPID and 5% sodium hypochlorite 2/100 to remove Hepatitis B infections from the dental surfaces.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental laboratory trial, serum of 10 HBV patients was poured into microtubes, FD366, ISORAPID and hypochlorite disinfectants were added to them. PCR experiments with viral diagnostic kits were used to diagnose the virus genome. Real time PCR was used to evaluate after incubation with the disinfectants. The reductions occurred in the viral load of Hepatitis B were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests .   Results: No significant antiviral efficacy was noted following the application of FD366 and ISORAPID disinfectants (P=0/07. However, hypochlorite showed the most efficacy to disinfect Hepatitis B and a significant difference was found among them (P<0.0001.   Conclusion: Under the study limitations, FD366 and ISORAPID disinfectants did not show adequate efficacy to remove Hepatitis B virus. Hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant.

  19. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiven...

  20. Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-products: Comparison to Carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be formed when water is disinfected by various agents such as chlorine, ozone, or chloramines. Among the >600 DBPs identified in drinking water, 11 are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and another ~70 DBPs that occur at s...

  1. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  2. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  3. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

  4. Cleaning and disinfection practice in the meat industries of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Colin, P

    1995-06-01

    The application and efficacy of cleaning and disinfection methods are reviewed, together with the relevant European and French legislation. European Commission Hygiene Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 proposes the adoption of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) for the meat industry, and this includes cleaning and disinfection. It is necessary to organise a team for washing, cleaning, rinsing, disinfection and final rinsing; three different types of organisation are compared. Application of HACCP and its contribution to the shelf life of products and their contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is discussed in the light of practical experience with poultry meat and cured pork products. Various means of verifying the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection (turbidimetry, adenosine triphosphate assay and macroscopic observation) are compared with the techniques of conventional microbiology. The authors conclude that cleaning and disinfection are essential for application of HACCP to the meat industry.

  5. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  6. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E

    1986-01-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. More recently, reuse of dialyzers has introduced the use of additional sterilants, such as hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. The use of these sterilants is recognized by the center staffs and the home patient as a potential risk, and residue tests are carried out for the presence of these sterilants at the ppm level. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. Such reactions probably do not occur with hypochlorite or chloramines. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has led to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe2+ in hemoglobin to Fe3+ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O2 or CO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3816735

  7. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  8. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper.Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges.Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects.Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection.

  9. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... disinfection byproducts. MCLGs for the following disinfection byproducts are as indicated: Disinfection...

  10. THE SYNTHESIS OF A NEW TYPE OF DISINFECTANT RESIN AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWenlan; HenChangxiu; 等

    1998-01-01

    Polymer supported alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride resin disinfectant used for the disinfection of drinking water has been synthesized,and its antibacterial activities have been determined,compared with the commercially used triiodine disinfectant resin.The resin disinfectant was generated successfully when use the combination of surface active agents and ultrosonic.

  11. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from cows' milk and environment based on bap, icaA, and mecA genes and phenotypic susceptibility to antimicrobials and teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of

  12. Auto Disinfectant Cleaner using AVR microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huned

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The trend of microcontroller in industrial as well as domestic application is increasing now-a-days. The use of microcontroller is increasing due to the following advantages/features of controller such as Processor reset, Device clocking, central processor, RAM, I/O pins and Instruction cycle timers. There are two types ofmicrocontroller available. They are- Embedded (8,16,32-bit and Digital Signal Processors. Now-a-days advanced controllers such as PIC, ARM and AVR are widely used in which AVR is used mostly due to several advantages. The disinfectant cleaner used by doctors to clean the medical instruments specially used in Endoscopy are very large in size, bulky and costly. The design of Disinfectant Cleaner is cost effective, light in weight, mobile and user friendly. Atmel AVR 8- and 32-bit microcontrollers deliver a unique combination of performance, power efficiency, and design flexibility. Optimized to speed time to market, they are based on the industry's most code-efficient architecture for C and assembly programming. No other microcontrollers deliver more computing performance with better power efficiency.

  13. Translational science in disinfection for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogenes, Anibal R; Ruparel, Nikita B; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2014-04-01

    The endodontic management of permanent immature teeth is fraught with challenges. Although treatment modalities for vital pulp therapy in these teeth provide long-term favorable outcome, the outcomes from the treatment of pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis are significantly less predictable. Immature teeth diagnosed with pulp necrosis have been traditionally treated with apexification or apexogenesis approaches. Unfortunately, these treatments provide little to no benefit in promoting continued root development. Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as an important alternative in treating teeth with otherwise questionable long-term prognosis because of thin, fragile dentinal walls and a lack of immunocompetency. These procedures rely heavily on root canal chemical disinfection of the root canal system. Traditionally, irrigants and medicaments have been chosen for their maximum antimicrobial effect without consideration for their effects on stem cells and the dentinal microenvironment. Translational research has been crucial to provide evidence for treatment modifications that aim to increase favorable outcome while steering away from common pitfalls in the currently used protocols. In this review, recent advances learned from translational research related to disinfection in regenerative endodontics are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cleansing and Disinfection in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhtan Baskaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the applications of industrial hygiene, it is of utmost importance to define the potential risk factors in the business enterprise in question, to pay sufficient consideration to those factors, and to spend every effort for their checking and elimination. In that sense, cleansing and disinfection applications have a basic importance. Food hygiene covers all the efforts spent in order to ensure the proper conditions for the production of healthy food at every stage of the production process, extending from the farm to the table. Cleansing is the removal of the dirt or food leftovers found on the tools and equipment contacting food, and preventing their conversion into a convenient millieu for the reproduction of microorganisms. Cleansing is the process of removing not only the visible dirts and leftovers, but also a large part of the visible microorganisms. Disinfection is applied after cleansing; it is the process of disintegration of microorganisms which can cause contamination, or reduction of those microorganisms to minimum levels so that they can not create any harmful effects. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 93-106

  15. Disinfection byproduct formation from lignin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Kim, Junsung; Reckhow, David A

    2014-10-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant component in terrestrial ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of lignin residues in natural water to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. We investigated the formation of different classes of DBPs from lignin model compounds, lignin polymers, and humic substances using two common disinfection techniques, chlorination and chloramination. The contributions of lignin to the overall formation of DBPs from these organic products were determined based on the observed abundances of individual lignin phenols and their DBP yields. Model lignin phenols generally produced higher trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) yields than chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) during chlorination. Lignin phenols generally produced higher DBP yields but lower percentages of unknown total organic halogen compared to bulk humic substances and lignin polymers. The relative significance of lignin phenols as chlorination DBP precursors generally follows the order of TCAA > DCAA&chloroform. The relative significance of lignin phenols to DBP formation by chloramination follows the order: TCAA > DCAA&DCAN > chloroform. Overall, lignin phenols are more important as TCAA precursors than as chloroform and DCAA precursors.

  16. Virus Sensitivity Index of UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Walter Z; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A new concept of Virus Sensitivity Index (VSI) is defined as the ratio between the first-order inactivation rate constant of a virus, ki, and that of MS2-phage during UV disinfection, kr. MS2-phage is chosen as the reference virus because it is recommended as a virus indicator during UV reactor design and validation by the US Environmental Protection Agency. VSI has wide applications in research, design, and validation of UV disinfection systems. For example, it can be used to rank the UV disinfection sensitivity of viruses in reference to MS2-phage. There are four major steps in deriving the equation between Hi/Hr and 1/VSI. First, the first-order inactivation rate constants are determined by regression analysis between Log I and fluence required. Second, the inactivation rate constants of MS2-phage are statistically analysed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 Log I levels. Third, different VSI values are obtained from the ki of different viruses dividing by the kr of MS2-phage. Fourth, correlation between Hi/Hr and 1/VSI is analysed by using linear, quadratic, and cubic models. As expected from the theoretical analysis, a linear relationship adequately correlates Hi/Hr and 1/VSI without an intercept. VSI is used to quantitatively predict the UV fluence required for any virus at any log inactivation (Log I). Four equations were developed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 Log I. These equations have been validated using external data which are not used for the virus development. At Log I less than 3, the equation tends to under-predict the required fluence at both low Log I such as 1 and 2 Log I. At Log I greater than 3 Log I, the equation tends to over-predict the fluence required. The reasons for these may very likely be due to the shoulder at the beginning and the tailing at the end of the collimated beam test experiments. At 3 Log I, the error percentage is less than 6%. The VSI is also used to predict inactivation rate constants under two different UV disinfection

  17. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  18. A review of heterogeneous photocatalysis for water and surface disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John Anthony; Dunlop, Patrick Stuart Morris; Hamilton, Jeremy William John; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Polo-López, Inmaculada; Sharma, Preetam Kumar; Vennard, Ashlene Sarah Margaret

    2015-03-30

    Photo-excitation of certain semiconductors can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate microorganisms. The mechanisms involved are reviewed, along with two important applications. The first is the use of photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water. It is estimated that 750 million people do not have accessed to an improved source for drinking and many more rely on sources that are not safe. If one can utilize photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water and provide an inexpensive, simple method of water disinfection, then it could help reduce the risk of waterborne disease. The second application is the use of photocatalytic coatings to combat healthcare associated infections. Two challenges are considered, i.e., the use of photocatalytic coatings to give "self-disinfecting" surfaces to reduce the risk of transmission of infection via environmental surfaces, and the use of photocatalytic coatings for the decontamination and disinfection of medical devices. In the final section, the development of novel photocatalytic materials for use in disinfection applications is reviewed, taking account of materials, developed for other photocatalytic applications, but which may be transferable for disinfection purposes.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ACTION OF DISINFECTANTS AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES BIOFILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. CABEÇA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to assess the action of various disinfectants used in food industry against biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes formed on stainless steel surfaces during 24, 72 and 120 hours. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all the tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against the biofilm cells, while biguanide and iodine were the least. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated attached cells on stainless steel surfaces after treatment with all the disinfectants. These observations showed that microorganisms were not completely removed from stainless steel surfaces after treatment with the disinfectants, however, the attachment did not means the viability of remaining cells. The biofilm age in hours (24, 72 and 120 had no apparent influence on resistance of microbiological cells to the disinfectants under study. In conclusion biofilm cells of L. monocytogenes can withstand disinfectants action.

  20. Ortho-phthalaldehyde exposure levels among endoscope disinfection workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Keiko; Yoshida, Jin; Kumagai, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) has been increasing as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for endoscope disinfection. To better understand OPA exposure and its health effects among disinfection workers, we conducted environmental monitoring and administered a questionnaire in 17 endoscope disinfection rooms. There were 9 manual disinfection rooms using immersion vats for scope disinfection and 8 automatic rooms using automatic washers. OPA exposure concentration during the disinfection process of scope was significantly higher in the manual group (median: 1.43ppb, range: not detected (ND-5.37ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.35 ppb, range: ND-0.69 ppb). Similarly, during charging and discharging the antiseptic solution, OPA levels were significantly higher in the manual group (median: 2.58 ppb, range: 0.92-10.0 ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.46ppb, range: ND-1.35 ppb). Time-weighted averages of OPA exposure concentration during work shifts were 0.33 to 1.15 ppb (median 0.66 ppb) in the manual group and 0.13 to 1.28 ppb (median 0.33 ppb) in the automatic group, which suggests that manual workers are exposed to OPA at higher levels. Among 80 female disinfection workers who used only antiseptic solutions containing OPA, the incidence of disinfection-related complaints were 10% skin, 9% eye, and 16% respiratory symptoms. These findings suggest that it is desirable to introduce automatic washers to decrease OPA exposure levels among disinfection workers.

  1. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Yukio Komiyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10, according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%. The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.

  2. Disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic PVS impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estafanous, Emad Wadie; Palenik, Charles John; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) and polyether impressions. Four light-bodied PVS (Examix, Genie, Take 1, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum) impression materials were evaluated using three disinfectants (EcoTru [EnviroSystems], ProSpray [Certol], and bleach [diluted 1:9]) as spray and immersion disinfections for 10-minute exposures. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella choleraesius ATCC 10708, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was the microbial challenge. Test specimens were prepared using aluminum molds with ten tapered cones. Mucin covered each cone, followed by 0.01 mL of each bacterium. Impressions were made using low viscosity impression material that was injected over the cones and filled custom trays. One-half of the impressions were spray disinfected, while the others underwent immersion disinfection. Trays that were contaminated but not disinfected served as positive controls, while those not bacterially contaminated or disinfected served as negative controls. The impressions were poured with Silky Rock Die Stone, and after setting, two cones were placed within a sterile capsule and triturated into powder. Four milliliters of TRIS buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.0) containing sodium thiosulfate (0.0055% w/v) were poured in each tube. After mixing, the solution was serially diluted and spread-plated onto selective agars. After incubation, colony counting occurred. No viable bacteria transferred to casts from either spray- or immersion-disinfected impressions. Negative controls produced no microbial colonies. Positive controls produced on average 3.35 × 10(5) bacterial cells. Results suggest the methods used could disinfect contaminated impression materials. Microbial transfer from nondisinfected impressions to cones approached 33.5%. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Dose requirements for UVC disinfection of catheter biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D.; Tvede, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms on permanent catheters are the major sources of infection. Exposure to ultraviolet-C (UVC) light has been proposed as a method for disinfecting the inner surface of catheters. Specification of a UVC-based device for in vivo disinfection is based on the knowledge of the required...... newly inserted catheters free of contamination. The combination of high doses required to kill mature biofilm and the limited effect of current UVC light sources result in a relative long treatment time (similar to 60 min). If a UVC-based method is to be of practical use for disinfection of catheters...

  4. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is scant information related to heterogeneous indoor chemistry at ozone concentrations necessary for the effective disinfection of buildings, i.e., hundreds to thousands of ppm. In the present study, 24 materials were exposed for 16 h to ozone concentrations of 1000-1200ppm in the inlet......, and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office...

  5. Disinfection of dental impressions and occlusal records by ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E; Peutzfeldt, A; Owall, B

    2000-06-01

    As chemical disinfection of dental impressions may cause adverse effects on materials and the dental personnel this study examined disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. Alginate, addition silicone rubber and red wax contaminated by Streptococcus salivarius, Fusobacterium nucleatum and five other bacteria in different suspension media were radiated for up to 18 min, and the number of colony forming units was compared to non-radiated controls. The effect of ultraviolet radiation differed among bacterial species and depended on the organic content in the suspension. Generally, the bacterial reduction after ultraviolet radiation was below 4 log steps and thus insufficient for disinfection of dental impressions.

  6. Efficacy of various surface disinfectants on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, E A; Anekal, S; Stout, F W

    1993-04-01

    Representative samples of hard surface disinfectants were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) on frosted glass rods. The same protocol was followed by two investigators on 100 rods for each product tested. Results showed Sporicidin surface disinfectant (Ash Dentsply, York, Pa.) and household bleach 1:10 to be most effective against P. aeruginosa. Lysol disinfectant spray (Lehn & Fink Products, Montvale, N.J.), performed similarly whereas Biocide (Biotrol International, Woods Cross, Utah) failed to inhibit growth on more than half of the rods treated. Failure of the iodophor may be attributed to the use of cotton-filled gauze, because cellulose is believed to react with nascent iodine.

  7. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed.

  8. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  9. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  10. A prototype catheter designed for ultraviolet C disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Disinfection of the intraluminal space of single-lumen polymer tubes can be obtained by ultraviolet C (UVC) light exposure from an external light source. In existing catheters UVC disinfection is hampered by the design of the catheter hub and tube connector. Aim To demonstrate...... that it is possible to design a single-lumen catheter with a hub, tube connector and tube parts that can be UVC-disinfected throughout its entire lumen. Methods Two single-lumen catheters were designed: one control and one for UVC exposure. They were contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (104–105 cfu/mL) before...... UVC light exposure, sampling and plate counting. Findings Two minutes of UVC exposure was sufficient to obtain 4 log10 disinfection for the full-length prototype catheter. This exposure corresponds to ∼40 mJ/cm2 at the catheter tip and indicates that even shorter exposure times can be achieved...

  11. Waterline ATS B. globigii spore water disinfection data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Disinfection of B. globigii spores (a non-pathogenic surrogate for B. anthracis) in clean and dirty water using the ATS-Waterline system, which uses ultraviolet...

  12. Disinfection of Biofilms in Tubes with Ultraviolet Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms on long-term catheters are a major source of infection. We demonstrate here the potential of UVC light emitting diodes (LED) for disinfection purposes in catheter like tubes contaminated with biofilm. We show that UVC Light propagation is possible through teflon tubes using...... that the UVC light attenuation inside the tube can be described by an exponential function depending of tube length and various loss mechanisms. The disinfection efficiency of the UVC diodes is demonstrated on tubes contaminated artificially with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. The tubes were connected....../ml. The disinfection rates obtained were to close to 100 % (detection limit: 10 CFU/ml). Based on the our investigations we conclude that there is a potential of using LED UVC light sources for disinfection of tubes with thin or transparent biofilms....

  13. Disinfection of low quality wastewaters by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukovs, G.; Kollar, J.; Monteith, H.D.; Ho, K.W.A.; Ross, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    Pilot-scale disinfection of simulated combined sewer overflow (CSO) by ultraviolet light (UV) and by high-rate chlorination were compared. Disinfection efficiency was evaluated over a range of dosages and contact times for fecal coliforms, enterococci, P. Aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp. Fecal coliform were reduced 3.0 to 3.2 logs at a UV dose of approximately 350,000..mu.. W s/cm/sup 2/. High-rate chlorination, at a contact time of 2.0 minutes and total residual chlorine concentration of approximately 25 mg/L (as Cl/sub 2/), reduced fecal coliforms by 4.0 logs. Pathogens were reduced to detection limits by both processes. Neither photoreactivation nor regrowth occurred int he disinfected effluents. The estimated capital costs of CSO disinfection by UV irradiation were consistently higher than for chlorination/dechlorination; operation and maintenance costs were similar. 19 references.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  15. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on zooplankton: A tool for disinfection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Gaonkar, C.; Kolwalkar, J.; Khandeparker, L.; Desai, D.V.; Mahulkar, A.V.; Ranade, V.V.; Pandit, A.B.

    Application of hydrodynamic cavitation for disinfection of water is gaining momentum, as it provides environmentally and economically sound options. In this effort, the effect of cavitating conditions created by differential pump valve opening...

  16. Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Curiel-Esparza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects.

  17. Sterilization and Disinfection Procedures by Dental Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterilization and Disinfection Procedures by Dental Practitioners in Nigeria. ... At least one HIV/AIDS known and at least one suspected HIV/AIDS patients ... a reasonable percentage of them are conscientious and aware of the risk factors.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  19. [Effectiveness of alcoholic hand disinfectants against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Jarosch, R; Rüden, H

    1997-03-01

    In order to determine the efficacy of hand disinfectants based on alcohol against three MRSA strains and 3 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA), 1-propanol (60%) as well as Sterillium and Spitaderm were investigated in the quantitative suspension test at various dilutions and reactions times (15, 30 and 60s). All undiluted disinfectants revealed reduction factors > 6 against MRSA and MSSA after 30s. Diluted disinfectants (50%) were significantly less effective against MRSA at short reaction times (15 s) (p Sterillium in a dilution of 50% did not reach 5 reduction factors against either MRSA or MSSA after 30 s. The impact of an appropriate use of hand disinfectants in order to break chains of infections with MRSA is obvious.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  1. Application of solar treatment for the disinfection of geophagic clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elvis Fosso-Kankeu

    Key words: Geophagic clays, solar treatment, microorganisms, moisture content, organic carbon, mining sites, markets. ..... medicines to treat the causes and the symptoms of ..... Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in.

  2. Severe anaphylaxis to a new disinfectant: polyhexanide, a chlorhexidine polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, J; Eigenmann, P A; Hauser, C

    1998-10-03

    We describe the cases of an 18-year-old female and a 15-year-old male who developed severe anaphylaxis following contact of surgical wounds with the disinfectant Lavasept, containing polyhexanide, a polymerised form of chlorhexidine, during orthopaedic interventions. According to the manufacturer, this product is the only polyhexanide containing medical disinfectant, has recently been commercialised and is only available in Switzerland. One of the patients denied previous contact with this compound but both patients were previously exposed to chlorhexidine. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyhexanide was suggested by positive skin prick tests in the two patients and by negative skin tests in control individuals. Skin tests with chlorhexidine in the patients remained negative. We conclude that contact with the new disinfectant Lavasept can trigger anaphylactic reactions, even in the absence of previous history of exposure to this compound. It remains to be established whether this new disinfectant is a frequent anaphylactogen.

  3. Microwave Disinfection in a Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhen; ZHANG Ji-li; MA Liang-dong; HE Juan

    2009-01-01

    Because of its broad spectrum and high efficiency,the microwave disinfection was used to control the airborne microbial contaminates in VAC system.Some microwave disinfection devices were developed com-bined with air filter,the design and calculation method was presented,and the disinfection effects on White staphylococcus,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus Subtilis,Escherichi coli were measured.The results show that the major influence factors on disinfection effect are microwave power,water-content of filter material,dis-infecting duration.After 15 min,the kill ratio is>90%,and the log value is>1.The microwave field is uni-form and the kill effect of bacteria on each surface of filter is the same,without statistically significant differ-ence.

  4. Effects of different cavity‑disinfectants and potassium titanyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-25

    Oct 25, 2014 ... Methodology: Twelve primary molar teeth were used in this study. One‑third ... After applying the cavity‑disinfectants, an adhesive (prime and bond NT) was applied to .... 532 nm, a new wavelength for dental applications, has.

  5. Efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, R J; Sears, P M; Bartlett, P C; Gage, C R

    1998-01-01

    Five Michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating cows. Three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. The teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. Once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip throughout the trial. Total new IMI numbered 254 and 201 for cows treated with benzyl alcohol and iodophor germicidal teat dip, respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (52.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), and Corynebacterium bovis (12.2%) were the predominant pathogens that caused new IMI in cows treated with benzyl alcohol. Staphylococcus spp., Staph. aureus, and C. bovis, respectively, were the pathogens responsible for 69.7, 12.4, and 4.5% of the new IMI in cows treated with iodophor. The incidences of new IMI caused by Staph. aureus (0.66 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), C. bovis (0.38 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), and all pathogens (3.15 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo) were higher in cows treated with benzyl alcohol than in cows treated with iodophor (0.29, 0.11, and 2.35 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo, respectively). Incidence of new IMI did not differ between groups for other pathogens. One percent iodophor prevented new IMI caused by contagious pathogens more effectively than did benzyl alcohol.

  6. Monitoring and improving the effectiveness of surface cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Disinfection of noncritical environmental surfaces and equipment is an essential component of an infection prevention program. Noncritical environmental surfaces and noncritical medical equipment surfaces may become contaminated with infectious agents and may contribute to cross-transmission by acquisition of transient hand carriage by health care personnel. Disinfection should render surfaces and equipment free of pathogens in sufficient numbers to prevent human disease (ie, hygienically clean).

  7. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation disinfection of filter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation as a disinfection method for filter materials contaminated by microorganisms, and to assess how air relative humidity (RH), time and microbe type influence the effectiveness of this disinfection. In the quantitative analysis of a used car air filter, bacterial contamination equalled 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2, fungal contamination was 3.8 x 10(6) cfu/cm2, and the isolated microorganisms were Aspergillus niger, Bacillus megaterium, Cladosporium herbarum, Cryptococcus laurenti, Micrococcus sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Staphylococcus cohnii. In the model experiment, three isolates (C. herbarum, R. glutinis, S. cohnii) and 3 ATCC species (A. niger, E. coli, S. aureus) were used for photocatalytic ionisation disinfection. The conditions of effective photocatalytic ionisation disinfection (R > or = 99.9%) were established as 2-3 h at RH = 77% (bacteria) and 6-24 h at RH = 53% (fungi). RH has an influence on the effectiveness of the photocatalytic disinfection process; the highest effectiveness was obtained for bacteria at RH = 77%, with results 5% higher than for RH = 49%. The studies show that the sensitivity of microorganisms to photocatalytic ionisation disinfection is ordered as follows: Gram-positive bacteria (S. cohnii, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), yeasts (R. glutinis), and moulds (C. herbarum, A. niger). Of all the mathematical models used for the description of death dynamics after photocatalytic ionisation disinfection, the Chick-Watson model is the most useful, but for more resistant microorganisms, the delayed Chick-Watson model is highly recommended. It therefore seems, that the presented disinfection method of photocatalytic ionisation can be successfully used to clean filtration materials.

  8. Efficiency of hydrogen peroxide in improving disinfection of ICU rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Blazejewski, Caroline; Wallet, Frédéric; Rouzé, Anahita; Le Guern, Rémi; Ponthieux, Sylvie; Salleron, Julia; Nseir, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) techniques in disinfection of ICU rooms contaminated with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) after patient discharge. Secondary objectives included comparison of the efficiency of a vaporizator (HPV, Bioquell®) and an aerosolizer using H2O2, and peracetic acid (aHPP, Anios®) in MDRO environmental disinfection, and assessment of toxicity of these techniques. Methods This prospective c...

  9. Disinfectants in health care: finding an alternative to chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keward, Josephine

    Cleanliness of the clinical environment has a direct impact on healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence and there is increasing evidence of its importance with regard to infection prevention and control. While traditional high-level disinfectants have excellent antimicrobial properties, these are typically offset against issues such as corrosiveness, toxicity, cost and user acceptance. Recent years have seen several user-friendly sporicidal disinfectants emerge onto the market. Antimicrobial profile and user acceptance determine the clinical success of any disinfectant. Therefore, product adoption is often a two-stage process with a tabletop evaluation of the appropriate technical data, including efficacy claims, followed by an in-use product evaluation. The first part of this article demonstrates the importance of the clinical environment with respect to HCAI and examines some of the issues around disinfectants used in health care and considerations when selecting a new disinfectant for use. The second part reports the experiences of the Infection Prevention and Control team at Alder Hey Children's Hospital in their assessment and subsequent adoption of a new user-friendly sporicidal disinfectant into clinical practice.

  10. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Needleless connectors (NC) are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction). Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection. PMID:26075093

  11. Ammonia disinfection of corn grains intended for ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Broda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial contamination is an ongoing problem for commercial bioethanol plants. It concerns factories using grain and also other raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Bacteria compete with precious yeasts for sugar substrates and micronutrients, secrete lactic and acetic acids, which are toxic for yeast and this competition leads to significant decrease of bioethanol productivity. For this study, bacterial contamination of corn grain was examined. Then the grain was treated by ammonia solution to reduce microbial pollution and after that the microbiological purity of grain was tested one more time. Disinfected and non-disinfected corn grains were ground and fermentation process was performed. Microbiological purity of this process and ethanol yield was checked out. Material and methods. The grain was disinfected by ammonia solution for two weeks. Then the grain was milled and used as a raw material for the ethanol fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks. Samples were withdrawn for analysis at 0, 24, 48, 72 hrs. The number of total viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and the quantity of yeasts and moulds were signified by plate method. Results. Ammonia solution effectively reduces bacterial contamination of corn grain. Mash from grain disinfected by ammonia contains less undesirable microorganisms than mash from crude grain. Moreover, ethanol yield from disinfected grain is at the highest level. Conclusions. The ammonia solution proved to be a good disinfection agent for grain used as a raw material for bioethanol fermentation process.

  12. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and their disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Shigeharu; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Maeda, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuki; Tasaka, Katsuko; Aritomi, Sanae; Yamashita, Akiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We evaluated the microbial contamination of 17 types of vegetable and 10 types of fruit after 30-s washing with tap water with and without subsequent disinfection by 10-min immersion in 0.01% (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite. The mean microbial contamination level of 9 types of leafy vegetable was 2.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after washing with water and 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 8 types of nonleafy vegetable was 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.0 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 10 types of unpeeled fleshy fruit was 9.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The contaminants in vegetables and unpeeled fruit were similar after washing and after washing followed by disinfection, including Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination did not markedly decrease even after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite. However, the flesh of each type of peeled fruit showed no or only low levels of contamination (

  13. Effect of well disinfection on arsenic in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkowitz, M.; Ellickson, K.; Clary, A.; Bowman, G.; Standridge, J.; Sonzogni, W.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic water wells are routinely subjected to in situ chemical disinfection treatments to control nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Most treatments are chlorine based and presumably cause strongly oxidizing conditions in the wellbore. Water resource managers in Wisconsin were concerned that such treatments might facilitate release of arsenic from sulfide minerals disseminated within a confined sandstone aquifer. To test this hypothesis, a well was subjected to four disinfection treatments over 9 months time. The first treatment consisted of routine pumping of the well without chemical disinfection; three subsequent treatments included chlorine disinfection and pumping. Pretreatment arsenic concentrations in well water ranged from 7.4 to 18 ??g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations up to 57 ??g/L in the chemical treatment solutions purged from the well are attributed to the disintegration or dissolution of biofilms or scale. Following each of the four treatments, arsenic concentrations decreased to less than 10 ??g/L during a period of pumping. Arsenic concentrations generally returned to pretreatment levels under stagnant, nonpumping conditions imposed following each treatment. Populations of iron-oxidizing, heterotrophic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased following chemical treatments but were never fully eradicated from the well. Strongly oxidizing conditions were induced by the chlorine-based disinfections, but the treatments did not result in sustained increases in well water arsenic. Results suggest that disruption of biofilm and mineral deposits in the well and the water distribution system in tandem with chlorine disinfection can improve water quality in this setting. ?? 2008 The Author(s).

  14. SAFER STERILE COMPOUNDING: Choosing and Using Disinfectants for the Cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastango, Eric S; Douglass, Kate; Patel, Kedar; Givehchi, Babak; Brister, Paul; Postlewaite, Jay; Taraban, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Compounders worldwide are responsible for ensuring that the sterile preparations they dispense are pure, potent, and safe. To achieve that result, proper cleaning and disinfection of International Organization for Standardization controlled environments must occur. Because those tasks must be performed according to established standards, the compounding pharmacist must research regulatory requirements and appropriate products for use. In this report, we focus on U.S. regulations, guiding entities, and effective products that enable compliance with the increasingly stringent procedures required for pharmaceutical compounding. We also review cleaning and disinfecting processes, discuss the importance of correctly choosing and using disinfectants and/ or sporicidal disinfectants with surface claims in the cleanroom, and provide answers to questions frequently asked by staff who use those agents. In addition, we profile specific disinfectants that are compliant with UnitedStates Pharmacopeia Chapter and current good manufacturing practice standards. Biological safety cabinets and compounding aseptic containment isolators must undergo an additional process that deactivates hazardous drug residues and removes them from the interior surfaces of those devices before they are cleaned and disinfected, but that discussion is beyond the scope of this article.

  15. Mechanisms of Escherichia coli inactivation by several disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min; Kim, Jaeeun; Kim, Jee Yeon; Yoon, Jeyong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate dominant mechanisms of inactivation, i.e. surface attack versus intracellular attack, during application of common water disinfectants such as ozone, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine and UV irradiation. Escherichia coli was used as a representative microorganism. During cell inactivation, protein release, lipid peroxidation, cell permeability change, damage in intracellular enzyme and morphological change were comparatively examined. For the same level of cell inactivation by chemical disinfectants, cell surface damage was more pronounced with strong oxidant such as ozone while damage in inner cell components was more apparent with weaker oxidant such as free chlorine. Chlorine dioxide showed the inactivation mechanism between these two disinfectants. The results suggest that the mechanism of cell inactivation is primarily related to the reactivity of chemical disinfectant. In contrast to chemical disinfectants, cell inactivation by UV occurred without any changes measurable with the methods employed. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms presented herein is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies.

  16. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Moureau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Needleless connectors (NC are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction. Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection.

  17. A Review of Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for Water and Surface Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anthony Byrne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Photo-excitation of certain semiconductors can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate microorganisms. The mechanisms involved are reviewed, along with two important applications. The first is the use of photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water. It is estimated that 750 million people do not have accessed to an improved source for drinking and many more rely on sources that are not safe. If one can utilize photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water and provide an inexpensive, simple method of water disinfection, then it could help reduce the risk of waterborne disease. The second application is the use of photocatalytic coatings to combat healthcare associated infections. Two challenges are considered, i.e., the use of photocatalytic coatings to give “self-disinfecting” surfaces to reduce the risk of transmission of infection via environmental surfaces, and the use of photocatalytic coatings for the decontamination and disinfection of medical devices. In the final section, the development of novel photocatalytic materials for use in disinfection applications is reviewed, taking account of materials, developed for other photocatalytic applications, but which may be transferable for disinfection purposes.

  18. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  19. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed.

  20. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Exner, Martin; Simon, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC) using Octeniderm® (spraying and wiping technique) vs. Descoderm® pads (wiping technique). The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >105 CFU K. pneumoniae or S. epidermidis. The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in 100 g solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log) against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with S. epidermidis. Our investigation underlines that (i) in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii) details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity. PMID:26693394

  1. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhart, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC using Octeniderm (spraying and wiping technique vs. Descoderm pads (wiping technique. The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >10 CFU . The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with . Our investigation underlines that (i in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity.

  2. Environmental assessment of disinfection methods by electron beam, UV and ozone using LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Mo; Jeong, In Tae; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Jin Yong; Puruitichaiwiboon, Phirada; Park, Jeong Gun; Baek, Chun Youl; Chun, Yoon Young [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    It is a research to compare E-Beam radiation as a disinfection facility of effluent from wastewater treatment facility and other type of existing disinfection facility from environmental aspect. Research process: International Standard ISO14044:2006 Life Cycle Assessment Methodology: Eco-indicator 99 Methodology Software: SimaPro 7.1.2(PRe consultant, Netherland) Database: IDEMAT 2001, Ecoinvent system process, Ecoinvent unit process, BUWAL 250 Comparison disinfection facility: UltraViolet disinfection facility, Ozone disinfection facility Result: - E-Beam radiation disinfection facility has superior environmental performance in 7 environmental impact category such as carcinogenic effects, respiratory effects caused by organic substances, respiratory effects caused by inorganic substances, climate change, ozone layer depletion, ecological toxicity and acidification/eutrofication. - The result shows that environmental impact of E-Beam radiation disinfection facility is the smallest among disinfection facilities while 20yrs is given as life time. - The energy used in use stage is key environmental issue. E-beam radiation disinfection facility consumes 320 times less than others in order to achieve reference disinfection ratio (95.4%) with reference flow rate (100,000m{sup 3}/day) condition. - Therefore, more increasing design life time of disinfection facility, superior environmental and economic performance of E-Beam radiation disinfection facility than those of other disinfection facilities

  3. Enterobacter cloacae outbreak in the NICU related to disinfected thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, R W; Claahsen, H L; Niessen, M; Muytjens, H L; Liem, K; Voss, A

    2000-05-01

    In the first week ot December 1997, an increasing incidence of neonates colonized with multi-drug resistant Enterobacter cloacae (MR-E. cloacae) was observed in the neonatal Intensive care unit of our 950-bed university hospital. Initially, re-enforcement of infection control practices including hand disinfection and cohort isolation seemed to be sufficient to control the outbreak. Nevertheless, an increasing number of newly admitted patients was paralleled by another rise in the incidence of colonized neonates. Since E. cloacae was initially found in urine specimens of the patients, surveillance and environmental cultures were aimed at procedures and instruments that might colonize the gastro-intestinal and/or urinary tract. E, cloacae was isolated from a single cap of an electronic digital thermometer. Despite banning of this possible source, newly admitted neonates still became colonized. The unit was closed for further admissions and a second round of extensive screening was started; this time including all available thermometers and continuous rectal temperature probes. Ready-to-use 'disinfected thermometers and probes were found to be colonized with MR-E. cloacae. Observation of disinfection procedures and a laboratory investigation revealed that 'rushed disinfection with alcohol 80% led to a 1 in 10 chance of thermometers still being contaminated. Furthermore, alcoholic hand rub used for convenience disinfection failed to disinfect thermometers in 40% and 20% of the cases when done in a 'rushed' or 'careful' fashion, respectively. Adequate disinfection of the thermometers led to the control of the outbreak, with no new occurrence of MR-E. cloacae in the following months.

  4. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  5. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  6. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  7. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (Psuction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces cannot be adequately

  8. The effect of dry cow antibiotic with and without an internal teat sealant on udder health during the first 100 d of lactation: a field study with matched pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Katja; Wolter, Wilfried; Failing, Klaus; Kloppert, Bärbel; Bernhardt, Heinz; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this field study was to compare the udder health status as well as the clinical mastitis rate during the first 100 d of lactation in cows that received long-acting dry cow antibiotic alone (group AB) or in combination with an internal teat sealant (group AB + OS). The study was conducted during a 9-month period and included 136 Holstein cows from 12 dairy farms in Hessia, Germany. Between days 1 and 5 after calving a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed. Milk-samples were collected for bacteriological culture before drying off, between days 6 and 14 and days 35 and 56 of lactation. Additionally the cows were monitored for the occurrence of clinical mastitis events until 100 d post partum. Within the 12 herds cow-pairs were formed on the basis of age, milk yield and SCC. A cow-pair consisted of one cow from group AB and one cow from group AB + OS. For statistical analysis within every cow-pair one quarter that has been dried off with internal teat sealant and dry cow antibiotic (group AB + OS) was compared with one quarter that has been dried off with dry cow antibiotic (group AB) alone. As criterion for the matching process of udder quarters the cytobacteriological udder health status before drying off was used. A total of 544 quarters (136 cows) were used in this analysis. In the first 5 d after calving, group AB had significantly more quarters with a positive CMT reaction than group AB + OS (85 vs. 57; P <0·001), and in the first 100 d of lactation, group AB had more quarters with clinical mastitis than group AB + OS (25 vs. 15; P = 0·03). In the time periods 6-14 and 35-56 d of lactation, there were fewer quarters in group AB + OS populated with Corynebacterium spp. (days 6-14, P = 0·05; days 35-56, P = 0·02) and aesculin-positive streptococci (days 35-56, P = 0·02). The internal teat sealant was a promising tool for the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) of dry cows with environmental udder

  9. [Sensitivity of surface microorganisms to disinfectants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywicka, H; Janowska, J; Tadeusiak, B

    1991-01-01

    The influence of humidity and temperature on survival of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa on the surfaces of titles, glass and blanket carriers has been estimated. The number of CFU was examined after exposure time 6 and 24 hours in temperatures of 21 degrees C, 37 degrees C and RH 35%, 95%. It was observed: 1. The important reduction of numbers of both microorganisms at temperature 37 degrees C and RH 95%, 2. The relatively high number of survival cells of P. aeruginosa on the surface of blankets at temp. 21 degrees C and RH 95%. The microorganisms on the carriers were previously kept for 24 h at temp. 21 degrees C, RH 35% and 95% and then exposed to solutions of chloramine, formalin, lysol and Sterinol (QAC). It was observed that there was a great dependence of the disinfecting effect on the degree of dessication of the surfaces. In all cases the resistance of contaminated carriers stored 24 h was higher at 95% RH than at 35% RH.

  10. Designing plasmas for chronic wound disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-11-01

    Irradiation with low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma provides a promising method for chronic wound disinfection. To be efficient for this purpose, plasma should meet the following criteria: it should significantly reduce bacterial density in the wounded area, cause a long-term post-irradiation inhibition of bacterial growth, yet without causing any negative effect on human cells. In order to design plasmas that would satisfy these requirements, we assessed the relative contribution of different components with respect to bactericidal properties due to irradiation with argon plasma. We demonstrate that plasma-generated UV radiation is the main short-term sterilizing factor of argon plasma. On the other hand, plasma-generated reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a long-term 'after-irradiation' inhibition of bacterial growth and, therefore, are important for preventing wound recolonization with bacteria between two treatments. We also demonstrate that at certain concentrations plasma-generated RNS and ROS cause significant reduction of bacterial density, but have no adverse effect on human skin cells. Possible mechanisms of the different effects of plasma-generated reactive species on bacteria and human cells are discussed. The results of this study suggest that argon plasma for therapeutic purposes should be optimized in the direction of reducing the intensity of plasma-generated UV radiation and increasing the density of non-UV plasma products.

  11. Recent findings in pulsed light disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, B; Wunderlich, J; Muranyi, P

    2017-04-01

    Nonthermal disinfection technologies are gaining increasing interest in the field of minimally processed food in order to improve the microbial safety or to extend the shelf life. Especially fresh-cut produce or meat and fish products are vulnerable to microbial spoilage, but, due to their sensitivity, they require gentle preservation measures. The application of intense light pulses of a broad spectral range comprising ultraviolet, visible and near infrared irradiation is currently investigated as a potentially suitable technology to reduce microbial loads on different food surfaces or in beverages. Considerable research has been performed within the last two decades, in which the impact of various process parameters or microbial responses as well as the suitability of pulsed light (PL) for food applications has been examined. This review summarizes the outcome of the latest studies dealing with the treatment of various foods including the impact of PL on food properties as well as recent findings about the microbicidal action and relevant process parameters. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Water disinfection through photoactive modified titania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Diptipriya; Pal, Ajoy; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Pandey, Sony; Dash, Tapan; Das, Trupti; Kumar, Rohit

    2014-01-05

    TiO(2), N-TiO(2) and S-TiO(2) samples have been prepared by various chemical methods. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Laser Raman spectrometer, UV-Visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray powder diffraction study reveals that all three samples are single anatase phase of titania and the crystallinity of titania decreases with sulphur doping whereas nitrogen doping does not affect it. UV-Visible (diffuse) reflectance spectra shows that doping of titania with nitrogen and sulphur shift the absorption edge of titania from ultraviolet to visible region. XPS study confirms that both nitrogen and sulphur are well doped in the titania lattice. It is observed that nitrogen occupies at both substitutional and interstitial position in the lattice of titania. FE-SEM and TEM studies demonstrate that the particles are below 50nm range. It is found that S and N doping of titania increased its water disinfection property in the order TiO(2)UV-Visible light irradiation.

  13. Comparison of Susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. chelonei subsp. Abscessus to Disinfectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO-QING WANG; CHAO-WU ZHANG; HENG-CHUAN LIU; ZHAO-BIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. chelonei subsp. absecessus to several frequently-used disinfectants and to evaluate the practicability of surrogating M. tuberculosis by the latter. Methods A suspension quantitative bactericidal test was set up in accordance with Chinese Technique Standard for Disinfection to evaluate the susceptibility of each mycobacteria strain to each selected disinfectant. Killing log value was used as criterion in comparing the susceptibility to disinfectants between the two strains. Results M. chelonei subsp. abscessus was more resistant to chlorine disinfectant than M. tuberculosis while the two strains were similarly resistant to iodophor disinfectant, peracetic acid, alcohol and glutaraldehyde disinfectant. Conclusion M. chelonei subsp. abscessus has the potential to surrogate M. tuberculosis in evaluating mycobactericidal efficacies of disinfectants.

  14. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, r

  15. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, Indiana, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high and low r...

  16. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses,

  17. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, Indiana, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high and low r...

  18. Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Joachim; Gnirs, Peter; Hölterhoff, Sabine; Wirtz, Angela; Jeglitza, Matthias; Gaber, Walter; Gottschalk, Rene

    2016-12-01

    For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases. Although, basic advice on hygiene and sanitation on board an aircraft is given by the World Health Organization, these guidelines lack details on available and effective substances as well as standardized operating procedures (SOP). The purpose of this paper is to give guidance on the choice of substances that were tested by a laboratory of Lufthansa Technik and found compatible with aircraft components, as well as to describe procedures which ensure a safe and efficient disinfection of civil aircrafts. This guidance and the additional SOPs are made public and are available as mentioned in this paper.

  19. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  20. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  1. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  2. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smither

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus.

  3. Water disinfection by solar photocatalysis using compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Blanco, J.; Sichel, C.; Malato, S. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    TiO{sub 2} solar photocatalysis has been proven to be a degradation process for aqueous organic contaminant leading to total mineralisation of a large number of compounds. Furthermore, the interest in using this technique for water disinfection has grown in the last decade. Recent publications have reported photokilling of bacteria and viruses by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Therefore, solar photocatalysis disinfection seems to be a very promising process, which could help to improve public health in rural areas of developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of using TiO{sub 2} solar photocatalysis to disinfect water supplies for future applications in developing countries. This article reviews the viability of solar photocatalysis for disinfection in low cost compound parabolic collectors, using sunlight and titanium dioxide semiconductor, both applied as slurry and supported. We report on the bactericidal action of TiO{sub 2} on a pure culture of Escherichia coli with a low cost photoreactor based on compound parabolic collectors. The influence of different experimental set-ups and parameters are also analysed. The results and potential application of the solar photocatalysis technology to water disinfection are studied within the frame of two research EU projects whose objective consist on the development of a fully autonomous solar reactor system to purify drinking water in remote locations of developing countries.

  4. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water.

  5. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit.METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v, totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at p<0.05.RESULTS: after the cleaning/disinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable.CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  6. Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    A study on the electrochemical disinfection with H2O2 generated at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) from active carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene was performed in a non-membrane cell. The effects of Pt load and the pore-forming agent content in GDE, and operating conditions were investigated. The experimental results showed that nearly all bacterial cultures inoculated in the secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant could be inactivated within 30 min at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. The disinfection improved with increasing Pt load. Addition of the pore-forming agent NH4HCO3 improved the disinfection, while a drop in the pH value resulted in a rapid rise of germicidal efficacy and the disinfection time was shortened with increasing oxygen flow rate. Adsorption was proved to be ineffective in destroying bacteria, while germicidal efficacy increased with current density. The acceleration rate was different, it initially increased with current density. Then decreased, and finally reached a maximum at a current density of 6.7 mA/cm2. The disinfection also improved with decreasing total bacterial count. The germicidal efficacy in the cathode compartment was approximately the same as in the anode compartment, indicating that the contribution of direct oxidation and the indirect treatment of bacterial cultures by hydroxyl radical was similar to the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2O2.

  7. Disinfection of water by adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S N; de Las Heras, N; Asghar, H M A; Brown, N W; Roberts, E P L

    2014-05-01

    The disinfection performance of a unique process of adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment is evaluated. A flake graphite intercalation compound adsorbent was used, which is effective for the removal of organic contaminants and is amenable to anodic electrochemical regeneration. Adsorption of Escherichia coli on the graphite flake was followed by electrochemical treatment under a range of experimental conditions in a sequential batch reactor. The adsorption of E. coli cells was found to be a fast process and was capable of removing >99.98% of cells from solution after 5 min with a ca. 6.5-log10 reduction in E. coli concentration after 10 min. With electrochemical treatment the adsorbent could be reused, with no decrease in E. coli adsorption observed over five cycles. In the presence of chloride, >8.5-log10 reduction of E. coli concentration was achieved. Disinfection was found to be less effective in the absence of chloride. However, selection of appropriate operating conditions enabled effective disinfection in a chloride free system, reducing the potential for formation of disinfection by-products. The energy consumption required to achieve >8.5-log10 disinfection was 2-7 kWh m(-3).

  8. Conventional and Alternative Disinfection Methods of Legionella in Water Distribution Systems – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūle Daina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Legionella in drinking water distribution systems is a widespread problem. Outbreaks of Legionella caused diseases occur despite various disinfectants are used in order to control Legionella. Conventional methods like thermal disinfection, silver/copper ionization, ultraviolet irradiation or chlorine-based disinfection have not been effective in the long term for control of biofilm bacteria. Therefore, research to develop more effective disinfection methods is still necessary.

  9. Manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R; Barkema, H W; Descôteaux, L; Devries, T J; Reyher, K K; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are a major cause of mastitis on farms worldwide. Incidence and elimination rates are the key determinants of prevalence of Staph. aureus, and risk factors associated with these rates must be identified, prioritized, and controlled to obtain long-term reduction in prevalence. The objectives of this study were to identify manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy farms was recruited and followed in 2007 and 2008. Quarter milk samples were collected repeatedly from a selection of cows, and bacteriological culture was realized to assess incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. Practices used on farms were measured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. A linear regression model was used to explore the relationship between herd IMI prevalence and incidence and elimination rates. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to compute measures of associations between practices used on farms and IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. The herd incidence rate was the most important predictor of herd IMI prevalence: a reduction of the incidence rate equivalent to its interquartile range (0.011 new IMI/quarter-month) was associated with a prevalence reduction of 2.2 percentage points; in comparison, an equivalent increase of the elimination rate by its interquartile range (0.36 eliminated IMI/quarter-month) resulted in a prevalence reduction of 0.4 percentage points. Postmilking teat disinfection and blanket dry-cow therapy were already implemented by most herds. Most of the practices associated with Staph. aureus IMI incidence were related to milking procedures. Among these, wearing gloves during milking showed desirable associations with IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. Similarly, adequate teat-end condition and use of premilking teat disinfection were associated

  10. 40 CFR 141.708 - Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... change in disinfection practice. 141.708 Section 141.708 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Treatment for Cryptosporidium Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Requirements § 141.708 Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice. (a) Following the completion of initial...

  11. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection of... for disinfection to 30 days when request for such extension is received by him prior to the expiration...

  12. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... for disinfection to 30 days when request for such extension is received by him prior to the expiration...

  13. 9 CFR 95.24 - Methods for disinfection of hides, skins, and other materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods for disinfection of hides... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.24 Methods for disinfection of hides, skins, and other materials... subjected to disinfection by methods found satisfactory and approved from time to time by the Deputy...

  14. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.4 Disinfection of... paid will be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the cleaning and disinfection, except...

  15. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All premises, including... disinfection shall be shared according to the agreement reached under § 53.2 with the State in which the work...

  16. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter or...

  17. 40 CFR 141.533 - What data must my system collect to calculate a disinfection profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system uses chlorine, the pH of the disinfected water at each residual disinfectant concentration... calculate a disinfection profile? 141.533 Section 141.533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  18. Suspensions or biofilms, and other factors that affect disinfectant testing on pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.

    2002-01-01

    Disinfectants are very important for the maintenance of proper hygiene in the food industry. In Europe, candidate disinfectants have to be tested on suspended bacteria in so called suspension tests, before they can be approved as disinfectants. In the food industry bacteria usually are attached to s

  19. Is compliance with hand disinfection in the intensive care unit related to work experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Chierego, Marialuisa; Byl, Bauduin; Menestrina, Nicola; Carollo, Tiziana; Struelens, Marc; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    The performance of hand disinfection by staff in a 31-bed department of intensive care was monitored. During 32 hours of observation, 727 opportunities for hand disinfection were observed, and the compliance rate was 27.9%. The level of work experience was not correlated with hand disinfection compliance rates.

  20. Evaluation of effectiveness of chemical disinfectants in reducing bacterial growth on orthodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R Vamshidhar; Tanveer, K; Sharma, K Dinesh; Kokkula, Naveen; Suresh, P L; Sudhakar, Meher

    2013-11-01

    Infection control requires serious effort in all fields of dentistry including orthodontics. Though there are various means of sterilization and disinfection in dental office, chemical disinfection is the most preferred method among orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to evaluate different chemical sterilization and disinfection methods used in orthodontic offices, which would guide the orthodontists in infection control.

  1. Clinical evaluation of chlorine dioxide for disinfection of dental instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamoto, Takao; Egusa, Hiroshi; Sawase, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for used dental instruments. An imprint culture technique demonstrated that ultrasonic cleaning of intraorally applied dental mirrors in 0.02% ClO2 for 10 minutes resulted in compete removal of microorganisms for 10 subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction on periodontal curettes after subgingival scaling in four HCV-infected patients and was completely removed by the same treatment procedure. Therefore, the combination of ultrasonic cleaning with ClO2 may provide an alternative to toxic disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite, for disinfecting dental instruments.

  2. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  3. [Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J; Wazny, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated.

  4. Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, F; Madeira, L M; Juhna, T; Block, J C

    2013-10-01

    A Fenton-like disinfection process was conducted with Fenton's reagent (H2O2) at pH 3 or 5 on autochthonous drinking water biofilms grown on corroded or non-corroded pipe material. The biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like oxidation was limited by the low content of iron and copper in the biomass grown on non-corroded plumbing. It was slightly improved by spiking the distribution system with some additional iron source (soluble iron II or ferrihydrite particles appeared as interesting candidates). However successful in situ disinfection of biofilms was only achieved in fully corroded cast iron pipes using H2O2 and adjusting the pH to 5. These new results provide additional support for the use of Fenton's processes for cleaning drinking water distribution systems contaminated with biological agents or organics.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide room disinfection--ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Benedikt D; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-05-08

    Non-manual techniques for terminal disinfection of hospital rooms have gained increasing interest in recent years as means to reduce transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). A prospective crossover study by Blazejewski and colleagues in five ICUs of a French academic hospital with a high prevalence of MDRO carriers showed that two different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-based non-touch disinfection techniques reduced environmental contamination with MDROs after routine cleaning. This study provides further evidence of the 'in use' bioburden reduction offered by these techniques. Before H2O2-based non-touch disinfection can be recommended for routine clinical use outside specific outbreak situations, further studies need to show whether the environmental contamination reduction provided by these techniques is clinically relevant and results in reduced cross-infections with MDROs.

  6. Disinfection procedures for in vitro propagation of Anthurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jaime A. Teixeira da

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of plant material is the most important step of the tissue culture protocol. In this process, an attempt is made to eliminate microbial contaminants from the surface and interior of plant material, thus giving the explant a fighting chance at survival in vitro. Initial cultures of Anthurium species and cultivars, which are usually established from ex vitro material grown in a greenhouse, pots or in the field, easily contaminate the in vitro milieu. This review highlights the differences in disinfection protocols that exist for different species or cultivars of Anthurium. The protocol needs to be adjusted based on the material used: spadices, spathes, seeds, leaves, or roots. Regrettably, most of the currently published protocols, derived from a literature that spans over 100 published papers, have numerous weaknesses and flaws in the information provided pertaining to disinfection and infection levels. Advice for future Anthurium researchers should thus be followed cautiously.

  7. Eliminating Medical Waste Liabilities Through Mobile Maceration and Disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Rankin; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Klingler; C. W. Lagle; L. L. Byers

    2006-02-01

    Commercial medical waste treatment technologies include incineration, melting, autoclaving, and chemical disinfection. Incineration disinfects, destroys the original nature of medical waste, and reduces the waste volume by converting organic waste content to carbon dioxide and water, leaving only residual inorganic ash. However, medical waste incinerator numbers have plummeted from almost 2,400 in 1995 to 115 in 2003 and to about 62 in 2005, due to negative public perception and escalating compliance costs associated with increasingly strict regulations. High-temperature electric melters have been designed and marketed as incinerator alternatives, but they are also costly and generally must comply with the same incinerator emissions regulations and permitting requirements. Autoclave processes disinfect medical waste at much lower operating temperatures than incinerators operate at, but are sometimes subject to limitations such as waste segregration requirements to be effective. Med-Shred, Inc. has developed a patented mobile shredding and chemical disinfecting process for on-site medical waste treatment. Medical waste is treated on-site at customer facilities by shredding and disinfecting the waste. The treated waste can then be transported in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements to a landfill for disposal as solid municipal waste. A team of Idaho National Laboratory engineers evaluated the treatment process design. The process effectiveness has been demonstrated in mycobacterium tests performed by Analytical Services Incorporated. A process description and the technical and performance evaluation results are presented in the paper. A treatment demonstration and microbiological disinfecting tests show that the processor functions as it was intended.

  8. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  9. Generation of ozone foam and its application for disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragaki, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Tomiya; Nakanishi, Masaru; Muraki, Ryouji; Nieda, Masanori; Yamabe, Chobei

    2015-07-01

    Generated ozone foam was applied to the disinfection of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of disinfection has been confirmed experimentally and new equipment for the disinfection of hands using this ozone foam has been put on the market for the practical use. The ozone foam was produced in the foam generator after mixing the water including surfactant (30 mL/min) and air including ozone (1000 ppm = 2.14 g/m3 ~ 1600 ppm = 3.4 g/m3, 300 mL/min). The liquid-to-gas ratio is 100 L/m3. The concentration of dissolved ozone in the thin liquid films of the bubbles was about 3 mg/L which was measured by the chemical method of the KI absorption and titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The disinfection test samples were prepared using the PET disk on which Pseudomonas fluorescens of its number of more than 108 were attached. Test sample was inserted into ozone foam set on the glass plate for one to 6 min. The survival rate log (N/N0 decreased with time and its value of about-2.6 (i.e., ~1/400) was obtained at 6 min (2 min × 3 times repeated). It was also confirmed that the ozone foam was useful for the disinfection of hands. For more effective disinfection (in case of taking a long time for foam melting), the ozone foam was broken by force and changed into ozone water by which the survival rate decreased ×4 (i.e., N/N0 = 1/10 000) at 4 ~ 6 min. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  10. Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, G.E.; Miday, R.K.; Bercz, J.P.; Miller, R.G.; Greathouse, D.G.; Kraemer, D.F.; Lucas, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared with test results after 115 days of exposure. Chlorite ion levels in the water averaged approximately 5 ppM during the study period. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the data failed to identify any significant exposure-related effects. This study suggests that future evaluations of chlorine dioxide disinfection should be directed toward populations with potentially increased sensitivity to hemolytic agents.

  11. [Disinfectants in health service institutions and frequency of their use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of information obtained from sanitary and epidemiological stations places all over the country and from hospitals of the Lodz region it was found that about 60 types of disinfectants are now under use in Poland. The most frequent ones are: lysoformine, chloramine, aldesan, virkon, hypochloride, septil R, cidex, lysol, denatured alcohol, secuspet, aerodesine 2000, desoform, iodoseptane. Some of them contain well known allergenic factors (glutaraldehyde, benzalkonium, hydroquinone, phenol). Bearing in mind an increasing incidence of occupational skin diseases among health service workers it is postulated to continue studies of allergenic properties of disinfectants.

  12. Efficacy of various spray disinfectants on irreversible hydrocolloid impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, H S; Bradley, D V; Schwartz, R S

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eight disinfectant sprays on irreversible hydrocolloid impressions contaminated with three microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium phlei, or Bacillus subtilis) or mixed oral flora. Alcide LD, OMC II, Biocide, and Professional Lysol Spray were relatively ineffective under the test conditions. Sporicidin and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite were able to effect a 4-log10 (99.99%) reduction against S aureus only. A 4-log10 reduction in bacterial counts was achieved by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and Impresept in all tests except against B subtilis. Full-strength sodium hypochlorite (5.25%) was the most effective disinfectant overall and required the shortest contact time.

  13. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  14. Suitability of Sterillium Gel for surgical hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kapella, M

    2003-07-01

    In some countries, alcohol-based hand gels are used for hygienic hand disinfection but their efficacy and suitability for surgical hand disinfection has never been investigated. The efficacy of Sterillium Gel was investigated according to prEN 12791 in two separate experiments. Finger tips of 20 volunteers per experiment were sampled for resident skin bacteria before surgical hand disinfection. In a cross-over design, each volunteer carried out a surgical hand disinfection with the reference alcohol [n-propanol 60%, (v/v)] or Sterillium Gel [ethanol 85% (v/v)] for 3 min. After the product application, one hand was sampled for the immediate effect, the other hand was gloved for 3 h and then sampled for the sustained effect. Samples were analysed for remaining resident bacteria. The mean of the pre-value, the 0 h and 3 h values of the reference disinfection and the test product were calculated. With the reference alcohol, respective mean immediate log10-reduction factors of 2.06+/-0.76 and 2.23+/-1.13 were found in both experiments. The mean sustained effects with the reference alcohol were 2.03+/-1.14 and 1.44+/-0.81. Sterillium Gel achieved respective mean immediate effects of 2.48+/-1.06 and 2.13+/-0.81, the mean sustained effects were 2.77+/-0.95 and 2.18+/-0.72. They proved significantly larger than those obtained with the reference alcohol (PSterillium Gel, therefore, more than fulfils the efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection of prEN 12791. In addition, 25 of 26 operating theatre healthcare workers in an orthopaedic hospital found it suitable for surgical hand disinfection after a single use, which included putting on a pair of surgical gloves. Although none of them had ever used an alcohol-based gel before, they had rather been accustomed to alcohol-based liquid products for years. The main reasons given for the positive assessment were better skin feeling after use, smell and easier donning of the surgical gloves. No significant correlation

  15. A Novel Type of Thermal Solar Water Disinfection Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Dietl, Jochen; Engelbart, Hendryk; Sielaff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of solar thermal water disinfection unit is presented in this work. The system is safe and easy to use and can be built with basic tools and widely available materials. In the unit, water is disinfected by temperature increase up to the boiling point and output is controlled by the change in density. For employing the change in density to control the water output, a dimensioning procedure is suggested, giving the required height of the water reservoir, the heating section and ...

  16. 40 CFR 141.542 - What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... considering a significant change to disinfection practices? 141.542 Section 141.542 Protection of Environment... REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Benchmark § 141.542 What must my system do if we are considering a significant change to disinfection...

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble, Suresh S.; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; P.Somasundaram; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. Materials and...

  18. [Formation of Disinfection By-Products During Chlor(am)ination of Danjiangkou Reservoir Water and Comparison of Disinfection Processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-sheng; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Tian-yang; Cheng, Tuo; Xia, Sheng-ji; Chu, Wen-hai

    2015-09-01

    This study discussed the formation of volatile carbonaceous disinfection by-products (DBPs) and nitrogenous DBPs during chlor(am) ination of Danjingkou Reservoir water which was the source of the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The effects of disinfection methods, disinfectant dosage, reaction time, pH values and bromide ion concentration were investigated. And the disinfection parameters were optimized. Four DBPs, including chloroform (CF), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dichloroacetonitrile(DCAN) and trichloronitromethane(TCNM), were observed during the chlorination. But only CF and TCNM were detected during the chloramination of water. The disinfection by-product (DBP) concentration from chlorination is 7. 5 times higher than that from chloramination, and the yield of DBPs from short time chlorination then chloramination is in between the first two methods. All kinds of DBPs detected increased with the dosage of increasing chlorine, but the increases slowed down when the dosage was higher than 2 mg . L -1. The formation of CF varied a little as the dosage of chloramine increasing. TCNM was detected when the chloramine dosage was greater than 2 mg . L -1. As reaction time going on, chlorine decayed much faster than chloramine, while DBP formation under chlorination was faster than that of chloramination. THM produced by chlorine increased with the increasing pH, while chloramination showed no obvious changes. As the bromide ion increasing, the species of DBPs transformed from chlorinated DBPs to brominated ones, and the total yield of DBPs increased during both chlorination and chloramination, but the former one was obviously more than that of the latter one. In order to reduce the risk of DBP formation, the chloramination is suggested in the treatment of water from Danjiangkou Reservoir. And if chlorination is applied, the disinfectant dosage should be controlled seriously.

  19. Precautionary practices of healthcare workers who disinfect medical and dental devices using high-level disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Scott A; Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L

    2015-02-01

    BACKGROUND High-level disinfectants (HLDs) are used throughout the healthcare industry to chemically disinfect reusable, semicritical medical and dental devices to control and prevent healthcare-associated infections among patient populations. Workers who use HLDs are at risk of exposure to these chemicals, some of which are respiratory and skin irritants and sensitizers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate exposure controls used and to better understand impediments to healthcare workers using personal protective equipment while handling HLDs. DESIGN Web-based survey. PARTICIPANTS A targeted sample of members of professional practice organizations representing nurses, technologists/technicians, dental professionals, respiratory therapists, and others who reported handling HLDs in the previous 7 calendar days. Participating organizations invited either all or a random sample of members via email, which included a hyperlink to the survey. METHODS Descriptive analyses were conducted including simple frequencies and prevalences. RESULTS A total of 4,657 respondents completed the survey. The HLDs used most often were glutaraldehyde (59%), peracetic acid (16%), and ortho-phthalaldehyde (15%). Examples of work practices or events that could increase exposure risk included failure to wear water-resistant gowns (44%); absence of standard procedures for minimizing exposure (19%); lack of safe handling training (17%); failure to wear protective gloves (9%); and a spill/leak of HLD during handling (5%). Among all respondents, 12% reported skin contact with HLDs, and 33% of these respondents reported that they did not always wear gloves. CONCLUSION Findings indicated that precautionary practices were not always used, underscoring the importance of improved employer and worker training and education regarding HLD hazards.

  20. Emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts: Transformation of the antidiabetic drug metformin during chlorine disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Dominic; Happel, Oliver; Scheurer, Marco; Harms, Klaus; Schmidt, Torsten C; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    As an environmental contaminant of anthropogenic origin metformin is present in the high ng/L- up to the low μg/L-range in most surface waters. Residues of metformin may lead to the formation of disinfection by-products during chlorine disinfection, when these waters are used for drinking water production. Investigations on the underlying chemical processes occurring during treatment of metformin with sodium hypochlorite in aqueous medium led to the discovery of two hitherto unknown transformation products. Both substances were isolated and characterized by HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, HPLC-ESI-TOF, (1)H-NMR and single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The immediate major chlorination product is a cyclic dehydro-1,2,4-triazole-derivate of intense yellow color (Y; C4H6ClN5). It is a solid chlorimine of limited stability. Rapid formation was observed between 10 °C and 30 °C, as well as between pH 3 and pH 11, in both ultrapure and tap water, even at trace quantities of reactants (ng/L-range for metformin, mg/L-range for free chlorine). While Y is degraded within a few hours to days in the presence of light, elevated temperature, organic solvents and matrix constituents within tap water, a secondary degradation product was discovered, which is stable and colorless (C; C4H6ClN3). This chloroorganic nitrile has a low photolysis rate in ambient day light, while being resistant to heat and not readily degraded in the presence of organic solvents or in the tap water matrix. In addition, the formation of ammonia, dimethylamine and N,N-dimethylguanidine was verified by cation exchange chromatography.

  1. Disinfection in the laboratory: theory and practice in disinfection policy in late C19th and early C20th England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the relationship between theory and practice in nineteenth century English public health disinfection practice. Disinfection undertaken by local authorities and practised on objects, spaces and people became an increasingly common public health practice in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, and was part of a newly developed public health system of 'stamping out' disease as described by Hardy. Despite disinfection's key role in public health policy, it has thus far not received significant investigation or historiographical attending. This article explores the development of disinfection policy at local level, highlighting that despite commentators assumptions that increasingly exacting standards of disinfection required professional oversight rather than that of the 'amateur' public, there was a significant gap between laboratory based knowledge and evidence derived from practical experience. Laboratory conditions could not replicate those found in day-to-day disinfection, and there were myriad debates about how to create a mutually understandable scientific standard for testing. Despite increasing efforts to bring local disinfection in line with new ideas promulgated by central government and disinfection researchers, the mismatches between the two meant that there was greater divergence. This tension lay at the heart of the changes in disinfection theory and practice in the second half of the nineteenth century, and illustrate the complexities of the impact of germ theory on public health policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Disinfection with peracetic acid (PAA), an alternative against fish pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the lack of approved substances to treat fish diseases, disinfecting substances are tested to treat fish pathogens. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. One of these substances is peracetic acid...

  3. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Menis; de Andrade, Denise; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Guerra, Odanir Garcia; dos Santos Junior, Aires Garcia

    2015-01-01

    to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit. descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table) were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v), totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at pdisinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable. the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  4. Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. fl...

  5. COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

  6. Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, John J; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig D; Surampalli, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2006-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are widely used at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent disease and promote growth of livestock. However, the majority of antibiotics are excreted from animals in urine, feces, and manure. Consequently, the lagoons used to store these wastes can act as reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is currently no regulation or control of these systems to prevent the spread of these bacteria and their genes for antibiotic resistance into other environments. This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria. Results indicate that a chlorine dose of 30 mg/L could achieve a 2.2-3.4 log bacteria reduction in lagoon samples. However, increasing the dose of chlorine did not significantly enhance the disinfection activity due to the presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria. The chlorine resistant bacteria were identified to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. A significant percentage of lagoon bacteria were not susceptible to the four selected antibiotics: chlortetracycline, lincomycin, sulfamethazine and tetracycline (TET). However, the presence of both chlorine and TET could inactivate all bacteria in one lagoon sample. The disinfection potential of UV irradiation and ozone was also examined. Ultraviolet light was an effective bacterial disinfectant, but was unlikely to be economically viable due to its high energy requirements. At an ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the bacteria inactivation efficiency could reach 3.3-3.9 log.

  7. Wastewater disinfection alternatives: chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, and UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M; Citterio, S; Nurizzo, C

    2007-11-01

    Disinfection tests were carried out at pilot scale to compare the disinfection efficiency of ozone, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peracetic acid (PAA), and UV irradiation. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were monitored as reference microorganisms. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were also enumerated by cytometry. At similar doses, NaOCl was more effective than PAA, and its action was less affected by contact time. The results obtained by ozonation were comparable for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and E. coli. On the contrary, some differences among the three indicators were observed for NaOCl, PAA, and UV. Differences increased with increasing values of the disinfectant concentration times contact time (C x t) and were probably the result of different initial counts, as total coliforms include fecal coliforms, which include E. coli. The UV irradiation lead to complete E. coli removals, even at low doses (10 to 20 mJ/cm2). Total heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be too wide a group to be a good disinfection indicator; no correlation was found among THB inactivation, dose, and contact time.

  8. Comparative evaluation of root canal disinfection by conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate in vivo the disinfecting ... laser containing the gallium aluminum and arsenic, which emitted 980 nm wavelengths. .... canal with pulp necrosis mainly involving obligate anaerobes .... 99.98% of the bacteria injected in the root canal could be.

  9. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  10. EFFICIENCY OF ROKSATSIN IN AEROSOL DISINFECTION OF THE LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifentsova M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors briefly describe the properties of polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG, which refers to a broad-spectrum biocide and has antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi. PHMG has a deodorizing effect, gives the treated surfaces long bactericidal effect, which can be stored depending on the surface and other external factors from 3 days to 8 months. The authors have presented data about the level of bacterial and fungal contamination of air in the dispensary before and after aerosol treatment of Roksatsin. Bacterial contamination of air dispensary determined via the sedimentation method (Koch Method, which is settling microflora (in air, under gravity, on the surface of a growth medium. For the determination of total bacteria and fungi in 1m3 of air the authors make calculations of total aerobic microbial count (TAMC according to the formula that was proposed by V.L. Omelyanskii. Bacterial contamination of air was evaluated before disinfection. Accounting quality of aerosol disinfection performed by sedimentation microflora on Petri Dishes through 30, 60 and 120 minutes of exposition. In the analysis of the data the authors defined that Roksatsin as a disinfectant has a negative effect on pathogens, namely significantly reduced the content of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria and fungi in the air, so it can be used for preventive and compelled aerosol disinfection of air in the livestock buildings

  11. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  12. Modeling and control of water disinfection process in annular photoreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Vries, D.; Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract¿ As an alternative or addition to complex physical modeling, in this paper transfer function models of the disinfection process in annular photoreactors under different flow conditions are derived. These transfer function models allow an analytical evaluation of the system dynamics and the

  13. Modelling of water disinfection process in annular photoreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Parasoglou, M.; Vries, D.

    2006-01-01

    As an alternative or addition to complex physical modelling, in this paper transfer function models of the disinfection process in annular photoreactors under different flow conditions are derived. These transfer function models allow an analytical evaluation of the system dynamics and the control s

  14. Modeling and control of water disinfection process in annular photoreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Vries, D.; Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.J.; Tzafestas, S.

    2007-01-01

    As an alternative or addition to complex physical modeling, in this paper transfer function models of the disinfection process in annular photoreactors under different flow conditions are derived. These transfer function models allow an analytical evaluation of the system dynamics and the control st

  15. Antimicrobial irrigants in endodontic therapy: 1. Root canal disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, Shiyana; Briggs, Peter F; Porter, Richard W J

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. Practitioners should be adequately informed and skilled in this vital aspect of endodontics.

  16. Survival of Viral Biowarfare Agents in Disinfected Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Margaret Wade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting civilian and military water supplies has received more attention since the United States began its war on terror in 2001. Both chlorine and bromine are used by branches of the U.S. military for disinfecting water supplies; however, limited data exists as to the effectiveness of these additives when used against viral biowarfare agents. The present study sought to evaluate the survival of selected viral biothreat agents in disinfected water. Disinfected water samples were spiked with vaccinia virus strain WR and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE virus strain TC-83 each separately to a final concentration of approximately 1×106 PFU/mL, and survival was assessed by plaque assay. Both viruses were inactivated by 1 mg/L free available chlorine (FAC and 2mg/L total bromine within one hour. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that both chlorine and bromine are effective disinfectants against vaccinia virus and VEE strain TC-83 at the concentrations tested.

  17. Surface dielectric barrier discharge jet for skin disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.; Meijer, R.; Verweij, P.; Zanden, F. van der; Leenders, P.

    2012-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical -university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for hand disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation methods and

  18. A novel fiber optical device for ultraviolet disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Li, Chaolin; Zheng, Yinggang; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Juan; Fu, Ming

    2008-07-24

    Since there are several problems in traditional UV disinfection techniques, a highly efficient, reliable and economical method, using quartz optical fibers to deliver UV light is proposed. The principle of the experimental setup is that ultraviolet rays are gathered by a reflector and converge on a light point, the diameter of approximately 5mm. In this way UV light can be transferred into water to kill the bacteria in the water. This paper presents preliminary results on water disinfection using this new UV disinfection setup. Its suitability for application could be shown in experiments with E. coli (ATCC8099) as test microorganisms. We have optimized the distribution of the optical fibers in the water in bench-scale study. This result can provide guidance for pilot-scale and field-scale study of this new technique. The results show that the new technique had a good performance under different conditions as follows: (a) turbidity level=10.2 NTU, (b) ferric ion concentration=0.3 mg/L, and (c) humic acid concentration=5 mg/L. The new technique provides a promising approach to disinfection treatment of drinking water.

  19. Disinfection Pilot Trial for Little Miami WWTP | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a serious interest growing nationally towards the use of PAA at various stages of public waste water treatment facilities; one of such use is secondary waste water treatment. MSDGC is currently interested in improving efficiency and economic aspects of waste water treatment. MSDGC requested for ORD’s support to evaluate alternative cost-effective disinfectants. This report herein is based on the data generated from the field pilot test conducted at the Little Miami Wastewater Treatment Plant. Chlorine assisted disinfection of wastewaters created the concern regarding the formation of high levels of toxic halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) detrimental to aquatic life and public health. Peracetic acid is emerging as a green alternative to chlorine and claimed to have economic and social benefits. In addition, it is a relatively simple retrofit to the existing chlorine treated wastewater treatment facilities. PAA is appealed to possess a much lower aquatic toxicity profile than chlorine and decays rapidly in the environment, even if overdosed. As a result, PAA generally does not need a quenching step, such as dechlorination, reducing process complexity, sodium pollution and cost. PAA treatment does not result in the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids and other byproducts such as cyanide and n-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).

  20. A practical evaluation of detergent and disinfectant solutions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student01

    2012-01-06

    Jan 6, 2012 ... Key words: Detergents, bacteria, cargo container surfaces, disinfectant. .... chemical test solution using this method was indicated by a > 5 log reduction in the ... AT Special (ATS)1; (<1% disodium metasilicate, 1-5% anionic surfactant .... were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and.

  1. Enhanced disinfection efficiency of mechanically mixed oxidants with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyunju; Cho, Min; Kim, Jaeeun; Oh, Byungtaek; Chung, Hyenmi; Yoon, Jeyong

    2005-02-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of mechanically mixed disinfectants in controlling bacterial inactivation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of mechanically mixed oxidants with identical oxidant concentrations, which were made by adding small amounts of subsidiary oxidants, namely ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2(-)), to free available chlorine (Cl2), using Bacillus subtilis spores as the indicator microorganisms. The mechanically mixed oxidants containing Cl2/O3, Cl2/ClO2 and Cl2/ClO2(-) showed enhanced efficiencies (of up to 52%) in comparison with Cl2 alone, whereas no significant difference was observed between the mixed oxidant, Cl2/H2O2, and Cl2 alone. This enhanced disinfection efficiency can be explained by the synergistic effect of the mixed oxidant itself and the effect of intermediates such as ClO2(-)/ClO2, which are generated from the reaction between an excess of Cl2 and a small amount of O3/ClO2(-). Overall, this study suggests that mechanically mixed oxidants incorporating excess chlorine can constitute a new and moderately efficient method of disinfection.

  2. Chemical aspects of peracetic acid based wastewater disinfection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-04

    Feb 4, 2013 ... Peracetic acid (PAA) has been studied for wastewater disinfection applications for some 30 years and has been shown to be ... Wastewater treatment has traditionally focused on the removal of solids ... industries (Orth, 1998; Rasimus et al., 2011). ..... It is also possible that PAA residual functions as a bio-.

  3. Hydrophobic polycationic coatings disinfect poliovirus and rotavirus solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Alyssa M; Hsu, Bryan B; Rautaray, Debabrata; Haldar, Jayanta; Chen, Jianzhu; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2011-03-01

    Coating surfaces with N-alkylated polyethylenimines (PEIs), namely branched N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI via covalent attachment to glass or linear N,N-dodecyl,methyl-PEI by physical deposition ("painting") onto polyethylene, enables the resultant materials to quickly and efficiently disinfect aqueous solutions of (non-enveloped) poliovirus and rotavirus.

  4. Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Alhooshani, Khalid; Karanfil, Tanju

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Many swimming pools apply chlorine or bromine based disinfectants to prevent microbial growth. The chlorinated swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than a typical drinking water distribution system. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and air as a consequence of continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to those DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer, while such exposures can have elevated risks to human health. To date, over 70 peer-reviewed publications have reported various aspects of swimming pool, including types and quantities of DBPs, organic loads from bathers, factors affecting DBPs formation in swimming pool, human exposure and their potential risks. This paper aims to review the state of research on swimming pool including with the focus of DBPs in swimming pools, understand their types and variability, possible health effects and analyze the factors responsible for the formation of various DBPs in a swimming pool. The study identifies the current challenges and future research needs to minimize DBPs formation in a swimming pool and their consequent negative effects to bathers and trainers.

  5. Mimicking disinfection and drying of biofilms in contaminated endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, J.; Degener, J. E.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of peracetic acid-based (PAA) disinfectant with, and without, additional drying on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, isolated from contaminated flexible endoscopes, in single-and dual-species biofilms were studied. Biofilms w

  6. development of an automated batch-process solar water disinfection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1,3 NATIONAL CENTRE FOR ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, UNIV. ... The system disinfected 11 litres of water in a day for solar ... all life forms. .... This cycle goes on and on. 2.5 Immobilization of TiO2 Unto the Glass Rod.

  7. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  8. Disinfectant choices in veterinary practices, shelters and households : ABCD guidelines on safe and effective disinfection for feline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Regardless of whether a pathogen is viral, bacterial, parasitic, fungal or an emerging unknown, the mainstay of infectious disease control is hygiene, and the cornerstone of good hygiene is effective disinfection. CHALLENGES AND CURRENT CHOICES: Certain pathogens present a challenge to kil

  9. Disinfectant choices in veterinary practices, shelters and households : ABCD guidelines on safe and effective disinfection for feline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Regardless of whether a pathogen is viral, bacterial, parasitic, fungal or an emerging unknown, the mainstay of infectious disease control is hygiene, and the cornerstone of good hygiene is effective disinfection. CHALLENGES AND CURRENT CHOICES: Certain pathogens present a challenge to kil

  10. Disinfection aboard cruise liners and naval units: formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine dioxide in different qualities of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufermann, Petra; Petersen, Hauke; Exner, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The world-wide deployment of cruise liners and naval units has caused an increased need for the disinfection of drinking water. The main cause for this is the unknown quality of drinking water in foreign harbours--besides the formation of bio-films due to the climatically disadvantageous conditions in the operational area. Water conduits on board are currently disinfected with calcium hypochlorite in case of microbiological contamination. Chemical and physical analyses after disinfection with calcium hypochlorite have shown that organic by-products consisting of trihalomethanes develop in considerable amounts during disinfection. Furthermore, the method is susceptible to handling errors and thus often leads to insufficient disinfection results. Hitherto, the use of other disinfection methods allowed by government regulations, especially chlorine dioxide, is not widely spread. Unlike disinfection with calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes. Typical disinfection by-products (DBP) are the anions chlorite and chlorate, which are formed in oxidative processes. The formation conditions of these anions have not yet been elucidated. For this reason, the probability of the generation of inorganic by-products after disinfection with chlorine dioxide has been determined, and their occurrence in drinking water on board has been examined with respect to a possible correlation between water quality and the formation of chlorate and chlorite. Therefore, a chromatographic method was developed and validated in order to determine the periodical development of chlorate and chlorite from chorine dioxide in purified water at different pH-values as well as in actual drinking water samples from water conduits on board. The formation of the by-products chlorite and chlorate after disinfection with chlorine dioxide is influenced neither by pH-value nor by chemical properties of the disinfected water. Considering the examined conditions

  11. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P disinfection programme used, there was a statistically significant (P disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  12. Occlusal Pressure Analysis of Complete Dentures after Microwave Disinfection: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michael Frederico Manzolli; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Jorge, Janaina Habib

    2017-10-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of microwave disinfection protocols on the occlusal pressure pattern of dentures. Dentures were constructed for 40 patients and evaluated as follows (n = 20). Group 1: Patients had the maxillary dentures submitted to microwave disinfection, once a week, for 4 weeks. Group 2: Patients had the maxillary dentures submitted to microwave disinfection, three times a week, for 4 weeks. Occlusal contacts were recorded on five occasions: 30 days after denture insertion and before first disinfection (baseline or control group); 1 week after disinfection; 2 weeks after disinfection; 3 weeks after disinfection; 4 weeks after disinfection. Occlusal contacts were analyzed by T-Scan III. Intergroup analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and intragroup analysis using the Friedman test with significance of 5%. The results showed no significant difference between groups during the periods. The data on parameters loss of denture adaptation or complaints showed that patients used their dentures regularly for eating and expressed comfort and satisfaction in all experimental periods. The evaluation of functional occlusion revealed that the distribution of the occlusal contacts remained unaltered after disinfection. Microwave disinfection protocols as studied in this report did not influence occlusal contacts of the complete dentures. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers.

  14. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes.

  15. Investigating synergism during sequential inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with several disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min; Kim, Jae-Hong; Yoon, Jeyong

    2006-08-01

    The sequential application of ozone, chlorine dioxide, or UV followed by free chlorine was performed to investigate the synergistic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The greatest synergism was observed when chlorine dioxide was used as a primary disinfectant followed by secondary disinfection with free chlorine. A lesser synergistic effect was observed when ozone was used as the primary disinfectant, but no synergism was observed when UV was used as the primary disinfectant. When free chlorine was used as the primary disinfectant (i.e., sequential application in the reverse order), the synergistic effect was shown only when chlorine dioxide was applied as the secondary disinfectant. The synergistic effect observed could be related to damage to the spore coat during primary disinfection, suggested by the loss of proteins from spores during disinfectant treatment. The greatest synergism observed by the chlorine dioxide/free chlorine pair suggested that common reaction sites might exist for these disinfectants. The concept of percent synergistic effect was introduced to quantitatively compare the extent of synergistic effects in the sequential disinfection processes.

  16. The effect of immersion disinfection procedures on dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Cassaro, Angelo; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immersion disinfection procedures on the dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials. Impressions of a stainless steel die were made with polyether (PE) and with addition-polymerized silicone rubber (PVS). The test specimens underwent disinfection treatment by immersion in two commercially available solutions containing quaternary ammonium compounds (Sterigum Powder, SP) and glutaraldehyde plus an amino derivative (MD520, MD), respectively. The impressions were measured at 4 different time points: before any disinfection treatment (T0); after the first disinfection (T1); 6 hours after the first disinfection (T2); after the second disinfection, carried out 6 hours after the first one (T3). Impressions which were not disinfected served as controls. When both impression materials were disinfected with SP, significant differences were detected among all measurements (P 0.05). On the other hand, when MD was used, significant differences were found when T0 measurement was compared to T1, T2 and T3 measurements (P = 0.0043 for PE, and P = 0.0014 for PVS). The dimensional change of all material/disinfectant combinations was always disinfection on the dimension of elastomers in SP or MD are not clinically relevant.

  17. Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liviac, Danae; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mitch, William A; Altonji, Matthew J; Plewa, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Swimming and hot tub bathing are popular exercises and diversions. Disinfection of recreational pools is essential to prevent outbreaks of infectious disease. Recent research demonstrated an association between the application of disinfectants to recreational pools and adverse health outcomes. These pool waters represent extreme cases of disinfection that differ from disinfecting drinking waters. Pool waters are continuously exposed to disinfectants over average residence times extending to months. Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors include natural humic substances plus inputs from bathers through urine, sweat, hair, skin, and consumer products including cosmetics and sunscreens. This study presents a systematic mammalian cell genotoxicity analysis to evaluate different recreational waters derived from a common tap water source. The data demonstrated that all disinfected recreational pool water samples induced more genomic DNA damage than the source tap water. The type of disinfectant and illumination conditions altered the genotoxicity of the water. Accordingly, care should be taken in the disinfectant employed to treat recreational pool waters. The genotoxicity data suggest that brominating agents should be avoided. Combining chlorine with UV may be beneficial as compared to chlorination alone. During the recycling of pool water the organic carbon could be removed prior to disinfection. Behavior modification by swimmers may be critical in reducing the genotoxicity of pool water. Actions such as showering before entering the water and informing patrons about the potential harm from urinating in a pool could reduce the precursors of toxic DBPs.

  18. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  19. The Evaluation of Teat Dipping Coating Agent for Cow Mastitis Pathogens Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic Test in Vitro%聚维酮碘乳头药浴涂膜剂对奶牛乳房炎致病菌体外抑菌效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆民; 冯万宇; 徐馨; 侯美如; 黄健

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand in vitro bacteriostasis effectiveness(MIC and MBC)of the teat dipping coating agent on major pathogens(Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiaeand Streptococcus dysgalactiae)andprovideacertainofscientiifcevidence.Utilizing10timesmicrodilutionmethod, we determine in vitro effectiveness of the teat dipping coating agent on clinical isolates strain of the major cows mastitis. In order to compare bacteriostasis effectiveness of the teat dipping coating agent and antibiotics,we design the control group-ceftiofur and penicillin. The results show that in vitro the agent has signiifcant bacteriostasis effects on four major pathogens of cow mastitis, and the bactericidal and bacteriostatic concentration is lower than ceftiofur and penicillin.%本试验采用10倍稀释法进行了乳头药浴涂膜剂对奶牛乳房炎临床分离菌株(大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌及停乳链球菌)的体外抑菌效果测定。结果显示,乳头药浴涂膜剂对四种致病菌有良好的体外抑菌和杀菌作用,其抑杀菌浓度低于头孢噻呋和青霉素。

  20. 多功能空气消毒机在消毒供应室的消毒效果%Disinfection Effect of Multifunctional Air Disinfecting Machine in Disinfection Supply Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗娜娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨多功能空气消毒机在消毒供应室的消毒效果.方法:将笔者所在医院消毒供应室进行消毒,采用多功能空气消毒机消毒的为实验组,采用紫外线消毒的为对照组,两组基本条件一致,消毒供应室面积30 m2,相对湿度60%~70%,环境温度18 ℃~26 ℃.对消毒前后的空气细菌菌落数分析比较.结果:消毒后,实验组平均菌数减少率明显高于紫外线消毒组(P<0.05).结论:多功能空气消毒机可以明显减少空气细菌菌落数,并可改善消毒供应室的空气质量,对于消毒供应室进行消毒具有重要价值.%Objective:To investigate the effect of multifunctional air disinfecting machine in disinfection supply room.Method:The supply room disinfection in our hospital was disinfected,by multifunctional air disinfector in disinfection was selected as the experimental group,by ultraviolet disinfection was selected as the control group,two groups of basic conditions,sterilization and supply room 30 m2,60%-70% relative humidity,environmental temperature 18 ℃-26 ℃. Analysis and comparison of bacterial colonies of air before and after disinfection.Result:After disinfection,the average reduction rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the ultraviolet disinfection group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The multifunctional air disinfection machine can significantly reduce the number of bacteria colonies,and can improve the air quality of disinfection supply room,and it has important value for disinfection and disinfection.

  1. [Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Study on the electrochemical disinfection with the H2O2 produced at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) prepared from active carbon/ poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was performed in the non-membrane cell. The effects of PTFE mass fraction W(PTFE) and content of the pore-forming agent in GDE m(NH4CO3), operating conditions such as pH value and oxygen flow rate Q(o2)) on disinfection were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that H2 O2 reached peak production at W(PTFE) of 0.5 in GDE. Addition of the pore-forming agent in the appropriate amount improved the disinfection, and this phenomenon was more obvious at neutral pH than at acidic pH. BET specific area analysis indicated that the average pore size in the membrane electrode first decreased significantly with the increasing amount of pore-forming agent, and then increased moderately. This helped the mass transfer of oxygen at the GDE. Adsorption made little or no progress to kill the bacteria during the electrolysis. Drop of pH value resulted in a rapid rise of the germicidal efficacy. This system had a broad pH coverage: when total bacterial count in raw water was 10(6) CFU x mL(-1), pH 3-10,the germicidal efficacy was greater than 80% after 30 min electrolysis using the GDE with W(Pt) of 3 per thousand as cathode. Increase of the oxygen flow rate Q(o2) within limits had little influence on the production of H2 O2 and the succeeding disinfection. On one hand, resistance of the solution and energy consumption on the disinfection increased at high oxygen flow rate, which gave rise to an increase in the operating cost of disinfection with the GDE system; on the other hand, treatment time could be reduced reasonably at high oxygen flow rate, which leads to reduction of equipment investment. Killing mechanism study showed that the direct oxidation and formation of the free radicals at the anode played a greater role in the beginning, and then the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2 O2 at

  2. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two disinfectants on eggs and larvae of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, was investigated. The eggs were disinfected for 10 min using various concentrations of either glutaraldehyde (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L−1) or iodophor (10, 50, 100 and 150 mg L−1), 1–4-days post......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...... growth was observed with increased concentrations of disinfectant (3.0 × 107–1.6 × 101 CFU mL−1). Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae were not related to disinfection. Survival of the yolk sac larvae was significantly better for eggs treated with 400 mg L−1 glutaraldehyde for 10 min at 10 and 15 dph...

  3. Activity of disinfectants against foodborne pathogens in suspension and adhered to stainless steel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Karen Cabeça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants on planktonic cells and biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against biofilm cells, while biguanide was the least effective. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that cells adhered on stainless steel surface after treatment with the disinfectants. No viable planktonic cells were observed after treatment with the same disinfectants. Based on our findings, we concluded that biofilm cells might be more resistant to disinfectants than plancktonic cells.

  4. Thermal disinfection of hotels, hospitals, and athletic venues hot water distribution systems contaminated by Legionella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-11-01

    Legionella spp. (> or = 500 cfu liter(-1)) were detected in 92 of 497 water distribution systems (WDS) examined. Thermal disinfection was applied at 33 WDS. After the first and second application of the disinfection procedure, 15 (45.4%) and 3 (9%) positive for remedial actions WDS were found, respectively. Legionella pneumophila was more resistant to thermal disinfection than Legionella non-pneumophila spp. (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1-35). WDS of hotels with oil heater were more easily disinfected than those with electrical or solar heater (RR=0.4 95% CI=0.2-0.8). Thermal disinfection seems not to be efficient enough to eliminate legionellae, unless repeatedly applied and in combination with extended heat flushing, and faucets chlorine disinfection.

  5. Water Purification by Shock Electrodialysis: Deionization, Filtration, Separation, and Disinfection

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Daosheng; Braff, William A; Schlumpberger, Sven; Suss, Matthew E; Bazant, Martin Z

    2014-01-01

    The development of energy and infrastructure efficient water purification systems are among the most critical engineering challenges facing our society. Water purification is often a multi-step process involving filtration, desalination, and disinfection of a feedstream. Shock electrodialysis (shock ED) is a newly developed technique for water desalination, leveraging the formation of ion concentration polarization (ICP) zones and deionization shock waves in microscale pores near to an ion selective element. While shock ED has been demonstrated as an effective water desalination tool, we here present evidence of other simultaneous functionalities. We show that, unlike electrodialysis, shock ED can thoroughly filter micron-scale particles and aggregates of nanoparticles present in the feedwater. We also demonstrate that shock ED can enable disinfection of feedwaters, as approximately $99\\%$ of viable bacteria (here \\textit{E. coli}) in the inflow were killed or removed by our prototype. Shock ED also separates...

  6. Immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. Part 1: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Bradley, D V; Hilton, T J; Kruse, S K

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of four disinfectants for irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. Impressions were made of a sterile metal model of the maxillary arch that had been contaminated with one of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium bovis, or Bacillus subtilis. The impressions were cultured before and after immersion in one of the following disinfectants: lodofive, OMC II, 0.525% sodium hypochlorite, or Alcide LD. Alcide LD achieved a 4-log10 (99.99%) or greater reduction in colony forming units for all five organisms plus mixed oral flora. Sodium hypochlorite achieved a 4-log10 reduction in three of the five organisms and mixed oral flora. Iodofive and OMC II were ineffective against all test organisms and mixed oral flora.

  7. Effectiveness of a professional formula disinfectant for irreversible hydrocolloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B A; Goldstein, G R; Boylan, R

    1994-06-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Professional Lysol (PL) disinfectant in both its spray and solution forms was evaluated as a surface disinfectant for irreversible hydrocolloid (IH) impressions. Sixteen impressions of a typodont were made with IH, immersed in a microbial broth, and then rinsed in running tap water. The impressions were then treated as follows: four were immersed in PL for 2.5 minutes; four were sprayed by PL and stored for 10 minutes; four were immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 minutes; four were untreated. Pretest plates showed an average of 421 colonies per plate (c/p). The glutaraldehyde group showed 0.00 c/p. The PL spray group showed 1.75 c/p. The PL immersion group showed 19.00 c/p and showed evidence of surface deterioration in the IH. The untreated group showed 426.25 c/p.

  8. Disinfection of Biofilms in Tubes with Ultraviolet Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms on long-term catheters are a major source of infection. We demonstrate here the potential of UVC light emitting diodes (LED) for disinfection purposes in catheter like tubes contaminated with biofilm. We show that UVC Light propagation is possible through teflon tubes using...... that the UVC light attenuation inside the tube can be described by an exponential function depending of tube length and various loss mechanisms. The disinfection efficiency of the UVC diodes is demonstrated on tubes contaminated artificially with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. The tubes were connected...... the liquid light guiding principle. If the refractive index of the liquid is higher than that of the tube material light is guided inside the tube by internal reflections. To obtain a high refractive index of the liquid sodium chloride in high concentrations is added to the aqueous solution. It is shown...

  9. Chlorine dioxine DBPs (disinfection by-products in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it has been well known that, though water for human consumption is generally disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine dioxide, the most important and represented DBPs are chlorite and chlorate: after an introduction concerning the current Italian regulation on this subject, in the experimental part the results of a 7-year minitoring campaign, concerning water of different origin collected from taps in various Italian regions, are shown. The analytical technique used for the determination of chlorite and chlorate was Ion Chromatography. The result obtained are finally discussed.

  10. Detection of regulated disinfection by-products in cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Cabezas, Lourdes; Fernández-Salguero, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Cheese can contain regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly through contact with brine solutions prepared in disinfected water or sanitisers used to clean all contact surfaces, such as processing equipment and tanks. This study has focused on the possible presence of up to 10 trihalomethanes (THMs) and 13 haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a wide range of European cheeses. The study shows that 2 THMs, (in particular trichloromethane) and 3 HAAs (in particular dichloroacetic acid) can be found at μg/kg levels in the 56 cheeses analysed. Of the two types of DBPs, HAAs were generally present at higher concentrations, due to their hydrophilic and non-volatile nature. Despite their different nature (THMs are lipophilic), both of them have an affinity for fatty cheeses, increasing their concentrations as the percentage of water decreased because the DBPs were concentrated in the aqueous phase of the cheeses.

  11. USE OF GASEOUS OZONE AS A DISINFECTANT IN MEAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of gaseous ozone as a disinfectant for meat industry environments. Firstly microbial inactivation trials were conducted in laboratory conditions on Petri plates inoculated with some microorganisms of importance to the food industry. The treatment with 1 ppm of ozone resulted to be effective in 1 h on the strains in use. Then similar trials were conducted in a meat industry, 1 ppm of ozone was supplied for 3 h. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of ozone even if it was less active than in laboratory conditions. A different sensibility among the microorganisms was observed, the most resistant being P. fluorescens and B. thuringiensis. Our results confirm the suitability of gaseous ozone as a disinfectant for meat industry environments and underline the need to calibrate ozone treatment parameters on the real environmental conditions of work-room.

  12. Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Jet for Skin Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyghton, Yves; Meijer, Rogier; Verweij, Paul; van der Zanden, Frank; Leenders, Paul

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical ­university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for hand disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation methods and potential ­standardization for plasma based disinfection procedures. The present paper describes technical progress in plasma source development together with initial microbiological data. Particular properties of the sheet shaped plasma volume are the possibility of treating large irregular surfaces in a short period of time, effective plasma produced species transfer to the surface together with high controllability of the nature of plasma species by means of temperature conditioning.

  13. Investigations into the efficacy of different procedures for surgical hand disinfection between consecutive operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehork, B; Rüden, H

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine whether thorough surgical hand disinfection (handwashing plus hand disinfection) between consecutive operations is necessary, tests were carried out simulating normal clinical conditions. The tests were performed according to the guidelines for the evaluation of disinfection procedures of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology. Surgical hand disinfection was as follows: handwashing with soap without antimicrobial additives and subsequent 5-min disinfection with 60% n-propanol. This was followed by simulated operations of 30 or 120 min duration with a 30-min break between operations, during which half of the test group kept on the surgical gloves, while the other half removed them. The second surgical hand disinfection was done without prior handwashing by 50% of the test group. The disinfection time was reduced from 5 to 1 min by 50% of the test group. The results were evaluated by means of explorative data analysis and inductive statistical methods. Removing the surgical gloves during the interoperative break did not result in significantly higher numbers of colony forming units (cfu) compared with retaining the gloves. This was also the case after a subsequent handwashing. At the second surgical hand disinfection, after a simulated operation of 60 min duration (including break), there was no significant difference in the numbers of cfus between the test group who had washed their hands and those who had not. Reducing the disinfection time from 5 min to 1 min was not associated with a significant increase in the number of cfus. However, after a simulated operating time of 150 min (including the break), the second surgical hand disinfection with handwashing resulted in a significantly lower number of microorganisms than disinfection alone. In half the tests, the numbers of cfu were significantly lower when the test group disinfected their hands for 5 min rather than 1 min.

  14. The effect of disinfectants on dimensional stability of addition and condensation silicone impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Sinobad Tamara; Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka; Nikolić Zoran; Dodić Slobodan; Lazić Vojkan; Sinobad Vladimir; Jesenko-Rokvić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Dimensional stability and accuracy of an impression after chemical disinfection by immersion in disinfectants are crucial for the accuracy of final prosthetic restorations. The aim of this study was to assess the deformation of addition and condensation silicone impressions after disinfection in antimicrobial solutions. Methods. A total of 120 impressions were made on the model of the upper arch representing three full metal-ceramic crown pr...

  15. Effect of presampling procedures on real-time PCR used for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Nielsen, S S; Katholm, J; Toft, N

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic procedures for milk sample collection are considered crucial for bacterial culture to avoid misdiagnosis and subsequently unnecessary treatment or culling. The objective of this field study was to investigate the effect of presampling procedures on the PCR-positivity at cycle threshold value ≤ 37 of real-time PCR assay to detect Staphylococcus aureus from composite milk samples at routine milk recordings while accounting for known cow-level risk factors. A total of 1,199 dairy cows from 6 herds with conventional milking parlors were sampled and tested by PCR in 2011. Following the farmers' routine premilking preparations, 624 cows of the 1,199 cows were randomly selected for bacterial culture preceded by presampling procedures. These procedures were: cleaning of udder teats, removing the first streams of milk, and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Data on parity, somatic cell counts, days in milk, daily milk yield, fat %, and protein % were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database, whereas energy-corrected milk was calculated based on the latter 3. The within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections with Staph. aureus was 31%, ranging from 16 to 48% in the 6 herds. Univariable analysis showed that the presampling procedures, somatic cell counts, energy-corrected milk, and days in milk were significantly associated with PCR-positivity, whereas parity was not significant. A multivariable model with herd as random effect showed that presampling procedures decreased the chance of being PCR-positive to 0.75 (95% CI; 0.58-0.97) compared with cows where the presampling procedures were not carried out. In conclusion, presampling procedures decreased the cow's chance of being PCR-positive to Staph. aureus. Presampling procedures appeared to improve the specificity of PCR for detection of Staph. aureus by reducing false positives through destruction of Staph. aureus bacteria colonizing or contaminating the teat skin, orifice, and canal. Random herd effects

  16. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  17. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  18. Inactivation Effect of Antibiotic-Resistant Gene Using Chlorine Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Furukawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the inactivation effects on the antibiotic-resistance gene (vanA of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE using chlorination, a disinfection method widely used in various water treatment facilities. Suspensions of VRE were prepared by adding VRE to phosphate-buffered saline, or the sterilized secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation experiments were carried out at several chlorine concentrations and stirring time. Enterococci concentration and presence of vanA were determined. The enterococci concentration decreased as chlorine concentrations and stirring times increased, with more than 7.0 log reduction occurring under the following conditions: 40 min stirring at 0.5 mg Cl2/L, 20 min stirring at 1.0 mg Cl2/L, and 3 min stirring at 3.0 mg Cl2/L. In the inactivation experiment using VRE suspended in secondary effluent, the culturable enterococci required much higher chlorine concentration and longer treatment time for complete disinfection than the cases of suspension of VRE. However, vanA was detected in all chlorinated suspensions of VRE, even in samples where no enterococcal colonies were present on the medium agar plate. The chlorine disinfection was not able to destroy antibiotic-resistance genes, though it can inactivate and decrease bacterial counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB. Therefore, it was suggested that remaining ARB and/or antibiotic-resistance gene in inactivated bacterial cells after chlorine disinfection tank could be discharged into water environments.

  19. Photocatalytic Enhancement for Solar Disinfection of Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 884 million people lack access to improved water supplies. Many more are forced to rely on supplies that are microbiologically unsafe, resulting in a higher risk of waterborne diseases, including typhoid, hepatitis, polio, and cholera. Due to poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water, there are around 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year resulting in 2.2 million deaths, most of these are children under five. While conventional interventions to improve water supplies are effective, there is increasing interest in household-based interventions to produce safe drinking water at an affordable cost for developing regions. Solar disinfection (SODIS is a simple and low cost technique used to disinfect drinking water, where water is placed in transparent containers and exposed to sunlight for 6 hours. There are a number of parameters which affect the efficacy of SODIS, including the solar irradiance, the quality of the water, and the nature of the contamination. One approach to SODIS enhancement is the use of semiconductor photocatalysis to produce highly reactive species that can destroy organic pollutants and inactivate water pathogens. This paper presents a critical review concerning semiconductor photocatalysis as a potential enhancement technology for solar disinfection of water.

  20. Photocatalytic disinfection of water using low cost compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLoughlin, O.A.; Gill, L.W. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering; Ibanez, F.; Gernjak, W.; Malato Rodriguez, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT), Tabemas (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of using near UV light to disinfect water supplies for potential applications in developing countries. A pilot scale photoreactor comprised of non-tracking compound parabolic collectors installed at Plataforma Solar de Almeria was examined and a comparison of disinfection efficiency using E. coli K-12 was carried out with a reactor configuration of 3 and 1 m{sup 2} illuminated area. Tests were also carried out using suspensions of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 9 mg/l. The removal of E. coli K-12 from initial concentrations of 1 x 10{sup 5} CFU/ml to below the limit of detection was achieved both with and without the use of TiO{sub 2}. Levels of inactivation in 35 l of inoculated water of up to 4-log removal were achieved in under 30 min. The addition of TiO{sub 2} created an enhancement to the process only at the 3 mg/l dose. However, the results have also suggested the possibility that another disinfection mechanism, possibly governed by the frequency of intermittent UV light exposure, was regulating the overall inactivation kinetics of the trials. (Author)

  1. Minimization of the formation of disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; Ali, Mohamed E M; Yoon, Yeoman

    2012-09-01

    The drinking water industry is required to minimize DBPs levels while ensuring adequate disinfection. In this study, efficient and appropriate treatment scheme for the reduction of disinfection by-product (DBPs) formation in drinking water containing natural organic matter has been established. This was carried out by the investigation of different treatment schemes consisting of enhanced coagulation, sedimentation, disinfection by using chlorine dioxide/ozone, filtration by sand filter, or granular activated carbon (GAC). Bench scale treatment schemes were applied on actual samples from different selected sites to identify the best conditions for the treatment of water. Samples were collected from effluent of each step in the treatment train in order to analyze pH, UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA(254)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs). The obtained results indicated that using pre-ozonation/enhanced coagulation/activated carbon filtration treatment train appears to be the most effective method for reducing DBPs precursors in drinking water treatment.

  2. Disinfection of the Skin: An Assessment of Some New Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, H. A.; Lowbury, E. J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Repeated hand washing with a detergent solution containing 0·75% chlorhexidine digluconate was found to cause a large reduction in the resident skin flora which was slightly though significantly smaller than that caused by the use of 3% hexachlorophane liquid soap containing a phenolic preservative, chlorocresol 0·3%. Both agents caused a greater immediate reduction of bacteria after a single hand washing than the hexachlorophane liquid soap without a phenolic additive had shown in earlier experiments; the soap base containing chlorocresol 0·3% but no hexachlorophane was also found to cause a large reduction in skin flora. The chlorhexidine detergent solution had no residual disinfectant action on the skin after rinsing and drying the hands. Disinfection of an operation site for two minutes with povidone-iodine containing 1% available iodine in 70% ethyl alcohol caused about as great a reduction in resident flora as a similar treatment with alcoholic 0·5% chlorhexidine. Both treatments were more effective than disinfection with aqueous 1% cetrimide or 0·1% benzalkonium chloride solutions. PMID:5569550

  3. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training.

  4. Calibration and characterization of UV sensors for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larason, T.; Ohno, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA is participating in a project with the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) to develop new guidelines for ultraviolet (UV) sensor characteristics to monitor the performance of UV water disinfection plants. The current UV water disinfection standards, ÖNORM M5873-1 and M5873-2 (Austria) and DVGW W294 3 (Germany), on the requirements for UV sensors for low-pressure mercury (LPM) and medium-pressure mercury (MPM) lamp systems have been studied. Additionally, the characteristics of various types of UV sensors from several different commercial vendors have been measured and analysed. This information will aid in the development of new guidelines to address issues such as sensor requirements, calibration methods, uncertainty and traceability. Practical problems were found in the calibration methods and evaluation of spectral responsivity requirements for sensors designed for MPM lamp systems. To solve the problems, NIST is proposing an alternative sensor calibration method for MPM lamp systems. A future calibration service is described for UV sensors intended for low- and medium-pressure mercury lamp systems used in water disinfection applications.

  5. Electrochemical disinfection of secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, G; Gómez, P; Ibañez, R; Ortiz, I; Urtiaga, A M

    2010-01-01

    In this work the electrochemical disinfection of the effluent of a secondary wastewater treatment plant is investigated. In the experimental work, performed on-site with real effluents of the WWTP located in Vuelta Ostrera (Cantabria, Spain), boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were employed. The initial concentration of E. coli in the effluent of the WWTP varied in the range 1.3 x 10⁴-5.2 x 10⁵ cfu/mL. The influence of two operation variables on the kinetics of E. coli deactivation was investigated: i) The applied current density was varied in the range J=40-120 mA/cm², showing first order kinetics, and linear dependency of the apparent kinetic constant with the applied current density; and ii) the chloride concentration was varied in the range 60-1,050 mg/L, showing that increasing chloride content also enhanced the kinetics of the E. coli deactivation. The latter parameter is particularly important in coastal areas, as in the case of the present study. The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was followed by measuring the content of trihalomethanes (THMs) that nevertheless was maintained below 100 μg/L, so it can be concluded that the formation of DBPs is not a disadvantage of electrochemical disinfection of secondary effluents of WWTP.

  6. Microbial community degradation of widely used quaternary ammonium disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2014-10-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments.

  7. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  8. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant, to a det......The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant......, to a detergent and to an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately. The hardening effect in preirritated skin after a 4-week interval was also evaluated. Detergent, disinfectant and disinfectant/detergent alternately were applied daily every 15 min for 6 h for 2 days to the flexor upper arms and forearms...... caused more redness of the skin than both disinfectant applied alone and disinfectant/detergent alternately at D3 and D8, P disinfectant alone and disinfectant/detergent was confirmed by TEWL and colour...

  9. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues - the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60-70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential.

  10. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential. PMID:24653973

  11. Combined Sewer Overflow pretreatment with chemical coagulation and a particle settler for improved peracetic acid disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Bonnerup, Arne; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (HydroSeparator®) and additi......Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (Hydro...

  12. Self-disinfecting surfaces: review of current methodologies and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2013-05-01

    Methods to improve disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospital rooms include improving cleaning/disinfection by environmental service workers through education and feedback on cleaning effectiveness (eg, use of fluorescent dyes), "no-touch" methods (eg, UV-C light), and self-disinfecting surfaces. Self-disinfecting surfaces can be created by impregnating or coating surfaces with heavy metals (eg, silver or copper), germicides (eg, triclosan), or miscellaneous methods (eg, light-activated antimicrobials). These methods are under active investigation but to date have not been assessed for their ability to reduce health care-associated infections.

  13. Impact of Suspended Particles and Enhancement Techniques on Ultraviolet Disinfection of a Secondary Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianling; WANG Lin; WANG Baozhen; ZHANG Jinsong; ZOU Qixian

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of suspended solids in the secondary effluent often varies widely, leading to frequent adjustment of the UV dosage to meet the disinfection criterion. In addition, a desired disinfection rate is difficult to achieve sometimes. The authors studied the particle size distribution, contributionof particle-associated Fecal Coliform (F. C. ), and their influences on UV disinfection. A combined disinfection process (chlorination with a subsequent UV disinfection) was tested to improve the disinfection effect. The results indicated that the content of suspended solids, especially that of large particles, has a strong impact on UV disinfection efficiency; D > 10 μm particles associated F.C. are difficult to be disinfected and are the main part of the tailings of F.C. inactivation curves. Pre-chlorination could decrease the number of particles in the secondary effluent and transform the large particles into small ones, reducing the influence of particles on UV disinfection and enhancing the resistance ability of the combined process to particle loading.

  14. Plasma Disinfection and the Deterioration of Surgical Tools at Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaba, Siti Khadijah; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Tsuji, Masao; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichirou

    The purpose of this paper is to present and compare disinfection effect of plasma by means of Atmospheric Pressure Glow plasma and streamer discharge. Geobacillus stearothermophilus was used as biological indicator for disinfection process. The effect of blades after irradiated in plasma was also studied by SEM analysis. It was found that the disinfection process was effective when the cylindrical configuration was applied. Carbon steel blade was also found to be deteriorated after immersed in plasma irradiation. Results indicate that disinfection can be achieved and at the same time deteriorations of the tools were observed.

  15. Decontamination of B. globigii spores from drinking water infrastructure using disinfectants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and...

  16. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers.

  17. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  18. Utilization of UV radiation for water disinfection in solar system reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Verčimáková

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Water disinfection by ultraviolet radiation is a modern ecological method of pure water disinfection without using any chemicalsubstances. This way of disinfection effectively kills undesirable microorganisms in water and at the same time do not change physicaland chemical properties of water. Ultraviolet radiation that is needed for disinfection could be generated by various types ofoptoelectronic components.Usest one are special neon tubes modified for emitting UV radiation, halogen light bulbs which due tothe silicon glass are able to produce much more UVR than classical light bulbs and LED sources, which are unable to generatesufficient level of UVR and therefore they are inappropriate.

  19. [First results on the use of chloramines to reduce disinfection byproducts in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azara, Antonio; Muresu, Elena; Dettori, Marco; Ciappeddu, Pierluigi; Deidda, Antonio; Maida, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The presence of disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water raises concerns about the safety of chlorination and is one of the problems inherent the use of surface water as a source of drinking water. In order to reduce the presence of DBP (in particular of chlorites), we evaluated the combined use of chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection and monochloramine for residual disinfection in a water purification plant and distribution system in Sardinia (Italy). The results are very encouraging. Disinfection byproducts were reduced and other parameters were found to be within the recommended standards, indicating further improvements of the purification process.

  20. Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Khir, Ragab; Pan, Zhongli; El-Mashad, Hamed; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Ma, Haile; McHugh, Tara H; Qu, Wenjuan; Wu, Bengang

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. flavus spores before the tests. The infected samples were heated by IR radiation to 60°C in less than 1 min, and then samples were tempered at 60°C for 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, or 120 min. High heating rates and corresponding high levels of moisture removal were achieved using IR heating. The highest total moisture removal was 5.3% for the fresh rice with an IMC of 27.0% after IR heating and then 120 min of tempering. IR heating followed by tempering for 120 min resulted in 2.5- and 8.3-log reductions of A. flavus spores in rough rice with the lowest and highest IMCs, respectively. To study the effect on disinfection of rewetting dried storage rice, the surface of the dry rice was rewetted to achieve IMCs of 14.7 to 19.4% (wet basis). The rewetting process for the dry rice had a significant effect on disinfection. IR heating followed by tempering for 60 min resulted in 7.2-log reductions in A. flavus on rewetted rough rice. The log-linear plus tail model was applied to estimate the tempering time needed to achieve a 5-log reduction of A. flavus in rice of different IMCs. At least 30 and 20 min of tempering were needed for fresh rice and rewetted rice, respectively, with the highest IMCs. The recommended conditions of simultaneous disinfection and drying for fresh rice was IR heating to 60°C followed by tempering for 120 min and natural cooling, resulting in a final MC of 16.5 to 22.0%, depending on the IMC. For the rewetted dry rice with an IMC of 19.4%, the recommended condition for disinfection and drying involved only 20 min of tempering. The final MC of the sample was 13.8%, which is a safe MC for storage rice.

  1. Bacterial resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; Jansen, Arina; Coetzee, Marisa; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Control of bacterial diseases has, for many years, been dependent on the use of antibiotics. Due to the high levels of efficacy of antibiotics in the past other disease control options have, to a large extent, been neglected. Mankind is now facing an increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. In an effort to retain some antibiotics for human use, there are moves afoot to limit or even ban the use of antibiotics in animal production. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters have been banned in the European Union and the USA. The potential ban on the use of antibiotics to treat diseases in production animals creates a dilemma for man-suffer significant problem with bacterial infection or suffer from a severe shortage of food! There are other options for the control of bacterial diseases. These include vaccine development, bacteriophage therapy, and improved biosecurity. Vaccine development against bacterial pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens, is often very challenging, as in many cases the molecular basis of the virulence is not always clearly understood. This is particularly true for Escherichia coli. Biosecurity (disinfection) has been a highly neglected area in disease control. With the ever-increasing problems with antibiotic resistance-the focus should return to improvements in biosecurity. As with antibiotics, bacteria also have mechanisms for resistance to disinfectants. To ensure that we do not replace one set of problems (increasing antibiotic resistance) with another (increasing resistance to disinfectants) we need to fully understand the modes of action of disinfectants and how the bacteria develop resistance to these disinfectants. Molecular studies have been undertaken to relate the presence of QAC resistance genes in bacteria to their levels of sensitivity to different generations of QAC-based products. The mode of action of QAC on bacteria has been studied using NanoSAM technology, where it was revealed that the QAC causes disruption

  2. Photoreactivation and subsequent solar disinfection of Escherichia coli in UV-disinfected municipal wastewater under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtlein, F; Lübken, M; Grote, I; Orth, H; Wichern, M

    2015-01-01

    Photoreactivation of ultraviolet (UV)-disinfected wastewater of different qualities was experimentally assessed. Photoreactivation ability of secondary effluent and microstrained inflow was analyzed in different samples of 50 mL (Petri dish) and 7,000 mL volume to describe open channel effluent situations of wastewater treatment plants in a more realistic approach. The small sample of secondary effluent revealed a total log10 inactivation of 1.8 units and the small sample of microstrained inflow a total log10 inactivation of 3.2, with an applied UV-254 fluence of 84 and 253 J/m², respectively. Maximum net photoreactivation for secondary effluent and microstrained inflow was in the order of 1.2 log10 and 0.37 log10 units, respectively, for both sample sizes. However, significantly faster photoreactivation performance was generally determined for small sample volumes. The photoreactivation processes were completely compensated for by solar disinfection within a 120 min exposure time. Solar disinfection processes were negligible in the larger sample volumes of microstrained inflow. For municipal wastewater treatment systems with open channel effluents, it is essential to take into consideration the dependence of solar UV-365 fluence rate on water depth and wastewater characteristics.

  3. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuebiao; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.

  5. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  6. The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Sui-Yi; Chen, Bo-Yan; Huo, Ming-Xin; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-12-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results indicated that SD had higher ability to inactivate E. coli than the others, indicating there was a positive synergistic effect on chlorine disinfection by prior dosing with a low level of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The ONPG assay suggested that the permeability of cell wall rather than the viability of E. coli were changed under 0.02 mg/l ClO(2) treatment. The coexistence of residual ClO(2) and free chlorine also plays an active synergistic effect. Additionally, temperature had a positive effect on E. coli inactivation in SD, while inactivation was reduced in alkaline compared to neutral and acidic conditions.

  7. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater effluents go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants in the United States. One of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection, and to date the most common disinfectants still remain chemi...

  8. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  9. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater effluents go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants in the United States. One of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection, and to date the most common disinfectants still remain chemi...

  10. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  11. Microwave disinfection of maxillary and mandibular denture bases contaminated with Candida Albican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamigboye, S A; Dosumu, O O; Ajayi, D M

    2015-09-01

    Oral environment is not sterile, and dentures worn by the patients can be infected and therefore needs disinfection. Solution disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde can be used but they have side effects. Microwave disinfection method is more recent, however, there are conflicting reports at the moment on the appropriate power and time regimen for disinfection of denture. To determine the power and time regimen at which the disinfection of dentures can be achieved using microwave. Forty-five acrylic denture bases were fabricated for each of the jaws and infected with solution of a stock Candida albicans and 30 infected bases were employed as control. These were placed in normal saline and then subjected to different microwave power and time regimen. Aliquots from these post-microwave solution were titrated against sabauraud agar which was subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The agar were examined for candida growth. The denture bases subjected to microwave disinfection at 350W showed Candida growth after microwave treatment irrespective of the time employed. Conversely, those microwaved at 650W and 690W for four and six minutes showed no microbial growth. The microwave regimen of 650W at 4 and 6 minutes completely disinfected the denture bases. Disinfection at higher microwave energy should be done with caution as distortion of the denture may occur.

  12. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 24 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    Resistance of 19 mold- and 6 yeast- species against 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by a suspension-method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 °C. Disinfectants containing 0.5 % dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g/l chloramine-T, 2...

  13. Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus by nano-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria gram-negative (G-) P. fluorescens and gram-positive (G+) M. caseolyticus by nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions and the disinfection mechanism were investigated. The experimental conditions included the initial bacterial populations, nan...

  14. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls--requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A.J.; Been, M.H.; Borgers, R.P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Peters, F.T.; Limburg, A.J.; Degener, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  15. Chlorine cell disinfection determination with flow cell cytometry and plate count (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.F.M.; Keuten, M.G.A.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine is used for disinfection in different water systems. This research focuses on chlorine disinfection in swimming pool water. In the Netherlands, free available chlorine concentrations in swimming pools are limited between 0.5-1.5 mg/L, which is based on a 4-log removal of Pseudomonas aerugin

  16. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Jesse, Katrin; von Baum, Heike; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-21

    Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfectant solutions with some active ingredients may get contaminated and cause outbreaks. We determined the frequency of contaminated surface disinfectant solutions in reusable dispensers and the ability of isolates to multiply in different formulations. Reusable tissue dispensers with different surface disinfectants were randomly collected from healthcare facilities. Solutions were investigated for bacterial contamination. The efficacy of two surface disinfectants was determined in suspension tests against two isolated species directly from a contaminated solution or after 5 passages without selection pressure in triplicate. Freshly prepared use solutions were contaminated to determine survival of isolates. 66 dispensers containing disinfectant solutions with surface-active ingredients were collected in 15 healthcare facilities. 28 dispensers from nine healthcare facilities were contaminated with approximately 107 cells per mL of Achromobacter species 3 (9 hospitals), Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Serratia marcescens (1 hospital each). In none of the hospitals dispenser processing had been adequately performed. Isolates regained susceptibility to the disinfectants after five passages without selection pressure but were still able to multiply in different formulations from different manufacturers at room temperature within 7 days. Neglecting adequate processing of surface disinfectant dispensers has contributed to frequent and heavy contamination of use-solutions based on surface active ingredients. Tissue dispenser processing should be taken seriously in clinical practice.

  17. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper;

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...

  18. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch...

  19. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  20. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully...

  1. Evaluation of a sporicidal peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based daily disinfectant cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Mana, Thriveen S C; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Jencson, Annette C; Sitzlar, Brett; Fertelli, Dennis; Hurless, Kelly; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-11-01

    OxyCide Daily Disinfectant Cleaner, a novel peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based sporicidal disinfectant, was as effective as sodium hypochlorite for in vitro killing of Clostridium difficile spores, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomcyin-resistant enterococci. OxyCide was minimally affected by organic load and was effective in reducing pathogen contamination in isolation rooms.

  2. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  3. Suspended particle effects on ClO2/ultraviolet light combined disinfection of effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ling; WANG Bao-zhen; WANG Lin; ZHANG Jin-song; HUANG Wen-zhang

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of suspended solids of effluent often varies in a wide range, therefore the dose of ultraviolet light (UV) in disinfection process needs to be adjusted to meet the disinfection criterion at a high frequency, and the desired disinfection effect is difficult to be ensured. The particles size and particle-associated fecal coliform (F.C.) contribution, and their influence on UV disinfection were investigated when ClO2 and UV combined disinfection process was used. The results showed that suspended solids content had a major impact on UV disinfection efficiency, especially the large particle size fraction. Particles (D>10 μm) associated F.C. were difficult to be disinfected and were the main part of the tailings of F.C. inactivation curve. Pre-ClO2 oxidation could reduce the number of particles in effluent, and make large particles decrease to small ones. Therefore, the influence of particles on UV disinfection could be reduced after pre-ClO2 oxidation, and the resistance ability to particle loadings of combined process was enhanced. Moreover, the combined process has a lot of advantages, such as low toxicity, low operational/maintenance costs; it is also convenient to be established in the existing wastewater plant or the new planned one.

  4. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  5. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant

  6. Use of a foaming disinfectant and cleaner to reduce aerobic bacteria on poultry transport coops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry transportation coops are rarely washed and have been demonstrated to be a point of cross-contamination of broiler carcasses. Foaming disinfectants and cleaners, commonly used within processing plants, may be used to clean and disinfect poultry transportation coops. In this study, homogeniz...

  7. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds: influence of disinfectant solutions and elastomeric impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Berger, Sandrine B; Siqueira, Ronaldo Mt; Grandi, Victor H; Lopes, Murilo B; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Caixeta, Rodrigo V; de Carvalho, Rodrigo V; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, for four elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane (Oranwash L) andpolyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). The molds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using a perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following polymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of the solutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected. The samples were thus divided into 16 groups (n=5). Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy to assess the 20-μm line over its entire 25 mm length. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey's test (a=5%). The 20-μm line was completely reproduced by all elastomeric impression materials, regardless of disinfection procedure. There was no significant difference between the control group and molds disinfected with peracetic acid for the elastomeric materials Impregum Soft (polyether) and Aquasil Ultra LV (polyvinylsiloxane). The high-level disinfectant peracetic acid would be the choice material for disinfection. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  8. Endoscope disinfection and its pitfalls--requirement for retrograde surveillance cultures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, A.J.; Been, M.H.; Borgers, R.P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Peters, F.T.; Limburg, A.J.; Degener, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to

  9. Comparative transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of the responses of Bacillus cereus to various disinfectant treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, M.; Mols, J.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Ghelardi, E.; Senesi, S.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemicals are widely applied to clean and disinfect food-contacting surfaces. However, the cellular response of bacteria to various disinfectants is unclear. In this study, the physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 exposed to four differe

  10. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless s

  11. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant ag

  12. A Luenberger observer for an infinite dimensional bilinear system: a UV disinfection example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, D; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, Heiko J.; Gomes da Silva Jr, J.M.; Malabre, M.; Bazanella, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the UV disinfection process in food and water treatment industry, we design a Luenberger observer which works at the boundary of the infinite dimensional bilinear system. Existence of a solution, stability and some observer design issues are shown. Simulations of a disinfection process a

  13. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. For surface and groundwater sourced drinking water applications, the U.S. Environmental...

  14. The effect of disinfectant agents in eliminating the contamination of dental unit water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of water-borne organisms cause multiple public health problems. Contamination of water exiting the dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of some disinfectants. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the effect of two disinfectants and to test their c

  15. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  16. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. For surface and groundwater sourced drinking water applications, the U.S. Environmental...

  17. [Microbiological assesssment of efficiency chemothermal disinfection of blood contaminated hospital textiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Podgórska, Marta; Chojecka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Thermal disinfection should be applied to laundering procedures of hospital textiles contaminated with blood. Currently, there is an increasing number of hospital textiles composed of cotton-polyester blends that cannot endure high temperatures of thermal disinfection. Besides, decreasing the temperature of chemothermal disinfection enhances the possibility of micro-organisms to survive the laundering procedure. The aim of this study was to prepare a new method for the microbiological evaluation of disinfecting laundering procedures for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. The bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection was determined by simulating a laundering procedure for hospital textiles in the laboratory according to procedure of National Institute of Hygiene - DF/05/03. Bioindicators cotton carriers inoculated with Enterococcus faecium were used for determinating the antibacterial effects for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. High concentrations of bovine albumin and/or sheep erythrocytes were used as substrate for simulating human blood. The results showed that the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection hospital textiles in the event of massive organic contamination--heavily soiled with blood, shall be evaluated using carrier test in following conditions: test organism- Enterococcus faecium, interfering substances--6 g/l bovine albumin solution added to preparation.

  18. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  19. A microbiological evaluation of level of disinfection for flexible cystoscopes protected by disposable endosheaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Hjorth; Slotsbjerg, Torsten; Westh, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Flexible cystoscopy is used in urological outpatient departments for diagnostic cystoscopy of bladder cancer and requires a high-level disinfection between each patient. The purpose of this study was to make a microbiological post disinfection efficacy assessment of flexible cystoscopes (FC) using...

  20. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION AND CONTROL BY OZONATION AND BIOTREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing interest in using ozone in water treatment because it is a strong disinfectant and is able to oxidize the precursors of some disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, ozonation itself produces DBPs, like aldehydes and ketones, and increases the concentration ...

  1. 40 CFR 142.64 - Variances and exemptions from the requirements of part 141, subpart H-Filtration and Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of part 141, subpart H-Filtration and Disinfection. 142.64 Section 142.64 Protection of...—Filtration and Disinfection. (a) No variances from the requirements in part 141, subpart H are permitted. (b) No exemptions from the requirements in § 141.72 (a)(3) and (b)(2) to provide disinfection are...

  2. Assessing the risk of disease transmission to patients when there is a failure to follow recommended disinfection and sterilization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2013-05-01

    Medical devices that enter body tissues should be sterile, whereas devices that contact mucous membranes should be high-level disinfected between patients. Failure to ensure proper cleaning and sterilization or disinfection may lead to patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens. This paper describes a protocol that can guide an institution in managing potential disinfection and sterilization failures.

  3. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system must...

  4. Comparison of electrochemical method with ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination in drinking water disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongna, E-mail: lihongna@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu Xiuping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren, E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > Electrochemical, O{sub 3}, NaClO and NH{sub 2}Cl were compared at respective optimal condition. > Disinfection efficacy was similar for different bacteria in electrolysis. > Harsh Bacillus was inactivated more difficult in O{sub 3}, NaClO and NH{sub 2}Cl system. > Efficient disinfection of electrolysis was attributed to nonselectivity of {center_dot}OH. > Cell surface damage was more obvious in electrochemical process than the others. - Abstract: Electrochemical process in chloride-free electrolytes was proved to be powerful in disinfection due to the strong oxidants produced in the electrolysis and no formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, disinfection experiments were conducted by electrochemical treatment compared with ordinary and advanced methods (ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination), with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) A106, Bacillus subtilis (BST) and an isolated Bacillus as the representative microorganisms. Firstly, factor tests were performed on E. coli to obtain the optimal conditions of the four disinfection procedures. At their respective optimal condition, CT (concentration of disinfectant x contact time) value of a 4-log E. coli inactivation was 33.5, 1440, 1575, 1674 mg min L{sup -1} for electrochemical process, ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination, respectively. It was demonstrated that the disinfection availability was in the following order: electrochemical process > ozonation > chlorination > monochloramination, which could be attributed to the hydroxyl radical generated in the electrolysis, with strong oxidizing ability and non-selectivity compared with the other three disinfectants. Moreover, the disinfection efficacy of the four disinfection procedures was compared for four different bacteria. It was found that the disinfection efficacy was similar for the selected four bacteria in electrochemical process, while in the other three treatments

  5. Disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm contaminated tube lumens with ultraviolet C light emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, S.D.; Tvede, M.

    2010-01-01

    , however, be applied to obtain 99.9% disinfection rates. The major reason was that besides cells the mature biofilm contained absorbing and scattering particulates, which made the biofilm opaque. The potential of UVC light emitting diodes ( LED) for disinfection purposes in catheter-like tubes contaminated...... with biofilm was investigated. It was shown that UVC light propagation was possible through both Teflon and catheter tubes ( silicone). The disinfection efficiency of the diodes was demonstrated on tubes contaminated artificially with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. The tubes were connected to a flow system...... in the range of 5 x 10(5)-1.3 x 10(9) CFU ml(-1), with disinfection rates in the range 96-100%. The applied UVC doses corresponded to treatment times between 15 and 300 min. Disinfection (100%) was obtained in 10 cm Teflon tubes exposed for 30 min (detection limit...

  6. Disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm contaminated tube lumens with ultraviolet C light emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D; Tvede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    , however, be applied to obtain 99.9% disinfection rates. The major reason was that besides cells the mature biofilm contained absorbing and scattering particulates, which made the biofilm opaque. The potential of UVC light emitting diodes (LED) for disinfection purposes in catheter-like tubes contaminated...... with biofilm was investigated. It was shown that UVC light propagation was possible through both Teflon and catheter tubes (silicone). The disinfection efficiency of the diodes was demonstrated on tubes contaminated artificially with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. The tubes were connected to a flow system...... in the range of 5 x 10(5)-1.3 x 10(9) CFU ml(-1), with disinfection rates in the range 96-100%. The applied UVC doses corresponded to treatment times between 15 and 300 min. Disinfection (100%) was obtained in 10 cm Teflon tubes exposed for 30 min (detection limit...

  7. Effects of water matrix on virus inactivation using common virucidal techniques for condensate urine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-10-01

    Three common virucidal techniques (chlorine, UV and UV/TiO2) were applied to inactivate virus (MS2 and Phi X174) in condensate water after the evaporation of source-separated urine for reclaimed water. The inactivation efficiencies were compared with the results of previous studies, with the emphasis on the analysis of water matrix effects. Results showed that all virus inactivation in condensate water were lower than the control (in sterilized DI water). As for UV/TiO2 disinfection, both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen could promote slightly viral inactivation, while the inhibition by urea was dominant. Similarly, ammonia nitrogen had greater impacts on chlorine disinfection than urea and nitrate. In contrast, all water matrices (urea, nitrate and ammonia nitrogen) had little influence on UV disinfection. Based on the findings in this study, UV disinfection could be recommended for disinfecting the reclaimed water from the evaporation of source-separated urine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to liquid disinfectants on contaminated surfaces before formation of biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    2000-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of popular disinfectants (Cavicide, Cidexplus, Clorox, Exspor, Lysol, Renalin, and Wavicide) under conditions prescribed for disinfection in the respective product labels on Pseudomonas aeruginosa either in suspension or deposited onto surfaces of metallic or polymeric plastic devices. The testing also included 7 nonformulated germicidal agents (glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, phenol, and cupric ascorbate) commonly used in disinfection and decontamination. Results showed that P. aeruginosa is on average 300-fold more resistant when present on contaminated surfaces than in suspension. This increase in resistance agrees with results reported in studies of biofilms, but unexpectedly, it precedes biofilm formation. The surface to which bacteria are attached can influence the effectiveness of disinfectants. Viable bacteria attached to devices may require dislodging through more than a one-step method for detection. The data, obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test, suggest that disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  9. [Surface disinfection in the context of infection prevention in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, A; Schaber, S; Kipp, F

    2013-03-01

    The highest proportion of nosocomial infections occurs on intensive care units (ICU) and infections with multiresistant pathogens are an ever increasing problem. Preventative measures should consist of a bundle of different measures including measures that address a specific problem and standard hygiene measures that are relevant in all areas. Specific measures in ICUs primarily aim at the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia, blood vessel catheter associated infections and nosocomial urinary tract infections. Surface disinfection belongs to the standard hygiene measures and plays an inferior role compared to hand hygiene; however, surfaces come into focus in outbreak situations. The Commission on Hospital Hygiene (KRINKO) at the Robert Koch Institute (the German health protection agency) published recommendations regarding the cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. The frequency with which cleaning and/or disinfection is required varies according to defined areas of risk. The frequency and the disinfection agents used are documented in the disinfection plan.

  10. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  11. Is pomegranate peels infusion effective for disinfection of toothbrushes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lima de Luna FREIRE

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Methods of decontamination or sanitization of toothbrushes have been questioned. Objective This study assessed the effectiveness of pomegranate peels infusion as a disinfectant of toothbrushes against Streptococcus mutans. Material and method A sample of 16 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years performed brushing 5 days/week, with a careful brushing once a day. After each day of brushing, the toothbrushes were washed and sprayed with one disinfectant solution. This procedure was repeated for 4 weeks using one of the different solutions per week: distilled water (G1; negative control, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn peels infusion (G2, 1% sodium hypochlorite (G3 and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (G4. After the fifth day, toothbrushes were collected for laboratory analysis. Toothbrushes heads were subjected to agitation in saline dilution of 10–1, 10–2,10–3, and 25 μL of each dilution were seeded in mitis salivarius agar culture medium for S. mutans colony-forming unit (CFU counting. One calibrated examiner (Kappa = 0.91 performed the CFU (mL–1 × 104 counts. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests were used at a significance level of 5%. Result G1 presented the highest number of CFU (3.9 ± 8.4, followed by G2 (3.2 ± 4.0. No S. mutans growth was observed in G3 and G4. There was no statistically significant difference between G1 and G2 and between G3 and G4 (p>0.05. Conclusion Pomegranate infusion was completely ineffective for the disinfection of toothbrushes against S. mutans when compared with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solutions.

  12. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  13. Evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger F Rabenau

    Full Text Available Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5 and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA, with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested.

  14. New non-alcoholic formulation for hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Marco; Giachetti, Daniela; Miraldi, Elisabetta; Figura, Natale

    2014-04-01

    Hand washing is considered as the single most important strategy to prevent infections. World health organization (WHO) defines hand hygiene as a primary issue of personal care with particular reference to hospital personnel and health facility workers. In this work, we investigated a new combination for hand disinfection as an alternative to alcohol-based and chlorhexidine products. The new combination of 5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CS) was tested upon different bacterial species that normally colonize hands, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MR S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis, multidrug resistant S. epidermidis (MDR S. epidermidis), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and three clinical isolates: MR S. aureus, MDR S. epidermidis, and an E. coli strain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices, and fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) indices were evaluated. Ethanol 70% V/V, isopropanol 60% V/V, and 4% w/V chlorhexidine solution were used as reference hand disinfectants. Copper sulphate pentahydrate was very effective against all tested microorganisms: The MIC and MBC for CS ranged from 781 mg/l against S. pyogenes to 12500 mg/l against E. coli strains and C. albicans. In addition, PCA exhibited a good antimicrobial activity, in particular, against S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae. The combination of CS and PCA showed a strong synergistic effect and all FIC indices were ≤0·500. The combination of CS and PCA were more effective than ethanol 70% V/V and isopropanol 60% V/V. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the new formulation possesses peculiar features such as residual activity and moisturizing effect. This work identifies a new strategy for hand disinfection.

  15. EFFICACY OF NOVEL WATER DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES IN HORTICULTURAL NUTRIENT RECYCLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heungens, K; Clierinck, M; Inghelbrecht, S; Vissers, M

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponic systems used for growing potted ornamentals in greenhouses are commonly ebb-and-flow irrigation systems. The drainage water is usually recycled to save water and nutrients. To avoid the spread of pathogens in these closed irrigation systems, disinfection of the recycled water is standard practice. Growers can use slow sand filtration or UV-radiation techniques, but these methods are often either not sulted for specific problems or they require an excessively large investment. The objective of this study was to test less expensive but effective alternative disinfection systems. The efficacy of five disinfection systems against fungi and oomycetes was determined: Aqua-Hort (based on Cu-ions), Reciclean (performic acid), D1-OX Forte (CIO2), ECA (electrochemically activated water = anodic oxidation: hypochlorite and free radicals) and Newtec (also anodic oxidation). These five systems and a no-sterilization control were integrated in small closed ebb-and-flow circuits with nutrient solution reservoirs of 400 L each. Activity against Fusarium was excellent with ECA, good with Newtec and DI-OX Forte, moderate with high doses of Reciclean (250 ppm H2O2 and poor with the Aqua-Hort. There was no Pythium in the ECA and Newtec systems, while still so in the Aqua-Hort system, even at high doses (up to 7 ppm Cu++). Although the Reciclean (up to 100 ppm H2O2) and Aqua-Hort systems did not perform well against the pathogens, they did very well against algae; especially Reciclean was also useful against duckweed in water and liverwort on soil substrates. Concentrations of total Cl were elevated in water, substrate and plants after treatments with ECA and Newtec; other accumulations were Cu (Aqua-Hort), Na and SO4 (DI-OX Forte). However, only on a limited number of plant species these accumulations produced phytotoxic effects.

  16. Activity of disinfectants and biofilm production of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da C.A. Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats on farms of Pernambuco, Brazil, and in animals slaughtered in two Brazilian cities (Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, and to characterize the susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to disinfectants and antimicrobials, and its relationship with biofilm production were the objectives of this study. 398 samples were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, disinfectants, and biofilm production. Among the 108 samples collected on the properties, 75% were positive for C. pseudotuberculosis. Slaughterhouse samples indicated an occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in 15.66% and 6.31% for animals slaughtered in Petrolina and Juazeiro respectively. With respect to antimicrobials, the sensitivity obtained was 100% for florfenicol and tetracycline; 99.25% for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and lincomycin; 98.99% for cephalothin; 98.74% for norfloxacin and sulfazotrim; 97.74% for gentamicin; 94.22% for ampicillin; 91.71% for amoxicillin; 91.21% for penicillin G; 89.19% for neomycin and 0% for novobiocin. In analyzes with disinfectants, the efficiency for chlorhexidine was 100%, 97.20% for quaternary ammonium, 87.40% for chlorine and 84.40% for iodine. 75% of the isolates were weak or non-biofilm producers. For the consolidated biofilm, found that iodine decreased biofilm formation in 13 isolates and quaternary ammonia in 11 isolates. The reduction of the biofilm formation was observed for iodine and quaternary ammonium in consolidated biofilm formation in 33% and 28% of the isolates, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing measures to prevent and control the disease.

  17. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Geist, David R.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.

    2013-04-04

    Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods – 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV

  19. Dimensional stability of an addition silicone after disinfection/sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, J; Martins, F.; Reis, J.; Maurício, P.; Félix, S.

    2015-01-01

    Poster presented at the “From Basic Sciences to Clinical Research” – First International Congress of CiiEM. Egas Moniz, Caparica, Portugal, 27-28 November 2015 "Dental impressions play a key role in clinical practice, and it is crucial to know the impact of disinfection or sterilization on it. The success of oral rehabilitation depends on the accuracy and reproducibility of the oral impressions [1,2,3]. The addition silicones and polyethers tend to be used most frequently for its physical ...

  20. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.