WorldWideScience

Sample records for premieres contenant naturellement

  1. Postface : La gestion des risques naturels est une dynamique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaboyedoff, M.; Charriere, M.K.M.; Derron, M.H.; Nicolet, P.; Sudmeier-Rieux, K.

    2013-01-01

    Les risques sont contrôlés par de nombreux facteurs dont, en premier lieu, les dangers, exprimés par leur fréquence (aléa) à une intensité donnée, mais aussi relativement à un fonctionnement de la société. La gestion des risques, liés aux dangers naturels, implique de les évaluer, en premier lieu,

  2. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  3. Le Gaz Naturel Véhicule Natural Gas for Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Chauveron S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente le GNV (Gaz Naturel Véhicule. Le GNV a en effet de sérieux atouts, à la fois comme carburant de substitution et comme carburant propre. Ces atouts sont aussi bien économiques que techniques. La première partie est consacrée aux enjeux du développement du GNV. Les premiers pays utilisateurs ont été ceux qui disposent sur leur sol de ressources de gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, alors que de nombreux pays doivent faire face à l'inquiétude croissante relative à l'augmentation de la pollution urbaine, le gaz naturel apparaît également comme un carburant propre, permettant de réduire rapidement les émissions de polluants des véhicules. Dans une deuxième partie, nous donnons une description technique sommaire des stations GNV et des véhicules GNV. Il s'agit de familiariser le lecteur avec les quelques spécificités techniques du GNV, par rapport à l'essence et au gazole. On constatera d'ailleurs que les technologies GNV sont très proches des technologies classiques. Enfin, la dernière partie est consacrée aux actions en cours, qui permettront le développement du GNV en France et en Europe : programmes de recherche, réduction des coûts de la filière, actions réglementaires, communication, etc. This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG, which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical description is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with

  4. Risques naturels en montagne et analyse spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Manche

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de risque repose sur deux notions :l'aléa, qui représente le phénomène physique par son amplitude et sa période retour ;la vulnérabilité, qui représente l'ensemble des biens et des personnes pouvant être touchés par un phénomène naturel.Le risque se définit alors comme le croisement de ces deux notions. Cette vision théorique permet de modéliser indépendamment les aléas et la vulnérabilité.Ce travail s'intéresse essentiellement à la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité dans la gestion des risques naturels. Son évaluation passe obligatoirement par une certaine analyse spatiale qui prend en compte l'occupation humaine et différentes échelles de l'utilisation de l'espace. Mais l'évaluation spatiale, que ce soit des biens et des personnes, ou des effets indirects se heurte à de nombreux problèmes. Il faut estimer l'importance de l'occupation de l'espace. Par ailleurs, le traitement des données implique des changements constants d'échelle pour passer des éléments ponctuels aux surfaces, ce que les systèmes d'information géographique ne gèrent pas parfaitement. La gestion des risques entraîne de fortes contraintes d'urbanisme, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité permet de mieux comprendre et gérer les contraintes spatiales qu'impliquent les risques naturels. aléa, analyse spatiale, risques naturels, S.I.G., vulnérabilité

  5. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  6. Péri-urbanisation et risques naturels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Astrade

    2009-03-01

    d’instabilités multiples. La périurbanisation au sein de bassins montagnards aux versants instables pose des problèmes spécifiques auxquels les acteurs locaux tentent de faire face. Le bassin du Lavanchon (sud-est de Grenoble, qui combine un accroissement urbain très rapide et des versants particulièrement dynamiques est représentatif de ce rapprochement entre les aléas et les activités. L’étude diachronique de l’évolution de l’utilisation du sol entre 1956 et 2001 montre la densification des infrastructures dans la vallée et au bas des versants. Dans ce contexte, une enquête a été réalisée auprès d’un certain nombre de résidents du bassin du Lavanchon dans le but l’évaluer le degré de conscience que les populations ont des risques naturels auxquels ils sont exposés. Les résultats montrent qu’un peu plus de la moitié de la population interrogée a conscience de la problématique des risques naturels sur ce territoire, plutôt marquée selon la plupart des habitants par les risques industriels et de pollution. Les nouveaux résidants ignorent ou occultent la réalité des risques. La faible fréquence d’événements naturels marquants, l’efficacité des ouvrages de protection réalisés, l’absence d’informations de la part des pouvoirs publics et le morcellement du bassin entre plusieurs gestionnaires semble avoir généré un sentiment de sécurité par rapport aux phénomènes naturels. La répartition géographique de cette appréhension du risque montre clairement une distinction entre les habitants de la plaine et ceux des bas de versants, qui correspond assez bien à la localisation historique et actuelle des principaux aléas.

  7. Formation and evolution of aerosols in filtered air and in natural air. Effect of radioactivity; Formation et evolution des aerosols dans l'air filtre et dans l'air naturel action de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madelaine, G J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Results are presented concerning the formation, the evolution, the coagulation and the electrical charge of aerosols which form in natural filtered air containing only gaseous impurities, under the influence of solar light (photolysis) and of radioactive disintegrations (radiolysis). The modifications brought about in the aerosol by an increase in the sulphur dioxide content and in the natural radioactive gas content are studied. The work is then repeated with non-filtered natural atmospheric air. A comparison is also made of the behaviour of non-radioactive and radioactive particles (active thoron deposit). In conclusion, the possible consequences of these phenomena on the origin and the size distribution of particles occurring in the atmosphere is considered. (author) [French] On expose les resultats obtenus sur la formation, l'evolution, la coagulation et la charge electrique des aerosols qui se forment dans l'air naturel filtre, ne contenant que des impuretes gazeuses, sous l'influence de la lumiere solaire (photolyse) et des desintegrations radioactives (radiolyse). On examine les modifications apportees a l'aerosol forme par l'augmentation de la teneur de l'air en anhydride sulfureux et en gaz radioactif naturel. Cette etude est ensuite reprise mais avec de l'air naturel atmospherique non filtre. On compare egalement le comportement des particules non radioactives et radioactives (depot actif du thoron). En conclusion, on examine les consequences que peuvent avoir ces phenomenes sur l'origine et la granulometrie des particules contenues dans l'atmosphere. (auteur)

  8. Etude, consolidation et protection de caoutchouc naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Duboisset

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un exemplaire d’un fauteuil MAA de George Nelson produit en 1958 a été restauré dans l’atelier mobilier du département des restaurateurs de l’Institut National du Patrimoine. Ce fauteuil est un exemple très représentatif du modernisme américain par sa simplicité des formes et  son esthétisme recherché. Les articulations du dossier en caoutchouc naturel sont fortement fissurées suite à une exposition à la lumière couplée à l’utilisation du fauteuil. Un protocole technico-scientifique a permis d’établir une méthode de comblement réversible des fissures à l’aide d’éthylène vinyle acétate, résine thermoplastique souple. Ce procédé a été appliqué sur les caoutchoucs du fauteuil afin de redonner une cohérence mécanique aux pièces.A MAA chair of George Nelson dating of 1958 was restored in the workshop of furniture in the department of restoration at the National institute of heritage. This chair is a very representative example of American modernism by its simplicity of form and its refine style. The articulation of the back is composed with natural rubber. These are highly cracked due to exposure to light and coupled with the use of the chair. A protocol on scientific-technical established a reversible method of filling cracks with ethylene vinyl acetate with anti-oxidant, soft thermoplastic resin. This method has been applied on the rubber chair to give mechanical coherence to the parts and to the chair.

  9. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  10. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  11. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  12. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  13. Management and marketing of sporting events: Nike Premier Cup Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nedbal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...

  14. Recent and future developments at the Regie du gaz naturel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, J.

    1995-01-01

    The history of the Quebec Regie du gaz naturel, dating back to 1932, and its role in distributing natural gas in Quebec was described. Among more recent developments construction of a natural gas distribution system on the south shore of Quebec City was discussed. Unlinked mini-systems were built in St-Romuald and Levis. Gas was delivered by truck until an underwater crossing was completed. The federal-provincial infrastructures program was also summarized. The most important ruling by the Regie was the D-94-19 decision on GMi's supply policy and the concept of u mbrella buy-sell . Although this policy was originally approved by the Regie, after consideration of all factors, it was decided that this system was not in line with the deregulation trend and that buyers and sellers could do without GMi's intrusion in their contractual agreements. Issues to be addressed by the Regie in the coming months included transportation service, unbundling, cost allocation and rate of return adjustments mechanism in regards to the recent National Energy Board (NEB) decision on the subject, and separation of (LDC) distribution activities from LDC sales

  15. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Koechlin, J C; Moreau, J; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'ajustements sont necessaires, or ceux-ci ne peuvent donner d'efficacite dans la prevision que s'ils recouvrent un nombre suffisant de resultats experimentaux. On a donc cherche a la fois a rattacher etroitement les mesures entre elles et a les recouper par des formules se deduisant logiquement les unes des autres. Le principal souci a ete celui de la coherence. On donne les regles de calcul qui ont ete utilisees pour ce travail interpretatif. Dans un premier temps, on emploie des formules simples; on s'attache en premier lieu aux barres pleines et on ajuste {eta} et les integrales effectives; on cherche ensuite a transposer les calculs au cas des barreaux plus complexes. Dans un deuxieme temps, on s'efforce d'ameliorer l'ensemble en etudiant plus en detail chaque facteur du calcul de reseau. Une interpretation satisfaisante des resultats conduit en definitive a des methodes de calcul applicables aux reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde les plus varies. On a tenu compte des resultats obtenus dans d'autres pays, notamment au Canada. (auteur)

  16. Natural uranium lattice in heavy water; Reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y.; Koechlin, J.C.; Moreau, J.; Naudet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    calcul, on estime qu'un certain nombre d'ajustements sont necessaires, or ceux-ci ne peuvent donner d'efficacite dans la prevision que s'ils recouvrent un nombre suffisant de resultats experimentaux. On a donc cherche a la fois a rattacher etroitement les mesures entre elles et a les recouper par des formules se deduisant logiquement les unes des autres. Le principal souci a ete celui de la coherence. On donne les regles de calcul qui ont ete utilisees pour ce travail interpretatif. Dans un premier temps, on emploie des formules simples; on s'attache en premier lieu aux barres pleines et on ajuste {eta} et les integrales effectives; on cherche ensuite a transposer les calculs au cas des barreaux plus complexes. Dans un deuxieme temps, on s'efforce d'ameliorer l'ensemble en etudiant plus en detail chaque facteur du calcul de reseau. Une interpretation satisfaisante des resultats conduit en definitive a des methodes de calcul applicables aux reseaux uranium naturel-eau lourde les plus varies. On a tenu compte des resultats obtenus dans d'autres pays, notamment au Canada. (auteur)

  17. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  18. Dosage du mercure dans le gaz naturel par absorption atomique sans flammes Mercury Titration in Natural Gas by Flameless Atomic Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Villa F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthode mise au point par l'Institut Français du Pétrole pour déterminer par absorption atomique sans flamme, les traces de mercure métallique contenu dans un gaz naturel. La méthode d'analyse nécessite une extraction du mercure soit sous forme d'ion mercurique en faisant passer le gaz dans une solution oxydante, soit sous forme d'amalgame avec de l'or ou de l'argent. Le premier mode opératoire s'applique aux échantillons dont la concentration en mercure est supérieure à I ttg/Nm3, le second pour des concentrations inférieures à 5 pg/Nm3. Les seuils de détection sont respectivement 10 ng (en solution et 0,3 ng (en amalgame. La répétabilité pour 100 ng de mercure (en amalgame est de ± 7% pour une probabilité de.95 %. En conclusion, dans un échantillon de gaz naturel, compte tenu du volume des prélèvements effectués, il est possible de détecter des concentrations de l'ordre du nanogramme de mercure par mètre cube de gaz. This article describes the method developed by IFP using flameless atomic absorption to determine metallic mercury traces in a natural gas. The analyst method requires a mercury extraction either in the form of mercuric ions by making the gas pass through an oxidizing solution or in the form of an amalgam with gold or silver. The former operating method applies ta samples having a mercury concentration greater than I !ag/Nm3, and the latter for concentrations smaller than 5 (-Lg/Nm3. Detection thresholds are respectively 10 ng (in solution and 0.3 ng (in amalgam. The repeatability for 100 ng of mercury (in amalgam is ± 7 % with a probability of 95%. To conclude, in a sample of natural gas, considering the volume of the samples taken, it is possible ta detect concentrations in the vicinity of one nanogrom of mercury per cubic meter of gas.

  19. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molbert, M; Sauve, A; Houelle, M; Deilgat, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    slightly with the concentration. On other part, a good agreement was been noticed between those results and the calculations (CEA Report 2488). (authors) [French] La Station de criticite de Dijon dispose de trois cellules, protegees par des murs de beton de 1 m 46 d'epaisseur, servant a abriter les appareillages destines aux experiences de criticite. Le batiment comprend egalement: un atelier de preparation des solutions de plutonium, un laboratoire d'analyses, des stockages de solutions actives, des salles de controle accolees aux cellules. L'une des cellules est occupee par l'appareillage B a l'aide duquel il est prevu d'etudier: des cylindres annulaires, une plaque de 100 mm d'epaisseur et l'interaction de plusieurs recipients cylindriques. Le present rapport groupe les premiers resultats obtenus sur des cylindres annulaires definis par leur geometrie (diametre exterieur et diametre interieur de l'anneau contenant la solution de plutonium). Ces resultats ont ete rassembles sous forme de courbes H{sub c} et M{sub c} = f (c) (ou H{sub c} = hauteur critique, M{sub c} = masse critique et c = concentration en plutonium) pour plusieurs valeurs de la concentration (42,3 g/l < c < 104,1 g/l) et pour diverses conditions de reflexion (reflecteur d'eau interieur et exterieur, ecran de cadmium) et concernent: - des cylindres de 500 x 300; -- cylindre isole -- interaction entre deux cylindres - Dans ce cas particulier les courbes ont ete tracees pour trois concentrations en plutonium, elles donnent H{sub c} et M{sub c} en fonction de la distance entre recipients. - un cylindre de 500 x 200 isole: les resultats publies sont incomplets, les experiences n'etant pas terminees a la date du present rapport. De ces divers resultats ont ete tires les renseignements suivants: - effet d'ecran de l'eau dans la cavite centrale superieure a l'effet de reflexion. Cet effet est accru par une feuille de cadmium plaquee sur la paroi. - des courbes d'interaction 'normalisees' {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c

  20. Policy Advice to Alberta’s New Premier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On September 6th, 2014, members of the Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta elected Jim Prentice as leader of their party, and Premier of Alberta. The School of Public Policy assembled its key thinkers in economic, taxation, energy and natural resource policy to provide unsolicited but important advice to Premier Prentice on some areas of policy that matter most to Alberta, and that will demand the Premier’s attention as he takes office. These are opinion pieces, are not peer reviewed, and reflect the views of their authors alone.

  1. The Role of Internet in Marketing Premiering Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohimaa, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find out about the role of Internet today in premiering movie marketing and whether Internet is a good tool for it. The hope was to obtain new information provided by moviegoers and to contribute something useful to the art of marketing premiering movies. This thesis was a part of the School of Business and Information Management's Innomajakka-project but did not have an official commissioner, so the topic for the thesis came from the writer's personal and ...

  2. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d'une contamination ou bien d'interpreter les resultats d

  3. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  4. Trichoberoard gastrique : Premier cas observe en milieu bur kina be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...

  5. Physiological response of one of South Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological response of one of South Africa's premier freshwater sport angling species, the Orange-Vaal smallmouth yellowfish Labeobarbus aeneus, ... These data suggest that catch-and-release causes physiological stress to fish, but nonetheless this practice can be a valuable fisheries management tool to ensure the ...

  6. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  7. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  8. Odométrie visuelle en milieu naturel pour les robots mobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Duperal, B.

    2013-01-01

    / Dans le cadre de ce stage, l'objectif est d'étudier les performances de la vision artificielle, pour permettre à un robot mobile de se localiser, en utilisant soit une caméra, soit un système de stéréovision, dans un environnement naturel (arbres, cultures, champs agricoles, bâtiments,...), suite à des pertes de signal GPS. La localisation de robots par vision artificielle nécessite de réaliser des opérations d'appariement de points invariants (détection d'amers, zones particulières sur ...

  9. The impact of dermatology in premier medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Meenal K; Ellis, Charles N

    2011-01-01

    In the past 15 years, research in dermatology has significantly increased. Dermatology-related contributions in premier medical journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) are the representation of our field in the medical world. To analyze this representation, incidence of dermatology-related contributions in NEJM and JAMA during 3 separate years (during a 15-year period) was calculated.

  10. Market Segmentation, Targeting, Dan Brand Positioning Dari Winston Premier Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Tania, Debby

    2014-01-01

    Sejak tahun 2012 mulai terasa bahwa bisnis properti mengalami kenaikan di Indonesia. Banyak masyarakat Indonesia berinvestasi pada properti karena dianggap aman dan menguntungkan. Sehingga muncul banyak produk properti baru di Indonesia. Perkembangan properti di Indonesia menjadi peluang besar bagi Agen Properti untuk dapat menjalankan bisnisnya. Winston Premier sebagai salah satu Agen properti di Surabaya Barat yang baru berdiri memerlukan strategi pemasaran yang tepat untuk digunakan guna b...

  11. Radio-vulcanization of natural rubber in the latex phase. Study of an experimental 1 tonne per hour production; Radio-vulcanisation du caoutchouc naturel en phase latex. Etude d'une production experimentale de 1 tonne par heure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P; Puig, J R; Roudeix, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After briefly reviewing the main research carried out on the radio-vulcanization of latex and elastomers, a description is given of 4 types of cell which have been used successively with a view to industrial irradiation. They have made it possible to acquire the information necessary for resolving the main problem arising during irradiation - the formation of coagulum. The first two cell are designed for irradiation by a horizontal beam ('Dynamitron'), the two others use a vertical beam ('Circe'). The study of the properties of the rubber obtained shows it to compare favorably with 'Revultex'. In the appendix are given some characteristics of natural latex and information about its processing. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel des principales etudes sur la radio-vulcanisation du latex et des elastomeres, on decrit les quatre types de cellules successivement essayes en vue de l'irradiation industrielle. Ils ont permis d'acquerir les informations necessaires a la resolution du probleme principal pose par l'irradiation, la formation de coagulum au cours de celle,-ci. Les deux premiers sont concus pour l'irradiation par un faisceau horizontal ('Dynamitron'), les derniers par un faisceau vertical ('Circe'). L'etude des proprietes du caoutchouc obtenu montre qu'il se compare favorablement au 'Revultex'. Un apercu est donne en annexe des caracteristiques du latex naturel et de sa mise en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  12. Terapia por contensão induzida: revisão de ensaios clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lidiane de Araújo; Tamashiro,Vanessa; Assis,Rodrigo Deamo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A Terapia por Contensão Induzida (TCI) é uma terapêutica que visa à recuperação da função do membro superior (MS) parético de pacientes com sequelas de um acidente vascular cerebral por meio de treinamento intensivo, uso de uma restrição no MS não-parético durante 90% do dia e pelo pacote de transferência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar uma revisão entre os estudos que compararem a TCI com outras terapêuticas. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de da...

  13. 113 Étude de la qualité des eaux épurées par le lagunage naturel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sam

    Mots-clés : lagunage naturel, performances, eaux usées, Algérie. Abstract ... domaine de l'irrigation agricole. Le ratio entre les ... traitement biologique : Cette filière est composée de six bassins, qui sont réparties suivant trois étages : • .

  14. Market size and attendance in English Premier League football

    OpenAIRE

    Buraimo, B; Simmons, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper models the impacts of market size and team competition for fan base on matchday attendance in the English Premier League over the period 1997-2004 using a large panel data set. We construct a comprehensive set of control variables and use tobit estimation to overcome the problems caused by sell-out crowds. We also account for unobserved influences on attendance by means of random effects attached to home teams. Our treatment of market size, with its use of Geographical Information ...

  15. Le risque naturel, l'élu et l'ingénieur dans les Pyrénées Ariégeoises

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine , Jean-Marc; Desailly , Bertrand

    1998-01-01

    International audience; En France, comme dans la plupart des pays alpins, la gestion des risques naturels est confiée à un service d'Etat spécialisé : le service de Restauration des Terrains en montagne (RTM). De ce fait, ce service est devenu l'interlocuteur privilégié des élus et des collectivités locales en matière de risques naturels spécifiques à la montagne.

  16. Terapia por Contensão Induzida (TCI em adolescentes com hemiparesia espástica: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Macruz Garcia

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Terapia por Contensão Induzida (TCI é um protocolo terapêutico que visa diminuir a assimetria de uso dos membros superiores. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da TCI em dois adolescentes, com paralisia cerebral hemiparética (PCH. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dois adolescentes com PCH, de 12 e 14 anos de idade, receberam aplicação de TCI por três horas diárias durante três semanas. Este estudo apresentou desenho ABA experimental, com um mês de seguimento. Os adolescentes foram avaliados com a Teenager Motor Activity Log (TMAL e o Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT; o avaliador esteve independente da intervenção e cegado quanto à ordem das avaliações. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora na quantidade, qualidade e espontaneidade de uso após a aplicação da TCI segundo a escala da TMAL. Os dois pacientes apresentaram diminuição no tempo de execução das tarefas do WMFT e foi observada também melhora na habilidade funcional. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra efeitos positivos da TCI em adolescentes com PCH. Ressalta-se, no entanto, que se fazem necessários ensaios clínicos para confirmar a eficácia da intervenção nessa população.

  17. Terapia por contensão induzida: revisão de ensaios clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane de Araújo Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Terapia por Contensão Induzida (TCI é uma terapêutica que visa à recuperação da função do membro superior (MS parético de pacientes com sequelas de um acidente vascular cerebral por meio de treinamento intensivo, uso de uma restrição no MS não-parético durante 90% do dia e pelo pacote de transferência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar uma revisão entre os estudos que compararem a TCI com outras terapêuticas. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE, SciELOo e ISI Web of Science com o descritor "constraint induced movement therapy" durante o mês de junho de 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados seis artigos onde a TCI foi comparada com os métodos Bobath e Kabat. Discussão: Dentre os artigos encontrados, percebemos que há uma variação entre as amostras de cada estudo, assim como o método de avaliação entre as terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: A TCI mostrou-se superior em relação às outras terapêuticas.

  18. SIG et risques naturels: le glissement de terrain de Séchilienne (Isère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre ASTÉ

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available À Séchilienne (massif de l’Oisans s’est produit un glissement de terrain qui, selon les experts, peut devenir glissement de versant entier. Leurs scénarios ont été traduits cartographiquement en un SIG qui, malgré ses limites, constitue un premier outil de prise de conscience et d’aide à la décision.

  19. artographie des risques naturels dans les Pyrénées et sur leur piémont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc ANTOINE

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches menées par le CIMA URA-366 sur les risques naturels dans les Pyrénées privilégient leur dimension historique et l’étude des contextes socio-écologiques dans lesquels ils s’inscrivent. Cette approche novatrice débouche sur une cartographie historique des phénomènes, conjugant plusieurs niveaux d’analyse spatiotemporels.

  20. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  1. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants; Perspectives a long terme des couts de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Tailles et localisations optimales des usines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C; Vaumas, P de [Saint-Gobain Nucleaire, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1964-07-01

    processing plants are shown, different from those in part two. The indirect effect of these reprocessing programmes on the availability of plutonium, and therefore on the possibility.of undertaking plutonium burning reactor programmes, must be taken into account. (authors) [French] L'objet de cette communication est d'apporter une contribution a la solution du probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des combustibles nucleaires irradies, associees a des programmes de puissance electrique installee. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie la structure des couts d'investissements et d'exploitation des usines de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie, l'influence de la taille des usines sur ces couts et ces structures de couts. Au cout de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie s'ajoute d'autre part le cout du transport des combustibles irradies des lieux de production aux sites des usines de traitement. La recherche du cout minimum pour la production d'un pays ou d'un ensemble de pays fait donc intervenir a la fois la taille et la localisation des usines. On indique les couts de transport previsibles pour l'uranium naturel irradie et la structure de ces couts (transport, assurance, couts et amortissement des containers). Dans une deuxieme partie, et pour differents echeanciers de combustibles irradies a traiter chaque annee, on determine les tailles et les localisations optimales des usines de traitement et la sensibilite de ces resultats, aux hypotheses de base concernant le cout du traitement, le cout du transport, l'annee de demarrage du programme d'usines, l'horizon choisi. - le probleme de nature combinatoire, assez complexe, est resolu par l'application des methodes de la programmation dynamique. - on montre que les methodes sont egalement applicables au probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des elements du type MTR, associees aux programmes de reacteurs de recherche ainsi qu

  2. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  3. Les perspectives du gaz naturel dans le Monde World Natural Gas Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un monde en quête de diversification énergétique, le gaz naturel apparaît comme une source d'énergie particulièrement attrayante. Par son abondance, sa facilité de substitution aux produits pétroliers dans une gamme très large d'usages, il pourrait assurément jouer un rôle beaucoup plus important dans la couverture des besoins énergétiques mondiaux. Toutefois, de nombreux obstacles semblent devoir ralentir sa progression. Cet article dégage les grands paramètres techniques et économiques qui devraient conditionner le développement de l'industrie du gaz dans le monde et présente des perspectives d'évolution de sa production et de son commerce international d'ici à la fin du siècle. For a world in search of energy diversification, natural gas is a particularly attractive source. Its abundance and its facility for being substituted for petroleum products over a wide range of uses should certainly mean that it will play a much more important rote in filling world energy needs. Nonetheless, many obstacles are hindering its progress. This article outlines the leading technical and economic parameters which should influence the development of the world gas industry, and the prospects for its production and international trade evolution between now and the end of the century.

  4. Monitoring evaluation of a spillway pilaster for Premiere Chute Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, Louis; Kassem, Chakib [OSMOS Canada Inc., Montreal, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Premiere-Chute hydroelectric power station, commissioned in 1968, has four hydraulic turbines for a total of 130 MW. One of the pilasters of the dam weir, built with pre-stressed concrete, showed a crack at the level of the post-tension cable. This paper presented an evaluation of the behaviour of the pilaster in question, No. 9. The main goal was to prevent any disruption to the gate opening through adequate monitoring for a long term data follow-up. Six long-base OSMOS type optical sensors were installed on each face of the spillway pilaster. The behaviour of the No. 9 pilaster was then compared with that of other pilasters with respect to the effects of temperature and water level fluctuation in the dam. After the pilasters had been monitored for six months, it was found that No. 9 pilaster showed the least deformation of all. It was therefore concluded that the behaviour of this pilaster was normal.

  5. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Premiere partie: l'atelier de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y; Bataller, S; Ganivet, M; Guillet, H; Robillard, A; Stosskopf, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le premier d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides Rapsodie. Il comporte une etude detaillee des procedes de fabrication (pastilles, aiguilles, assemblages combustibles) et des methodes de controle associees (matieres premieres, pastilles et aiguilles en cours de fabrication, assemblages fissiles avant livraison), ainsi qu'une decription complete des installations de l'atelier de fabrication et les modifications apportees pour une deuxieme campagne. (auteur)

  6. Natural Gas Storage Seismic Monitoring Suivi sismique des stockages de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J.L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IFP Energies nouvelles, CGGVeritas and GDF Suez have conducted together, since 1980, a series of seismic monitoring experiments in order to detect and follow the movements of the gas plume in natural gas geologic storages. Surface and well seismic surveys were carried out at different stages of the storage life. Permanent receiver arrays have been set down in wells. Permanent sources have been designed. Sources and receivers have been used to follow continuously the storage cycle during several years, providing time measurement accuracy within a tenth of a millisecond. Gas intrusion into an aquifer leads to an increase in the arrival times of reflections beneath the storage reservoir and to a variation of the reflection amplitudes at top and bottom of the reservoirs. Progressive variations of the seismic parameters may be followed during the initial infill period. Further movements of the gas plume with the annual in/out cycles are more difficult to follow, because of the simultaneous presence of gas and water in the pores. Arrival time variations of some tenths of a millisecond may be detected and measured. Saturations, using accurate picking of the arrival times, can be estimated in favourable cases. Because of the higher density of carbon dioxide, when stored in a supercritical phase, sensitivity of the seismic parameters, velocity, density and acoustic impedance to saturation variations will be about twice smaller for CO2 storages than it is for methane. IFP Energies nouvelles, la CGGVeritas et GDF Suez ont mené ensemble, depuis 1980, de nombreuses expériences de monitoring sismique afin de détecter et de suivre les mouvements du gaz dans des stockages géologiques de gaz naturel. Des acquisitions ont été réalisées à différents stades de la vie du stockage tant en sismique de surface qu’en sismique de puits. Des antennes de récepteurs permanentes ont été construites et implantées dans des puits. Des sources permanentes ont

  7. Case-book of all decisions taken by the Regie du gaz naturel from April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precourt, L.; L'Heureux, L.

    1996-01-01

    All decisions taken by the Regie du gaz naturel du Quebec during the period of April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996 were presented. The case-book includes all legal decisions concerning the supply, transmission and storage of natural gas delivered or intended for delivery by pipeline distribution in the Province of Quebec. The text of the Act, amendments and revisions to the Act, and summaries of Board decisions are provided in French and English. Also included are a number of indexes for ease of reference and a glossary of relevant terms

  8. Comparação de parâmetros periodontais após utilização de contenção convencional 3x3 plana e contenção modificada Comparison of periodontal indexes after the use of conventional 3X3 plain retainer and modified retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Keiko Shirasu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como propósito comparar os parâmetros periodontais após a utilização de dois tipos de contenções ortodônticas fixas: contenção convencional 3x3 plana (fio ortodôntico 0,8mm retilíneo fixado apenas nos caninos contralaterais e a contenção modificada (fio ortodôntico 0,6mm com dobras permitindo o livre acesso do fio dental e fixado em todos os dentes do segmento anterior. METODOLOGIA: quinze voluntários primeiramente utilizaram a contenção convencional por seis meses. Após um intervalo de quinze dias, foi instalada a contenção modificada, utilizada pelo mesmo período de tempo. Antes de cada fase os voluntários passaram por raspagem e alisamento radicular dos dentes e orientação de higiene bucal. Ao final de cada fase os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: índice de placa dentária, índice gengival e índice de cálculo dentário. Além disso, foi realizada a mensuração do cálculo no fio da contenção e todos os voluntários responderam a um questionário sobre a utilização, aceitação e conforto dos dois tipos de contenções. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: foi observado que o índice de placa e o índice gengival foram maiores para a contenção modificada (pAIM: the purpose of the present study was to compare periodontal indexes after the use of two types of bonded fixed retainers: conventional 3x3 plain retainer (orthodontic wire 0.8mm, bonded to the canine teeth only and the modified retainer (0.6mm multi strand wire, allowing free access to dental floss and bonded to all anterior teeth. METHODS: a test group of fifteen patients used the conventional retainer for 6 months. After a two week interval, the modified retainer was used for another 6 months. Previous to each phase, the patients went through tooth scaling, root planing and oral hygiene orientation. At the end of each phase the dental plaque index, gingival index and dental calculus index were evaluated. Furthermore, the

  9. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    in order to show the advantages resulting from such developments in gas-graphite natural metallic uranium reactor systems; these are: a doubling of the specific and volume powers, and a three-fold reduction in the number of channels. The research now under way will make it possible to calculate the reduction in capital costs which will result from these important technical advances. (authors) [French] Le programme francais de centrales a graphite et uranium naturel s'est developpe, d'EDF 1 a EDF 4 - dans la voie d'un accroissement de la puissance unitaire des installations, de la puissance specifique et de la puissance volumique, et d'une amelioration des conditions de securite de fonctionnement. La puissance elevee d'EDF 4 (500 MWe) et l'integration du circuit primaire dans le caisson, lui-meme en beton precontraint, permettent ainsi de tirer le meilleur parti des elements combustibles tubulaires utilises des EDF 1, et d'arriver ainsi a une solution tres satisfaisante. L'emploi d'un element combustible refroidi interieurement (element annulaire) permet de faire un nouveau pas en avant: il devient alors possible d'augmenter la pression du gaz de refroidissement sans craindre le fluage du tube d'uranium. L'emploi d'un caisson en beton precontraint permet une telle augmentation de pression, et l'integration du circuit primaire elimine les risques d'une depressurisation rapide qui aurait presente dans ce cas un risque majeur. On aborde dans ce rapport les principaux problemes poses par ce nouveau type de centrale et on indique les grandes lignes des recherches et etudes effectuees en France: - Les etudes de neutronique et thermique ont permis d'envisager l'emploi d'elements combustibles de grandes dimensions (diametre interne = 77 mm, diametre externe = 95 mm), tout en conservant l'uranium naturel. - Les problemes de fabrication de ces elements, et de leur comportement en pile, font l'objet d'un programme important, tant hors pile que dans les piles de puissance (EDF 2

  10. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    in order to show the advantages resulting from such developments in gas-graphite natural metallic uranium reactor systems; these are: a doubling of the specific and volume powers, and a three-fold reduction in the number of channels. The research now under way will make it possible to calculate the reduction in capital costs which will result from these important technical advances. (authors) [French] Le programme francais de centrales a graphite et uranium naturel s'est developpe, d'EDF 1 a EDF 4 - dans la voie d'un accroissement de la puissance unitaire des installations, de la puissance specifique et de la puissance volumique, et d'une amelioration des conditions de securite de fonctionnement. La puissance elevee d'EDF 4 (500 MWe) et l'integration du circuit primaire dans le caisson, lui-meme en beton precontraint, permettent ainsi de tirer le meilleur parti des elements combustibles tubulaires utilises des EDF 1, et d'arriver ainsi a une solution tres satisfaisante. L'emploi d'un element combustible refroidi interieurement (element annulaire) permet de faire un nouveau pas en avant: il devient alors possible d'augmenter la pression du gaz de refroidissement sans craindre le fluage du tube d'uranium. L'emploi d'un caisson en beton precontraint permet une telle augmentation de pression, et l'integration du circuit primaire elimine les risques d'une depressurisation rapide qui aurait presente dans ce cas un risque majeur. On aborde dans ce rapport les principaux problemes poses par ce nouveau type de centrale et on indique les grandes lignes des recherches et etudes effectuees en France: - Les etudes de neutronique et thermique ont permis d'envisager l'emploi d'elements combustibles de grandes dimensions (diametre interne = 77 mm, diametre externe = 95 mm), tout en conservant l'uranium naturel. - Les problemes de fabrication de ces elements, et de leur comportement en pile

  11. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France; Quelques aspects economiques de la filiere uranium naturel - Graphite - gaz. Etat actuel et tendance des couts en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J; Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    reduction in investment costs can be obtained without relying on fuel enrichment, and that this development is accompanied moreover by improvements in the operational safety of the reactor. The economic aspects of the main technical problems entailed by these developments are discussed: loading and unloading machines, blowers etc... (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie, on situe l'interet economique de l'utilisation de l'uranium naturel comme combustible. Cet interet reside a la fois dans le nombre limite et la simplicite relative des operations de mise en forme des elements combustibles, dans le faible cout du produit fini par kwh et dans les immobilisations modestes en capital qu'implique ce cycle par rapport ou cycle de l'uranium enrichi. Tous ces elements permettent de reduire le caractere aleatoire des evaluations des couts, particulierement marque dans le cas de l'uranium enrichi, en raison de la complexite de son cycle et des incertitudes concernant le prix du plutonium. Enfin, la diversite des sources d'approvisionnement en concentre d'uranium naturel opposee au quasi monopole actuel de la separation isotopique, et le faible cout du stockage de ce concentre, offrent des garanties en matiere de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance economique et politique appreciables par rapport a l'uranium enrichi. En ce qui concerne l'ensemble des capitaux immobilises, on montre que si le cout des centrales au graphite-gaz est plus eleve que celui des centrales eau legere pour certaines gammes de puissance, ce resultat est fortement nuance des que l'on fait intervenir dans un souci d'independance nationale le cout de l'equipement de production des combustibles de l'une et l'autre filiere. Enfin, le cout marginal de la puissance du reacteur au graphite est faible, ses limitations technologiques ont considerablement recule (grace en particulier a l'utilisation du beton precontraint). On sait que la tendance actuelle est a l'accroissement de la puissance unitaire des

  12. Comparação de parâmetros periodontais após utilização de contenção ortodôntica com fio trançado e contenção modificada Comparison of periodontal parameters after the use of orthodontic multi-stranded wire retainers and modified retainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Azoia Lukiantchuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar dois tipos de contenções ortodônticas fixas, em relação a parâmetros periodontais estabelecidos. A contenção com fio trançado é a mais comumente utilizada e a contenção modificada apresenta dobras que têm a finalidade de permitir o livre acesso do fio dental às áreas interproximais. MÉTODOS: para esse estudo cruzado, foram selecionados 12 voluntários que utilizaram, por 6 meses, A Contenção com fio trançado e B Contenção modificada - sendo essas fixadas em todos os dentes do segmento anterior. Após esse período experimental, foram feitas as seguintes avaliações: Índice de Placa Dentária, Índice Gengival, Índice de Cálculo Dentário e Índice de Cálculo ao longo do fio de contenção. Os voluntários também responderam a um questionário com relação à utilização, conforto e higienização das contenções. RESULTADOS: foi observado que o índice de placa e o índice gengival foram maiores nas faces linguais (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare two types of fixed orthodontic retainers (a multi-stranded wire retainer and a modified retainer in relation to established periodontal parameters. The multi-stranded wire retainer is commonly used, and the modified retainer has bends to enable free access of dental floss to interproximal areas. METHODS: For this crossover study, 12 volunteers were selected and used the following retainers for six months: (A a multi-stranded wire retainer and (B a modified retainer. Both retainers were fixed to all anterior lower teeth.After this experimental period, the following evaluations were made: Dental Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Dental Calculus Index and Retainer Wire Calculus Index. The volunteers also responded to a questionnaire about the use, comfort and hygiene of the retainers. RESULTS: It was observed that the plaque index and the gingival index were higher on the lingual surface (p<0

  13. Marie-Eugénie Kaufmant, Poétique des espaces naturels dans la «Comedia nueva»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roquain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marie-Eugénie Kaufmant, Poétique des espaces naturels dans la «Comedia nueva», Casa de Velázquez (Bibliothèque de la Casa de Velázquez, 48, Madrid, 2010, 571 pp. ISBN: 978-84-96820-40-1.

  14. Gestion des risques naturels et prise en compte du développement durable : un lien équivoque. Le cas du sud grenoblois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Andres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article questionne la nature du lien envisageable entre risque naturel et développement durable à travers l’étude du territoire du sud grenoblois, soumis notamment à deux aléas naturels majeurs : le mouvement de terrain de grande ampleur dit des « Ruines de Séchilienne » et les probables crues de la Romanche et du Drac. Trois étapes structurent cette réflexion questionnant la transition supposée entre une gestion des risques naturels et une gestion durable des territoires soumis aux risques naturels : une association toute relative, un lien logique mais limité sur le terrain, une relation surtout indirecte. Les interactions identifiées, en termes législatifs mais aussi idéels et opérationnels, entre risque et durabilité se révèlent ainsi complexes et ne sont pas forcément explicites ; elles dépendent en particulier de multiples échelles territoriales (nationales à locales, confrontant alors pour l’essentiel des stratégies d’acteurs – porteurs des décisions ou du savoir technique – distinctes.

  15. Risques naturels: de la géophysique à l'approche institutionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Les limites de l’approche physique des risques naturels ont conduit à une collaboration novatrice des sciences sociales, particulièrement en matière de prévention et de gestion des risques. Mais dans l’approche physique, la prise en compte indispensable des comportements humains face aux risques, ne revient-elle pas à juxtaposer une Population plus ou moins sensible aux dangers encourus et une Administration plus ou moins efficace ? Une approche institutionnelle devrait pleinement prendre en compte le facteur spécifique que constituent les pouvoirs publics pour définir une politique de prévention qui soit en phase, non pas avec un idéal technique inaccessible en particulier dans les sociétés en développement, mais avec un optimum social. RIESGOS NATURALES: ENTRE LA GEOFÍSICA Y LA APROXIMACIÓN INSTITUCIONAL. Las limitaciones de la perspectiva física de los riesgos naturales han implicado una colaboración novedosa de las ciencias sociales en particular a nivel de la prevención y del manejo público de los riesgos. Sin embargo, en la perspectiva física, ¿la incorporación de los comportamientos humanos frente a los riesgos no consiste en una yuxtaposición de una Población más o menos sensible a los peligros y una Administración más o menos eficiente? Una aproximación institucional debería considerar totalmente el factor específico que representan los poderes públicos para definir una política de prevención que sea compatible, no con un ideal técnico inalcanzable en particular en las sociedades en desarrollo, sino con un óptimo social. NATURAL HAZARDS: BETWEEN THE GEOPHYSICS AND THE INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH. The limitations of the physical perspective on natural hazards have required the contribution of the social sciences, especially for the mitigation and the management of risks. But in the physical approach, the analysis of human behavior in the event of natural hazards seems to be limited to the addition of a

  16. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  17. 40Ar-39Ar laser probe dating of individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier eclogitic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)

  18. How to Revise, and Revise Really Well, for Premier Academic Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPlaca, Peter J.; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    Most of the premier academic journals in all fields routinely have rejection rates of 80%, 95%, or higher. All journals prefer articles that make significant contributions to the field. Revising a manuscript and responding properly to the comments of reviewers and editors often is challenging....... This article discusses how to revise effectively a manuscript according to the (minor or major) comments of reviewers and editors for premier academic journals. We provide a series of tips for helping the authors in their endeavor, making the process less arduous and improving the possibility of a positive...

  19. Des risques « naturels » aux politiques urbaines à Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’agglomération de Mexico, à plus de 2 000 mètres d’altitude, adossée à la Sierra Madre et la Cordillère Volcanique est assise sur un site accueillant mais redoutable. Il s’agit d’un des endroits les plus exposés du globe, soumis à une combinaison de risques naturels, de risques technologiques souvent mal maîtrisés dus à des industries lourdes, de nuisances, de cumul des polluants et d’un épuisement des ressources locales utilisables, tout particulièrement les ressources en eau. Après le séisme dévastateur de 1985, les acteurs de l’aménagement de Mexico tentent d’intégrer risques et durabilité dans la définition de nouvelles politiques urbaines. Mais, si les risques sont bien identifiés et des réponses sont données, leur applicabilité est quasi-nulle. Une approche normative et n’incluant pas l’ensemble de l’agglomération, mais utilisant les périphéries pour améliorer la durabilité des centres (sorte de durabilité importée à l’échelle de la métropole explique cette situation. Comme dans le mythe de Sisyphe, acteurs locaux et nationaux tentent de faire remonter la pente au rocher du risque mais ce dernier finit toujours par redescendre ? C’est qu’en réalité le problème n’est pas le rocher. Le problème, c’est la pente, c’est-à-dire le substrat fait de représentations territoriales et d’usages de l’espace qui fondent la société mexicaine, sur laquelle roule le rocher.Mexico City is located at an altitude of over 2 000 metres where it occupies an attractive but hazardous site hemmed in by the Sierra Madre and volcanic mountain ranges.The site is one of the most disaster-prone locations in the world, threatened by a combination of natural hazards, poorly controlled technological hazards created by the city’s heavy industry, pollution – particularly air pollution and diminishing local resources, the most seriously threatened being water. Since the devastating earthquake

  20. IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE OPERATION OF CHINESE FOOTBALL LEAGUE BY ANALYSING THE SUCCESS ASSETS OF ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hanxiong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is going to analyze the success assets of English Premier League (which is now the most successful football league in the world) and the defects of Chinese Super League by analyzing the financial statements of the Premier League, and try to make some possible improvements for Chinese Super League according to the results of the analysis.

  1. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  2. The long-term effect of premier pay for performance on patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; Joynt, Karen E; Orav, E John; Epstein, Arnold M

    2012-04-26

    Pay for performance has become a central strategy in the drive to improve health care. We assessed the long-term effect of the Medicare Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (HQID) on patient outcomes. We used Medicare data to compare outcomes between the 252 hospitals participating in the Premier HQID and 3363 control hospitals participating in public reporting alone. We examined 30-day mortality among more than 6 million patients who had acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or pneumonia or who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2003 and 2009. At baseline, the composite 30-day mortality was similar for Premier and non-Premier hospitals (12.33% and 12.40%, respectively; difference, -0.07 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.40 to 0.26). The rates of decline in mortality per quarter at the two types of hospitals were also similar (0.04% and 0.04%, respectively; difference, -0.01 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.01), and mortality remained similar after 6 years under the pay-for-performance system (11.82% for Premier hospitals and 11.74% for non-Premier hospitals; difference, 0.08 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.30 to 0.46). We found that the effects of pay for performance on mortality did not differ significantly among conditions for which outcomes were explicitly linked to incentives (acute myocardial infarction and CABG) and among conditions not linked to incentives (congestive heart failure and pneumonia) (P=0.36 for interaction). Among hospitals that were poor performers at baseline, mortality was similar in the two groups of hospitals at the start of the study (15.12% and 14.73%; difference, 0.39 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.36 to 1.15), with similar rates of improvement per quarter (0.10% and 0.07%; difference, -0.03 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.02) and similar mortality rates at the end of the study (13.37% and 13.21%; difference, 0.15 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.70 to 1.01). We

  3. Activite locomotrice de souris isolees, de deux lignees consanguines, dans un environnement semi-naturel ou en cages d'elevage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M

    1979-10-01

    Des enregistrements continus d'activité locomotrice ont été effectués sur des souris mâles isolées des lignées Balb/c et C57bl/6, vivant en cages d'élevage ou en milieu semi- naturel. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre ces deux situations ne sont pas perçues de la même façon par les animaux des deux lign'ees: alors qu'en cages d'élevage les souris des deux lignées experiment la même quantité totale d'activaté, en milieu semi-naturel les souris Balb/c sont plus actives que les C57bl/6. En outre, l≐s différences observées entre les lignées pour la repartition de l'activité au cours du nycthèmere s'inversent lorsque l'on passe d'une situation à l'autre. L'étude de la variabilité fait aparaître une dispersion plus grande des performances dans la lignée C57bl/6 en cages d'élevage, alors qu'en milieu semi-naturel la dispersion est plus chez Bal/c. Copyright © 1979. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Le développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français et la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels littoraux métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Lombard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question du développement touristique dans les territoires insulaires, et propose un éclairage plus particulier sur la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels. Il présente, tout d’abord, les enjeux du développement durable du tourisme dans les territoires insulaires français. En fonction de la taille des îles, de leur accessibilité, de l’importance de leur fréquentation touristique on peut distinguer différents types d’îles.  Le défi pour chaque  île réside dans la mise en oeuvre d’un projet en étroite adéquation avec ses propres ressources et les spécificités de son territoire pour assurer un développement durable du tourisme. L’article illustre ensuite l’exemple de la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, l’ambivalence du rapport entre le tourisme et ces espaces. Il s’attache à montrer en quoi le tourisme qui peut être parfois à l’origine de la  dégradation des espaces naturels peut être source de retombées positives pour l’environnement dès lors que les acteurs du territoire sont en situation de gérer leur développement. L’article s’achève sur un essai d’élaboration de grille d’évaluation des retombées économiques liées à la valorisation touristique des espaces naturels, appliqué à l’exemple du site naturel de la Pointe d’Agon, situé au nord du Mont Saint Michel, dans le département de la Manche.This article tackles with the issue of tourism in islands and focuses on tourist development of natural sites. First it highlights the issue of sustainable tourism for French islands. Several types of islands can be characterized, according to size, accessibility, tourist-going... To guarantee a sustainable development, the challenge is to lead a project based on the characteristics of the island and its own ressources.Then, this article enlarges on the paradox between tourism and conservation. Tourism can damage the environment but, when it

  5. Plasmas pour valorisation totale ou partielle des gaz contenant de l'H2S Plasmas for Total Or Partial Upgrading of H2s Containing Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des procédés par plasmas alternatifs au procédé Claus sont proposés pour produire de l'hydrogène et récupérer du soufre à partir des gaz contenant une forte teneur en H2S. Quand la teneur en H2S est moins importante, des techniques plasma peuvent également être utiles pour assister certains étages du procédé classique Claus ou réaliser ce procédé pour des gaz non conventionnels. Les tests allant jusqu'à l'échelle industrielle sont menés dans divers réacteurs à plasmas et les résultats encourageants rapportés de la littérature et de la recherche propre laissent envisager des prochaines applications. Plasma assisted processes are proposed to act as an alternative to the Claus process in order to recover hydrogen and sulphur from high H2S gases. For less concentrated gases plasma techniques may also be inserted into classical Claus plant or may allow treatment of non conventional gases. Up to industrial scale tests are performed using different plasma reactors. The literature-based results as well as our own ones make the future applications quite optimistic.

  6. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan pada Hotel Santika Premiere Dyandra Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Mey Royani M.

    2013-01-01

    Quality of service is an expected level of excellence and control over the level of excellence to comply the customer wants. Satisfaction is the difference between the perceived performance with expectations. This study aimed to to identify and analyze the influence of the quality of services consisting of physical tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy to customer satisfaction on Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel. To measure service quality from the point of servic...

  7. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; A.L. Bevan-Dye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  8. Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Jasa Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Dewangga, Nandy; Hidayat, Wahyu; Widiartanto, Widiartanto

    2014-01-01

    The competition of global business today focusing on consumers is a strategic choice in business world in order to survive. For example, the tight competition of business in the company of hotel services is by improving the service quality to consumers. The problems in this research were the decreasing number of hotel service users and the increasing number of consumer complaint as the service users of Santika Premiere Hotel in Semarang from year to year. The aims of this research were to ide...

  9. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    OpenAIRE

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover depends on specific highly unpredictable circumstances, as we illustrate through case-studies.

  10. Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants aux acheteurs. Un homme qui parle sur un téléphone mobile. Les petits exploitants agricoles dominent l'agriculture égyptienne, mais leur manque de connaissances en matière de commercialisation et de compétences techniques, ainsi qu'une mauvaise ...

  11. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  12. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  13. Alteração da temperatura radicular externa durante o preparo para contenção intra-radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Cláudio Maníglia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar in vitro a alteração de temperatura na superfície radicular externa durante o preparo para contenção intra-radicular utilizando 4 técnicas de remoção da guta-percha: condensadores aquecidos, brocas de Peeso, Gates-Glidden e Largo, em 40 dentes pré-molares inferiores (unirradiculares tratados endodonticamente. O experimento foi realizado em uma câmara com temperatura controlada em torno de 26°C. Para a remoção da guta-percha do interior dos canais, foram calculados dois terços do comprimento da raiz, deixando em torno de 4 mm de obturação apical. As medições da temperatura radicular externa foram realizadas com um termopar acoplado a um multímetro e efetuadas em 3 regiões: cervical (em torno de 3 mm abaixo da junção cemento-esmalte, média e apical. A análise de variância indicou diferenças significantes (p < 0,01 entre as regiões e as técnicas utilizadas. O teste complementar de Tukey indicou que os condensadores aquecidos produziram o maior aumento de temperatura dentre as técnicas, e a broca de Peeso dentre as brocas, seguida pela de Largo e de Gates-Glidden. Dentre as regiões, a apical apresentou a maior alteração de temperatura em todas as técnicas avaliadas.

  14. Entre contener y ser contenido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales Meneses

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una nueva manera de entender los elementos comunes en la formación y el hacer del diseño y de la arquitectura, posibilitando un pensar común y un coactuar en diversas escalas de intervención, necesarias para el manejo de la complejidad del paisaje contemporáneo. La convicción de un pensar común entre ambas disciplinas permite explorar un marco filosófico que incluye a pensadores tan trascendentales como Aristóteles, Kant y Heidegger, estableciendo un orden de pensamiento que los relaciona y sitúa. En momentos en que el territorio está siendo visible y negativamente afectado por elementos no pensados o que fueron imaginados separadamente, este artículo propone una mirada que le dé sentido de totalidad a las acciones del diseño y de la arquitectura, como elementos que permanentemente se contienen en otros de diferente escala, pero que siempre están vinculados. Reconocer el paisaje físico y mental, tangible e intangible que contiene al diseño y a la arquitectura contribuirá a establecer un marco de acción donde todos los elementos construidos por el ser humano puedan tener un rol específico y una escala asumida, e intercomprenderse para mejor utilización de los recursos, disminuir el impacto ambiental y contribuir a un orden social mejor interpretado por los objetos, espacios y sus representaciones.

  15. Cartographie de la vulnérabilité globale d'une population citadine face aux risques naturels: le cas de Manizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine CHARDON

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette méthode cartographique sert à évaluer la vulnérabilité de la population d’une grande ville andine (Manizales, Colombie, exposée aux séismes et à de fréquents glissements de terrain. Sept facteurs naturels et huit facteurs socio-économiques, mesurés à l’échelle du quartier, sont intégrés, avec d’autre facteurs géographiques, dans une carte de vulnérabilité globale.

  16. Les animateurs TICE du premier degré, quelle professionnalité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Villemonteix , François

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Les animateurs TICE du premier degré, quelle professionnalité ? Congrès international AREF 2007 (Actualité de la Recherche en Education et en Formation) François VILLEMONTEIX Doctorant Laboratoire EDA (Education et apprentissages) Université Paris 5 – La Sorbonne franç RÉSUMÉ. Dans le but de favoriser le développement d'usages instrumentés dans les classes de l'école primaire française, l'institution éducative a depuis les années 80 at...

  17. Dévalaison et survie d'alevins de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. en milieu semi-naturel contrôlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans un chenal artificiel expérimental, des œufs de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. ont été pondus naturellement ou ont été enfouis au stade embryonné. A la fin de la résorption de la vésicule, une fraction importante des alevins survivants dévale de la zone de frayère. La dévalaison semble stimulée par des baisses de niveau ou des hausses de température et ralentie en période de pleine lune. D'autres facteurs pouvant être responsables de cette dévalaison sont discutés. La survie jusqu'à la collecte de tous les alevins est estimée à 74 p. 100 pour les sujets issus de la reproduction naturelle et est égale à 80 p. 100 pour ceux issus d'œufs introduits dans le gravier au stade embryonné. Des comparaisons entre ces résultats et ceux obtenus dans d'autres chenaux de fraie ou en milieu naturel montrent la validité de cette méthode pour la production d'alevins de saumon atlantique destinés au repeuplement.

  18. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  19. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in English Premier League: issue resolved, or perhaps not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, P; Drust, B; Robinson, M A; Vanrenterghem, J

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries constitute one of the most concerning injuries in English Premier League football, due to its high primary incidence but also its recurrence. Functional methods assessing hamstring function during high-risk performance tasks such as sprinting are vital to identify potential risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess horizontal force deficits during maximum sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill in football players with previous history of hamstring strains as a pre-season risk-assessment in a club setting. 17 male football players from one Premier League Club were divided into 2 groups, experimental (n=6, age=24.5±2.3 years) and control (n=11, age=21.3±1.2 years), according to history of previous hamstring injury. Participants performed a protocol including a 10-s maximum sprint on a non-motorized treadmill. Force deficits during acceleration phase and steady state phases of the sprint were assessed between limbs and between groups. The main outcome measures were horizontal and vertical peak forces during the acceleration phase or steady state. There were no significant differences in peak forces between previously injured and non-injured limbs, or between groups, challenging the ideas around functional force deficits in sprint running as a diagnostic measure of hamstring re-injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  1. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  2. Report to New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers on climate change projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Premiers-Governors energy discussions are aimed at promoting joint energy cooperation between provinces and states. This report outlines the major accomplishments in the implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan adopted by the Conference in 1998. The project priorities for the coming year are also outlined. In 2001, the New England Governors (NEG) and the Eastern Canadian Premiers (ECP) directed the Environment Committee and the Northeast International Committee on Energy (NICE) to implement a plan to develop a regional emissions inventory so that participating jurisdictions would have common data for measuring progress. The plan also identified specific climate actions that could be readily implemented. This report describes the results of 5 working groups which were created to focus on the following potential categories: energy, transportation, inventory and registry, adaptation, and 'lead by example'. In addition to the working groups, the Climate Change Steering Committee developed 4 proposals for consideration for implementation. These were the LED Traffic Light Proposal, the College and University Partnerships in Emissions Reductions, State/Provincial Purchasing Programs for High Efficiency-Low Emission Office Equipment, and Use of Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Vehicles in State/Provincial Fleets. The Steering Committee will also pursue other tasks in the coming year, including the study of other proposals for cost-effective measures that could contribute to the goals of the Climate Change Action Plan, examine Internet options for coordinating internal project work, examine opportunities to pursue climate action, and identify opportunities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency

  3. Uso de cetamina pela via cólon-retal para contenção química de jiboias Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758 com teste de influência da droga sobre o sistema renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiale O. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Por serem frequentes na clínica de animais silvestres, faz-se necessária a manipulação de jiboias e para isso, indispensável o conhecimento sobre as manobras precisas para o tratamento das possíveis afecções. Quando se opta pela contenção química, ou pela realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos, um dos fármacos utilizados na anestesia de serpentes é a cetamina. Viu-se a necessidade de buscar uma via alternativa, semelhante em eficácia às tradicionais para a contenção química, porém que minimizasse os riscos e efeitos adversos encontrados na sua execução. O presente trabalho sugere que a via retal seja esta alternativa, por isso, treze jiboias foram submetidas à administração de 70mg/kg de cloridrato de cetamina, com sonda uretral, através da cloaca até o cólon-reto. Foram avaliados, nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 120 minutos, a partir da administração do fármaco, os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca, relaxamento muscular e mobilidade, resistência à contenção ou manipulação e reação postural de endireitamento. Foi realizada coleta de 0,5mL de sangue por punção do seio venoso paravertebral cervical, antes da administração do fármaco, no dia seguinte e após nove dias. Foram dosadas as concentrações plasmáticas de cálcio, fósforo e ácido úrico de todos os exemplares a fim de verificar o perfil bioquímico renal e avaliar a influência do fármaco neste sistema. Não foram observadas alterações bioquímicas plasmáticas durante o período de avaliação. Foi possível promover a contenção química das jiboias Boa constrictor, utilizando cloridrato de cetamina pela via cólon-retal.

  4. The study of neutron propagation in natural uranium; Etude de la propagation des neutrons dans l'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campan, J L; Clauzon, P P; Kirchner, B; Ribon, P; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Fast exponential experiment. Experimental facilities are described; the experimental results obtained with the block of natural uranium are then presented. Detectors used were fission chambers, activation detectors and nuclear emulsions. One tries to explain the results, which are, then compared with theoretical values obtained by calculations based on diffusion theory. Measured spectrum (pseudo equilibrium) may be characterised by the following values: diffusion length: 95,25 {+-} 0,5; {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}U{sub 238} : 230 {+-} 10, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}Np{sub 237} : 14 {+-} 0.5, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}U{sub 233} : 0.67 {+-} 0.03, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}Pu{sub 239} : 0.90 {+-} 0.05, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}(ny) In : 230 {+-}10. (author) [French] Experience exponentielle rapide. Apres une description du dispositif experimental, on presente des resultats de mesures effectuees dans un massif d'uranium naturel. Les detecteurs utilises sont des chambres a fission, des detecteurs d'activation et des emulsions nucleaires. Une interpretation des resultats est donnee; ceux-ci sont compares a des valeurs theoriques obtenues par des calculs utilisant la theorie de la diffusion. Le spectre mesure (pseudo equilibre) peut etre caracterise par les valeurs suivantes: Longueur de diffusion: 95,25 {+-} 0,5; {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}U{sub 238} : 230 {+-} 10, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}Np{sub 237} : 14 {+-} 0.5, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}U{sub 233} : 0.67 {+-} 0.03, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}{sub f}Pu{sub 239} : 0.90 {+-} 0.05, {sigma}{sub f}U{sub 235}/{sigma}(ny) In : 230 {+-}10. (auteur)

  5. Une forme urbaine du premier âge touristique: les promenades littorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck DEBIÉ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.

  6. What’s a Cricketer’s Worth? Predicting Bid Prices for Indian Premier League Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Indian Premier League is a twenty-over format cricket tournament of teams representing different Indian cities. Beginning 2008, it is established now as a grand annual affair. The team franchises are auctioned on long term basis, whereas cricketers are auctioned every season under certain conditions. Despite such wealth of information, studies on IPL auctions are rare barring four cited models. The present paper studies the results of year 2011 English-style auction of cricketers and recalibrates the old yet most accurate model by Rastogi and Deodhar (2009. Both models use ordinary least square method of regression albeit with different variable. The old models lack predictive power, whereas the recalibrated model presented displays better predictive capability as compared to earlier models. It also succeeds in reducing overall predictability gap and stands significantly parsimonious vis-à-vis previous models. Further, the final model presented is applied on 2013 and 2014 auction data to show superior results.

  7. Injury profile of a professional soccer team in the premier league of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabi, Mohammad; Mohammad-Javad Mortazavi, Seyed; Giti, Mohammad-Reza; Hassabi, Majid; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Shapouran, Sara

    2010-12-01

    Despite numerous studies which have been done regarding soccer injuries worldwide, there is lack of available data considering the epidemiology of injuries in the Iranian soccer premier league, although it is the most popular sport in the country. The main goal of this research was to determine the incidence of physical injuries in the studied population, considering other characteristics such as site, type and mechanism as well. Twenty one adult male professional soccer players (age 24±3), members of a team (Tehran-Pas) participating in Iranian premier league, were followed during a 4-month period. The injury characteristics and exposure times were recorded by the team physician during all the matches and training sessions. The total exposure time was 2610 playing hours (2352 h of training versus 258 h of competition). Eighty six percent of the injuries were acute. Incidence of acute injuries was 16.5 (95% CI: 12-22) per 1000 hours of playing (11.5 per 1000 hrs of training and 62 per 1000 hrs of competition). The most common types of injuries were strains followed by contusions, each of which constituted 30% of acute injuries. More than 80% of injuries occurred in lower limbs, especially in thigh and groin regions. Nearly 60% of acute injuries occurred in dominant side of the body, and collision was the reason of about half of the acute injuries. Severity of more than 70% of the injuries was minor. On average each injury had led the player being off the field for about 10 days. The incidence of injury in this research is in range of numbers obtained in important international tournaments but the rate of injuries during training sessions is higher than comparable studies.

  8. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AGENTS IN DRINKING WATER, WATTS P{REMIER ULTRA 5 REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (POU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier Ultra 5 system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF International's Laboratory. Watts Premier submitted ten units, which were split into two groups of five. One group received 25 days of conditioning prior to challenge testing, while the secon...

  10. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  11. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...

  12. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  13. Disease activity, physical function, and radiographic progression after longterm therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate: 5-year results of PREMIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2

  14. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  15. La formation de l'oxyde azotique dans les flammes de diffusion de gaz naturel Nitrogen. Oxyde Formation in Natural-Gas Diffusion Flams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portrait L. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la formation de l'oxyde azotique dans des flammes de diffusion de ga naturel est effectuée depuis deux ans sur le four expérimental du Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel situé à Toulouse. Un certain nombre de variables ont été explorées : type de flamme, excès d'air, préchauffage de l'air, teneur en oxygène du comburant, puissance calorifique, et débit de moment cinétique. L'étude a mis en évidence une corrélation générale, quelle que soit la variable considérée, entre la quantité maximale d'oxyde d'azote formé et la température maximale de la flamme. Certains des résultats précédents ont été exploités à l'Institut Français du Pétrole, en vue d'établir une équation de vitesse de formation de NO applicable aux flammes axiales de diffusion de gaz naturel. Les calculs s'appuient sur les connaissances obtenues lors de l'étude cinétique de formation de NO effectuée au Laboratoire d'Aérothermique Fondamentale. Les résultats du calcul théorique confirment ceux de l'étude sur le four expérimental en ce qui concerne l'influence prépondérante de la température sur la formation de l'oxyde azotique. Par ailleurs, le calcul théorique retrouve bien les résultats obtenus lors de l'étude fondamentale, selon lesquels la cinétique de formation de NO évolue le long de la flamme depuis le front de flamme jusqu'aux gaz brûlés. La généralisation à un grand nombre de flammes de l'équation cinétique expérimentale obtenue nécessite maintenant de prendre en compte certains phénomènes de diffusion négligés jusqu'à présent. Research on the formation of nitrogen oxide in natural-gas diffusion flammes has been going on for two years in the experimental furnace of the Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel located in Toulouse. Different variables have been investigoted such as type of flamme, air excess, air preheating, oxygen content in the oxidant, heating power and kinetic moment output

  16. Des tubercules pour la mort: analyses préliminaires des relations entre l'ordre naturel et l'ordre culturel dans l'iconographie Mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de démontrer que c’est à partir de savantes observations du milieu naturel que les Mochicas ont puisé leur inspiration pour former leur iconographie. Il y aurait donc une corrélation entre les représentations de plantes ou d’animaux et leurs propriétés et comportements naturels. Nous explorons ici les relations entre les représentations de tubercules, d’humains, de certains animaux, et le monde mortuaire. LOS TUBÉRCULOS Y LA MUERTE. Análisis preliminares de las relaciones entre el orden natural y el orden cultural en la iconografía mochica. Se demuestra en este artículo que, para plasmar su iconografía, los Mochicas se inspiraron de sabias observaciones del medio natural. Entonces había un vínculo entre las representaciones de plantas y animales, sus propiedades y comportamientos naturales. Se indica aquí las relaciones entre las representaciones de tubérculos, de humanos, de ciertos animales, y el mundo mortuorio. TUBERS AND DEATH. Preliminary Analysis of the Relations Between the Natural and Cultural Order in Mochica Iconography. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the Mochicas have designed their iconography system by studying closely their natural environment. Hence, there is a correlation between the natural comportments of the animals or the properties of the plants and their representations in the iconography. We explore the relation between the representations of tubers, human and animals beings, and the mortuary world.

  17. Study of a method of detection for natural carbon-14 using a liquid scintillator, recent variations in the natural radio-activity due to artificial carbon-14 (1963); Etude d'une methode de detection du carrons 14 naturel, utilisant un scintillateur liquide - variations recentes de l'activite naturelle dues au carbone 14 artificiel (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    Among the various natural isotopes of carbon, a radioactive isotope, carbon-14, is formed by the action of secondary neutrons from cosmic rays on nitrogen in the air. Until 1950, the concentration of this isotope in ordinary carbon underwent weak fluctuations of about 2-3 per cent. The exact measurement of this concentration 6 X 10{sup 12} Ci/gm of carbon, and of its fluctuations, are difficult and in the first part of this report a highly sensitive method is given using a liquid scintillator. Since 1950 this natural activity has shown large fluctuations because of the carbon-14 formed during nuclear explosions, and in the second part, the evolution in France of this specific activity of carbon in the atmosphere and biosphere is examined. In the last part is studied the local increase in carbon activity in the atmosphere around the Saclay site, an increase caused by the carbon-14 given off as C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, by the reactors cooled partially with exterior air. (author) [French] Parmi les differents isotopes naturels du carbone, un isotope radioactif, le carbone 14, est forme par l'action de neutrons secondaires due aux rayons cosmiques sir l'azote de l'air. Jusqu'en 1950, la concentration de cet isotope dans le carbone ordinaire est soumise a des fluctuations de faible amplitude, de l'ordre de 2 a 3 pour cent. Les mesures precises de cette concentration, 6. 10{sup -12} Ci/g de carbone, et de ses fluctuations sont delicates, et dans la premiere partie de ce rapport, on decrit une methode de detection a grande sensibilite utilisant un scintillateur liquide. Depuis 1950, cette activite naturelle subit des fluctuations importantes dues au carbone 14 forme lors des explosions nucleaires, et dans la seconde partie, on examine l'evolution en France de l'activite specifique du carbone de l'atmosphere et ce la biosphere. Dans la derniere partie, on etudie l'accroissement local de l'activite du carbone de l'air aux environs du site de Saclay, accroissement provoque par le

  18. Study of a method of detection for natural carbon-14 using a liquid scintillator, recent variations in the natural radio-activity due to artificial carbon-14 (1963); Etude d'une methode de detection du carrons 14 naturel, utilisant un scintillateur liquide - variations recentes de l'activite naturelle dues au carbone 14 artificiel (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    Among the various natural isotopes of carbon, a radioactive isotope, carbon-14, is formed by the action of secondary neutrons from cosmic rays on nitrogen in the air. Until 1950, the concentration of this isotope in ordinary carbon underwent weak fluctuations of about 2-3 per cent. The exact measurement of this concentration 6 X 10{sup 12} Ci/gm of carbon, and of its fluctuations, are difficult and in the first part of this report a highly sensitive method is given using a liquid scintillator. Since 1950 this natural activity has shown large fluctuations because of the carbon-14 formed during nuclear explosions, and in the second part, the evolution in France of this specific activity of carbon in the atmosphere and biosphere is examined. In the last part is studied the local increase in carbon activity in the atmosphere around the Saclay site, an increase caused by the carbon-14 given off as C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, by the reactors cooled partially with exterior air. (author) [French] Parmi les differents isotopes naturels du carbone, un isotope radioactif, le carbone 14, est forme par l'action de neutrons secondaires due aux rayons cosmiques sir l'azote de l'air. Jusqu'en 1950, la concentration de cet isotope dans le carbone ordinaire est soumise a des fluctuations de faible amplitude, de l'ordre de 2 a 3 pour cent. Les mesures precises de cette concentration, 6. 10{sup -12} Ci/g de carbone, et de ses fluctuations sont delicates, et dans la premiere partie de ce rapport, on decrit une methode de detection a grande sensibilite utilisant un scintillateur liquide. Depuis 1950, cette activite naturelle subit des fluctuations importantes dues au carbone 14 forme lors des explosions nucleaires, et dans la seconde partie, on examine l'evolution en France de l'activite specifique du carbone de l'atmosphere et ce la biosphere. Dans la derniere partie, on etudie l'accroissement local de l'activite du carbone de l'air aux

  19. Study of the Fixation and Migration of Radioactive Cations in a Natural Ion Exchanger; Etude de la Fixation et de la Migration de Cations Radioactifs dans un Echangeur d'Ions Naturel; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 0414 ; Estudio de la Fijacion y de la Migracion de Cationes Radiactivos en un Cambiador Natural de Iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetsle, L. [Centre d' Etudes de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1960-07-01

    With a view to utilizing lignite as a natural ion exchanger in the treatment of radioactive waste, a study was made of its physical and physico-chemical properties with reference to ion exchange. The distribution of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} ions in the presence of Ca, Na and H was first examined and the equilibrium constants calculated. The kinetics and fixation of ions were then studied, and various parameters required for the calculation of ion-exchange beds were established. Study of the complex phenomenon of radioactive ion migration in the soil was started by the separate investigation of each component ionic equilibrium. (author) [French] Afin d'utiliser le lignite comme echangeur d'ions naturel dans le traitement d'eaux residuaires radioactives, uene etude a ete faite de ses proprietes physiques et physiochimiques, ayant trait a l'echange d'ions. En premier lieu on a etudie la distribution des ions {sup 90}Sr et {sup 137}Cs en presence de Ca, Na et H, et calcule les constantes d'equilibre. En second heu on a traite la cinetique de la fixation des ions, et etabli quelques parametres necessaires au calcul de hts d'echangeurs d'ions. L'etude du phenomene complexe de la migration des ions radioactifs dans le sol a ete abordee par l 'investigation separee de chacun des equilibres ioniques composants. (author) [Spanish] Con objeto de utilizar el lignito como cambiador natural de iones en el tratamiento de aguas residuales radiactivas, se han estudiado sus propiedades fisicas y fisicoquimicas en relacion con el intercambio de iones. En primer lugar, el autor ha estudiado la distribucion de los iones {sup 90}Sr y {sup 137}Cs en presencia de Ca, Na y H, y ha calculado las constantes de equilibrio. En segundo lugar ha estudiado la cinetica de la fijacion de iones y ha establecido algunos parametros necesarios para calcular los lechos de cambiadores de iones. El autor ha abordado el estudio del complejo fenomeno de la migracion de iones radiactivos en el suelo

  20. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+)/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Spolti,Pâmela; Moraes,Aury N. de; Tamanho,Renato B.; Gehrcke,Martielo I.; Souza Júnior,Júlio C.; Oleskovicz,Nilson

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol ...

  1. Comportamento de barreiras minerais com solo compactado na faixa granulométrica ótima para contenção de líquidos orgânicos

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Zenite da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho de pesquisa sobre permeabilidade de líquidos orgânicos em solos compactados, para avaliar o comportamento da proposição de faixa granulométrica de solo com potencial de uso como barreiras de contenção de produtos combustíveis. A justificativa para esta pesquisa está no fato que uma das principais fontes de contaminação de solos e águas subterrâneas têm sido os vazamentos de tanques de armazenamento de combustíveis derivados de petróleo. A contaminação do solo pode gerar danos à ...

  2. Évaluation des politiques publiques avec la méthode d’appariement : le cas des parcs naturels régionaux en Auvergne et Rhône-Alpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREMER-SCHULTE, Dominik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outils de politique territoriale, les parcs naturels régionaux ont été créés pour protéger le patrimoine naturel et culturel et pour valoriser ces ressources endogènes dans un objectif de développement local et régional. Mais comment évaluer leur contribution au développement socio-économique des territoires concernés ? Les auteurs de cet article ont utilisé la méthode d’appariement comme outil d’évaluation des politiques de sept parcs en Auvergne et Rhône-Alpes, pour étudier leurs effets sur l’économie locale, en particulier par rapport au tourisme et à l’emploi local.

  3. Associated chemical and carbon isotopic composition variations in diamonds from Finsch and Premier kimberlite, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines, P.

    1984-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of 66 inclusion-containing diamonds from the Premier kimberlite, South Africa, 93 inclusion-containing diamonds and four diamonds of two diamond-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Finsch kimberlite, South Africa was measured. The data suggest a relationship between the carbon isotopic composition of the diamonds and the chemical composition of the associated silicates. For both kimberlites similar trends are noted for diamonds containing peridotite-suite inclusions (P-type) and for diamonds containing eclogite-suite inclusions (E-type): Higher delta 13 C P-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe) and higher in FeO and CaO. Higher delta 13 C E-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe), Na 2 O, K 2 O, TiO 2 and higher in CaO, Ca/(Ca + Mg). Consideration of a number of different models that have been proposed for the genesis of kimberlites, their zenoliths and diamonds shows that they are all consistent with the conclusion that in the mantle, regions exist that are characterized by different mean carbon isotopic compositions. (author)

  4. Linear systems surviving the first breakdown; Systemes unbaires survivant a la premiere panne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberschlag, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Various types of linear systems are described which are not affected by the first breakdown. They make it possible to operate continuously and are thus very reliable. This is because the first breakdown which occurs affects only very slightly the operation. These components can be replaced during working. The operation, the errors, and the detection are briefly considered in the case of three different designs of linear servo systems. An attempt at comparison is made, it could be developed in a particular case. (author) [French] On decrit divers types de systemes lineaires survivant a la premiere panne. Ils permettent un fonctionnement permanent et sont donc d'une tres grande fiabilite. En effet, une panne, qui peut etre signalee, perturbe peu le fonctionnement. Ces composants peuvent etre remplaces en marche. Les considerations de fonctionnement, d'erreur, de detection des pannes sont succinctement presentees, sur trois schemas de systemes lineaires asservis. Une tentative de comparaison est faite, qui pourrait etre developpee dans des cas precis. (auteur)

  5. Trace elements in diamonds from the Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein mines, and their petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesq, H.W.; Bibby, D.M.; Erasmus, C.S.; Kable, E.J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron-activation studies of the impurity chemistry of more than 1500 natural diamonds from three South African kimberlite sources, Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein, provide evidence for the presence of submicroscopic inclusions of a quenched (or temperature re-equilibrated) melt from which these diamonds crystallized. These microscopic inclusions of parental magma contain variable amounts of fluids rich in water and carbon dioxide, as well as iron-nickelcopper-cobalt sulphides, and a major silicate phase, which is remarkably constant in composition irrespective of the source of the diamonds and the age of emplacement of their host kimberlite. These microscopic inclusions are present in varying amounts in all the diamonds that were analysed, and may even dominate the impurity chemistry of diamonds having observable mineral inclusions. An estimate of the composition of the major elements in the silicate melt indicates that the diamonds that were investigated crystallized from picritic magma rich in water and carbon dioxide in the presence of immiscible iron-nickel-copper-cobalt sulphides [af

  6. Design science research for decision support systems development: recent publication trends in the premier IS journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.

  7. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  9. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-12-01

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-hr recalls) of professional soccer players (n = 6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the prematch (recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (p > .05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for prematch CHO intake and postmatch recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (p lunch (0.6 g·kg -1 )>breakfast (0.3 g·kg -1 )>evening snacks (0.1 g·kg -1 ). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the prematch and postmatch meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  10. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  11. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javani Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  12. What Happens When Employers are Free to Discriminate? Evidence from the English Barclays Premier Fantasy Football League

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Research on employers' hiring discrimination is limited by the unlawfulness of such activity. Consequently, researchers have focused on the intention to hire. Instead, we rely on a virtual labour market, the Fantasy Football Premier League, where employers can freely exercise their taste for racial discrimination in terms of hiring and firing. The setting allows us to eliminate co-worker, consumer-based and statistical discrimination as potential sources of discrimination, thus isolating the ...

  13. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  14. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan, Harga Dan Lokasi Terhadap Loyalitas Melalui Kepuasan Tamu Pada Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel & Convention Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Susi Marta

    2016-01-01

    Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel & Convention, Medan, is one of movers in hotel service industry which combines products and services, including the combination of service quality, price, and location in order to attract and provide satisfaction for its guests. It also pays attention to and gives expectation and needs for the guests by giving something correctly which are in line with the guests’ need by providing good performance so that they will be satisfied and will eventually be loyal to t...

  15. Epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Mohtasham, Hamid; Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Khoshroo, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees in Iran. This was a descriptive study. 59 Football Premier League professional referees participated in the study. The knee injury related information such as injury history and mechanism was recorded. Injury related symptoms and their impacts on the activity limitation, ability to perform activities of daily living as well participation in sports and recreational activities was obtained through the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS). The results indicated that 31 out of 59 participants reported the history of knee injury. In addition, 18.6%, 22.4% and 81% of the referees reported that they had been injured during the last 6 months of the last year, and at some point in their refereeing careers, respectively. Results further indicated that 48.8% of the injuries occurred in the non-dominant leg and they occurred more frequently during training sessions (52%). Furthermore, the value of KOS was 85 ± 13 for Activities of Daily Living subscale and 90 ± 9 for Sports and Recreational Activities subscale of the KOS. Knee injury was quite common among the Football Premier League professional referees. It was also indicated that the injuries occurred mainly due to insufficient physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that football referees undergo the proper warm-up program to avoid knee injury.

  16. Les conditions du développement des banques d’actifs naturels en FranceAnalyse du régime institutionnel de la première Réserve d’Actifs Naturels française What conditions to enlarge habitat banks in France ?Institutional regime analysis of the first French habitat bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Chabran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les marchés d’actifs naturels sont encore rares en Europe, mais les premières expériences permettent de s’interroger sur le dispositif mis en place au regard de l’objectif de conservation des milieux naturels. Nous avons analysé la première expérience française de banque d’actifs naturels, mise en place dans le cadre des dispositifs de compensation des impacts écologiques des aménagements. Ce projet repose sur d’importants travaux de réhabilitation écologique pour faire retourner un verger intensif vers une végétation herbacée méditerranéenne. Les résultats en écologie de la restauration sont encourageants. En revanche, ils sont encore à évaluer dans les champs politiques ou économiques. Une analyse du régime institutionnel régissant les usages du site montre que l’action mercantile entreprise, tout autant que l’incomplétude du dispositif public de régulation, ne confèrent pas d’assurances définitives quant à la pérennité du dispositif de conservation environnementale du site.Habitat banks are not numerous in Europe but the first experiments allow wondering about the device in relation to the conservation purpose. We analyzed the first French experience of habitat banking introduced in the mitigation regulatory framework. This project is based on important ecological rehabilitation of an intensive orchard to Mediterranean herbaceous vegetation. Results in ecological restoration are good ; however, they are still assessing in the political and economic fields. An analysis of the institutional regime of site uses shows that the mercantile action as well as the public device incompleteness does not provide insurance about the site’s conservation sustainability.

  17. PENGARUH PEMBAGIAN KERJA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI KERJA KARYAWAN PASTRY DI HOTEL SANTIKA PREMIERE MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estikowati Estikowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of the division of labor on the work efficiency of pastry employees at Hotel Santika Premiere Malang. Work efficiency relates to the product produced with the resources used. While the division of labor is a separator type of work done by individuals. Researchers used the Simple Linear Regression Analyze method to predict how far the value of the dependent variable will be changed if the independent variable is changed. From result of research of independent variable (X that is Division of labor and dependent variable (Y Work efficiency have significant relation. This is evidenced from the data processing is known significant value sebersar 0.003 <0.05, with the conclusion Ho rejected and Ha accepted that there is influence between the Division of labor (X on Efficiency of work. From the questionnaire data the authors conclude that the existing division of labor is not appropriate for employees so that the level of efficiency of employees decreased. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:IN;} The study was conducted to determine the effect of the division of labor on the work efficiency of pastry employees at Hotel Santika Premiere Malang. Work efficiency relates to the product produced with the resources used. While the division of labor is

  18. The first metallurgical tests on plutonium; Premiers essais metallurgiques sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E; Abramson, R; Anselin, F; Monti, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Metallic plutonium was first prepared in France in January 1956, as soon as we had access to quantities of the order of several grams of plutonium, which had been extracted from the rods of the pile EL2 at Saclay. Since up to the present this reactor, of thermal power 2 000 kW, has been our only source of plutonium, we have so far only worked on experimental quantities sufficient for the basic tests but not for tests on a scale of possible applications. It is this work, carried out during this phase of preliminary research, which is described below. With the starting up of the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, where the reactor G1 has been operating at power for more than a year, we shall go on next to a another order of magnitude which will allow the manufacture and experimentation of prototype fuel elements. (author) [French] La premiere elaboration de plutonium metallique en France fut faite en janvier 1956, des que nous pumes disposer de quantites de plutonium de l'ordre de quelques grammes, qui avaient ete retires des barreaux de la pile EL2 de Saclay. Ce reacteur, d'une puissance thermique de 2 000 kW, ayant ete jusqu'a present notre seule source de plutonium, nous n'avons encore travaille que sur des quantites experimentales suffisantes pour les essais de base, mais non pour des essais a l'echelle d'applications possibles. Ce sont les travaux effectues pendant cette phase de recherches preliminaires qui seront evoques ci-dessous. Avec la mise eu route de l'usine d'extraction de plutonium de Marcoule, ou le reacteur G1 fonctionne en puissance depuis plus d'un an, nous allons passer prochainement a un autre ordre de grandeur, qui nous permettra la fabrication et l'experimentation d'elements combustibles prototypes. (auteur)

  19. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  20. Mobil positioning itself to become Canada's premier oil and gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.

    1994-01-01

    To achieve its goal of becoming Canada's premier oil and gas company by the year 2000, Mobil Oil Canada is empowering its employees and applying appropriate technology to unlock resources and create value. Mobil produces 4.1 million m 3 of oil and natural gas liquids, 5.6 million m 3 /y of natural gas and 438,000 tonnes/y of sulfur. It also operates over 3,000 wells in western Canada and eleven gas processing plants, manages 1,700 km of pipeline, and has 33% interest in the Hibernia project on the Grand Banks. Oil lifting costs have decreased over the past three years from $3.40/bbl to $2.80/bbl and development costs are under $2/bbl. Innovative technology used to achieve high production and low costs include the use of three dimensional seismic surveys and horizontal drilling. Other techniques used at particular sites include installation of downhole injection regulators to control problems of segregation and metering between different water injection zones at the Carson Creek field, use of artificial lifts in gas wells, and a dual gas lift at the Rainbow Lake oil field. At the Lone Pine gas plant, the first Superclaus-99 sulfur recovery process was installed, reducing sulfur emissions by 60% and increasing recovery efficiency from 95% to 98%. Mobil has operated in Canada since 1940 and has made significant discoveries, including Canada's largest producing oil field, the Pembina. In 1971, Mobil discovered gas of commercial significance off the east coast and helped discover the Hibernia and Venture fields. The Hibernia project is scheduled to come on stream in 1997 and Mobil expects the economics of the project to be favorable, with a $12-13/bbl oil price needed to break even. 7 figs

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachina RJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Júlio de Freitas Guina Fachina,1,2 Marília dos Santos Andrade,3 Fernando Roberto Silva,4 Silas Waszczuk-Junior,4 Paulo César Montagner,1 João Paulo Borin,1 Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira5 1Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Confederação Brasileira de Basketball (CBB, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Grêmio Barueri Futebol LTDA, Barueri, Brazil; 5Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, Brazil Abstract: Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2% were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8% during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. Keywords: injuries, epidemiology, soccer players

  2. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  3. World Gas Prospects: Which Role for the Middle East? Perspectives mondiales du gaz naturel : quel rôle pourrait jouer le Moyen-Orient ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrelie M. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, the policies of energy diversification that have been implemented in the industrialized countries and in many developing countries have enabled natural gas to regularly increase its role in the world energy balance. Thus, during the past twenty years, natural gas recorded the highest growth rate among fossil fuels, and its share in the energy market has gradually risen from 18. 9% in 1975 to 23% in 1997. Today, thanks to favorable economic and environmental factors, natural gas has become the fuel of choice on many markets. Indeed, gas is blessed with a certain number of favorable assets (abundant reserves, flexibility, high-performance uses which give it a major role in all energy demand forecast scenarios. The most spectacular development will indisputably take place in the power generation sector. Endowed with a considerable gas potential, the Middle East will represent an essential source of supply for many industrialized countries and several gas export projects, either by LNG tanker or by pipelines are currently being contemplated. During the past decade, the contribution of natural gas to the energy mix also grew substantially in most Middle Eastern countries. The increase in gas demand should continue at a sustained rate, mainly driven by the power generation sector, petrochemicals and energy consumption by the hydrocarbons industry. These promising prospects for gas demand in most of the markets in the region might lead to the development of an intra-regional network. However, although opportunities exist, the region will have to meet many challenges in order to contribute more largely to the world gas balance in the years to come. de diversification énergétique mises en Suvre dans les pays industrialisés et dans de nombreux pays en voie de développement depuis le début des années 1970 ont permis au gaz naturel d'accroître régulièrement sa présence dans le bilan énergétique mondial. Ainsi, au cours des

  4. Políticas de contenção de desmatamento, produção e mercado de terras na Amazônia: um ensaio sobre a economia local do sudeste paraense usando contas sociais alfa (CSα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discussão atual sobre a emissão de carbono associada ao uso agropecuário da terra em prejuízo de florestas se ressente de uma visão sistêmica, no que se refere aos fluxos econômicos propriamente, e suas interações, no que tange ao ambiente institucional que os garante. Dado que os esquemas de compensação implicam a entrada e saída de recursos em contextos econômicos amplos e sistêmicos, fundamental é discutir qual o resultado final desses fluxos sobre as condições gerais de reprodução das economias locais. As questões básicas são: a como tais políticas poderão, a partir dos setores rurais, afetar a demanda final efetiva e, por essa via, o valor da produção e as variáveis de valor adicionado de toda a economia e b como as variações na economia afetam as formas de uso da base natural e, portanto, o desmatamento. No que se refere às instituições, o artigo dá especial ênfase às que definem o mercado de terras, porque nele encontra o cerne de questões vitais para o que se discute. O artigo utiliza um modelo ascendente de geração de matrizes de insumo-produto para a economia local do Sudeste Paraense, incorpora nela um balanço de carbono dos setores da produção rural, encontra os multiplicadores e simula quatro situações de politica de contenção de desmatamento e redução das emissões de gases poluentes. A conclusão principal do artigo é que se faz necessário pensar políticas de contenção de desmatamento ligadas indissociavelmente a políticas de produção - a serem operadas por mecanismos que façam convergir as decisões dos agentes com perspectivas macro de desenvolvimento: local, endógeno e sustentável.

  5. Etat des lieux des soins de premier recours des malades mentaux à Antananarivo : étude rétrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakohariliva, Hasina Andrianarivony; Rafehivola, Imisanavalona Hanitrinihaja; Raobelle, Evah Norotiana; Raharivelo, Adeline; Rajaonarison, Bertille Hortense

    2018-01-01

    Résumé Religion et guérisseurs traditionnels occupent encore une place prépondérante dans la prise en charge des maladies mentales à Madagascar. Ainsi, nous nous sommes fixés comme objectif d'établir un état des lieux sur les soins de premier recours des malades mentaux. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive s'étalant sur une période de 16 mois allant de janvier 2014 en avril 2015 au sein du service de psychiatrie du CHU de Befelatanana à Antananarivo. La prévalence des psychoses était de 25%. Le genre féminin (53%), l'ethnie merina (77%), les étudiants (45%), le niveau d'étude secondaire (40%), les célibataires (72%), la religion protestante (45%), ainsi que le niveau socio-économique moyen (57,5%) étaient prédominants. Dans les paramètres cliniques, le mode de début brutal (52%), le premier recours à la religion (40%), la présence d'antécédents des cas similaire (90%), étaient majoritaires. La schizophrénie était la pathologie la plus rencontrée dans la moitié des cas. Le délai d'amélioration en cas de traitement religieux et traditionnels était dans la moitié des cas de plus de 10 jours d'hospitalisation. Les patients ayant reçu une prise en charge psychiatrique en premier recours, étaient améliorés dans 75 % cas en moins de 10jours. Le retard du recours aux soins psychiatriques est une réalité à Madagascar qui aggrave le pronostic des psychoses. PMID:29632623

  6. Shirt sponsorship by gambling companies in the English and Scottish Premier Leagues: global reach and public health concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, C.; Ireland, R.; Minton, J.; Holman, D.J.; Philpott, M.; Chambers, S.

    2018-01-01

    While the nature of gambling practices is contested, a strong evidence\\ud base demonstrates that gambling can become a serious disorder and have\\ud a range of detrimental effects for individuals, communities and societies.\\ud Over the last decade, football in the UK has become visibly entwined with\\ud gambling marketing. To explore this apparent trend, we tracked shirt\\ud sponsors in both the English and Scottish Premier Leagues since 1992 and\\ud found a pronounced increase in the presence of...

  7. Preparation and properties of carbonaceous products prepared by the cracking of natural gas; Fabrication et proprietes de corps carbones prepares par craquage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, P L; Bochirol, L; Rappeneau, J; Cornuault, P; Blanchard, R; Moreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Complete results are presented of tests recently carried out at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre in an attempt to transform natural gas (gas from Lacq), used as a source of pyrolytic carbon, into carbonaceous products with improved properties. Several methods have been studied: 1 - By using normal grade industrial graphite as support (density of about 1.50) products having densities of about 1.80 are obtained. Their open porosity (6 to 7 per cent) is lower than that of conventional graphites, and several of their characteristics are more or less equal to, or better than those obtained from a double impregnation witch pitch. 2 - The use as supporting material of the semi-products ('cooked') usually used for graphite production does not lead to satisfactory results. The main reasons for this are given. 3 - A new process, called 'BB5', has been developed. The starting materials here are powdered products (petrol coke or graphite) which are put into shape with the use of a binder which can be dispersed in water. The supports thus produced make it possible, because of their porous structure, to make the most of the densification produced by cracking natural gas below 1000 deg. C. The products obtained, which are made up of equal amounts approximately of the supporting material and of pyrocarbon can attain densities of over 1.90. Their very low open porosity can be reduced almost to zero and their impermeability is then excellent (k=10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}sec{sup -1}). They have also a remarkably high resistance to compression, values of 15 to 20 kg/mm{sup 2} being obtained for those carbons which have not undergone a final graphitization treatment. Some examples are given of possible nuclear applications of the materials produced in this manner. (authors) [French] On expose l'ensemble des essais effectues recemment au CEN-G pour preparer, a partir de gaz naturel (gaz de Lacq) comme source de carbone pyrolytique, des corps carbones de caracteristiques ameliorees

  8. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  9. First experiments results about the engineering model of Rapsodie; Premiers resultats d'essais interessant le bloc pile de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, A; Ginier, R; Sauvage, M [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report deals with the first series of experiments carried out on the engineering model of Rapsodie and on an associated sodium facility set in a laboratory hall of Cadarache. It conveys more precisely: 1/ - The difficulties encountered during the erection and assembly of the engineering model and a compilation of the results of the first series of experiments and tests carried out on this installation (loading of the subassemblies preheating, thermal chocks...). 2/ - The experiments and tests carried out on the two prototypes control rod drive mechanisms which brought to the choice for the design of the definitive drive mechanism. As a whole, the results proved the validity of the general design principles adopted for Rapsodie. (authors) [French] Ce rapport traite des premiers essais realises sur la maquette du bloc pile de Rapsodie et sur une installation annexe de sodium, implantees dans un hall d'essais de Cadarache. Il fait part: 1/- Des difficultes eprouvees lors du montage de la maquette et rassemble les resultats des premiers essais effectues sur cette installation (chargement des assemblages, prechauffage, chocs thermiques...). 2/- Des essais realises sur deux prototypes de mecanisme de barre de controle qui ont conduit a la conception du mecanisme definitif. L'ensemble des resultats obtenus a permis de confirmer la validite des principes adoptes pour la pile Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  10. L’éducation à la gestion des risques naturels dans le manuel de géographie de la 1ère année secondaire en Tunisie : analyse didactique et propositions

    OpenAIRE

    Harzalli, Fadhel

    2016-01-01

    L’introduction de l’éducation à la gestion des risques naturels dans les programmes et les manuels est récente dans l’enseignement de la géographie en Tunisie. En effet, l’éducation à la gestion des risques peut être considérée comme un champ éducatif émergeant et un ensemble d’interventions qui vise à informer, motiver et aider les apprenants à adopter volontairement des comportements favorables à la vie, et à se construire une opinion raisonnée sur des questions vives où l’intime et le soci...

  11. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants; Couts d'investissement et d'exploitation des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Jouannaud, C; Couture, J; Duboz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C [Saint Gobain Nucleaire (France)

    1966-07-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [French] La communication expose d'abord une methode d'analyse des couts d'investissement des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie (inspiree de celles de LANG et de BACH, bien connues dans l'industrie petroliere) et de leurs couts d'exploitation (selon leur nature economique). Cette methode permet d'etablir des structures types de couts de ces usines et de comparer les realisations industrielles et les projets. Elle facilite l'exploration des consequences previsibles du progres technique. On indique un certain nombre de resultats obtenus, concernant la sensibilite des couts d'investissement de ces usines aux differents parametres techniques definissant le combustible et leur confrontation selon les pays ou aires economiques envisages. On montre enfin comment doit pouvoir s'exprimer l'influence de la taille des usines sur leur cout d'investissement. (auteur)

  12. Aortoplastia redutora com contenção externa associada à troca valvar aórtica em pacientes de alto risco Reduction aortoplasty with external wrapping associated with aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Haddad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução de pacientes de alto risco submetidos a aortoplastia redutora com contenção externa associada a troca valvar aórtica. MÉTODOS: Seis pacientes portadores de aneurisma de aorta ascendente e valvopatia aórtica, sendo quatro do sexo masculino, foram incluídos no estudo. Um paciente apresentava insuficiência mitral importante. A idade variou de 61 a 70 anos (média de 65,7 anos. A insuficiência aórtica foi a indicação de troca valvar em 83,3% dos pacientes e a estenose aórtica, em 16,7%. Os critérios de inclusão foram: pacientes portadores de valvopatia aórtica com indicação cirúrgica, aorta ascendente com diâmetro > 5,5 cm, EuroSCORE > 6 e idade acima de 60 anos. O diâmetro da aorta ascendente variou de 57 a 68 mm (média de 63,7 mm. Análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o teste t pareado para as variáveis estudadas, com nível de significância menor que 5%. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a aortoplastia redutora com contenção externa associada a troca valvar aórtica. Não houve mortalidade hospitalar na série estudada. Um (16,7% paciente apresentou fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório. O diâmetro médio da aorta ascendente foi de 37,0 +4,5 mm aos 6 meses de pós-operatório (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the midterm follow-up of reduction aortoplasty with external wrapping associated with aortic valve replacement in high risk patients. METHODS: Six patients with ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic valve disease were included in this study. Four of them were male. The age ranged from 61 to 70 years (mean 65.7 years. One patient presented severe mitral valve insufficiency. All patients underwent aortic valve replacement (83.3% with aortic insufficiency and 16.7% with aortic stenosis. The inclusion criteria were: surgical aortic valve disease, ascending aortic aneurysm > 5.5 cm, EuroSCORE > 6 and age above 60 years. The ascending aortic diameter ranged from 57 to 68 mm

  13. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  14. [Pierre Chirac "premier physician" of the king and the aborted plan to create an "Académie de médecine" in Paris (1731-1732)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunel, Alexandre

    2005-03-01

    After being appointed "premier physician" in 1731, Pierre Chirac, thanks to his influence with the king, tried to realize an ambitious project. Inspired by the creation of an Academie de Chirurgie by the "premier surgeon", Chirac decided to creation an Académie de Médecine in Paris. Under his guidance, it was planned to collect opinions from all doctors of the kingdom in order to enhance global knowledge of disease, symptoms and treatments. However, threatened with the loss of its secular superiority, the Paris University Medical School immediately opposed the project. Although well advanced, the project was finally abandoned on Chirac's death.

  15. MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS OF FOOTBALL MATCH PERFORMANCES: COMPOSITION OF PROBABILISTIC PREFERENCES APPLIED TO THE ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Principe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the technical performance of football teams in the FA Premier League during the 2015/2016 season. Data of twenty clubs over 38 matches for each club are considered using 23 variables. These variables have been explored in the football literature and address different features of technical performance. The different configuration of the data for teams in detached segments motivated the multi-criteria approach, which enables identification of strong and weak sectors in each segment. The uncertainty as to the outcome of football matches and the imprecision of the measures indicated the use of Composition of Probabilistic Preferences (CPP to model the problem. “R” software was used in the modeling and computation. The CPP global scores obtained were more consistent with the final classification than those of other methods. CPP scores revealed different performances of particular groups of variables indicating aspects to be improved and explored.

  16. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  17. QUALITY OF NURSING WORK LIFE IMPROVEMENT MODEL TO DECREASE NURSE INTENTION TO QUIT IN PREMIER SURABAYA HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jany Prihastuty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of Nursing Work Life (QNWL is a thing that needs attention by human resource management approach. The purpose of this research was to provide develop model to increase QNWL in order to lower nurse’s intention to quit the Premier Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Design used in the structure was explanatory research. The independent variables was Internal factors (Individual factors, social and environment conceptual factors, operational factors, administrative factors where as the dependent variable from this study was intention to quit, and moderator variables QNWL random sampling technique. Total sample was 160 nurses, taken according to inclusion criteria. The research was conducted in Premier Hospital Surabaya from October 2012 - July 2013. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Data were then analyzed by using multiple linear regression test with level of significance of ≤ 0.05. Result: The results showed, QNWL was influenced by relationships inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors, supervision monitoring part of variabel operational factors, career development part of variabel administrative factors. Intention to quit influenced by relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors and salaries and benefits part of variabel administrative factors with significant value p = 0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded good inter-professional relation, supervision monitoring, and good career development affected QNWL. Good relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter- professional led to lower intention to quit. Low salary and benefits led nurse’s intention to quit getting stronger.

  18. Evolution de certains composés volatils du bois de chêne au cours de son séchage premiers résultats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Chatonnet

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendant le séchage des merrains sur parc à l'air libre, on assiste à une profonde modification de la composition chimique et du profil aromatique du bois de chêne. La teneur en eugénol, en aldéhydes phénols et en Β-méthyl-y-octalactone augmente régulièrement pendant le vieillissement du bois. Principalement sous forme trans au début du séchage, la Β-méthyl-y-octalactone s'accumule finalement sous la forme cis plus aromatique. Dans le même temps, on observe également une accumulation importante du précurseur inodore de Β-méthyl-y-octalactone. L'intervention des micro-organismes fréquemment isolés sur le bois en cours de séchage naturel sur la formation de composés aromatiques a été étudiée. La culture de diverses moisissures isolées de bois en cours de séchage naturel sur extraits de bois et directement sur sciure de chêne aboutit dans tous les cas à une forte diminution des teneurs en aldéhydes phénols, notamment de la vanilline. En effet, tous les micro-organismes étudiés (Penicilium sp., Trichoderma sp., Aureobasidium sp. sont incapables de dégrader la lignine car ils ne possèdent pas d'activité ligninase. En revanche, ces champignons possèdent une forte activité oxydo-réductase capable de réduire la vanilline en alcool vanillique inodore. En conséquence, les aldéhydes phénols apparaissant au cours du séchage naturel du merrain ne dérivent pas d'une attaque enzymatique mais plus vraisemblablementde l'acidolyse et de l'oxydation chimique de la lignine du bois. Le stockage du bois à l'air libre en présence d'eau et d'oxygène doit permettre une évolution favorable de son potentiel aromatique tant que la vanilline et la cis Β-méthyly-octalactone s'accumulent.

  19. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  1. The energy outlook in China-Minutes from the seminar organised by the Centre Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Meritet, S.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the seminars that are organised on a regular basis, the Centre de Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres has devoted, on the 2. of June, a day to China, its energetics outlook and the resulting economic and geopolitical challenges. (authors)

  2. Estratégias de posicionamento e contenção de recém-nascido pré-termo utilizadas em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Melo De Albuquerque

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal é um ambiente que proporciona técnicas e procedimentos aprimorados, um local repleto de equipamentos ricos em tecnologia e característica ímpar na assistência ao recém-nascido de risco. Com a evolução da neonatologia e a inserção dos cuidados humanizados dentro desse serviço nos últimos anos, observa-se uma mudança no prognóstico dos pré-termos. Objetivo: Pesquisar quais estratégias de posicionamento e contenção ao recém-nascido pré-termo estão sendo mais utilizados em hospitais públicos da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Métodos: Estudo descritivo e observacional. Foi realizado um questionário semiestruturado com 34 profissionais de saúde do serviço envolvidos na assistência ao recém-nascido pré-termo na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Resultados: Dentre os participantes (91,17%, responderam nunca ter utilizado a “redinha” como um recurso de posicionamento. As estratégias mais utilizadas são o rolinho (100,0% e o swaddle (88,23%, porém um percentual relevante de participantes (44,11% assinalou acreditar no ganho oferecido pela “redinha”, embora esta técnica não seja utilizada nos serviços ao qual fazem parte. Conclusão: As estratégias mais utilizadas nos serviços pesquisados foram o rolinho e o swaddle, a maioria dos profissionais não tinham conhecimento prático de outros recursos. Sendo assim, este estudo considera que a prática destas medidas acarretam ganhos não só no campo de desenvolvimento, mas também simplificam o tratamento e viabilizam a recuperação do recém-nascido pré-termo.

  3. Contenção farmacológica do rato-do-bambu (Dactylomys dactylinus Desmarest, 1817 e relato de ocorrência da espécie na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Koproski

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Um exemplar de rato-do-bambu (Dactylomys dactylinus subadulto saudável do sexo feminino, de vida livre, com massa corporal de 0,32 kg, recebeu por via intramuscular, em uma única injeção, doses de tiletamina, zolazepam, xilazina e atropina calculadas por meio de extrapolação alométrica interespecífica, a partir das recomendações usuais para o cão doméstico de 10,0 kg (tiletamina/zolazepam - 5,0mg/kg, xilazina - 1,0mg/kg e atropina - 0,05mg/kg. O rato perdeu a reação postural de endireitamento em 2,3 minutos pós-injeção (MPI e recuperou a capacidade de deambular normalmente em 135 MPI. A frequência cardíaca variou de 360 a 188 bpm (226±62, a frequência respiratória de 128 a 112mpm (120±5, e a temperatura retal de 36,2 a 33,5°C (34,4±1,0. A analgesia e o miorrelaxamento foram considerados bons para a realização de procedimentos indolores ou pouco dolorosos de curta duração, como exame físico, colheita de material biológico, biometria, exames de imagem e marcação. A associação de fármacos permitiu a manipulação segura do animal por 63 MPI. A recuperação foi considerada satisfatória, porém prolongada. Destaca-se que este é primeiro registro de ocorrência da espécie na Região Sul do Brasil, e o primeiro relato de contenção farmacológica desse roedor neotropical.

  4. Critical Appraisal of Information on the Web in Practice: Undergraduate Students’ Knowledge, Reported Use, and Behaviour / Évaluation critique de l’information sur la toile : une vision pratique : les connaissances des étudiants de premier cycle, leur uti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Hogan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates use a wide range of information resources for academic and nonacademic purposes, including web sites that range from credible, peer reviewed, online journal sites, to biased and inaccurate promotional web sites. Students are taught basic critical appraisal skills, but do they apply these skills to make decisions about information in different web sites? In an experimental setting, undergraduate students examined pairs of web sites containing conflicting information based on different aspects of critical appraisal, namely credibility of the author of the information, purpose of the web site, and last update of the site, and answered multiple choice questions about the conflicting information. Results indicated that students failed to use critical appraisal criteria, and that while knowledge of and self-reported use of these criteria were related to each other, they were not related to behaviour. This research demonstrates the need for alternative strategies for critical appraisal instruction and assessment. Les étudiants de premier cycle consultent une vaste gamme de sources d’information à des fins universitaires et non universitaires, y compris des sites Web allant de revues en ligne crédibles et évaluées par des pairs à des sites Web promotionnels partials et inexacts. On enseigne aux étudiants des méthodes de base d’évaluation critique, mais mettent-ils ces méthodes en pratique pour prendre des décisions relativement à l’information tirée de différents sites Web? Dans un cadre expérimental, les étudiants de premier cycle ont étudié des paires de sites Web contenant des informations contradictoires en se fondant sur différents aspects de l’évaluation critique, notamment la crédibilité de l’auteur de l’information, l’intention du site Web et la dernière mise à jour du site, et ont répondu à des questions à choix multiples concernant les informations contradictoires. Les r

  5. Les marqueurs d'aspect de dicto : 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenepveu Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On se propose d’étudier les locutions adverbiales "à première vue", "au premier abord", "de prime abord", trois locutions qui comportent une forme numérale ordinale et qui entretiennent des relations de proximité sémantique. Nous nous intéressons précisément au fonctionnement sémantique et pragmatique de ces locutions à valeur paradigmatisante (Nølke 1983, quand elles introduisent un point de vue (Anscombre & Ducrot 1983, Ducrot 1984, Nølke 1994. Dans cette perspective, nous faisons l’hypothèse d’un procès énonciatif, qui consiste à prendre en considération une situation, et qui vise à constituer un jugement stabilisé. Nous admettons alors que les locutions adverbiales 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord', servent à sélectionner la phase initiale de ce procès énonciatif, ce qu’attestent les mises en corrélation possibles des trois marqueurs de point de vue avec des expressions qui signalent une évolution dans le temps du jugement du locuteur concernant une situation ('à mieux regarder', 'à y regarder de plus près', 'tout compte fait', 'tout bien considéré', .... L’étude de ces enchaînements, qui vont parfois au-delà du paragraphe, fait apparaître la capacité des trois locutions à initier un cadre (Charolles 1997, et à appeler un autre cadre dans lequel le jugement va être réévalué. En présentant le point de vue qu’elle introduit comme provisoire et en attente de confirmation, chacune de ces locutions anticipe ainsi sur la suite du texte, et s’inscrit dans une structure aspectuelle de dicto qui est celle d’un procès énonciatif de constitution d’un jugement stabilisé. Nous nous appuyons sur des énoncés attestés au XXème, sélectionnés sur "Frantext intégral", ou bien choisis dans Le Monde sur cederom (1995-96, 1999-2002.

  6. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  7. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  8. Précaution et développement régional durable dans le domaine des risques naturels. Quels enseignements tirer des exemples présentes ?

    OpenAIRE

    Brugnot, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur 1. RISQUES NATURELS : ALEA ET VULNERABILITE Le risque naturel est constitué de l'aléa et de la vulnérabilité. On peut compliquer cette définition en ajoutant, comme Finlay (1997), des niveaux de profondeur d'analyse (phénomènes/aléas vs enjeux/vulnérabilité), ou bien encore en prenant en compte l'aléa et la vulnérabilité perçus, faisant respectivement appel aux probabilités subjectives et aux théories de l'utilité et du risque en économie. R=G(A) ⊗ *U(D)* Dans cette...

  9. Circadian long call distribution in wild orangutans Distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez l’orang-outan en milieu naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geissmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on circadian long call distribution of wild orangutans in Northwest Borneo. Data were collected during two months in Batang Ai National Park. A total of 151 male long calls were heard, exhibiting a bimodal distribution pattern with peaks at 05:00-06:00 hours and 18:00-19:00 hours. An earlier study found pronounced differences between the calling rates of Bornean orangutans, which showed an almost unimodal call distribution with its peak at mid-morning, and those of Sumatran orangutans, which showed a bimodal call distribution with a distinct calling peak at predawn and a more moderate peak near dusk (MacKinnon 1974. Our findings from Batang Ai resemble more closely the pattern reported for Sumatra than those reported for other Bornean localities and, therefore, contradict earlier reports suggesting a Sumatra-Borneo dichotomy in orangutan call distribution. In addition, orangutans in Batang Ai were heard to regularly emit long calls throughout the night. This behaviour is unusual for a diurnal species.Nous présentons les premières données sur la distribution circadienne des cris longs (long calls chez les mâles orangs-outans vivant en milieu naturel au nord-ouest de Bornéo. Les données ont été récoltées lors d’une étude de terrain de deux mois au Parc National de Batang Ai. Les 151 cris longs entendus montraient une distribution bimodale, caractérisée par des pics à 05:00-06:00 et 18:00-19:00 heures. Une étude précédente avait révélé des différences profondes entre les taux de cris longs des orangs-outans de Bornéo et de Sumatra. Alors que la distribution des cris longs à Bornéo était presque unimodale et montrait un pic en milieu d’avant-midi, la distribution à Sumatra était bimodale et montrait un pic distinct avant l’aube et un second pic plus modéré au crépuscule (MacKinnon 1974. Nos résultats à Batang Ai ressemblent davantage au schéma rapporté précédemment à Sumatra qu

  10. Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. State of the Art Simulation des réservoirs naturellement fracturés. État de l’art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemonnier P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. The production of this type of reservoirs constitutes a challenge for reservoir engineers. Use of reservoir simulators can help reservoir engineers in the understanding of the main physical mechanisms and in the choice of the best recovery process and its optimization. Significant progress has been made since the first publications on the dual-porosity concept in the sixties. This paper and the preceding one (Part 1 present the current techniques of modeling used in industrial simulators. The optimal way to predict matrix-fracture transfers at the simulator cell scale has no definite answer and various methods are implemented in industrial simulators. This paper focuses on the modeling of physical mechanisms driving flows and interactions/ exchanges within and between fracture and matrix media for a better understanding of proposed flow formula and simulation methods. Typical features of fractured reservoir numerical simulations are also described with an overview of the implementation of geomechanics effects, an application of uncertainty assessment methodology to a fractured gas reservoir and finally a presentation of a history matching methodology for fractured reservoirs. Les réservoirs naturellement fracturés contiennent une partie significative des réserves en huile mondiales. La production de ce type de réservoirs constitue un défi pour les ingénieurs de réservoir. L’utilisation des simulateurs de réservoir peut aider l’ingénieur de réservoir à mieux comprendre les principaux mécanismes physiques, à choisir le procédé de récupération le mieux adapté et à l’optimiser. Des progrès sensibles ont été réalisés depuis les premières publications sur le concept double-milieu dans les années soixante. Cet article et le précédent (Partie 1 présentent les techniques actuelles de modélisation utilisées dans les simulateurs

  11. Emballage naturel de produits biologiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Les emballages en plastique, renouvelables et biodégradables, sont-ils vraiment écologiques? Pour les entreprises d’emballage, il est difficile d’y trouver la réponse et donc de faire des choix réfléchis. Dans l’analyse ‘Emballage naturel’ le maximum de données a été collectionné et résumé.

  12. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  13. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G. [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1965-04-15

    vibration du germanium et du silicium purs. Le memoire decrit des experiences semblables sur 1. du germanium contenant une 'impurete'en assez forte proportion ( Tilde-Operator 0,1%), cette 'impurete' etant a) de l'arsenic, b) du gallium; et 2. du silicium contenant du phosphore. Dans chaque cas, des experiences de controle ont ete faites sur des cristaux d'une grande purete. Toutes les mesures ont ete effectuees a l'aide du spectrometre a cristal triaxial de Chalk River. On sait que la concentration de l' 'impurete'influe sensiblement sur la constante d'elasticite C{sub 44} du germanium; l'auteur a donc etudie certains modes acoustiques transversaux de grande longueur d'onde pour determiner si ces effets persistent dans la region de dispersion. Il a egalement etudie, dans l'un et l'autre de ces semi-conducteurs, d'autres modes acoustiques transversaux dont les frequences peuvent Etre mesurees avec une grande precision, afin de verifier avec la plus grande sensibilite possible les effets mineurs pouvant etre attribues a l'existence d'electrons ou de trous en exces. Un examen particulierement approfondi a ete effectue sur les modes ayant les vecteurs d'onde suivants (aq/2{pi}, ou a est la longueur de l'arete d'une cellule cubique unitaire): l. dans le germanium (1,0,0); 2. dans le silicium (0, 85, 0,85, 0) et (0,3, 0,0). On pouvait s'attendre que ces modes normaux presentent un comportement anormal dans les cristaux de type n, etant donne que la diffusion des electrons entre les minima des bandes de conduction adjacentes exigerait leur intervention de maniere a assurer la conservation de la 'quantite de mouvement du cristal'. Dans tous les cas, les resultats obtenus ont ete negatifs, c'est-a-dire qu'on n'a observe, dans les limites de la precision experimentale, aucune difference de frequences de phonons ou de largeurs d'energie entre les echantillons purs et les echantillons contenant une 'impurete' . Dans Ies cas les plus favorables, cette precision (relative) est d

  14. Initial Operating Experience with the ''NPD'' Reactor; Experience recueillie pendant les premiers mois de fonctionnement du reacteur NPD; Pervyj opyt po ehkspluatatsii reaktora NPD; Experiencia inicial de funcionamiento del reactor NPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, L. G. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    Canada's first nuclear power station, the Nuclear Power Demonstration station (NPD), is intended to serve as a means of proof-testing the performance of the Canadian type of station using natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. It reached full power on 28 June 1962. Although designed for base-load operation it will, during the early stages, be operated part of the time on high-capacity.runs and part of the time on improvement periods. Progress has been favourable so far; the first high-capacity run of six weeks'duration yielded a capacity factor of 70%. Improvements already made have increased safety, improved performance and demonstrated potential methods of capital-cost reduction for future stations. For example, shaft seals on primary coolant pumps have been modified for better performance, freezer-type vapour recovery equipment has been replaced in favour of absorption columns to reduce heavy-water vapour loss, and flow limiters are being installed in sample lines to reduce losses of heavy water in the event of joint failures. During December 1962 two simultaneous leaks from the on-power refuelling machine led to an unusual sequence of events in which a considerable amount of hot high-pressure heavy water was spilled into the reactor vault where it suffered a slight downgrading in isotopic purity. It was upgraded and the reactor returned to operation by the end of the month. All safety devices operated correctly during the incident as did the provisions for containment of heavy water. (author) [French] La premiere centrale nucleaire du Canada, NPD, est une centrale de demonstration, qui doit servir a verifier les performances des reacteurs fonctionnant a l'uranium naturel et utilisant de l'eau lourde comme ralentisseur et comme fluide de refroidissement. Elle a atteint sa pleine puissance le 28 juin 1962 bien que concue pour etre exploitee comme centrale de base, elle fonctionnera au debut comme centrale d'appoint, ce qui permettra d

  15. A Terapia por contensão induzida no desempenho ocupacional de crianças com paralisia cerebral / Intervention by contraint- induced movement therapy on the occupational performance of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra da Silva Fonseca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia cerebral (PC constitui um quadro clínico importante que pode acometer crianças, causando déficits de movimento, controle postural, prejuízos sensoriais e cognitivos, com isso, faz-se necessário estimular as habilidades da criança para que alcance um desempenho efetivo em todas as áreas de ocupação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar terapia por contensão induzida que consiste na imobilização do membro superior não afetado com um treino intensivo da extremidade afetada, em crianças com PC hemiplégica. Trata-se de um estudo quase experimental, do tipo antes e depois, não cego e não randomizado. Utilizou-se a Teenager Motor Activity Log- TMAL, a Pediatric Arm Function Test- PAFT e a Inventory of New Motor Activities Program- INMAP para analisar o desempenho funcional dos participantes antes e após o tratamento. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 2 crianças com PC Hemiplégica. A avaliação TMAL identificou melhora na freqüência e qualidade dos movimentos realizados com o membro afetado nas duas intervenções. Da mesma forma a avaliação PAFT demonstrou um aumento na realização de tarefas unilaterais e bilaterais com o membro afetado, sem necessitar de comandos. A INMAP apresentou melhora principalmente nos padrões de alcance, pinça eficiente e preensão. Os resultados demonstram que após a intervenção, houve um aumento significativo no desempenho funcional de atividades motoras das crianças. Neste sentido, acredita-se que intervenções como esta permitem uma reabilitação para aquisição de maior autonomia e independência em atividades cotidianas. AbstractCerebral palsy (CP forms an important clinical picture that may affect children by causing them movement and postural control deficits, sensory and cognitive damages. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate children’s skills so that they can achieve an effective performance in all occupational areas. The aim of this work is to carry out a

  16. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  17. Injury incidence in a Premier League youth soccer academy using the consensus statement: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an established risk of injury to young athletes exposed to high training loads. Identifying and monitoring injury risk is essential to aid prevention. The aim of this study was to use the consensus statement to determine the incidence and pattern of injury in 1 English Premier League soccer academy during 1 season. Methods A prospective cohort study included 181 elite academy soccer players during the 2012–2013 season. Players were divided into 5 age groups between 9 and 18 years. The number, type and incidence of injuries were recorded during matches and training. Incidence was calculated per 1000 hours of exposure. Results 127 injuries occurred during 29 346 hours of soccer exposure. 72% of injuries were non-contact related. Under (U)18 players sustained the highest number of match injuries. U12–14 players sustained the highest number of training injuries and injuries overall. U16 players sustained the highest number of severe injuries, and U18 players sustained the highest number of moderate injuries. U18 players sustained the highest number of injuries/1000 hours of training and overall. U15 players sustained the highest number of injuries/1000 hours of matches, the highest number of recurrent injuries and the highest incidence of recurrence. The most common injuries were muscle injuries in U15 and U18 players. The most common injury location was the anterior thigh, with the majority of these occurring in training. Conclusions Using the consensus statement, this study used a repeatable method to identify the injury profile of elite academy-level soccer players. PMID:27900186

  18. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  19. The Effect of Promotional Tools on Conveying Brand Identity from Sport Consumers’ Viewpoint in the Country’s Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Asadollahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.

  20. Research with a Natural-Uranium Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Recherches au Moyen d'un Ensemble Sous-Critique a Uranium Naturel et a Eau Ordinaire; Issledovaniya na podkriticheskoj sborke,rabotayushchej na prirodnom urane i obychnoj vode; Investigaciones con un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Natural y Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, H. [Institute of Technical Physics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1964-02-15

    systematic study of non-uniform lattices. In the future, enriched elements will be included in the assembly. Then systematic study of mixed lattices becomes possible, and also research with other non-uniformities will be easier because of the higher flux. Some discussion of this future programme is included in this paper. (author) [French] L'auteur relate les recherches effectuees avec un ensemble uranium naturel-eau ordinaire et enumere certains des sujets qui feront l'objet d'un prochain programme. La plus grande partie de la documentation est nouvelle. Certaines donnees ont encore un caractere provisoire, car les experiences et l'analyse des resultats se poursuivent. . Les travaux sont axes sur deux objectifs principaux: 1. Etude experimentale de la validite des methodes de calcul que l'on se propose d'utiliser, notamment en cas de geometries speciales (repartitions non uniformes du combustible, configurations de s'ous- ensembles, limites de forme particuliere, etc.). Les etudes theoriques conduisent souvent ici a certaines difficultes de convergence. Il faut donc les comparer avec les repartitions du flux mesurees. 2. Etude des proprietes particulieres des reseaux uranium naturel-eau ordinaire et notamment de la validite des modeles de ralentissement a plusieurs groupes pour des structures de coeur uniformes et non uniformes. On pense qu'un ensemble comportant une seule source de fission spontanee convient particulierement pour les recherches de ce genre, bien que la statistique ne porte que sur un petit nombre d'observations. Cela est du a deux faits: 1. On peut considerer que le spectre de la source primaire est identique a celui de la fission induite, si bien qu'il n'y a pas d'oscillations transitoires d'energie, comme dans le cas d'une source ponctuelle de neutrons rapides. 2. L'intensite de la source primaire en chaque point de l'espace est proportionnelle a la section efficace de fission du combustible lorsqu'on considere egalement cette derniere comme une fonction

  1. Retrospective analysis of orthodontic treatment outcomes and its relation to postretention stability Análise retrospectiva dos resultados dos tratamentos ortodônticos e sua relação com a estabilidade pós-contenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas

    2006-10-01

    I tratados com extrações dos quatro primeiros pré-molares, visando estabelecer a relação da qualidade dos resultados dos tratamentos ortodônticos e a estabilidade em longo prazo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu de 94 pacientes de ambos os gêneros, apresentando má oclusão de Classe I, tratados com extrações dos quatro primeiros pré-molares e mecânica Edgewise. Todos os pacientes selecionados eram leucodermas, sendo 50 do gênero masculino e 44 do feminino. A idade inicial média foi de 13.46 anos (d.p. 1.8. O tempo de tratamento médio foi 2.09 anos (d.p. 0.58, o tempo médio de contenção foi 1.63 anos (d.p. 0.73 e o tempo médio de avaliação pós-contenção, 5.31 anos (d.p.1.61. Foram medidos, nos modelos de estudo, o índice PAR e o índice de irregularidade de Little, nas fases pré (T1, pós-tratamento (T2 e pós-contenção (T3, e calculou-se a quantidade de correção com o tratamento (T1-2 e de alteração no período pós-contenção (T3-2. Realizou-se a estatística descritiva e o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson foi aplicado entre os índices estudados e os tempos avaliados. RESULTADOS: A média de redução do índice PAR da amostra total com o tratamento foi de 78.54%, e na fase pós-contenção, de 66.6%, com relação ao inicial. Houve correlação significante para o índice PAR nos tempos estudados, exceto entre T1 e T2 e entre T1-2 e T3. Ou seja, quanto maior a correção do tratamento (T1-2, menor será o índice PAR final (PAR T2, e maior a alteração no período pós-contenção (PAR T3-2. E quanto maior o índice PAR pós-tratamento (PAR T2, maior o índice PAR pós-contenção (PAR T3. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a qualidade dos resultados dos tratamentos ortodônticos não está relacionada à estabilidade oclusal em longo prazo.

  2. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sel Naturel; 0423 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Formaciones Salinas Naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F. L.; Boegly, W. J.; Bradshaw, R. L.; Empson, F. M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E. G.; Tamura, T. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1960-07-01

    diverses periodes geologiques ; 2. L'impermeabilite du sel a l'ecoulement d'eau; 3. La vaste repartition geographique du sel; 4. Les enormes quantites de sel existantes ; 5. La solidite structurale du sel; 6. La conductivite thermique relativement elevee du sel par rapport a d'autres formations geologiques generales; 7. La recuperation eventuelle de precieux produits de fission dans les dechets injectes dans le sel; 8. La facilite relative d'obtenir des excavations dans le sel par voie d'extraction, ainsi que la facilite encore plus grande et le cout reduit de la preparation dans le sol de cavites par voie de solution; 9. La faible seismicite constatee dans les zones des principaux gisements de sel. Les dechets radioactifs liquides peuvent etre emmagasines dans les cavites des formations de sel naturel, a condition que les proprietes structurales/du sel ne soient pas defavorablement influencees par les interactions chimiques, la pression, la temperature et les rayonnements. Il ressort d'etudes analytiques qu'on peut emmagasiner 3.200 litres (800 gallons) par tonne de dechets d'uranium irradie a 10.000 MWj/t, vieux de deux ans, dans une sphere de 3 metres (dix pieds) de diametre sans depasser une temperature de 93 Degree-Sign C (200 Degree-Sign F). Des essais de laboratoire montrent que les proprietes structurales et la conductivite thermique du sel gemme ne sont pas sensiblement transformees par des doses de rayonnements intenses, bien que les temperatures elevees augmentent le taux de fluage des echantillons irradies et non irradies. Les interactions chimiques de dechets liquides avec du sel donnent naissance a du chlore et a des composes gazeux du chlore, mais les volumes n'en sont pas excessifs. Les migrations des nuclides a travers le sel ainsi que la deformation de la cavite ne peuvent etre etudiees que sur place dans le sel vierge. Des maquettes a l'echelle de 1/5 ont ete essayees a Hutchinson (Kansas) dans un gisement de sel; des essais d'une certaine importance

  3. Towards Improving our Understanding on the Retrievals of Key Parameters Characterising Land Surface Interactions from Space: Introduction & First Results from the PREMIER-EO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Gareth; North, Matthew R.; Petropoulos, George P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Hodges, Crona

    2015-04-01

    Acquiring accurate information on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is of key importance to extend our understanding of the Earth system's physical processes, and is also required in a wide range of multi-disciplinary research studies and applications. The utility and applicability of Earth Observation (EO) technology provides an economically feasible solution to derive continuous spatio-temporal estimates of key parameters characterising land surface interactions, including ET as well as SM. Such information is of key value to practitioners, decision makers and scientists alike. The PREMIER-EO project recently funded by High Performance Computing Wales (HPCW) is a research initiative directed towards the development of a better understanding of EO technology's present ability to derive operational estimations of surface fluxes and SM. Moreover, the project aims at addressing knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of such parameters, and thus contribute towards current ongoing global efforts towards enhancing the accuracy of those products. In this presentation we introduce the PREMIER-EO project, providing a detailed overview of the research aims and objectives for the 1 year duration of the project's implementation. Subsequently, we make available the initial results of the work carried out herein, in particular, related to an all-inclusive and robust evaluation of the accuracy of existing operational products of ET and SM from different ecosystems globally. The research outcomes of this project, once completed, will provide an important contribution towards addressing the knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of ET and SM. This project results will also support efforts ongoing globally towards the operational development of related products using technologically advanced EO instruments which were launched recently or planned be launched in the next 1-2 years. Key Words: PREMIER

  4. Classificação das barragens de contenção de rejeitos de mineração e de resíduos industriais no estado de Minas Gerais em relação ao potencial de risco

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Pires Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Recentes acidentes envolvendo barragens de contenção de rejeitos de mineração e de resíduos industriais vêm despertando a atenção para estas estruturas, que crescem cada vez mais com o aumento da produção industrial. Atualmente, no Brasil, tudo caminha para a criação de uma Política Nacional para Segurança de Barragens, já que ainda não há uma padronização de critérios para cada fase do ciclo de vida destas estruturas. Em Minas Gerais, a FEAM (Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente) através da De...

  5. Influência do anel de contenção na evolução pós-operatória dos pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia vertical em "Y de roux para tratamento da obesidade mórbida

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Zenobio Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A obesidade mórbida (OM) e as doenças a ela associadas tornaram-se grave problema de saúde pública. O tratamento cirúrgico da OM é considerado o método mais eficaz de perda sustentada do excesso de peso. A derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (GVYR) ou bypass gástrico é um dos procedimentos mais realizados no Brasil e no mundo. A utilização do anel de contenção associada a este procedimento tem o objetivo de retardar o esvaziamento gástrico, mantendo a sensação de saciedade mais pr...

  6. Radiobiological study of the radioprotective activity of a natural Iranian compound, ''Shir-Khecht''; Etude radiobiologique de l'activite radioprotectrice d'un compose naturel Iranien: le ''Shir-Khecht''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhanizadeh, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    After reviewing the primary mechanisms of the action of ionizing radiation, the possible mechanisms of the action of radioprotective substances, the various chemical structures having a protective effect and the methods for studying chemical radioprotection, the author presents the results he has obtained with natural Iranian product: ''Shir-Khecht''. Tests with this product at lethal and sublethal doses have been carried out on the rat using various means of introduction. The effect of radiation, both with and without protection, has been studied using histological and biochemical methods. The product examined has, in effect, a protective action; it is, furthermore, non-toxic and active when taken orally. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les mecanismes primaires de l'action des rayonnements ionisants, les mecanismes possibles de l'action des substances radioprotectrices, les diverses structures chimiques possedant un effet protecteur et les methodes d'etude de la radioprotection chimique, l'auteur presente les resultats qu'il a obtenus en utilisant un compose naturel iranien: le ''Shir-Khecht''. Des essais de ce produit, chez le rat, par diverses voies d'introduction, a dose letale et subletale ont ete effectues. L'effet des radiations, avec et sans protection, a ete etudie a l'aide de methodes histologiques et biochimiques. Le compose essaye possede un pouvoir protecteur; il est, de plus, non toxique et actif par voie orale. (auteur)

  7. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le premier modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.

  8. Les premiers pas d’Agnon à Jaffa (1908-1912 First Steps of S.Y. Agnon in Jaffa (1908-1912 ראשית דרכו של עגנון ביפו (1908 עד 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Itzhaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers pas du célèbre auteur S. Y. Agnon lors de son premier séjour à Jaffa (1908-1912 sont liés aux deux revues hébraïques : Ha-Omer, histoire d’un échec, et Ha-po‘el ha-tsa‘ir, histoire d’une réussite, et aux rédacteurs en chef de ces revues, les écrivains et pères spirituels du jeune Agnon, Sh. Ben Tzion, un écrivain esthétique, bourgeois, et Y. H. Brenner, un penseur tourmenté, un véritable intellectuel socialiste.The first period of the famous writer S. Y. Agnon in Jaffa (1908-1912 has a lot to do with two literary Hebrew periodicals: Ha-Omer, a story of a failure, and Ha-po‘el ha-tsa‘ir, a successful one, as well as  with two major figures in Hebrew literary milieu at that time, the editors, Sh. Ben Tzion and Y. H. Brenner.

  9. Efeito da estação do ano, da idade, do método de contenção e da técnica cirúrgica na recuperação clínica e no ganho de peso de bovinos submetidos a orquiectomia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Avaliou-se nesse estudo o efeito do método de contenção, da técnica cirúrgica e da idade, sobre as complicações pós-operatórias e o ganho de peso de bovinos submetidos a duas técnicas de orquiectomia. Utilizou-se 240 bovinos, machos, mestiços (Zebu X Europeu com idade entre 18 e 22 meses e peso médio de 300 kg, distribuídos ao acaso em oito grupos de 30 animais de acordo com a época de castração, idade, método de contenção e técnica cirúrgica empregada. Nos bovinos pertencentes aos Grupos I, II, III e IV realizou-se a orquiectomia utilizando duas incisões laterais longitudinais na bolsa testicular e a contenção em tronco. Na anestesia do cordão espermático utilizou-se lidocaína. Nos bovinos dos Grupos V, VI, VII e VIII removeu-se o ápice do escroto e os animais foram imobilizados em decúbito lateral direito. As orquiectomias nos animais dos Grupos I, II, V e VI, foram realizadas no mês de maio e as dos demais no mês de dezembro. As principais complicações observadas foram edema, miíases, retenção de coágulo, hemorragia e granuloma. A técnica de incisão lateral longitudinal no escroto associada ao método de contenção em tronco foi a que apresentou menor número de complicações pós-operatórias. O maior número de complicações foi constatado entre os animais castrados no mês de dezembro e submetidos à técnica de exerese do ápice do escroto (p<0,05. A estação do ano na qual os animais foram operados, a técnica cirúrgica e o método de contenção exerceram efeitos sobre o ganho de peso e as complicações pós-operatórias. Palavras-chave: orquiectomia, bovino, complicações pós-operatórias, ganho de peso. SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the contention method, surgical technique, and age on the postoperative

  10. La palmeraie des Îles Kerkennah (Tunisie, un paysage d'oasis maritime en dégradation : déterminisme naturel ou responsabilité anthropique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noômène Fehri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L'archipel des Kerkennah, situé dans le Golfe de Gabès à environ 18 kilomètres au large de la ville de Sfax, se caractérise par la fragilité de son "milieu naturel". Une fragilité qui peut être résumée en trois points :- un climat semi-aride caractérisé par la longue durée de la saison estivale sèche avec un déficit hydrique moyen qui dépasse 1000 mm/an ; - une prépondérance des formations meubles, en particulier les limons rouges würmiens favorables à l'érosion marine, aggravée par une ancienne subsidence qui remonterait au Tyrrhénien ;- une prédominance des sols salés qui couvrent près de la moitié de la superficie totale.Cette fragilité se traduit par deux problèmes majeurs, à savoir : un rapide recul du trait de la côte et une extension continue des sebkhas au détriment de la palmeraie dont les arbres sont en train de mourir par centaines.Cet article met l'accent sur les interventions humaines ayant accéléré la dégradation de ces milieux naturellement fragiles.Une activité salinière en net accroissement, un déclin de l'intérêt porté par la population locale au palmier, certains aménagements entrepris sans étude d'impact, l'ouverture de carrières et l'extraction illicite des sables pour les besoins de la construction, le surpâturage, tels sont les principaux facteurs anthropiques de cette dégradation accélérée.La prise en compte de l'ensemble des particularités environnementales des Kerkennah s'impose donc comme étant une condition indispensable pour toute action de développement qui se veut rationnelle et durable.The archipelago of Kerkennah, located in the Gulf of Gabes at about 18 kilometers off the town of Sfax, is characterized by the fragility of its “natural environment”. This fragility could be summarized in three points:- a semi-arid climate characterized by a long dry summer with an annual hydric deficit greater than 1000 mm/year;- a preponderance of soft formations

  11. Computer processing of {gamma} spectra. Application to the dosage of mixed natural or artificial radioelements; Traitement par ordinateur des spectres {gamma}. Application au dosage de melanges de radioelements naturels ou artificiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, R; Goldsztein, M; Schiltz, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A program, written in Fortran II for IBM 7034 II, permitting resolution by means of least squares of a mixture of natural or artificial radioelements, is described. The spectra are processed in measurement batches, making up a homogeneous study, which comprise standards and samples. This highly versatile program may either ensure the processing of a great number of daily analyses, or be used pending development of radiochemical methods. The feeding of data has been simplified as much as possible. On the contrary, at the outlet, the numerical or graphical controls, error computations, and the printing of results in clear and legible form have been multiplied. In spite of this, the calculation times are exceedingly short. Several independent studies which include about sixty spectra may be processed in less than five minutes. (authors) [French] On decrit un programme, redige en Fortran H, pour IBM 7094 H, permettant la resolution par les moindres carres d'un melange de radioelements naturels ou artificiels. Les spectres sont traites par groupe de mesures, constituant une etude homogene, comprenant etalons et echantillons. Ce programme, extremement souple, peut, soit repondre a une production journaliere importante d'analyses, soit etre utilise en periode de mise au point de methodes radiochimiques. L'introduction des donnees a ete simplifiee au maximum. Au contraire, a la 'sortie', on a multiplie les controles numeriques ou graphiques, les calculs d'erreur, les impressions de resultats sous une forme aussi claire et lisible que possible. Malgre cela, les temps de calculs sont extremement brefs, plusieurs etudes independantes comportant une soixantaine de spectres peuvent etre traitees en moins de 5 minutes. (auteurs)

  12. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  13. Les premiers tours du monde à forfait. L’exemple de la Société des Voyages d’Etudes Autour du Monde (1878)

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, avec le développement du bateau à vapeur et du chemin de fer, et l’ouverture de nouveaux axes de transport comme le Canal de Suez, le voyage autour du monde devient envisageable pour les touristes. Ainsi, dès 1872 des tours du monde à forfait sont organisés, ce qui témoigne de l’entrée du voyage autour du monde dans l’industrie touristique naissante. Cet article étudie ces premiers voyages d’un nouveau genre à travers l’exemple de la Société des Voyages ...

  14. Les premiers temps de l'architecture en briques au nord des Alpes : la question de l'origine cistercienne vue des Pays-Bas

    OpenAIRE

    Lehouck, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    L'argile est l'une des plus vieilles matières premières pour la fabrication de matériaux de construction. La chute de l'Empire romain a marqué la fin de l'utilisation de la brique au nord des Alpes. La brique ne ressurgit véritablement qu' à partir de la deuxième moitié du XIIe s. et de la première moitié du XIIe s.; dans la deuxième moitié du XIIIe s., la brique était devenue le matériau de construction le plus utilisé. Dans cet article, nous discutons les données concernant les premiers ...

  15. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  16. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  17. Algeria facing the challenges of Europe natural gas supply and the respect of the environment.; L'Algerie face aux defis de l'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel et le respect de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadia Nait

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the expectations, for the next decades, of a strong increase in the demand for gas in Europe, Algeria has committed to large structuring projects, adding to the two gas pipeline linking Algeria to Spain via Morocco and Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. Two more undertakings are added linking Algeria directly to two European partners. Sonatrach will play an important role in global environment protection, natural gas being less polluting than oil and coal and emitting less co2. Substitution of coal by natural gas will generate socio economical advantages and will preserve the environment. [French] Compte tenu des attentes, pour les decennies prochaines, d'une forte croissance de la demande de gaz en Europe, l'Algerie s'est engagee dans de grands projet structurants s'ajoutant aux deux gazoducs reliant l'Algerie a l'Espagne via le Maroc et l'Algerie a l'Italie via la Tunisie, viennent s'ajouter deux autres ouvrages reliant directement l'Algerie a deux partenaires europeens. Sonatrach Jouera un role important dans la protection de l'environnement a l'echelle mondiale, le gaz naturel est moins polluants que le petrole, le charbon et emet moins de co2. La substitution du charbon par le gaz naturel generera des avantages socio-economiques, preservation de l'environnement.

  18. Evolution des composés polyphénoliques du bois de chêne au cours de son séchage. Premiers résultats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Chatonnet

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendant le séchage naturel à l'air libre du bois de chêne, on assiste à une diminution régulière de la teneur du bois en composés extractibles et notamment en composés phénoliques du type ellagitanins. La diminution de la teneur en ellagitanins provient essentiellement de la disparition des formes oligomères solubles dans l'eau; les tanins polymérisés non extractibles car liés aux parois, évoluent peu au çours du séchage naturel à l'air libre. Les bois séchés rapidement à l'étuve possèdent toujours des quantités plus importantes de polyphénols. Dans le même temps et quel que soit le mode de séchage, on obselVe une diminution des coumarines glucosilées et une augmentation non proportionnelle des formes aglycones. D'un point de vue organoleptique, la diminution de l'ensemble des polyphénols pendant le séchage peut être interprétée comme favorable à l'évolution de la qualité du merrain. En effet, les fractions amères et astringentes du bois de chêne correspondent respectivement .sr certains tanins ellagiques et catéchiques. L'intelVention des micro-organismes isolés de bois de chêne en cours de séchage naturel dans la disparition des composés phénoliques du bois est discutée. La grande majorité des moisissures étudiées est capable de dégrader enzymatiquement les tanins hydrolysables du chêne. Cependant, ces mêmes composés s'hydrolysent et s'oxydent spontanément en présence d'eau et d'oxygène. En conséquence, considérant le profil de colonisation du bois par les micro-organismes et celui des composés phénoliques extractibles, on peut supposer que l'on assiste vraisemblablement pendant le séchage naturel du bois à une dégradation biochimique et chimique des polyphénols dans les couches superficielles du merrain (0 à 4 mm de profondeur et à une dégradation presque' exclusivement chimique au coeur du merrain. La présence d'eau et d'oxygène apparaÎt par conséquent comme un facteur

  19. A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of an HCCI Engine Une étude numérique complète sur les effets de la composition du gaz naturel carburant sur le réglage d’un moteur HCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanian O.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine is a promising idea to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Natural Gas (NG, usually referred as clean fuel, is an appropriate choice for HCCI engines due to its suitable capability of making homogenous mixture with air. However, varying composition of Natural Gas strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of in-cylinder mixture and the performance of the HCCI engine. This paper has focused on the influence of Natural Gas composition on engine operation in HCCI mode. Six different compositions of Natural Gas (including pure methane have been considered to study the engine performance via a thermo-kinetic zero-dimensional model. The simulation code covers the detailed chemical kinetics of Natural Gas combustion, which includes Zeldovich extended mechanism to evaluate NOx emission. Validations have been made using experimental data from other works to ensure the accuracy needed for comparison study. The equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are held constant but the engine speed and mixture initial temperature are changed for comparison study. Results show that the peak value of pressure/temperature of in-cylinder mixture is dependent of fuel Wobbe number. Furthermore, engine gross indicated power is linearly related to fuel Wobbe number. Gross indicated work, gross mean effective pressure, and NOx are the other parameters utilized to compare the performance of engine using different fuel compositions. Le moteur HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, ou à allumage par compression d’une charge homogène est une idée prometteuse pour réduire la consommation de carburant et les émissions polluantes. Le gaz naturel, considéré généralement comme un carburant propre, est un choix approprié pour les moteurs HCCI en raison de sa capacité à former avec l’air un mélange homogène. Cependant, la composition du gaz naturel influe fortement sur les caract

  20. Analysis of physical match performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Abt, Grant

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of first half activity, overall match intensity and seasonal variation on the physical match performances of English Premier League football referees. Match analysis data was collected using the Prozone match analysis system from 19 full-time professional referees during a total of 254 matches in the 2004-2005 season. Physical match performances were classified into three separate categories: 1, total distance covered (TD); 2, high-intensity running distance (running speed>5.5m/s, HIR); 3, average distance from infringements (DI). Using these match activity variables the influence of first half TD and HIR distances on second half activities and also the influence of players' match activities upon the referees' physical match performances were examined. The main finding of the present study was that the physical match performances of the referees were partly related to those of the players, in that the referees' HIR correlated with players' HIR (r=0.43, pphysical match performance of the referee. Further examination is required as to whether reduced physical performances in the second half of matches are a consequence of referee fatigue, tactical strategies on behalf of the referee or reduced player match activities resulting in a slower tempo of match.

  1. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  3. Structures and properties of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} containing non-active fission products. A simulation of irradiated nuclear fuel; Structure et proprietes de (U, Pu)O{sub 2} contenant des produits de fission sous forme inactive. Une simulation de combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have made oxides with the same uranium and plutonium content, the same stoichiometry and the same fission product content as an oxide fuel (U{sub 0,8}PuO{sub 2})O{sub 1,96} after 2 per cent burn up. We have calculated the stoichiometry changes due to irradiation and checked the calculation by X rays parameters measurements. We have calculated and measured the contraction of the oxide lattice due to fission products in solid solution. Microprobe analysis of precipitates have been made and have lead to the identification of non metallic barium containing compounds and have shown the particular behaviour of molybdenum. Some physical properties have been measured especially the electrical resistivity, the thermal diffusivity and the vapour pressure of zirconium in solid solution. (author) [French] Nous avons fabrique des oxydes dont la composition en uranium et plutonium, la stoechiometrie et la teneur en produit de fission, sont identiques a celles d'un oxyde (U{sub 0,8}PuO{sub 2})O{sub 1,96} ayant subi 2 pour cent de combustion. Nous avons calcule les changements de stoechiometrie entraines par l'irradiation et controle ces calculs par des mesures de parametre. Nous avons calcule et mesure la contraction du reseau due aux produits de fissions solubles dans la matrice. Des analyses a la microsonde des precipites de produits de fission insolubles ont ete faites et ont conduit a l'identification de composes non metalliques contenant du baryum et a la mise en evidence du role particulier du molybdene. Certaines proprietes physiques ont ete mesurees sur ces composes, en particulier la resistivite electrique, la diffusivite thermique et la tension de vapeur du zirconium dissout dans la matrice. (auteur)

  4. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Nicholls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.

  5. Autour d'un mystère de l'histoire du livre. Les trois versions du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de Choiseul-Gouffier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koubourlis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, il est question d'un grand mystère de l'histoire du livre, celui de l'existence de trois versions différentes du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782 de Choiseul-Gouffier, c'est-à-dire d'un ouvrage majeur pour la floraison des idées philhellènes dans l'Europe des XVIIIe-XIXe siècles. On sait, grâce à la correspondance de l'auteur, qu'il avait pris la décision de réviser son texte dès 1783, en raison de sa candidature pour le poste d'Ambassadeur de France à Constantinople. Par contre, on n'en sait pas davantage sur le lieu et le temps exacts où il a travaillé les deux nouvelles versions, portant également la date 1782, ni d'ailleurs sur les circonstances de leur édition. Sur la base d'une étude comparative des trois versions du texte, qui met l'accent sur l'argumentation avancée chaque fois par l'auteur, nous formulons ici une série d'hypothèses pour l'interprétation de ce mystère, que nous allons examiner dans leurs détails à partir d'une étude de bibliologie qui suivra le présent article.

  6. Girassol. A world premiere; Girassol. Une premiere mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnan, J.Ph.; Serceau, A. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-06-01

    Located at 150 km of the Angola coast, Girassol is the very first oil field integrally developed in deep sea conditions (1400 m). Girassol ensures today 8% of the production operated by TotalFinaElf company. This first step announces two other developments of comparable size on the same bloc (17): Dalia and Rosa-Lirio. This project, carried out with the participation of Angola companies, required 2.8 billions of US$ of investment. It significantly contributes to the development of a particularly rich oil province. This article describes the production equipment of the field: FPSO (floating production storage off-loading), mooring, tower risers, injection and production wells, bundles, flow-lines etc.. and the underwater operations required for the connecting of the bottom and surface equipments. (J.S.)

  7. Optimisation énergétique des procédés de séparation en raffinage et en traitement de gaz naturel Optimal Use of Energy in Separation Processes for Refining and Natural Gas Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojey A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode d'optimisation des procédés de séparation basée sur une analyse thermodynamique. Cette analyse s'appuie sur un bilan exergétique qui est établi dans le cas général d'un système quelconque opérant en régime permanent. Les facteurs qui conditionnent le rendement exergétique d'un procédé de séparation sont ensuite examinés. Il en résulte une méthode d'optimisation basée sur une réduction des irréversibilités thermodynamiques. Des exemples concrets d'application en raffinage et en traitement de gaz naturel sont présentés, et on montre comment cette analyse peut déboucher sur la conception de procédés innovants. The optimization of separation units in refining and natural-gas processing must take into consideration new needs and constraints that may seem incompatible. New installations must be designed not only on the basis of energy optimization but also by seeking to minimize investments and to respect new rules concerning environmental protection. The optimization described in this article is based on a thermodynamic analysis of different material and energy exchanges, The energybalance provides a suitable basis for making this analysis. It leads to the defining of an exergy efficiency that is all the higher as the thermodynamic irreversibilities are reduced, and that tends toward one for an ideal reversible system. For a separation process, a separation exergyterm is defined that correspond to the minimum separation work . Distillation is the basic separation operation. The exergy efficiency of this operation is low, and we show that, even in a relatively favorable cas, it is no greater than a value of about 6%. For an atmospheric distillation operation of crude oil, the exergy efficiency is about 4%. This overall exergy efficiency is the product of an external exergy efficiency and an internal exergy efficiency. The external exergy efficiency can be improved by better thermal

  8. Liquefied natural gas; Gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total has interests in five of the world's largest liquefaction plants, which together account for roughly 40% of global LNG production capacity. This presentation illustrates the activities of the Group in the LNG sector. It discusses the advantages of the LNG as a clean energy, the LNG market, the liquefaction process and plants, the LNG trading marketing and shipping, the re-gasification and TOTAL promoting innovation. (A.L.B.)

  9. LE CONCEPT DE RISQUE NATUREL URBAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the cities and growth of urban population have determined an inadequate use of some terms and concepts, in order to include in the research field specific phenomena and apply appropriate preventive measures. One such concept is about the hazards occurring inside the urban territory – urban hazards. The term urban can sometimes be associated to anthropogenic/industrial hazards or social hazards, and less to natural hazards.Natural hazards in urban areas are generally common for that geographical region. There is no such thing like special urban hazards. What is specific to urban area is the anthropogenic factor, which brings to risk various risk elements, including population, through his activities, density, or buildings. As a consequence, transition from hazard to risk is faster in time and space. Another feature is the multi- and interdisciplinary character of the genetic type of hazards. The so-called natural hazards are often caused by an anthropogenic factor. In the special literature urban risk is simply defined as the risk bounded by the urban territory or area, and is classified into: natural risk; industrial and technology risk; diffused risk.

  10. La marque «Parc Naturel Régional» :un dispositif original pour valoriser des stratégies de développement durable fondées sur les ressources agricoles et agroalimentaires des territoires insulaires ultramarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Caron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Parcs Naturels Régionaux (PNR français créés en 1967 constituent de véritables laboratoires pour la mise en œuvre d’un développement durable avant la lettre. Ils ont expérimenté diverses initiatives visant à valoriser la conservation des patrimoines naturel et culturel de leur territoire, notamment une politique de marquage de produits et de services territorialement ancrés. Dans cet article, nous nous interrogeons sur la pertinence de ces instruments de développement local pour les territoires insulaires à partir de l'exemple de la politique de marquage mise en œuvre par le PNR de la Martinique. Nous intéressant plus particulièrement aux impacts des démarches de marquage en termes de dynamique d’action collective, nous centrons notre analyse sur la dimension « sociale » de la durabilité.French Regional Nature Parks (RNP, created in 1967, can be considered as precursory sustainable development laboratories. Different initiatives dedicated to promote local development and draw benefits from the improved status of sustainably managed areas have been implemented in the RNP and among them a labelling policy through the development of RNP collective trademarks. In this article, we wonder about the consistency of this RNP labelling policy for the French overseas department of Martinique. According to our analytical references (local governance and collective action, we focus on the social dimension of sustainable development.

  11. Reconsideration of Methane Isotope Signature As a Criterion for the Genesis of Natural Gas: Influence of Migration on Isotopic Signatures Reconsidération de la signature isotopique du méthane comme critère pour la genèse du gaz naturel : influence de la migration sur les signatures isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernaton E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in the purpose of studying the isotopic consequences of the diffusional transport of hydrocarbon gases through sediment rocks. Linked to a numerical model, these gas diffusion experiments through a shale porous plug allowed us to correlate porosity and diffusivity of the migration medium. Significant isotopic fractionations (carbon and hydrogen of methane, and ethane at a lesser degree were observed. This is in contradiction with the actual dogma of isotope geochemistry of natural gases which claims that no fractionation occurs during gas migration. The genetic characterization of natural gases by using the isotopic signature of methane appears as an ambiguous method. Plusieurs expériences ont été réalisées dans le but d'étudier les conséquences isotopiques du transport par diffusion des gaz hydrocarbures au travers des roches sédimentaires. Associées à un modèle numérique, ces expériences de diffusion au travers d'une membrane d'argile reconstituée nous ont permis de corréler deux paramètres pétrophysiques du milieu de migration : la porosité et la diffusivité. D'importants fractionnements isotopiques ont été observés au cours de la diffusion du méthane et, à plus petite échelle, lors de la diffusion de l'éthane. Ces résultats remettent en cause le dogme actuel de la géochimie isotopique des gaz naturels qui stipule que la migration des gaz ne peut induire de fractionnements isotopiques. En conséquence, les méthodes de caractérisation génétique des gaz naturels utilisant la signature isotopique du méthane apparaissent comme insuffisantes.

  12. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  13. Enhancing Classroom Creativity. Premier PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Elizabeth; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, V. William; Kelly, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Educators often hear about the need for students to be more creative, more free-thinking, and more exploratory throughout projects and class assignments. This article will highlight the importance of creating and implementing an open-classroom environment where students are confident in their ability to ask questions and capable of exploring a…

  14. Evolution des caractéristiques physico-chimiques de deux zones de frayères à sédimentation contrastée et premiers résultats de survie embryo-larvaire de truite commune (Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSA F.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available L'impact chimique et physique de la sédimentation sur la survie d'oeufs de Salmonidés a été étudié dans la partie amont de deux ruisseaux d'un même bassin à production salmonicole contrastée : le Moulinet qui présente une faible population de truites et la Roche qui est un ruisseau très productif. Les matières en suspension et les sédiments déposés ont été collectés à un pas de temps de 8 ou 15 jours en 1996 et 1997 et les survies embryo-larvaires ont été estimées en parallèle, dans des incubateurs artificiels. Les taux de survie ont été déterminés à l'émergence en 1996 et de la fécondation à l'éclosion, puis de l'éclosion à l'émergence en 1997. Les paramètres chimiques de l'eau interstitielle (oxygène, pH, nitrates, nitrites et ammoniac ont été mesurés au pas de temps de la semaine pendant la période d'incubation 1997 sur des dispositifs enfouis dans le substrat du ruisseau et au moment de l'éclosion dans les incubateurs contenant les oeufs. Les premiers résultats montrent que les taux de survie embryo-larvaires sont nuls en 1996 et faibles en 1997 (0 à 11 %, moyenne : 3,3 % dans le ruisseau du Moulinet alors que parallèlement, la survie est de 20 % sur un incubateur en 1996 et varie de 0 à 23 % en 1997 (moyenne : 7,7 % dans le ruisseau de la Roche. De l'éclosion à l'émergence, les survies sont supérieures à 80 % dans les deux ruisseaux. La sédimentation est contrastée sur les deux sites, plus forte en masse dans le ruisseau de la Roche pendant la période d'incubation mais de granulométrie beaucoup plus grossière que dans le ruisseau du Moulinet (sableuse dominante contre argilolimoneuse. Les teneurs en oxygène dissous mesurées dans le substrat de la Roche restent élevées pendant toute la période d'incubation (teneur minimum de 5 mg/l et sont significativement supérieures à celles mesurées dans le ruisseau du Moulinet pendant la deuxième partie de l'incubation 1997. D'autre part

  15. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pScottish Government and The UK Football Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  17. Formes du regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours. Une typologie des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Anissa Afrite; Julien Mousques

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche global sur le lien entre le regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours dans les sites participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR) et la performance des médecins généralistes en matière d’activité, de productivité, d’efficacité et d’efficience de leurs pratiques, cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser la structure, l’organisation et le fonctionnement des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant...

  18. Évolution nycthémérale des composantes biochimiques du phytoplancton de la retenue du barrage Idriss premier (Fès, Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahhou, J.; Alaoui Mhamdi, M.

    1999-03-01

    The diel changes of the biochemical composition of the phytoplankton were studied in the Idriss first reservoir (located on the Inaouen river at thirty Km from the city of Fes, Morrocco) during September 1994. Several biomass and metabolic indicators (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, chlorophyll a and primary production) were assessed every fourth hour over tow days (7, 8 and 9 September). Since the Protein/Carbohydrates ratio (P/C) is largely recognised as a good integrator of the metabolic functions of the cells, we examined its distribution pattern concomitantly with aforementioned parameters. The results demonstrated enhanced P/C ratios clearly indicating that nutrients were sufficiently available for growth. In addition, this index showed a diel significant variation with levels higher in the night than in the day. Moreover, these results suggest that phytoplankton species during the night used the day-synthesised carbohydrates to insure the cell metabolic functioning. The P/C presents relatively high values in proposition to the ones that have been recorded in temperate regions, and seems to be related to azotic inputs of the Inaouen river. Dans le but de parfaire nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement du sous écosystème phytoplancton, nous nous sommes intéressés à étudier son cycle nycthéméral et son métabolisme cellulaire dans la retenue du barrage Idriss premier. Cette dernière, construite sur l'Oued Inaouène, est située à une trentaine de Km de la ville de Fès. Au cours de ce cycle, les prélèvements ont été effectués selon une séquence temporelle de 4 heures pendant 48 heures, les 7, 8 et 9 septembre 1994. L'étude de l'évolution des composantes biochimiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques à savoir les protéines, les glucides et les lipides a permis de mettre en évidence des variations nycthémérales importantes. Ces variations sont d'autant plus importantes que les variations spatiales observées entre les profondeurs. De plus

  19. Durabilité de pâtes de ciments contenant du laitier d’El Hadjar conservées dans des milieux agressifs et à des températures de climat chaud Durability of cement pastes containing slag of El Hajar preserved in aggressive environments and at temperatures of hot climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clastres P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En vue d’améliorer la durabilité des bétons durcis, notamment vis à vis des eaux agressives telles que eau de mer, eaux sulfatées, …et dans le cas d’une température de conservation de climat chaud (20 à 40 °C, nous proposons d’utiliser des ciments contenant 20 % (CPJ, CEM II B ou 50 % (CHF, CEM III A de laitier granulé moulu de haut fourneau d’El Hadjar. Les essais sont réalisés sur pâte pure afin de mieux suivre parallèlement l’évolution minéralogique des mélanges durcis par analyse au moyen de la diffraction des rayons X. Les indicateurs de durabilités choisis et suivis de 1 jour à 1 an sont les variations dimensionnelles et les résistances mécaniques en compression simple. Le pH des solutions, liés notamment à la fréquence de renouvellement des bains, apparaît comme un paramètre important d’agressivité. Les résultats obtenus permettent notamment de mettre en évidence l’effet bénéfique sur la durabilité aux sulfates d’un ajout aux ciments de laitier granulé ainsi qu’une certaine agressivité pour ces mêmes ciments d’une conservation en eau de mer à 20°C. Une température de climat chaud (40°C ne modifie pas fondamentalement ces résultats. To improve the durability of hardened concrete, especially against aggressive water such as sea water, sulphated, … and in the case of a conservation temperature of hot climate (20 to 40°C we propose the use of cements containing 20% (CPJ CEM II B or 50% (CHF, CEM III A granulated blast furnace slag of El Hajar. The tests are performed on cement paste in order to better follow parallely the mineralogical evolution of mixtures cured by analysis of X-ray diffraction. The Indicators of sustainability selected and followed from 1 day to 1 year, are the dimensional variation and the compressive strength simple. The pH of the solutions, especially related to the renewal frequency of the baths, appears as an important parameter of aggressiveness. The

  20. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  1. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  2. Proposition d'explication de la formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les stockages souterrains de gaz naturel par réduction des sulfures minéraux de la roche magasin Proposed Explanation of Hydrogen-Sulfide Formation in Underground Natural-Gas Storage Structures by Reduction of Mineral Sulfides in the Reservoir Rock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les structures de stockage peu expliquer autrement que par l'action de bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La contenue dans la roche magasin constitue une source de sulfures capable d'alimenter en H2S le gaz naturel. La réduction de la pyrite en sulfures du type Fe 1-x S et l'équilibre de dissolution précipitation, lié principalement à la pression de CO2, dans les structures stockages, constituent un processus de formation d'H2S capable d'expliquer tativement et quantitativement les phénomènes observés sur le terrain. Un modèle simplifié de stockage reprend ce schéma et teste la sensibililté de la teneur en H2S à la valeur des paramètres physiques et chimiques définissant le stockage. Cette étude permet de proposer un certain nombre d'actions susceptibles de limiter la formation d'H2S et d'orienter les choix futurs du couple gaz naturel - structures de stockage. The formation of hydrogen sulfide in storage structures can be explained otherwise thon by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The pyrite contained in the reservoir rock makes up a source of sulfides capable of supplying the natural gas with H2S.Reduction of pyrite ta sulfides of the Fe,-,S type and the dissolution precipitation equilibrium, linked mainly ta C02 pressure in storage structures, make up an H2S for-mation process capable of qualitatively and quantitatively explained phenomena observed in the field.A simplified storage model reflects this scheme and can be used ta test the sensi-tivity of the H2S content ta the value of the physical and chemical parameters defining the storage structure.This investigation can be used to propose various means of action (sable ta "mit H2S formation and ta guide future choices of natural gas/storage-structure pairs.

  3. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  4. L’environnement naturel et le changement climatique pendant les années Bush : la pertinence d’une différenciation des échelles territoriales Climate Change and the Natural Environment in the Bush Years: The Relevance of Territorial Scale Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’attitude de l’administration fédérale au cours des huit années de l’administration Bush contraste avec celle du contexte des années 1960-1970 pour ce qui concerne la prise en compte de l’environnement naturel dans les décisions économiques. Toutefois, cet engagement limité du président Bush sur la question du changement climatique dans les débats internationaux n’a pas pour autant réduit les capacités de mobilisation des États et des villes sur ce thème.On the issue of whether climate change should be taken into account in economic decisions, the federal administration’s attitude during the Bush Presidency sharply contrasted with the attitudes of earlier administrations, particularly in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The limited concern for climate change which the federal government exhibited in the international arena did not reduce, however, the mobilization of states and local communities on this issue.

  5. Radiobiological study of the radioprotective activity of a natural Iranian compound, ''Shir-Khecht''; Etude radiobiologique de l'activite radioprotectrice d'un compose naturel Iranien: le ''Shir-Khecht''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhanizadeh, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    After reviewing the primary mechanisms of the action of ionizing radiation, the possible mechanisms of the action of radioprotective substances, the various chemical structures having a protective effect and the methods for studying chemical radioprotection, the author presents the results he has obtained with natural Iranian product: ''Shir-Khecht''. Tests with this product at lethal and sublethal doses have been carried out on the rat using various means of introduction. The effect of radiation, both with and without protection, has been studied using histological and biochemical methods. The product examined has, in effect, a protective action; it is, furthermore, non-toxic and active when taken orally. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les mecanismes primaires de l'action des rayonnements ionisants, les mecanismes possibles de l'action des substances radioprotectrices, les diverses structures chimiques possedant un effet protecteur et les methodes d'etude de la radioprotection chimique, l'auteur presente les resultats qu'il a obtenus en utilisant un compose naturel iranien: le ''Shir-Khecht''. Des essais de ce produit, chez le rat, par diverses voies d'introduction, a dose letale et subletale ont ete effectues. L'effet des radiations, avec et sans protection, a ete etudie a l'aide de methodes histologiques et biochimiques. Le compose essaye possede un pouvoir protecteur; il est, de plus, non toxique et actif par voie orale. (auteur)

  6. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. PMID:25917066

  7. Contenção farmacológica do gato-do-mato-pequeno, Leopardus tigrinus, para colheita de sêmen, pela associação de tiletamina zolazepam e xilazina Chemical restraint of tigrinas, Leopardus tigrinus, for semen collection with allometrically scaled doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Juvenal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cloridrato de tiletamina, cloridrato de zolazepam e cloridrato de xilazina para contenção farmacológica de gatos-do-mato-pequenos, Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 (Felidae, submetidos à colheita de sêmen por eletroejaculação. Formularam-se três diferentes protocolos, sendo as doses calculadas individualmente, por meio de extrapolação alométrica interespecífica, com base nas indicações posológicas usuais para o cão doméstico com massa de 10,0 kg. No Protocolo 1 (n=10 a base para o cálculo alométrico foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,5mg/kg para xilazina; no Protocolo 2 (n=12, foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,75mg/kg para xilazina; e no Protocolo 3 (n=11, foi 5,0mg/ kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 1,0mg/kg para xilazina. Os animais foram anestesiados em três ocasiões, com intervalo mínimo de 30 dias. Após a administração dos fármacos, monitorizaram-se durante 120 minutos freqüência cardíaca, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal, miorrelaxamento e nocicepção. Também foram avaliados período de latência, período anestésico hábil e contaminação do ejaculado por urina. De um total de 32 colheitas, houve contaminação por urina em 10 colheitas (31,2% e em 18 alíquotas (0,07%, as quais foram desprezadas, não inviabilizando a análise e o processamento do sêmen. Observou-se pequeno aumento da temperatura retal durante a eletroejaculação, justificado pela contração muscular, ocorrendo redução da temperatura após o procedimento. As freqüências cardíaca e respiratória oscilaram durante o experimento, porém se mantiveram dentro dos padrões fisiológicos para a espécie. Nos três protocolos analisados não houve diferença significativa de sensibilidade de membros torácicos entre momentos antes e durante a eletroejaculação (pe"0,10, caracterizando assim a eficácia dos protocolos em propiciar analgesia e

  8. Comparison of premier CAMPY enzyme immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY tests with culture for laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the "gold standard" for

  9. Comparison of Premier CAMPY Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY Tests with Culture for Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Enteric Infections ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A.; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the “gold standard” for

  10. Detailed design of a fixed filter-paper alpha-air-monitor with less than 15-min response time; Detecteur d'aerosols contenant des emetteurs alpha, muni d'un papier filtre fixe, a temps de reponse inferieur a quinze minutes; Podrobnaya konstruktsiya vozdushnogo registratora al'fa-chastits s fiksirovannym bumazhnym fil'trom so vremenem srabatyvaniya menee pyatnadtsati minut; Monitor de hoja de papel filtro fija para emisores alfa suspendidos en el aire, cuyo tiempo de reaccion es inferior a 15 minutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, W O; Seaborn, G B [Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-04-15

    monitor features small size and simplicity, with an economy in fabrication, operation, and maintenance not available in other known monitor designs. It provides an alarm within 15 min when uranium dust concentrations exceed 2.1 x 10{sup -10} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} (three and one-half times the maximum permissible concentration for a 40-h week exposure). Additionally, it can be used to measure the average weekly uranium dust concentration by the removal of the filter disc and the measurement of its radiation level after an appropriate decay period. (author) [French] Dans une usine de separation des isotopes de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse, les particules alpha emises par les aerosols d'uranium posent un grave probleme de radioprotection. A l'usine de separation par diffusion gazeuse d'Oak Ridge on a entrepris, il y a quelques annees, l'execution d'un programme qui a pour objet de perfectionner les appareils de detection des aerosols. Le memoire decrit un appareil recemment mis au point qui declenche rapidement un avertisseur si le degagement d'aerosols d'uranium atteint le seuil de danger. Avant la mise au point de cet appareil, il fallait attendre cinq heures environ pour permettre la decroissance de la radioactivite naturelle de l'atmosphere avant que les emetteurs alpha a longue periode contenus dans les aerosols d'uranium ne puissent etre deceles. Le fonctionnement de l'appareil considere est fonde sur le principe suivant: lorsque l'on recueille des aerosols contenant des produits de filiation du radon a l'etat naturel dans l'atmosphere, l'activite augmente jusqu'a ce qu'elle atteigne une valeur de quasi-equilibre. A ce moment, la vitesse de depot sera egale a celle de la decroissance. La presence d'aerosols d'uranium entraine une modification rapide des conditions d'equilibre, que l'on peut observer. L'appareil a ceci de particulier qu'un circuit special de differentiation actionne un avertisseur des que le taux d'accroissement de la radioactivite depasse celui auquel on

  11. Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…

  12. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  13. The reactor Melusine - radiation measurements carried out at the start of operation and during the first ascents to power; Pile Melusine - mesures de rayonnement effectuees au demarrage et pendant les premieres montees en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutrot, V; Delpuech, J; Fitoussi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements carried out on the first C.E.A. swimming-pool pile, Melusine. The purpose of these measurements, which were carried out during the starting-up period and the first ascents to 1 MW power, is to check the radiation intensity levels near the pile and from this to verify the safety calculation methods used. In addition certain special measurements, such as those performed in and above the water of the swimming-pool, in the channels and outside them etc..., should make it possible eventually to define the conditions under which the pile may be used for special jobs with less protection. In the first part of the report are given the results of radiation measurements carried out during runs at low power plateaux not exceeding 500 W: in particular measurements at variable water levels in the water of the swimming-pool and on the axis of the open channels. The results given in the second part deal with radiation measurements performed in various parts of the premises, studies on the activation of the plugs in the experimental channels and of the materials in the forward compartment, and also of the radioactivity of the swimming-pool water and the air used to cool the channels. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour but de donner les resultats des mesures de rayonnement effectuees aupres de la premiere pile piscine du C.E.A.: la pile Melusine. Le but de ces mesures, effectuees pendant la periode de demarrage et les premieres montees a la puissance de 1 MW, est de controler les niveaux d'intensite de rayonnement aupres de la pile et par la de juger des methodes de calculs de protection utilisees. D'autre part, certaines mesures plus particulieres, telles que celles effectuees dans l'eau et au-dessus de l'eau de la piscine, dans les canaux et a l'exterieur de ceux-ci, etc..., doivent permettre de definir ulterieurement les conditions d'utilisation de la pile pour des fonctionnements particuliers avec des protections

  14. Study of the catalytic activity of pure or cerium-containing thoria in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (1963); Etude de l'activite catalytique de la thorine pure ou contenant du cerium. Dans l'oxydation de l'oxyde de carbone (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    nous avons obtenus, tant en ce qui concerne la chimisorption des differents gaz que la conductivite de l'adsorbant et la cinetique de la reaction d'oxydation proprement dite, nous semblent constituer un ensemble tres coherent. Rappelons en effet que: 1) L'oxyde de carbone s'adsorbe, alors que l'oxygene ne s'adsorbe pas, sur une surface nue de catalyseur. 2) L'oxygene s'adsorbe sur une couche d'oxyde de carbone prealablement adsorbe, et reagit alors pour donner du gaz carbonique (l'oxygene du reseau ne jouant aucun role). Ce comportement est habituel pour un semi-conducteur p. Nous avons effectivement verifie que tel etait bien le type de semi-conductivite auquel nous avions a faire, et les interactions des gaz et du solide peuvent etre ecrites: (1) CO{sub (g)} {r_reversible} CO{sup +}{sub (a)} + e{sup -} (2) CO{sup +} 1/2 O{sub 2(g)} + 2 e{sup -} {yields} CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} (3) CO{sup -}{sub 2(a)} {r_reversible} CO{sub 2(g)} + e{sup -} L'equation cinetique ecrite en supposant que l'etape (2) est la plus lente, permet de retrouver correctement les resultats experimentaux qui s'expriment par: dp / dt = k (P{sup 0.3}{sub CO} x P{sup 0.5}{sub O{sub 2}}) / (1+ k' x P{sub CO{sub 2}}) L'influence de l'addition de petites quantites de cerium s'explique egalement de maniere logique a partir de ce schema: il y a en effet a la fois diminution de la conductivity et augmentation de l'activite catalytique, ce qui est caracteristique selon VOLKENSTEIN [52] d'une reaction determinante de type n s'effectuant sur un semi-conducteur de type p. Nous pensons que ces premiers resultats pourraient avantageusement etre etayes par l'etude de la thorine prepares par d'autres voies, et dopee de maniere differente. (auteur)

  15. Presence of the relative age effect and its effect on playing time among under-20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen – a four-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European top-level soccer clubs are continually looking for talented players. Few clubs, however, are willing to let youth players play at the highest senior level. Perhaps as a consequence, the search for talented players has resulted in an imbalance in the characteristics of these players, towards an overrepresentation of players born early in the selection year, an effect called the relative age effect (RAE. The RAE has been documented to be present among senior top-level players. Even so, few studies have investigated the effect among youth players at the senior level. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among U17-U20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen in the 2009-2012 seasons. Participants were 315 male players born in 1990-1996. The results showed that 68% of the players were born in the two first quartiles of the year. The effect was even increasing in the four-year period. As we could expect based on the literature, the oldest players are given more playing time. However, the connection between playing time and RAE was inconsistent. Norwegian top-level soccer seems to be affected by the RAE when selecting their players. These players are not however guaranteed playing time because of the RAE.

  16. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  17. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  18. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  19. Archéologie et sociabilité: la délégation du Pérou au Premier Congrès international des Américanistes, Nancy, 1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur tente de montrer comment l'analyse de la composition de la délégation péruvienne au premier Congrès International des Américanistes peut fournir une vision différente du mouvement anthropologique au XIXème siècle, dans la mesure où la plupart des membres de cette délégation étaient peut-être plus préoccupés de représentation que de l'avancement des sciences humaines. D'où l'idée d'un intérêt pour l'archéologie considéré alors comme un acte de sociabilité. El autor intenta demostrar que el análisis de la delegación peruana al primer Congreso Internacional de Americanistas puede dar otra visión del movimiento antropológico en el siglo XIX, en la medida en que la mayoría de los miembros de esta delegación estaban tal vez más preocupados por su imagen pública que por el progreso de las ciencias humanas. En este caso, el interés por la arqueología sería sobre todo un acto de sociabilidad. The author intends to show how the analysis of the social composition of the peruvian delegation at the first International Congress of Americanists, can offer a different view upon the anthropological movement in the XlXth century, as far as most of the delegates were more worried of their public image instead of the advancement of human sciences. In this particular case, their interest on archaeology would be seen as a social act.

  20. Development of UO{sub 2}-Stainless Steel Fuel Plates Containing 30-50 Vol. % Oxide; Fabrication de plaques de combustible en acier inoxydable-UO{sub 2} contenant 30 a 40% d'oxyde (en volume); Razrabotka toplivnykh ehlementov iz nerzhaveyushchej stali i UO{sub 2}, soderzhashchikh 30 - 50 OB.% okisi; Elaboracion de placas de combustible de acero inoxidable UO{sub 2} conteniendo 30 a 40% de oxido (en volumen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, H. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This paper describes developments associated with the fabrication of UO{sub 2}-stainless steel plate type fuel elements containing up to 50 vol.% UO{sub 2}. The preparation of high-density spherical UO{sub 2} sintered particles in the 100- to 500-{mu}m size range and the compacting and sintering of cermet plate cores with the particles uniformly distributed in the stainless steel matrix are described together with procedures for hot roll-bonding the fuel plates. Rolling at temperatures up to 1300{sup o}C using total deformations in the 40% to 90% range were studied to establish optimum conditions for the production of high-density cores and to achieve good bonding between the plate components with minimum fragmentation and stringering of the UO{sub 2} particles. The manufacture of large fuel plates utilizing multi-core plates which are bonded together during hot rolling is also described. Data are presented on the mechanical properties of 30, 40 and 50 vol.% UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermets, prepared as described above, and tested in the as ''rolled'' and annealed condition at various temperatures up to 700{sup o}C, using specimens taken laterally and longitudinally to the direction of rolling. The influence of size and uniformity of distribution of the UO{sub 2} spheres on consistency of mechanical properties are discussed. The strength of bonding between core and cladding for similar cermets in the same temperature range was also assessed. Results are also included of thermal cycling tests between 50 and 800{sup o}C, which was done to study the effects on bond stability and cermet structure after 100, 500 and 1000 cycles. (author) [French] L'auteur expose le processus de fabrication d'elements de combustible UO{sub 2}-Inox en plaques contenant jusqu'a 50% en volume d'UO{sub 2}; il decrit la preparation de particules spheriques de UO{sub 2} frittees de densite elevee (taille dans la gamme de 100 a 500), le pressage et le frittage des plaques de cermet dans

  1. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  2. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented

  3. PREMIER WOLNYCH ŁUŻYC

    OpenAIRE

    Suwart, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Wojciech Kóćka’s life could easily serve as a source material of many action and historical film screenplays. He has been hunted by the Nazi, has gone into hiding following threads by the NKVD and have had not an easy life in the first years of the communist Poland. In 1945 he was regarded as the most serious candidate for the position o f Prime Minister of a Lusatian Free State. He has never repudiated his Lusatian roots and became one of the most eminent intellectuals in the pos...

  4. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  5. Film Premiere: Arrows of time at exploratorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Join award-wimming artist and filmmaker Ken McMullen for a uniqude presentation of films engaging ideas at the forefront of science and culture on Sunday, Apri 29 at 2pm at the Exploratorium." (1/3 page)

  6. Arthroscopy Techniques: The Premier Arthroscopic Video Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, J Martin; Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T

    2016-12-01

    Arthroscopy has always been focused on its roots-providing practical, clinically relevant information for the practicing arthroscopist. In the digital age, there is a need for publication platforms dedicated to multimedia presentations, hence the birth of Arthroscopy Techniques, Arthroscopy's online video companion. With over 700 videos, our library is filled with an exceptional collection of arthroscopic educational material, with topics ranging from the basics of arthroscopy to the most complex surgical procedures. One series, published this month, explores elbow arthroscopy with specific attention to describing various elbow portals, patient positioning, and tricks of elbow arthroscopy known only to the masters. If you have yet to view Arthroscopy Techniques, experience the future of arthroscopy today at www.ArthroscopyTechniques.org! Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear raw materials; Matieres premieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J. [Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    It is clear that in the next decades there will be a substantial and increasing demand for uranium to fuel nuclear power stations. In a developing country, the discovery and development of uranium resources can be of importance either for the development of national nuclear power or for the commercial export of uranium. As the time taken between the start of a uranium exploration program and the uranium production stage.may be of the order of 6 - 10 years, it is now opportune to start new exploration so that advantage of the increased demand in the mid-1970s may be achieved. Thorium will also be of interest, but in the more distant future when the thorium cycle for advanced converters and breeder reactors is fully developed [French] Il est certain qu' au cours des prochaines décennies la demande d'uranium pour les centrales nucléaires sera importante et ne cessera de croître. Dans un pays en voie de développement, la découverte et la mise en valeur de ressources d'uranium peut avoir une grande importance, soit en vue de produire de l'énergie nucléoélectrique, soit en vue d'exporter l'uranium. Etant donné que les délais entre le démarrage d'un programme de prospection de l'uranium et le début de la production peuvent être de l'ordre de six ans, il est actuellement opportun de commencer les opérations d'exploration pour pouvoir profiter de la demande accrue qui s' affirmera vers le milieu de la prochaine décennie. Le thorium présentera aussi un certain intérêt, mais à plus long terme. Il faut pour cela que le cycle du thorium pour convertisseurs avancés et surgénérateurs ait été pleinement développé. (author)

  8. World premiere. And the antimatter was

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an historical review of the discovery of antimatter. Nine anti-hydrogen atoms were produced in September 1995 by a German-Italian team using the CERN-LEAR. This exceptional event has convulsed the existing fundamental physics theories: the symmetry theory and the general relativity theory and its equivalence principle. The discovery of antimatter raises the question of the existence of an anti-universe and of where the antimatter could lie in the universe. The paper describes the experiment carried out at the CERN and the difficulties encountered for the measurement and the storage of antimatter particles. The possible forthcoming closure of the LEAR appears as a threat to future antimatter studies and developments using antimatter annihilation energy. (J.S.). 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo

  9. The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League 'Football in the Community' men's health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, K; Drust, B; Murphy, R; Pringle, A; Richardson, D

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client-researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can

  10. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B.; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine

  11. La stigmatisation particulière du pédéraste passif dans les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la premiere partie du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pastorello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la première partie du xixe siècle sont les premiers travaux envisageant la pratique de l’homosexualité masculine sous l’angle scientifique. Deux figures sont primordiales : le docteur Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 membre des idéologues et qui entendait faire de la médecine la pièce maîtresse d’une science de l’homme et Ambroise Tardieu 1818-1879 professeur de médecine légale à Paris auteur d’un traité vu comme un aboutissement de ces études médico-légales. Il faut signaler l’influence de la phrénologie. Ces médecins définissent des stigmates physiques et moraux propres à la pratique de la pédérastie, surtout passive et à l’occasion définissent un personnage type. Ces discours relèvent d’abord d’une phraséologie morale et ils puisent leurs racines antérieurement. Cependant il faut aussi replacer ces discours stigmatisant la pédérastie passive dans le contexte de la construction de la virilité moderne. Il faut aussi placer la médecine légale dans le contexte de la médecine et de ses évolutions.The particular stigmatization of the passive pederast in the inquiries of forensic medecine in the first part of the XIX centuryForensic medicine in the first part of the 19th century investigations are first work considering the practice of male homosexuality in scientific terms. Two figures are crucial: the Dr. Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 the ideologists member and intended to do medicine the centrepiece of a human science and Ambroise Tardieu 1818 - 1879 Professor of forensic medicine in Paris author of a treaty as a culmination of these forensic studies. It should be noted the influence of the phrenology. These physicians define physical stigma and moral own practice of pederasty, especially passive and during the define a type character. These speeches are firstly a moral phraseology and they draw their roots previously. However we also

  12. From Raja to Prime Minister Entre rajah et premier ministre. Les étrangers et l’exploitation économique à Bornéo et dans le Pacifique au xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some twenty years after the Sultan of Brunei had bestowed upon the Englishman James Brooke the title of Rajah of Sarawak, giving him extensive authorities over a large tract of land, an American, Joseph William Torrey, United States consul in Brunei, gained the right to call himself Rajah of Marudu and Ambong. Though Torrey’s efforts failed to establish a profitable business in Sabah, they formed the root of the British North Borneo Company. Torrey probably was one of the last of his kind. Elsewhere in the Pacific, European and American residents and adventurers did not bother much about native titles, expanding their hold over land and its inhabitants by economic and political manipulation. In Hawaii and Samoa political reform and becoming cabinet minister or prime minister of a still independent island state served their purposes better.Quelque vingt ans après que le sultan de Brunei eut accordé à l’Anglais James Brooke le titre de rajah de Sarawak, qui lui donnait d’importants pouvoirs sur une vaste région, un Américain, Joseph William Torrey, consul des Etats-Unis à Brunei, obtint le titre de rajah de Marudu et Ambong. Les efforts de Torrey, échouant à établir une affaire profitable à Sabah, constituèrent néanmoins les bases de la British North Borneo Company. Torrey fut sans doute l’un des derniers de ce type d’aventuriers. Ailleurs dans le Pacifique, des résidents et des aventuriers européens et américains, par des manœuvres économiques et politiques, consolidèrent leur contrôle sur les territoires et leurs populations, sans trop se soucier d’obtenir des titres locaux. A Hawaii et à Samoa, il leur fut plus utile d’entreprendre des réformes politiques et de se pourvoir d’un poste de ministre ou de premier ministre d’un Etat insulaire encore indépendant.

  13. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine de radionucleides dans les effluents produits et de

  14. Antioxydants naturels végétaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolland Yohan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of lipids corresponds to the degradation of fatty acids by a continuation of sequential reactions : the decomposition of peroxides formed on the fatty chains after the attack by radicalaires compounds ends in the production of aldéhydes, cétones, acids, alcohols and go to a loss of the organoleptic and nutritional qualities (characteristic rancy smell and taste, thus a significant loss of economic value. The synthetic antioxidants (BHT, BHA are effective, but their use is of pleased in more controversial. It is thus advisable to study with attention the plant natural antioxidants. The antioxidizing properties of the plant products are given by a certain number of tests as the test to the DPPH or the test ORAC in aqueous environment, and the measure of the index of peroxides or the Rancimat for the lipophilic phases. Certain tests are above all models of study, and few are really recognized, however certain standards are outlined, and the standardization arrives finally (cf the test ORAC, reference USDA. Among the compound vegetables which stand out very sharply at the level of their antioxidizing property, polyphénols are the most represented in the vegetal reign. It is a very wide family, but the extracts of grape seeds or tea are now well identified, and present results in the fight against the oxidation completely surprising.

  15. The natural gas for vehicles; Le gaz naturel pour vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  16. A hopeful Quebec gets ready to produce gaz naturel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's natural gas industry is poised to expand as a result of a breakthrough well drilled in the Utica shale gas play in February 2010. The well has produced more than 12 million cubic feet per day. The Quebec Oil and Gas Association (QOGA) was formed in 2009, and has lobbied the provincial government to keep royalty rates at between 10 to 12.5 per cent. A task force has also been deployed to ensure the development of a prompt regulatory process. It is hoped that increased investment will encourage more drilling activity in the province. Quebec consumes approximately 200 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year. Increased sales are expected to come from new residential construction, where 1 in 5 homes are now being equipped with gas-fired heating. The QOGA is currently designing a training program for potential rig workers. Studies have indicated that gas royalties collected by the provincial government could exceed $1 billion per year in the future. 1 fig.

  17. Fabrication of naturel pumice/hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komur, Baran; Lohse, Tim; Can, Hatice Merve; Khalilova, Gulnar; Geçimli, Zeynep Nur; Aydoğdu, Mehmet Onur; Kalkandelen, Cevriye; Stan, George E; Sahin, Yesim Muge; Sengil, Ahmed Zeki; Suleymanoglu, Mediha; Kuruca, Serap Erdem; Oktar, Faik Nuzhet; Salman, Serdar; Ekren, Nazmi; Ficai, Anton; Gunduz, Oguzhan

    2016-07-07

    We evaluated the Bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) structure. BHA powder was admixed with 5 and 10 wt% natural pumice (NP). Compression strength, Vickers micro hardness, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction studies were performed on the final NP-BHA composite products. The cells proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and SEM. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of NP-BHA samples was interrogated. Variances in the sintering temperature (for 5 wt% NP composites) between 1000 and 1300 °C, reveal about 700 % increase in the microhardness (~100 and 775 HV, respectively). Composites prepared at 1300 °C demonstrate the greatest compression strength with comparable result for 5 wt% NP content (87 MPa), which are significantly better than those for 10 wt% and those that do not include any NP (below 60 MPa, respectively). The results suggested the optimal parameters for the preparation of NP-BHA composites with increased mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Changes in micro-hardness and compression strength can be tailored by the tuning the NP concentration and sintering temperature. NP-BHA composites have demonstrated a remarkable potential for biomedical engineering applications such as bone graft and implant.

  18. The natural gas vehicles; Le gaz naturel vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) is a new ''clean'' fuel used for the urban public transports which can be adapted to the vehicles. It is the same gas as those for the cooking and the heating, but compressed at 200 bars. this document presents this abundant energy sources, the bound emissions standards, the technical and economical aspects, the environmental advantages, the today implementation and compare the french policy towards the NGV to other countries. (A.L.B.)

  19. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne le rôle de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses réactions publiques face à l'armement nucléaire, aux guerres de Viet-Nam et d'Algérie, aux problèmes des réfugiés politiques... Kastler était un grand savant, mais aussi un homme courageux.

  20. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  1. Effets des aliments contenant les folioles de Moringa oleifera Lam et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zootechniques et économiques) et à la qualité de la viande des lapins nourris aux aliments à base de folioles de Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) ou aux aliments commerciaux. Au total 144 lapereaux de race locale âgés de 35 à 40 jours dont 79 ...

  2. Nouveaux ligands donneurs mixtes contenant un atome de phosphore sp2.

    OpenAIRE

    Seeboth , Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    The work presented here brings together the results on the preparation of phosphamétallocènes mainly around M = Ru. A better understanding of phenomena governing the coordination of transition metals on soft anions phospholures and preparation of phospholures modified by ester group allowed us to promote the coordination mode of 5 and solve the chirality by simple crystallization. We showed that this synthesis method of resolution is quite general and apply in those cases where M = Fe, Ru, an...

  3. Enrobages actifs contenants des peptides antimicrobiens nano-vectorisés

    OpenAIRE

    IMRAN , Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Food nanotechnology has the potential to improve food safety and bio-security, food processing, food packaging and functional ingredients. Nano-encapsulation of active agents is an innovative concept to protect them against possible denaturation during processing and storage. The overall objective of the present work was to optimize and develop fluorescent labeling and encapsulation of nisin for molecular transfer study in different packaging based on biopolymers and in the food. Nanoencapsul...

  4. [Paragraphe contenant le titre de l'article, style « Titre article »

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jimi Cissoko

    changes climatic, etc. These effects can be measured with the consumption of .... La même remarque s'observe lorsqu'on change de combustible : le foyer mixte modifié à pétrole (Flm0k2,6+) est fermé, il présente ..... déterminer le choix des populations à changer leurs habitudes. Le Tableau 4montre l'évolution des prix des.

  5. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  6. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee (France); Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P. [Centre de Recherches d' Antony, des Trefileries et Laminoirs du Havre (France)

    1958-07-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  7. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension interfaciale. Les conditions d

  8. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension

  9. 臺灣「邁向頂尖大學」政策之論述分析:後結構主義觀點 A Discourse Analysis on “Stepping Towards Premier University” Policy in Taiwan: The Perspective of Post-structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉國兆 Kuo-Chao Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 近年來受到國際大學評比及世界各國追求大學卓越政策的國際競爭趨勢影響,臺灣自2011年起推動「邁向頂尖大學計畫」。為了深入探討此政策背後潛藏的意識形態及價值預設,本研究採取後結構主義的理論觀點,並以論述分析的研究方法,以解構本政策中理所當然的本質性思維,並發掘政策論述中「權力/知識」的形構歷程,從而以位置性的概念,重新探索「邁向頂尖大學計畫」中的政策主體,並從不同位置去思考「邁向頂尖大學計畫」對於政策主體所具有的意義,進而反思主體突破結構限制的可能。 After being influenced in recent years by international university appraisals and the competitive trend toward the pursuit of excellence in countries all over the world, Taiwan has promoted a policy entitled the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan” since 2011. In order to thoroughly explore the underlying ideology behind this policy and its default values, this study takes a post-structuralism theoretical perspective, and uses discourse analysis to deconstruct the rationale of the policy. We uncover the process of construction of the “power / knowledge” discourse described in the policy, and thus from the positional concept, re-explore the policy body of the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan”. We consider the significance the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan” holds toward the policy body from different positions, and then reflect on the possibility of the policy body breaking through structural constraints.

  10. Pulsed Neutron Studies of BeO-Natural Uranium Lattices; Etudes de Reseaux Uranium Naturel-Glucine, par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Issledovanie reshetok BeO-prirodnyj uran s pomoshch'yu impul'snykh nejtronov; Estudio de Reticulados de Beo-Uranio Natural con Ayuda de Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-10-15

    The use of the pulsed neutron method for determination of the diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of lattices is described. The diffusion parameters and multiplication constants of BeO-natural uranium lattices are obtained by this method. The uranium rods used were 2.92 cm diameter clad in aluminium 0.072 cm thick and were arranged vertically in channels of square cross-section 5 cm x 5 cm, in a square lattice of pitch 15 cm. The neutron bursts were produced from a cascade accelerator by pulsing the ion source and using the Be(d,n) reaction. The detectors were enriched boron trifluorfde proportional counters. The space and time harmonics were eliminated as described by the authors in another paper at this Symposium. The decay constant of the fundamental mode was determined for several bucklings, far from criticality. In these calculations the effect of diffusion cooling and anisotropy was taken into account. All the diffusion and multiplication constants were determined by the method of least squares fit by three different approaches. The prompt critical buckling was determined by solving the decay constant equation for {lambda} = 0. The final results are: Diffusion length L = 15.2 cm Absorption constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 762.5 s{sup -1}. Diffusion coefficient D = 1.761 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s Diffusion cooling constant C = -8.766 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s Age {tau} = 150.7 cm{sup -2} Infinite multiplication factor k{sub {infinity}} = 1.126 Prompt critical buckling B{sup 2} = 3.00 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup -2}. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent l'utilisation de la methode des neutrons puises pour la determination des parametres de diffusion et des constantes de multiplication des reseaux. Cette methode permet d'obtenir les parametres de diffusion et les constantes de multiplication du reseau uranium naturel-glucine. Les barres d'uranium utilisees avaient un diametre de 2,92 cm et un gainage'd'aluminium d'une epaisseur de 0,072 cm elles etaient disposees

  11. Retour d’expérience(s sur un dispositif visant à réduire l’échec en premier cycle universitaire : le Cycle d’Orientation et de Consolidation Return of experience (s on a device to reduce first-cycle dropout rates in a French university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Pérennès

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La lutte contre le décrochage des étudiants de premier cycle à l’université est aujourd’hui inscrite dans les politiques des pouvoirs publics. Si les causes multifactorielles de l’échec à l’université sont bien identifiées, les outils de remédiation visant à « raccrocher » les étudiants sont encore souvent à l’état d’expérimentation dans les universités françaises. Ainsi, un cycle d’orientation et de consolidation (COC a été mis en place à l’Université de Bretagne Sud (UBS en 2001 dans le but d’identifier et d’accompagner les étudiants potentiellement décrocheurs du premier semestre universitaire. Cette étude, à travers une enquête et des entretiens, vise à dresser un bilan de ce dispositif.Tackling the issue of first-year undergraduate withdrawal from university studies is today part of French public policies. Although the multifactorial causes of university withdrawal have been identified, the remediation tools for student retention are still often experimental in French universities. Thus, a study program for personal and vocational guidance called Cycle d’orientation et de consolidation (C.O.C. was set up at the Université de Bretagne Sud (UBS in 2001 to identify and guide potential first-semester university drop-out students. This study, through a survey and interviews, aims at assessing the program.

  12. De David Belasco à Giacomo Puccini : La Fanciulla del West, premier opéra « américain » From David Belasco to Giacomo Puccini:La Fanciulla del West, first “American” opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Zidaric

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La Fanciulla del West is a “horse opera” resulting from the second collaboration between David Belasco and Giacomo Puccini. This work, specially composed for the American stage, which had its world premiere at New York’s Metropolitan Opera in December 1910, paved the way for American composers who increasingly focused on American History in their quest for a “national” opera. For the first time, Puccini resorted to genuine Indian music, a Zuni melody, which he re-elaborated for dramatic purposes and associated with the nostalgic mood of uprooted people, the miners who left their home country for America. The Other – the native American viewed from the vantage point of the white, as well as the foreigner – no longer represented a threat, as had been the case in the operatic repertoire before, but became part and parcel of a multicultural society, like the Italian immigrant to whom Puccini also paid tribute. The Zuni melody, which opens and closes the opera, contributes to giving a genuine twist to a score which is the first one to tackle the foundations of the American nation.

  13. L’iconographie de l’Hymne Acathiste dans les fresques de l’église St.Onuphre du monastère Lavrov et dans la peinture extérieure moldave au temps du premier règne de Petru Rares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L’église St. Onuphre du monastère Lavrov (Ukraine occidentale, près de Staryi Sambir conserve des peintures murales qu’on a datées de la fin du XVe ou du début du XVIe siècle. Le but de la présente étude est de préciser les affinités d’ordre iconographique existentes entre les versions de l’«Hymne Acathiste» de Lavrov et des églises moldaves à peinture extérieure du temp du premier règne de Petru Rareş. Grâce à la rédaction de l’image de l’«Acathiste» de Probota, où le début du texte de la 17e strophe de l’«Hymne» est bien conservé, on peut constater qu’à Lavrov, dans l’image similaire, il ne s’agit pas de la 24e strophe de l’«Hymne» comme le croyait A. I. Rogov, maïs de la 17e strophe. Donc, on peut supposer, qu’à Lavrov il n’y avait pas de lacune dans la présentation des strophes 19–23 de l’«Hymne Acathiste».

  14. Comparison of a Simple Angiographic Approach With a Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Score-Based Approach for Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting: A Pooled Analysis of Serial PRECOMBAT (Premier of Randomized Comparison of Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Cheol Whan; Kim, Seon-Ok; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery scores to left main coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned. A simplified alternative is needed for guiding decision making. We evaluated the prognostic value of a simplified angiographic classification in comparison with a Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score-based approach for patients with left main CAD undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. The proposed approach classified left main CAD as either extensive (n=819), defined as left main bifurcation lesions with an involvement of ostial left circumflex artery or as any left main lesion plus multivessel CAD, or limited (n=453), defined as ostial/midshaft lesions or left main bifurcation lesions without an involvement of ostium of left circumflex artery, alone or plus 1-vessel disease. The databases from 4 prospective Premier of Randomized Comparison of Bypass Surgery versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease studies were pooled, and the primary outcome was a major adverse cardiac event, defined as death, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization. During follow-up (median 38 months; interquartile range, 36-61 months), the risk for major adverse cardiac event was significantly higher with extensive than with limited left main CAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.94; P Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score tertiles did not effectively stratify these 2 outcome measures. Compared with Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery scores, the simpler angiographic approach provided better discrimination for future cardiovascular events in patients with left main CAD undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Les conditions d’exercice du travail des cadres de premier niveau : une étude de cas First level managers’ working conditions: a case study Las condiciones de ejercicio del trabajo de los supervisores de primer nivel : un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Baril-Gingras

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le travail des cadres de premier niveau a connu, ces dernières années, de nombreux changements. Dans le réseau de la santé au Québec, on a observé réduction importante de leur nombre de cadre de premier niveau. Or, ceux-ci jouent un rôle important quant à la santé (physique et psychologique et à la sécurité des membres des équipes de travail, puisqu’ils définissent certaines des conditions de réalisation de leur travail et certains aspects de leur environnement psychosocial de travail. L’étude, visant à mieux comprendre le travail de ces cadres et l’influence des conditions dans lesquelles il est réalisé, a procédé par des observations auprès de 12 cadres de premier niveau, sous forme de chroniques de travail et par des entretiens sur la base de ces observations. L’article présente et discute trois types de résultats : des exemples de la manière dont la tâche prescrite est convertie en tâche effective et de sa traduction dans leur activité ; une synthèse de la manière dont ils perçoivent leur rôle ou « tâche effective » ; des constats quant à l’écart entre celle-ci et les conditions de réalisation de leur travail, en particulier du fait d’une surcharge quantitative de travail, d’une autonomie réelle limitée et d’obstacles à la planification et au développement à long terme de leurs services, Ces conditions n’apparaissent donc pas favorables au rôle positif qu’ils souhaitent jouer et qui est attendu d’eux, par rapport à leurs équipes de travail.First-level managers’ work has undergone many changes in recent years. In Québec’s public health network, the number of these managers has decreased significantly. However, they play an important role in the health (physical and mental and safety of work team members, since they define some of their working conditions and some aspects of the psycho-social work environment. The aim of the study was to better understand first

  16. NICOLAE TITULESCU ET LES PREMIERS PROJETS D’UNIFICATION EUROPEENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHIłŢULESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article Nicolae Titulescu and the First European Unificatio n Projectpresents briefly Nicolae Titulescu’s involvement in supporting the Briand Plan (1930. We argue that the great Romanian diplomat was simultaneously aware of the necessity and the imposibility of achieving the project objectives.

  17. Premier isolement de Stephanoascus ciferrii dans des infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il faut garder à l'esprit que des pathogènes inhabituels peuvent causer ces infections vaginales. Mots clés : Stephanoascus ciferrii, Vitek 2, candidose vaginale. ABSTRACT. Introduction: Fungal infections know an extraordinary expansion with therapeutic progress and apparition of immunodepressive diseases such as HIV.

  18. Le premier BRASU | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIFACS, mais je peux vous assurer qu'il n'y en avait pas lors de ma première visite en mai 1977 et pendant toute cette semaine, la température a oscillé entre 40 et 50 degrés Celsius. L'immeuble hébergeait un important théâtre et des ...

  19. Premier appel à notes conceptuelles 2014-2015*

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    18 mars 2014 ... Les demandes dûment remplies, accompagnées de tous les .... en résultent contribuent à l'amélioration des conditions de vie dans les ... dialogues sur les politiques, ateliers, activités au Canada; formation d' ... les associations professionnelles ou les organismes publics ..... continuer à financer le projet.

  20. Light Microscopy Module: International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Meyer, William V.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher; Brinkman, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began hardware operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  1. Premiere recolte de deux especes fongiques du genre polyporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Maroc, les travaux sur les champignons sont rares et aucune liste complète qui répertorie les espèces d'une région donnée n'est encore disponible. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la flore fongique au niveau de la Mamora, Moyen Atlas et le Rif. Des prospections effectuées dans ces régions et la détermination des ...

  2. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  3. Physiological response to angling of Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma was analysed for glucose, cortisol and lactate concentrations to assess the effects of angling duration, fish size and fish condition. Larger fish were angled for a longer duration. Plasma glucose concentrations decreased with greater lactate concentrations, an indication of the aerobic and anaerobic work done ...

  4. The first Capel experiment; La premiere experience Capel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Electrostatic periodic perturbations producing a resonance effect with Larmor motion, are applied for trapping 1.8 keV electrons in a magnetic mirrors bottle. This method gives temporary trapping lasting more than 20 transits. Switching off the perturbations results in complete trapping of temporarily trapped particles. Life time of fast electrons with a pressure of 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg has a value of 12 ms which seems to result from non adiabatic effect losses. At the same pressure, ionization of residual gas by fast electrons produces secondary electrons with a lifetime of 1.5 second in agreement with evaluations based on elastic scattering losses assumption. (author) [French] On capture des electrons de 1,8 keV dans une bouteille a miroirs magnetiques en utilisant une methode de perturbations electrostatiques periodiques agissant par un effet de resonance avec le mouvement gyromagnetique. Cette methode donne une capture provisoire correspondant a un nombre de transits superieur a 20. La suppression rapide des perturbations transforme la capture provisoire en capture 'definitive'. Pour une pression d'environ 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg, la duree de vie des electrons rapide semble limitee a 12 ms par les effets de non adiabaticite des trajectoires tandis que les electrons secondaires formes par ionisation du gaz residuel ont une vie de 1,5 s explicable par la valeur des sections efficaces de choc elastique. (auteur)

  5. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, T. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented.

  6. Premiering SAFE for Safety Added Fuel Element - 15020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, P.K.; Shamim, J.A.; Suh, K.Y.; Suh, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the Fukushima accident has been the willingness to implement passive safety measures in reactor design and to simplify reactor design itself. Within this framework, a new fuel element, named SAFE (Safety Added Fuel Element) based on the concept of accident tolerant fuel, is presented. SAFE is a new type of fuel element cooled internally and externally by light water and with stainless steel as the cladding material. The removal of boron may trigger a series of changes which may simplify the system greatly. A simplified thermal analysis of SAFE shows that the fuel centerline temperature is well below the maximal limit during the normal operation of the plant

  7. Premiere of "Forward Home:" The economic power of Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... The documentary "Forward Home," produced as part of IDRC'sOpportunities in CARICOM Migration : Brain Circulation, Diasporic Tourism, and Investment project, reveals the economic power of the Caribbean's overseas communities. The 30-minute film showcases the experiences of peoples who ...

  8. Premiers résultats en provenance du LEP2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, produced its first pair of fundamental particles known as W+ and W- today, taking particle physics research into new and unexplored territory. This follows a busy winter of upgrades which have transformed LEP into a new accelerator, earning it the name LEP2. Hundreds of physicists from all over the world come to CERN to do their research at LEP2, which will be further upgraded over the coming years, bringing the possibility of new discoveries and extending our understanding of the Universe.

  9. Internet Adoption Among Lecturers In Ghana\\'s premier University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic mail is the most commonly used tool in research whilst educational databases are the most commonly used tools in teaching. Recommendations for making the resource more available included providing broadband Internet access and the government promoting private sector investment. Article Type: Case ...

  10. The first Capel experiment; La premiere experience Capel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Electrostatic periodic perturbations producing a resonance effect with Larmor motion, are applied for trapping 1.8 keV electrons in a magnetic mirrors bottle. This method gives temporary trapping lasting more than 20 transits. Switching off the perturbations results in complete trapping of temporarily trapped particles. Life time of fast electrons with a pressure of 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg has a value of 12 ms which seems to result from non adiabatic effect losses. At the same pressure, ionization of residual gas by fast electrons produces secondary electrons with a lifetime of 1.5 second in agreement with evaluations based on elastic scattering losses assumption. (author) [French] On capture des electrons de 1,8 keV dans une bouteille a miroirs magnetiques en utilisant une methode de perturbations electrostatiques periodiques agissant par un effet de resonance avec le mouvement gyromagnetique. Cette methode donne une capture provisoire correspondant a un nombre de transits superieur a 20. La suppression rapide des perturbations transforme la capture provisoire en capture 'definitive'. Pour une pression d'environ 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg, la duree de vie des electrons rapide semble limitee a 12 ms par les effets de non adiabaticite des trajectoires tandis que les electrons secondaires formes par ionisation du gaz residuel ont une vie de 1,5 s explicable par la valeur des sections efficaces de choc elastique. (auteur)

  11. How to Write Really Good Articles for Premier Academic Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPlaca, Peter J.; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    or purpose; to establish the proper frame of reference for the reader; to demonstrate the gap in knowledge that the research will fill; and to convince the reader that there is justification for undertaking the research. Then we discuss hypotheses and methodology. Regarding the methodology, we consider...... methodological considerations and analysis considerations. The final part of the article considers the research findings section and the discussion of these findings, as well as limitations to the research and opportunities for future research. Specifically, the discussion links back to the article...... (title, abstract, keywords). Specifically, three types of abstracts are considered: the indicative (descriptive) abstract, the informative abstract, and the structured abstract. Subsequently, we discuss the article's introduction that serves four purposes: to focus the reader on the research question...

  12. A premier analysis of supersymmetric closed string tachyon cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Báez, V.; Ramírez, C.

    2018-04-01

    From a previously found worldline supersymmetric formulation for the effective action of the closed string tachyon in a FRW background, the Hamiltonian of the theory is constructed, by means of the Dirac procedure, and written in a quantum version. Using the supersymmetry algebra we are able to find solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation via a more simple set of first order differential equations. Finally, for the k = 0 case, we compute the expectation value of the scale factor with a suitably potential also favored in the present literature. We give some interpretations of the results and state future work lines on this matter.

  13. La Poliomyelite en Iran Premieres Recherches de Laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boue

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work on the status of poliomyelitis in Iran, performed in 1954, in 1958-59, consisted in providing data on the past history of the infection and on its present diffusion in this country. The serological and COprologi~al surveys produced evidence of conditions similar to thos.e of other countries .WIth the same public health situation: large and permanent (WIthout seasonal v~riatlOnSJ diffusion of the e~teroviruses, reaching percentages of 37 to 74% (accol~'dmg to the groups of ca:rri!ers-excreters in a sampling of healthy chi~dren u~der five y~a!'s of age, providing high levels of early and complete Immunlzation against the pohomyelitic disease.

  14. Growth and silica conten of the diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Navicula salinarum at different salinities and enrichments with aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, E.G.; Poort, L.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Gieskes, W.W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of the cellular (biogenic) and frustule-associated (mineralized) silica content of the diatoms Navicula salinarum and Thalassiosira weissflogii on salinity and aluminium conditions was studied in order to make it possible to manipulate silicification in vitro and maximize it to levels

  15. Abel's legends and first dissemination of the premier mathematical research plan in Chinese journals%《科学世界》首次传入数学家阿贝尔事迹并发表我国第一份数学研究计划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢小玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 对清光绪二十九年(1903)由上海仪器馆创办的自然科学期刊——《科学世界》所刊载的数学内容作特别梳理.方法 采用原始期刊文献调研和考证.结果 《科学世界》首次在中文期刊媒介上介绍了阿贝尔的传奇人生和近代数学研究分支,相对于当时落后的中国数学现状,为国人传递了国外最新的数学知识.结论 对阿贝尔及其经典代数的传播,反映了中国近代的科学家立足本土科技期刊平台、拉近与世界科技前沿距离的信心,而第一份数学研究计划则是中国近世数学发展史的一份珍贵史料.%Aim The mathematical contents in the nature science journal Science World are unscrambled in this paper, this journal was founded by Shanghai Instrument Museum in Qing Dynasty Guangxu twenty-nine years (1903 ). Methods To investigate and research the original journal references. Results It is Science World that introduced firstly Abel's legendary life and modern math research branch in Chinese journals. For the relatively un-progressive math research in china, it transmitted the newest foreign mathematical knowledge. Conclusion The dissemination of Abel and classical algebra reflects Chinese scientists' confidence to take hold local journals and shorten the distance between the advanced world science and us in modern times, and the publication of the premier mathematical research plan is the valuable material of the development of Chinese modern mathematics.

  16. The First Two Years of Operating Experience of the Kahl Nuclear Power Station; Experience acquise pendant les deux premieres annees de fonctionnement de la centrale nucleaire de Kahl; Opyt pervykh dvukh let ehkspluatatsii atomnoj ehlektrostantsii v Kale; Experiencia adquirida en los primeros cuatro anos de funcionamiento de la central nucleoelectrica de Kahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchner, H. J. [Aeg-Kernenergieanlagen, Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany); Weckesser, A. [Versuchs-Atomkraftwerk Kahl Gmbh, Kahl (Germany)

    1963-10-15

    Kahl, being the first European private atomic power station, has been operating at load since June 1961. Kahl is equipped with a boiling-water reactor, operating in an indirect cycle and with natural circulation. Its electrical net capacity is 15 MW, and the power produced until February 1963 amounts to 140 million kWh. In the paper the operating experience, particularly the extensive testing programme such as concerning transient behaviour and gammascanning, will be reviewed. Results about the operating performance of certain plant components such as control-rod-drive system, off-gas system and turbine will be presented. After this testing programme the plant has been operated at base load for some time in order to obtain realistic experience on fuel performance. After completion of the base-load phase of operation a nuclear superheating test loop will be installed and run in the Kahl reactor. (author) [French] La centrale de Kahl, la premiere en Europe dont l'exploitation soit assuree par une entreprise privee, alimente le secteur depuis juin 1961. Elle est equipee d'un reacteur a eau bouillante, en cycle indirect, a circulation naturelle. Avec une puissance electrique nette de 15 MW, elle avait produit, jusqu'a fevrier 1963, 140 millions de kWh. Le memoire rend compte de l'experience acquise concernant le fonctionnement de la centrale, notamment du programme etendu des essais effectues sur son comportement en regime transitoire et sur la detection gamma. Il donne, en particulier, des renseignements sur le fonctionnement de certains elements de la centrale tels que le mecanisme de commande des barres de controle, le dispositif d'echappement des gaz et la turbine. A la suite de ce programme d'essais, on fait fonctionner depuis quelque temps la centrale comme centrale de base afin de rassembler des donnees pratiques sur les performances du combustible. A l'expiration de la periode prevue pour le fonctionnement comme centrale de base, on amenagera, dans le reacteur

  17. Influence of the Previous History of the Raw Material on Sintering of UO{sub 2}; Influence des antecedents de la matiere premiere sur le frittage de UO{sub 2}; Vliyanie obrabotki iskhodnogo veshchestva na spekanie UO{sub 2}; Influencia de la historia previa de la materia prima sobre la sinterizacion del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, E.; Alonso, J. A.; Pedregal, J. D. [Junta de Energia Nuclear Madrid (Spain)

    1963-11-15

    An account is given of the experimental principles underlying the production process of a UO{sub 2} pellet plant. In this process, advance determination of the particle-size distribution characteristics of the raw material is secured not by means of controlled precipitation but by the crushing and grading of powders. The uranium oxides tested in this work are conventional materials, representing types of fabrication which differ by origin and method used. A study of the pellets obtained shows the potentialities and limitations of each type of oxide in the process adopted. A description is given of the characteristics of the powders as regards specific area, particlesize distribution, differential and thermogravimetric thermal analyses, and stoichiometry, and of the density, contraction, structure and stoichiometry of the pellets. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les experiences qui ont servi de base aux operations d'une installation de fabrication de pastilles d'UO{sub 2}. Selon la methode employee, pour fixer a l'avance les caracteristiques granulometriques de la matiere premiere, on ne procede pas a une precipitation controlee, mais a un broyage et a un criblage des poudres. Les uranes qui ont fait l'objet de ce travail sont des produits classiques provenant de fabrications qui different par l'origine et le procede de transformation. De l'etude des pastilles obtenues, on deduit les possibilites et les limites de chaque type d'urane par rapport au procede adopte. On controle les caracteristiques suivantes: pour les poudres, la surface specifique, la granulometrie; les proprietes thermiques differentielles et thermogravimetrique et la stoechiometrie; pour les pastilles, la densite, la contraction, la structure et la stoechiometrie des pastilles. (author) [Spanish] Se exponen los fundamentos experimentales sobre los que se basa el proceso de una planta de fabricacion de pastillas de UO{sub 2} . En este proceso no se emplea la precipitacion controlada como

  18. The natural gas performance in the professional restoration; La performance du gaz naturel en restauration professionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The utilization of the natural gas in the professional cooking presents many advantages detailed in this paper. Examples of this technology performance and reliability, the implementing and operating cost and competition are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  19. 288 Géomorphologie structurale et risque naturel dans une portion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tandus

    montrent que cette région a été affectée par trois phases de déformation .... par une répartition inégale des contraintes sur des matériaux à rhéologie .... de la faible charge solide transportée et libérée brutalement sous l'effet du changement ...

  20. Energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobiles, environment; Energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IFP Group organized, for the eighth consecutive year, its international colloquium Panorama at Paris the 6 february, Lyon the 13 february and Bruxelles (Brussels) the 19 february 2003. The subject was ''the hydrocarbons reserves: abundance or penury?''. The presented allocution bring information on the reserves estimation and petroleum production forecasts, the geographical and political context instability of the energy and the fundamental question of the world resources availability. (A.L.B.)

  1. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J F [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L; Fayolle, J P [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  2. Natural gas cogeneration in the residential sector; La cogeneration au gaz naturel en residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, C.; Gaudin, S. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas cogeneration offer is now available and operational in the industrial sector. It is based on technologies of piston engines and gas turbines. Currently, this offer is sufficiently diversified, so much from the point of view of the range of powers available (from 1 MW to more than 40 MW electric) that number of manufacturers. In order to widen the cogeneration market in France to the markets of the commercial and residential sectors, Gaz De France has undertaken a technical economic study to validate the potential of those markets. This study led to work on the assembly of a french die to cogeneration packages of low power (less than 1 MW electric). This step has emerged at the beginning of 1999 with the launching of a commercial offer of cogeneration packages. In margin to this work Gaz De France Research division also initiated a study in order to evaluate the offer of micro cogeneration, products delivering an electric output lower than 10 kW. (authors)

  3. Natural gas and laundry: an efficient duo; Conference Cegibat: Gaz naturel et blanchisserie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference about the use of natural gas in the laundry sector. This document summarizes the content of the different talks dealing with: the history and evolution of laundry activity, the energy consumption problem, the gas appliances (dryers) and their advantages, some testimonies in the health sector (hospitals), the regulatory aspects, the economic aspects (tariffs), Gaz de France energy diagnostic offer, and the testimony of a launderette. (J.S.)

  4. Globalization of the natural gas industry; La mondialisation de l`industrie du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyirmendjan, J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes.

  5. Localisation Et Guidage Du Robot Mobile Atrv2 Dans Un Environnement Naturel.

    OpenAIRE

    Djekoune , A. Oualid

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focus on the localization and the navigation of the ATRV2 mobile system in an unknown environment. This mobile system must first model and build his map using data from its onboard sensors, localize itself in this map, and then, generate a collision-free path allowing to it to reach his goal. The model of the environment we have chosen is a metric model (certainty grid) based on the HIMM algorithm, and is updated using data from the onboard sensors. The used ...

  6. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L.; Fayolle, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C. [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  7. Electricity. Metering and services: a natural marriage; Electricite. Comptage et services: un mariage naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.

    2002-07-01

    The metering of electricity is no longer only a problem of automatic recording. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a strong potential of services with added value has been included in the metering activity. These services use the new communication means (Internet) to supply some convenient indicators to the clients: consumption data, energy performances and costs etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Processus de construction de la confiance et configuration de contrôle de gestion

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Khlif

    2000-01-01

    International audience; L'enrichissement de la compréhension du contrôle de gestion par une dimension plus “humaine” a conduit naturellement à l'émergence de concepts “qualitatifs”. La confiance fait partie de ces concepts ignorés dans un contexte instrumental. L'objectif de cette recherche est d'analyser le processus de construction de la confiance relativement aux éléments de contrôle de gestion. En premier lieu, ce travail discute le lien entre le contrôle de gestion et la confiance dans l...

  9. Pilgrims' Progress: The journey towards a knowledge building community in a university undergraduate class / Le voyage du pèlerin: Le parcours vers la création d’une communauté d’apprentissage dans une classe de premier cycle universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald N. Philip

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of a class of third- and fourth-year undergraduate science students as they attempted to create a knowledge building community in a blended or hybrid science education class. The research sought to examine this process through analyses of the frequency of their note postings and responses, and through a social network analysis of their communication patterns for note reading. These data were automatically harvested by the Knowledge Forum knowledge building environment, and downloaded for later analysis. Contribution levels indicated that the frequency of note postings increased three-fold following the mid-term of the course causing maladaptive student work patterns to reduce information overload. As well, the disparity between high-frequency note posting students and low-frequency note posting students followed a linear curve with the ratio between the highest posting and lowest posting student to be 2.7:1. A similar pattern was found with regard to responses. A disparity was also found among the students in the number of postings read, with the highest note reading student reading six times the number of notes as the lowest note reading student.The social network analyses revealed evidence of community formation in the note reading network. Analysis showed both one-way and reciprocal interactions, indicating that the pathways needed for the transfer of complex information were present. Considering all the data together, while some communication patterns necessary for a knowledge building community were present, contribution patterns suggested that a true knowledge building community did not form, but that there was progress towards it. Cette étude avait pour objet d’étudier la progression d’un groupe d’étudiants en sciences de troisième et de quatrième années du premier cycle universitaire dans leur tentative de créer une communauté d’apprentissage dans une classe hybride d

  10. France's nuclear power programme; Le programme nucleaire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanius, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    -increasing importance, by using the country's resources of natural uranium, and later plutonium, to the best ends. (authors) [French] Les perspectives d'evolution de la consommation d'energie electrique francaise confirment l'aggravation du deficit des ressources energetiques metropolitaines. Les centrales nucleaires doivent permettre de diminuer ce deficit si un certain nombre d'incertitudes actuelles sont levees. Le premier programme presente par MM AILLERET et TARANGER a la Conference de Geneve en 1955 visait la mise en service pour 1965 de 850 MWe; il a ete consacre au developpement de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - gaz et s'acheve avec la realisation d'EDF 3, premiere unite capable de 500 MWe engagee dans le monde. Avant de passer du stade des prototypes a celui des duplications, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE a decide, en accord avec le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE, la realisation d'EDF 4 qui, en reprenant la partie reacteur d'EDF 3 ainsi que l'appareil de chargement et de dechargement, l'ensemble de controle et divers materiels, apporte une innovation importante en incorporant les echangeurs et les soufflantes a l'interieur du caisson en beton precontraint contenant le coeur. En meme temps, les etudes se poursuivent dans cette meme filiere et laissent entrevoir les possibilites d'utiliser un nouvel element combustible annulaire dont l'emploi ameliorerait notablement les performances d'EDF 5. Dans la filiere eau lourde, la realisation d'EL 4 a Brennilis par le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE et ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE se poursuit. Les etudes d'un reacteur de 500 MWe de cette filiere ont deja commence. Dans la filiere a eau pressurisee, la centrale de CHOOZ est realisee en association par ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE et les Producteurs Belges. Enfin, le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE poursuit a Cadarache la realisation du surgenerateur 'Rapsodie' et les etudes d'un reacteur de puissance plus important. Ainsi, les connaissances techniques et economiques acquises dans ces diverses

  11. conception d'un systeme solaire à concentration pour la desinfection de la bacterie de legionelle

    OpenAIRE

    BELABBACI, Chérifa

    2014-01-01

    La légionellose est une infection pulmonaire aiguë dont le mode de contamination résulte de l’inhalation d’aérosols contenant des légionelles. La bactérie de la légionelle pneumophile responsable de 90% de la maladie de légionellose. Ces bactéries trouvées dans les milieux aquatiques naturels et colonisent les réservoirs et les systèmes de distribution d’eau potable comme les hôpitaux et les réseaux municipaux avec une concentration qui varie entre 2.3.103UFC/ml à 103UFC/l. Cette bactérie se ...

  12. Comparison of the Economic Aspects of the Treatment and Storage of Fission Products from Installations Processing Irradiated Natural Uranium; Aspects Economiques Compares du Traitement et du Stockage des Produits de Fission Issus des Usines de Traitement de l'Uranium Naturel Irradie; Sravnitel'nye ehkonomicheskie aspekty obrabotki i khraneniya produktov deleniya, poluchaemykh na zavodakh po pererabotke obluchennogo prirodnogo urana; Aspectos Economicos Comparados del Tratamiento y del Almacenamiento de los Productos de Fision que Salen de las Plantas de Tratamiento de Uranio Natural Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Lesur, P.; Giraud, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France); Wanlin, J. [Societe Saint-Gobain Techniques Nouvelles, Paris (France)

    1966-02-15

    reservoirs pouvant etre construits, et on determine la taille et la cadence optimales de leur mise en service, compte tenu des caracteristiques des produits de fission a stocker et pour diverses capacites de l'usine de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Ils montrent que, si le cout de stockage depend des hypotheses faites sur la duree de vie des installations, le taux d'interet, les frais d'exploitation, le choix de la politique optimale par contre (tailles et cadences de mise en service) est independant de ces hypotheses et n'est lie qu'a la loi de variation du cout des reservoirs selon leur taille. On obtient ainsi le cout optimise de stockage indefini de ces effluents. Dans une troisieme partie, les auteurs comparent a cette solution du stockage indefini d'autres politiques possibles de gestion des produits de fission: vitrification et separation du Cs et du Sr. Ils situent economiquement ces diverses alternatives et esquissent des solutions possibles a long terme. (author) [Spanish] Despues de recordar las principales practicas administrativas que suelen aplicarse a los productos de fision, los autores exponen sucintamente las caracteristicas tecnicas esenciales de las instalaciones de almacenamiento en acero inoxidable (en medio acido) utilizadas en Francia y analizan la estructura de sus costos. Muestran hasta que punto esos costos dependen de la radiactividad de las soluciones almacenadas y del calor que desprenden. En la segunda parte de la memoria se examina el costo del almacenamiento segun las dimensiones de los depositos que pueden construirse, se determinan las dimensiones optimas de estos depositos y se indica el ritmo mas conveniente para su puesta en servicio teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas de los productos de fision que es preciso almacenar y las diversas capacidades de las plantas de tratamiento de uranio natural irradiado. Se demuestra que si bien el costo del almacenamiento depende de algunas hipotesis (duracion de la vida util de las

  13. First Results of a Systematic Study of Internal Contamination Due to Fall-Out; Premiers Resultats d'une Etude Systematique des Contaminations Internes Consecutives aux Retombees Radioactives; 041f 0415 0420 0414 ; Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Sistematico de las Contaminaciones Internas Debidas a la Precipitacion Radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Remy, M. L. [Travail du Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Paris (France)

    1964-11-15

    de realiser une premiere approximation. Ils ont de plus mesure l'excretion urinaire du strontium 90 chez un certain nombre de sujets, pour tenter d'en deduire la charge totale ou, tout au moins, une limite superieure pour ce radioisotope. (author) [Spanish] En septiembre de 1961, el Servicio Central de Proteccion contra las Radiaciones Ionizantes del Ministerio de Salud Publica de Francia empezo a efectuar examenes antropogamma- metricos, hasta la fecha se comprobaron mas de 500 examenes de esa indole. Se somete a examenes trimestrales o semestrales a un gran numero de personas y, frecuentemente, junto con dichos examenes se efectuan ra- dioanalisis de orina; en general, antes del estudio radioquimico, se procede a una exploracion sistematica de la muestra de orina por espectrometria gamma. El estudio comparado de los resultados de estos diversos examenes ha permitido deducir ciertos hechos relativos a la contaminacion interna debida a la precipitacion radiactiva: 1. El cesio-137 es el unico radioisotopo artificial cuya presencia queda constantemente demostrada por el examen antropogammametrico. La variacion del valor medio de la carga corporal total puede ser observada durante todo el perfodo que-abarca el conjunto de los examenes. Ademas, es posible comprobar la variacion, por otra parte bien conocida, de la carga radiactiva en funcion del sexo. 2. los autores han podido estudiar la relacion existente entre la excrecion urinaria de cesio-137 y la carga total de este isotopo en el organismo, en correspondencia con las debiles actividades que se registran habitualmente. Los resultados parecen confirmar las relaciones establecidas por otros autores para grados de contaminacion mas elevados. 3. En lo que se refiere a los productos de fision de perfodo medio, eh particular el circonio-95 + niobio-95 (y en menor grado el rutenio-103), se pudo comprobar que aparecen transitoriamente en determinados periodos. 4. El conocimiento de la carga total de estroncio-90 en el

  14. The Problems of Controlling Defects in the Materials Used for the First Czechoslovak Nuclear-Power Station; Problemes de Controle des Defauts dans les Materiaux Utilises a la Premiere Centrale Nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie; Problemy defektoskopicheskogo kontrolya stroitel'nykh materialov reaktora pervoj chekhoslovatskoj atomnoj ehlektrostantsii; Problemas de Control de Defectos en los Materiales Utilizados en la Primera Central Nuclear de Checoslovaquia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radislav, Filipp [Zavody Im.V.I. Lenina, Pl' zen, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1965-09-15

    cassettes. In radiographing thick welds, betatrons of Czechoslovak manufacture are used. The paper describes the methods used for testing and the results obtained and compares the Czechoslovak 15-MeV betatron with the Siemens' betatron. (author) [French] Le memoire donne une description succincte de la cuve du reacteur de la premiere centrale nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie. En raison des specifications rigoureuses auxquelles doivent repondre les methodes de construction et d'assemblage de la cuve du reacteur, en acier inoxydable faiblement allie de grande epaisseur (650 mm), il a fallu elaborer une methode de controle non destructif du materiau de base et des soudures, fondes sur l'emploi de ' temoins ' . Pour controler la qualite du materiau de base et des sourdures, on utilise essentiellement des ultrasons puises et une sonde. Le memoire decrit les methodes d'essais et l'evaluation des donnees au cours de l'examen du materiau de base, ainsi que le procede qui permet de verifier la qualite des soudures electriques a scorie, des soudures en atmosphere de gaz carbonique et des soudures a l'arc faites a la main. Le controle des plaques forgees et laminees se fait au moyen d'un dispositif automatique de defectoscopie qui a ete mis au point en Tchecoslovaquie. Ce dispositif se compose de deux parties: un mecanisme mobile et un detecteur a ultrasons du type U1D-A2, de fabrication tchecoslovaque. Il comprend plusieurs elements inedits. On a compense l'effet de la distance sur l'ampleur du signal declenche par un defaut de maniere que cette ampleur reste constante. On a compense aussi l'effet du aux irregularites de la liaison acoustique, les impulsions etant communiquees a un dispositif d'enregistrement a distance. L'importance du defaut est evalue a l'aide d'unattenuateur. On metau point un dispositif automatique pour controler une surface cylindrique verticale. Les soudures d'assemblage circulaire doivent etre verifiees a une temperature elevee. Dans les usines V. I. Lenine de

  15. Underground disposal of tanks containing liquid and inflammable hydrocarbons; Mise sous talus ou sous terre des reservoirs contenant des hydrocarbures liquides inflammables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuczka, P.; Giovannini, B.; Caumont, M.; Varin, F

    2001-09-15

    The protection from thermal and mechanical stresses, of hazardous products tanks, by earth covering, is often used since many years in France and in many countries of Europe. In the case of hydrocarbons tanks, only small capacity tanks are covering. The aim of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of this technique for big capacity tanks as refinery tanks. It details the different typologies of tanks containing inflammable liquids and the associated systems, examines if the covering technique presents some special difficulties and precises the specifications needed for the new tanks being covering. (A.L.B.)

  16. As contenções da liberdade. A Maçonaria e a Internunciatura Apostólica no Brasil do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Leitão Santo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Freemasonry was understood as not possessingtheanti-clerical dispositionthat marked part of its European trajectory. In imperial Brazil it was a source of political articulation present in high places of power. This fact made the Catholic Church-theofficial religion-opposeFreemasonry in what became known as the Religious Question (1872-1875, in order toinhibit government initiativescontrary to ecclesiastical interests.Weakened internally, the church utilized its anti-Masonic strategy inthe diplomatic sphere between the Vatican State and the Brazilian State, which is found in the document studied here: Instructions to Ordinaries revmº of Brazil, on how they should proceedwith affiliates to Freemasonry, 1878.

  17. The natural gas: to guarantee a reasonable cost supply; Le gaz naturel: garantir un approvisionnement a un cout raisonnable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The France has got only a few natural gas resources, which will disappear in 2013. Thus it essentially depends on international markets for its supplying. Most of the supplying contracts are long dated contracts indexed on the petroleum products. Since 2005 the pressures of the petroleum and gas markets produce tariffs increases. Facing this situation the Government implemented a tariff fixation policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Gestion de l'environnement urbain et risques 'naturels'. La problématique des Quebradas à Quito (Equateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses quebradas, ravins à écoulement sporadique qui traversent le site de Quito, ont été systématiquement remblayées lors de l’urbanisation, pour servir notamment de zones de décharge plus ou moins contrôlée pour les déchets solides. À partir d’une cartographie diachronique, l’historique de ce remblaiement du réseau hydrographique est décrit, et les risques de nature morphoclimatique induits par ces profondes transformations, étudiés par ailleurs, sont brièvement évoqués. Ces zones spécifiques d’un site urbain de montagne relèvent d’un statut juridique de protection propre au réseau hydrographique en ville, lequel est profondément modifié dans la pratique après remblaiement, voire simplement oublié. Tout se passe comme si le remblaiement et l’urbanisation du réseau hydrographique faisaient l’objet d’un large consensus social, pour gagner de l’espace, donner une solution intra-urbaine à l’évacuation des déchets, et éradiquer des zones socialement incontrôlées. Les représentations sociales qui induisent une politique non explicite de gestion du site, sont analysées et discutées, au moment où les gestionnaires de la ville s’interrogent quant au bien-fondé de la poursuite du processus, alors que ce dernier se poursuit activement pour cacher la forte pollution du rio Machangara, principal émissaire du bassin. MANEJO DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE Y RIESGOS “NATURALES”. LA PROBLEMÁTICA DE LAS QUEBRADAS EN QUITO (ECUADOR. Las numerosas quebradas que atraviesan la ciudad de Quito fueron constantemente rellenadas durante el proceso de urbanización, sirviendo de basurero controlado o no. Se describe la historia del relleno de la red hidrográfica mediante su cartografía en el tiempo, y los riesgos de tipo morfoclimático producidos por esas transformaciones, que fueron investigados anteriormente, son resumidos. Las zonas de quebradas, específicas de un sitio urbano montañoso, tienen un estatuto jurídico propio de protección de la red hidrográfica, la cual se encuentra fuertemente modificada luego del relleno, hasta ser simplemente olvidada. Se puede analizar el proceso de relleno y de urbanización de la hidrografía como si fuera resultante de un amplio consenso social para ampliar el espacio urbano, facilitar la evacuación intra-urbana de los desechos, y borrar zonas socialmente incontroladas. Se analizan las representaciones mentales colectivas que fundan una política de relleno de la red hidrográfica, la que prosigue actualmente muy activa en el río Machangara, principal río de la cuenca con mucha polución, y a pesar del debate que se desarrolla en cuanto a la necesidad de los rellenos. URBAN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AND “NATURALS” HAZARDS. THE QUEBRADAS PROBLEMATIC IN QUITO (ECUADOR. The natural drainage network of the city of Quito was filled in during the urban growth, and a large number of the quebradas (ravines with a wadi regime were used as dumps to handle urban rubbish. The history of this fill in process is described, based on a diachronic cartography, and the morphoclimatic hazards induced by these important transformations, previously studied, are briefly summarized. The juridic protection statute of the hydrographic network appears as deeply modified by the fill in of the ravines, and is frequently forgotten. The hydrographic network fill in during urbanization can be analyzed as if it were the result of a broad social consensus, to gain space, give an easy solution to the intra-urban evacuation of rubbish, and eradicate social out of control zones. An analysis is offered of the collective mental representations that underlie the infilling policy of the hydrological network this policy is currently being actively persued in the Rio Machangara, the highly polluted main river in this drainage.

  19. New combustion, environment regulations: the answers for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on the point of view from Gaz de France (GdF) company concerning the potential consequences of the use of natural gas in combustion systems with respect to the new regulations about combustion and environment. Details concerning the measures relative to the limitation of pollutants in small combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) are given (chimney height, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and dusts content in exhaust gases). (J.S.)

  20. Evaluation of the risks linked with natural refrigerating fluids; Evaluation des risques lies aux fluides frigorigenes naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilpart, J. [Centre National Machiniste Agricole du Genie Rural des Eaux et des Forets, (Cemagref), 35 - Rennes (France). Div. Genie des Procedes Frigorifiques

    1999-07-01

    Because of their environmental impact, halogenated refrigerants are more and more replaced by `natural` refrigerants in vapor compression cycle refrigerating machineries. However, technological risks exist with these substitution fluids due to their flammability, explosibility or toxicity. Major risks can be encountered at the industrial scale and thanks to experience feedback and to several studies, a rigorous approach was settled and included in the legislative texts relative to classified installations and environment protection. Risks also exist at the scale of refrigerating installations with the use of hydrocarbon and ammonia refrigerants. This paper presents an evaluation of risks both at the industrial and at the installation scale: 1 - definition and approach of industrial risks: scenarios of major industrial accidents (boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE), toxic gases emission); evaluation of accident effects (thermal, mechanical, noxious); 2 - calculation methods applicable to industrial installations: thermal effects (radiation intensity, exposure duration, mass of flammable product involved in the phenomenon), mechanical effects (TNT equivalent method, rupture of pressurized reservoirs), noxious effects (leaks, atmospheric dispersion); 3 - application to refrigerating installations: case of hydrocarbons (dimensioning scenarios and simplified formulae, admissible scenarios), case of ammonia. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  1. Solubility of natural gases in water under high pressure; Solubilite des gaz naturels dans l`eau a pression elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhima, A

    1998-10-08

    Under high pressure (up to 1200 bar) and high temperature (up to 200 deg C) petroleum reservoir conditions the hydrocarbon-water mutual solubilities may become important. Under such conditions, the prediction of hydrocarbon water solubilities is a challenge for petroleum engineers. Indeed, very few studies have been done ar pressures higher that 700 bars. New solubility data for methane, ethane, n-butane, CO{sub 2} and their mixtures in pure water were obtained at 344.25 K and from 2.5 to 100 MPa. The results agree very well with those of the literature in the case of pure hydrocarbons in water, but differ for the hydrocarbon mixtures. A rigorous thermodynamic analysis allows the elaboration of a model that combines a cubic equation of state (Peng-Robinson with k{sub ij} given in literature) with the Henry`s law approach. The (P,T) functional form of Henry`s constant is given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation which involves two important parameters: partial molar volume at infinite dilution and Henry`s constant at the vapour pressure of water. For a given solute both parameters are only functions of temperature. A critical selection of binary solubility data for a large number of solutes has been used as a basis for a new correlation for calculating both this partial molar volume and the corresponding Henry`s constants as a function of temperature. (author) 169 refs.

  2. LES RELATIONS ENTRE LE MILIEU NATUREL ET LE MILIEU ANTHROPIQUE DANS LE GEOSYSTEME DE LA DEPRESSION OZANA-TOPOLIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LETOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bien que le thème de l’article se réfère seulement à un géosystème particulier, lamanière d’investigation exige un élargissement du domaine de la recherche en ce quiconcerne la dimension temporelle et aussi la dimension fonctionnelle et socioéconomique.On a essayé un étude qui concerne la connexion de l’environnementà la composante anthropique du géosystème de la Dépression Ozana-Topoliţa à l’aide des indicateurs qui seront bonites dans une matrice pour identifier des différents niveaux de pression anthropique du géosystème en question. 

  3. Future markets and technologies for natural gas vehicles; Futurs marches et technologies pour les vehicules au gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J. [Development Engineer, Lotus Engineering (United Kingdom); Carpenter, B. [Gas Applications, BG Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Lotus Engineering and BG Technology recently collaborated on the conversion of the Lotus Elise for operation on natural gas. This paper considers the world-wide opportunities for natural gas as an automotive fuel by comparison with other fuels. It looks at how technology can be used to exploit this potential, by examining the special features of the gas fuelled Elise, and how other technologies such as hybrid vehicles and fuel cells can be expected to respond to this challenge in future. (authors)

  4. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its naturel enemies, and the presences of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  5. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  6. The natural gas air-conditioning; La climatisation au gaz naturel. Un avenir prometteur, une technique confirmee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas air-conditioning market is in growth (it will cover 10% of the market in 2002).To illustrate the possibilities of this energy source, this paper presents three examples of the natural gas air-conditioning in France. The technical aspects, the cost and the advantages of such systems are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Controlling processes that are sensitive to natural gas quality; Procedes de controle sensibles a la qualite du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K R [BG Technology Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In the UK, and in many other countries throughout the world, the quality of natural gas supplied to customers is maintained to a safe specification. Nevertheless, the specification usually allows some variation in the calorific value of the gas. For a small number of industrial or commercial consumers, this variation can present some difficulties. Measurement of these small, and sometimes rapid, changes is required to allow suitable control systems to be implemented. In the past, the measurement of gas quality has been either inadequate for accurate control or too expensive. BG Technology has developed an acceptable cost solution to this long-standing problem. This paper describes how this novel technology presents exciting new opportunities for gas combustion control and other applications. (author)

  8. Design of the Small Rods Forming the Fuel Element of the First Charge of the EL4 Reactor. Cladding Problems; Etude des crayons constituant l'element combustible du premier jeu d'EL4 - probleme de la gaine; Problema pokrytiya nebol'shikh steeknej, obrazushchikh toplivnyj ehlement pervoj zagruzki reaktora EL.4; Estudio de las barras que constituyen los elementos combustibles de la primera carga del reactor EL4 - el problema de las vainas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, H.; Ringot, C.; Weisz, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-11-15

    The fuel element for the first charge of EL4 makes use of stainless steel cans. The grade of steel chosen and the can thickness depend on the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength required. The operating stresses and temperatures are such that fabrication of a can lasting throughout the life of the fuel element calls for a highly resistant grade of steel, of thickness greater than 0.5 mm. When the can bears on the fuel as a result of creep, deformation in diametrical clearance may lead to ovalization and folding, while deformation in longitudinal clearance may cause buckling of the can. Numerous tests have been carried out on cans of thickness 0.3 and 0.4 mm to determine type of deformation as a function of clearance. To be certain of avoiding ovalization with the thicknesses proposed and to keep the internal temperature of the fuel as low as possible, the clearance must be reduced to zero in fabrication. (author) [French] L'element combustible du premier jeu EL4 utilise des gaines en acier inoxydable. Le choix de la nuance et de l'epaisseur de la gaine est lie a des considerations de tenue a la corrosion et de tenue mecanique. Les contraintes et les temperatures d'utilisation ne permettent pas de concevoir une gaine resistante pendant toute la vie de l'element combustible a moins d'utiliser une nuance tres resistante et d'epaisseur superieure a 0,5 mm. On admet que la gaine s'applique par fluage sur le combustible: la deformation dans les jeux diametraux peut conduire a la formation d'une ovalisation et d'un pli; la deformation dans les jeux longitudinaux peut conduire a des flambages de la gaine. De nombreux essais ont ete realises sur des gaines d'epaisseurs 0,3 et 0,4 mm pour connaitre le mode de deformation en fonction des jeux. Pour etre certain de ne jamais avoir d'ovalisation avec les epaisseurs envisagees, et pour avoir la temperature a coeur du combustible la plus basse possible, on est conduit a reduire a zero le jeu en fabrication. (author

  9. A dynamic bivariate Poisson model for analysing and forecasting match results in the English Premier League

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We develop a statistical model for the analysis and forecasting of football match results which assumes a bivariate Poisson distribution with intensity coefficients that change stochastically over time. The dynamic model is a novelty in the statistical time series analysis of match results

  10. John Terry and the Predicament of Englishness: Ambivalence and Nostalgia in the Premier League Era.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article examines media discourse surrounding the Chelsea and England footballer John Terry and argues that his iconicity embodies multiple anxieties about Englishness and English football in the era of neoliberalism. In a nostalgic culture in search of ‘traditional’ English heroes, Terry is celebrated for his physicality and traditionally ‘English’ style of play; yet, his off-field behaviour is seen to be both emblematic and symptomatic of a celebrity culture considered to betray the val...

  11. Peer exchange, "strategic goals to manage research programs : building a premier research program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The objectives of the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) Research, Development, & Technology Transfer (RDT) Branch Peer Exchange were: : 1. Receive peer input and perspective on RDT Strategic Plan. : 2. Obtain assistance in assessing validi...

  12. Sucevița – l’iconographie du premier synode œcuménique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Cincheza Buculei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The very special manner in which the First Ecumenical Council was reproduced at Suceviţa – the presence of Empress Elena next to Constantine and their association with the cross between them, The Vision of St. Peter from Alexandria, the moment when Arius was spanked by St. Nicholas who holds his beard and the unique episode of Arius’death in a public latrine as a result of his unbelief – reflects on one hand, the connection of the Council with the Liturgy and with the Trinity dogma and, on the other hand, they emphasize the victory of the true faith defended at Nicaea. It was the confession of this faith that brought the sacrifice of the Saints from the Menology, an amply painted theme on all walls of the narthex.

  13. Virtual accelerator concept, implementation and preliminary test; Accelerateur virtuel Concept, implementation et premier test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriot, D.; Duperrier, R

    2006-05-15

    A virtual accelerator is the coupling of a simulation code with the control system of a real machine. 3 operating modes are considered. First, the monitoring mode in which any action on the control system has an impact on both real and virtual machines. This mode allows a direct comparison between simulation results and the real behaviour of the accelerator. Secondly, the flight simulation mode, this mode allows the accelerator operators to simulate the effect of any change in the parameters of the control system before transferring them to the real machine. The main advantage of this mode is to allow the assessment of operating procedures before implementing them on the real machine. The third mode is the automatic steering mode in which the simulation code assumes the reins of the control system of the real machine. This mode allows the making of complex and time-consuming adjustment procedures in an automatic way. TraceWin is a simulation code dedicated to the behaviour of charged-particle beams in a linear accelerator. TraceWin is consistent with the EPICS technology on which the control system of most accelerators is based. A virtual accelerator composed of the SILHI injector combined to the TraceWin code via the EPICS environment has showed its efficiency in the automatic steering mode. (A.C.)

  14. The Three Mile Island accident, a world premiere for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    When it happened on 28 March 1979, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in Pennsylvania took experts and operators by surprise. Although human losses were minor, this world shaking media event significantly changed public attitudes towards nuclear energy and put a definitive stop to the development of nuclear power in the USA. (author)

  15. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in October 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.8%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 8.1%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.3%), slowing down increase for gas (+ 2.1%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.4%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a high energy cost level with + 22% on one year, reaching 87.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 72.0 in October 1996

  16. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  17. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials; Rapport annuel 1997. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  18. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  19. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  20. "Particle Fever": avant-premiere at CERN Main auditorium on 10 December, at 19:30

    CERN Multimedia

    Neal David Hartman

    2013-01-01

    CERN people will have the chance to see a preview of the film "Particle Fever" in CERN's main auditorium on Tuesday 10 December at 19:30. The director, Mark Levinson, will be in attendance to speak with the audience about the film after the screening.   CERN and its experiments have been the focus of innumerable television documentaries, news reports, and other media productions.  However, until now, no film about the search for the Higgs Boson has been made for theatrical release in the classic documentary tradition.  "Particle Fever" has received numerous awards and travelled to festivals around the world, where it has consistently played to sell-out audiences.  The film will begin a commercial theatrical run in the United States in early 2014, but CERN people have the chance to see a preview in the CERN main auditorium on Tuesday, 10 December at 19:30.   The director, Mark Levinson, has wor...

  1. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28; Energies matieres premieres. Lettre n. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Issues in the Learning Context of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Programme at a Premier Medical School in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Ezeala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students’ perceptions of their learning environments influence their approaches to learning and the learning outcomes, and reflect a programme’s effectiveness. In Africa, literature on the learning environments of medical and health sciences education is scanty, and the issues impinging on effective education are not well documented. The objective of this study was to determine learners’ perceptions of the issues in the learning environment of undergraduate physiotherapy education at the University of Zambia.Methods: Undergraduate physiotherapy students in years 2 to 5 were stratified according to level of study and randomly sampled. They were provided written information about the study, and consenting students were allowed to complete the DREEM questionnaire unassisted. Completed questionnaires were rated using a recommended guideline and their responses analysed quantitatively. Global, subscale, and item mean scores were calculated, and Cronbach’s alpha was determined as a measure of data reliability and internal consistency. The study was approved by ethics committees of two universities.Results: Ninety-three students participated in the study. The response rate was 88.4 %. All classes rated the learning environment as ‘more positive than negative,’ with a mean global score of 123.2/200 (61.6 %. Scores within subscales (55.7–70.4 % were comparable across the classes. Nine items scored below 2.0/4.0 indicating dissatisfaction. These included inadequate social support, teacher authoritarianism, and factual overload. Cronbach’s alpha for global scores was 0.896, and between 0.616 and 0.820 for subscale scores.Conclusion: Though total DREEM scores showed overall positive perception of the learning environment by the students, item analysis showed students’ dissatisfaction with several aspects. This analysis of undergraduate students’ perceptions of the Physiotherapy learning environment provided insight into the phenomena in the programme and adds to the literature on learning environments of Physiotherapy education in Africa.Keywords: DREEM, EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, PHYSIOTHERAPY, TEACHING AND LEARNING, UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

  3. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia

    2000-01-01

    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  4. Premier Tools of Energy Research Also Probe Secrets of Viral Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Glennda

    2011-03-28

    Advanced light sources peer into matter at the atomic and molecular scales, with applications ranging from physics, chemistry, materials science, and advanced energy research, to biology and medicine.

  5. Prague, September 1st, 1816: Premiere of Louis Spohr’s Faust 223. A documentary study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 2/3 (2016), s. 223-234 ISSN 0018-7003 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Louis Spohr’s Faust * theatre performance * Prague’s Estates Theatre Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. La CPE-Can forge des liens et place les étudiants au premier rang ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada (CPE-Can) :Dre Margot ParkesDepartment of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, CanadaDre Johanne Saint-CharlesCentre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la santé, la société et ...

  7. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials; Regards sur 1998. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne`s mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  8. Developments during the first semester 2001; Les developpements au premier semestre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document gives a panorama of the nuclear energy situation at the end of the first 2001 semester. The energy policy concerning the nuclear industry development, is discussed for many countries: USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China, India, Korea, Taiwan, Africa and south America, Russia and east Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. L’irrigation diminue-t-elle en France ? Premiers enseignements du recensement agricole de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUBIER, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Le recensement agricole constitue un outil essentiel à la connaissance du monde agricole et au pilotage de l’action publique. À partir d'une analyse des données et des résultats concernant l'irrigation, les auteurs nous présentent la situation actuelle en France et les principales évolutions depuis dix ans.

  10. An Investigation of Knee Injury Prevalence and its Mechanism among Premier League Soccer Referees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahdavi Mohtasham

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the importance of including special training in warm-up programs such as interval training, proprioception exercises, strength training (e.g. Nordic hamstring, flexibility training, and muscular endurance training which have been designed to prevent knee injuries. The results help to design and set-up an injury prevention program for the Referees Committee of the Iranian Football Federation.

  11. Le premier régime de protection sociale du Nigeria | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juin 2017 ... La démarche de financement de la recherche du PEP est singulière et fort efficace, car elle vise plutôt à améliorer l'expertise des chercheurs des pays en développement ... Le modèle du PEP fonctionne bien, a-t-il ajouté, et il a une influence fort positive sur l'élaboration éclairée de politiques nationales. ».

  12. Les Campaniformes Pyreneo-Languedociens Premiers Résultats au C 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean GUILAINE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La civilisation des gobelets campaniformes a posé aux préhistoriens, dès son individualisation même, des problèmes de géographie et de diffusion ainsi que des questions de caractère chronologique. C'est essentiellement le mérite des auteurs ibériques d'avoir montré que cette culture s'était fractionnée en ensembles géographiques relativement distincts (P. Bosch-Gimpera, A. del Castillo. Les auteurs anglo-saxons, pour leur part, ont surtout mis l'accent sur les variantes typologiques, en essayant de décortiquer la famille campaniforme en horizons stylistiquement et chronologiquement bien différenciés. Au terme d'une longue tradition (marquée par les travaux de A. Goetze, P. Reinecke, J. Abercromby, V. G. Childe, H. N. Savory, etc., se trouve une série de belles synthèses dont les plus remarquables sont celles de E. Sangmeister (1951, J. D. Van der Waals et W. Glasbergen (1955, D. L. Clarke (1970. De nombreux préhistoriens se sont par ailleurs penchés sur les problèmes de diffusion et diverses thèses ont été émises: théorie de l'origine sud-ibérique (Schmidt, Bosch- Gimpera, Del Castillo; théorie de la genèse centro-européenne (J. et E. Neustupny; thèse, plus complexe, de Sangmeister mettant en jeu divers relais à partir de Liberie et un important phénomène de reflux depuis l'Europe moyenne en direction de la Péninsule (théorie fortement discutée par la suite par son auteur même; enfin, tout récemment, hypothèse de D. L. Clarke sur la formation de cette civilisation dans le Midi de la France, plus particulièrement dans la région bordant le Golfe du Lion.

  13. PECVD de composes de silicium sur polymeres: Etude de la premiere phase du depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennler, Gilles

    Since their first introduction in the early 90's, transparent barriers against oxygen and/or water vapor permeation through polymers, such as SiO 2, are the object of increasing interest in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries, and more recently for the encapsulation of organic-based displays. It is now well known that these thin layers possess barrier properties only if they are thicker than a certain critical thickness, dc. For example, dc is around 12 nm in the case of SiO2 on KaptonRTM PI; below this value, the measured "Oxygen Transmission Rate" (OTR, in standard cm3/m2/day/bar) is roughly the same as that of the uncoated polymer. Until now, no detailed research has been carried out to explain this observation, but a hypothesis was proposed in the literature, based on island-like growth structure of the coating for d ≤ dc. According to this hypothesis, the surface energy of the polymeric substrates is so low that the Volmer-Weber (island-coalescence) growth mode occurs. We have aimed to verify this explanation, that is, to study the initial phase of silicon-compound (SiO2 and SiN) growth on four different polymeric substrates, namely polyimide (KaptonRTM PI), polycarbonate (LexanRTM PC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethyleneterephthalate (MylarRTM PET). Three different deposition methods were used, namely reactive evaporation of SiO, radio-frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD), and Distributed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (DECR) PECVD. In this latter case, the substrates were placed in three different positions: (i) in the active glow zone, (ii) downstream, and (iii) downstream, but shielded from photon emission (e.g. VUV) from the plasma. Angle-Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the latter performed after Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) by oxygen plasma, revealed that growth indeed occurs in a Volmer-Weber mode in the case of evaporated films. The island coalescence was observed to occur at d = 1.2 nm, at which point the sticking coefficient of precursor species changes drastically. Finally, we have investigated the presence of an "interphase" between deposited coatings and the polymeric substrate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Development Strategy for G-Land Beach as a Potential Premier Surfing Beach in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arismunandar, Arismunandar; Iskandar, Budi Permadi

    2013-01-01

    Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues and job creation. For Indonesia economy, In 2011 tourism contributed of Rp. 437.25 trillion to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or 13.8% of the total GDP of Indonesia (Source: BPS, 2012). GDP growth of tourism since 2001 had always showed a higher growth rate than the national GDP, which in 2011 tourism GDP growth reached 9.18%, while only 6.5% of national ...

  15. L'accélérateur du CERN bat un premier record

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Des protons lancés les uns contre les autres à une vitesse très proche de celle de la lumière sont entrés en collision avec une énergie de 2,36 TeV, la plus haute jamais atteinte dans un laboratoire. (2 pages)

  16. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials; Rapport annuel 1997. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  17. Crucial optimization steps in getting premier quality of Aquilaria malaccensis genomic DNA for molecular activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hanif Azhari; Azhar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Gaharu resin is derived from Aquilaria sp. or Agar wood tree in a tropical ecosystem. In Malaysia the Aquilaria species especially A. malaccensis in danger of extinction in the wild due to illegal logging as its resin is highly used for the production of greatly valued incense throughout Asia. A significant tool in fingerprinting the species is through molecular activities of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) application on which requires total genomic DNA as a starting material. This paper, described optimizations of both fresh and dried samples derived from A. malaccensis for genomic DNA. Three main parameters for the optimization were temperature (60, 65, and 70 degree Celsius), incubation period (30, 60, 90 minutes) and concentration of CTAB (1 %, 3 %, 5 %). The experimental design in these work resulted a total of 46 combinations of the parameters in which 0.5 g samples was used in each combination. Nano-drop spectrometer was used in detecting the quantitative genomic DNA at ng/ μl. In fresh samples, incubation temperatures at 65 degree Celsius for 60 minutes in 3 % were yielded 723.2 ng/ μl genomic DNA. Whereas, for dried samples, incubation temperature at 70 degree Celsius for 90 minutes in 5 % CTAB were yielded 70.2 ng/ μl of genomic DNA. Spectrometer reading at OD280/ 260 was 1.9 for both type of samples. The isolated genomic DNA is useful for the molecular activities to identify specific plants between the same species or among the Aquilaria species. (author)

  18. Des premiers travaux de Le Verrier à la découverte de Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier was born in Saint-Lô on March 11, 1811. He entered the "École polytechnique" in 1831, from which he was to emerge eighth of his class two years later. After first devoting himself to chemistry, in 1836 he obtained a position as an astronomy assistant at the "École polytechnique". This choice will decide his future career, which culminates with the discovery of Neptune in 1846. Le Verrier wrote more than 200 contributions to the Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. These contributions are very varied: some original articles, but also reports on publications published elsewhere, sometimes even simple notes of a single page. The whole set gives a very vivid vision of the development of the science of the 19th century. At that time, the Comptes rendus are really a reflection of the debates of the sessions of the Academy. They are published very quickly, and leave a large freedom of speech to the authors. They are therefore a snapshot of the sometimes lively polemics that animated the sessions of the French Academy of Sciences. In this limited essay, we will mainly look at the first years of the career of Le Verrier until the discovery of Neptune.

  19. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials; Les chiffres cles des matieres premieres minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Directeur General de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres, France (France)]|[Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.).

  20. The Naval Postgraduate School : The Nation's Premier National Security Research University [video

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    “The best and brightest military officers from the United States and around the world come to the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, to work with world class faculty on real military and defense problems. At NPS, they gain both the intellectual know how and the practical skills for improving defense technologies, systems and programs.” -- President George H.W. Bush

  1. Food irradiation comes back to foreground; L'irradiation des aliments revient au premier plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroin, Ph

    2008-06-15

    The American agriculture with its vegetables with green leaves which it is very difficult to free of pathogenic elements as E.coli could reconsider the use of the irradiation which allows to eliminate 99,9 % of the pathogenic in the mass; to consolidate this use the works of the IAEA, the FAO, the Fda and the Who confirmed its utility and its harmlessness. (N.C.)

  2. Nutritional awareness and habits of Premier league sportsmen in the Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection of optimal nutrition for physical activity of sportsmen depends on several factors, and includes the type and duration of exercises, total energy consumption, time needed for recovery, andnutritional preferences. Proper nutrition of sportsmen relies on adequate combination and participation of all the macronutrients. The aim of this research was to analyse and determine the nutritional awareness andhabits of sportsmen depending on their age and type of sports they indulge.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study undertaken from May to July 2011 on the sample of 100 examinees/sportsmen of the Football Club “Željezničar“ and Basketball Club “Bosna“.Results: General awareness of sportsmen on basic principles of proper nutrition is unsatisfactory. Statisticalsignificance per type of sport and age of sportsmen is proved through representation of macronutrients in their nutrition. For 49.1% footballers and 52% sportsmen over 19 years of age the most important combinationof macronutrients resembles the model of carbohydrates-proteins-fats, while 48.9% of basketballers and sportsmen under 18 prefer proteins-carbohydrates-fats. The study had shown a statistically significantdifference (p=0.01 between the footballers and basketballers with regard to the type of meal they consume before the trainings.Conclusion: Insufficient knowledge on the subject reflects in bad nutritional habits, especially those related to the number and arrangement of daily meals in comparison to respective sports activities.

  3. Marketing to Develop the Premier Medical Brand in the Huaihai Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiying; Meng, Qingchao

    2015-06-01

    Based on the practices at Xuzhou Central Hospital, the authors analyzed the improvements in the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after implementing a brand marketing strategy. Using methods including questionnaires and business controlling means, we summarized that the improvements to the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after strategies were implemented in the areas of network, reputation, academic research, and public welfare. After the implementation of a brand marketing campaign, the medical service quality and brand reputation have been greatly improved. Meanwhile, a central hospital group was formed and gradually became the central healthcare provider in the Huaihai Economic Zone. The new marketing facilitated the drastic increase of medical service and brand reputation.

  4. Health News You Can Use …from the world's premier research institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those experts and the major public figures, like Lance Armstrong, Mary Tyler Moore, Phylicia Rashad, Sam Donaldson, ... and if you would like to receive a free subscription. You can reach us at the address ...

  5. 229 Age au premier vêlage et intervalle entre vêlages de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madjina TELLAH

    ... Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso (UPB), 01 BP 1091 Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso ..... rapportés au Niger et au Tchad [4], au Cameroun chez les zébus Goudali [8], au ... [9], au Sénégal chez le zébu Gobra [10], au Bénin chez les vaches ...

  6. Results of the preparatory study “PREMIER Analysis of Campaign Data”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Castelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere region and the impact of limb emissionmeasurements at millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelengths for investigation of chemical, dynamical andradiative processes occurring at these altitudes constitute a major focus of the atmospheric research activitiessupported by the European Space Agency (ESA in the last two decades.[...

  7. Optique quantique en environnement solide

    OpenAIRE

    Auffèves , Alexia

    2014-01-01

    Mon objectif premier a été de revisiter l’optique quantique (initialement explorée avec des atomes et des cavités naturels) avec des atomes et des cavités artificiels, tels que des boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices, ou des qubits en électrodynamique quantique des circuits. Contrairement aux systèmes de physique atomique, les atomes et les cavités de la matière condensée sont couplés à des environnements natifs, qui conduisent à des divergences fon- damentales par rapport à l’...

  8. Les lois Bérenger (lois du 14 août 1885 et du 26 mars 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Lucien Sanchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La constatation de l’accroissement continu de la récidive délinquante et criminelle tout au long du XIXe siècle a conduit les pénalistes et les criminologues à distinguer les délinquants par habitude ou professionnels, des délinquants par accident ou primaires (Lacassagne A., Martin E., AAC, 1901, p. 540. Les premiers sont considérés comme incorrigibles. Le crime semble être leur état naturel et la pénalité classique ne peut plus rien pour eux, ils sont inamendables et définitivement « incor...

  9. Le bois comme générateur d'ambiances visuelles en architecture : étude expérimentale comparative sur la satisfaction visuelle à l'aide de maquettes à l'échelle réduite

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Geneviève

    2017-01-01

    Cette étude explore le potentiel d’environnements intérieurs en bois éclairés naturellement à créer des ambiances chaleureuses, lumineuses et agréables, favorisant le confort et le bien-être psychologique. Le premier objectif de ce projet est d’étudier la diversité des conditions de ciel en termes de couverture et d’épaisseur nuageuse, ainsi que d’évaluer les impacts de cette diversité lumineuse sur cinq maquettes à échelle réduite composées de différents agencements de bois. Des données mété...

  10. Le site de “ Champ Chalatras ” aux Martres-d'Artière (Puy-de-Dôme et les premiers témoins archéologiques de la viticulture gallo-romaine dans le bassin de Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne The “Champ Chalatras” site of Martres-d'Artière (Puy-de-Dôme and the first archaeological evidence of Gallo-Roman wine-growing in the Clermont-Ferrand basin (Auvergne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Cabanis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Une campagne de fouille préventive a été réalisée près de Clermont-Ferrand, aux Martres-d’Artière, sur le site de “ Champ Chalatras " (Auvergne, Puy-de-Dôme en 2008, sur près de sept hectares (responsable P. Vallat. Cette opération archéologique, effectuée à l’emplacement d’une grande villa gallo-romaine, a permis notamment de mettre en évidence, pour la première fois en Auvergne, un bâtiment vinicole et des fosses de plantations datés du dernier quart du IIe s. ap. J.-C. au début du siècle suivant, qui témoignent de la présence de vignes à proximité d’Augustonemetum (Clermont-Ferrand, chef-lieu de la cité arverne. Dès lors, il semblait opportun de proposer un premier bilan documentaire concernant la viticulture antique en Limagne qui soit fondé sur les données archéologiques récemment collectées en 2008 et sur l’ensemble des autres indices recensés à l’occasion de cet essai de synthèse (sources littéraires, données archéologiques, iconographiques, et archéobotaniques. Cet état des connaissances pluridisciplinaires est encore limité à la région de Clermont-Ferrand, seul secteur auvergnat désormais un peu documenté. La carte de la viticulture en Gaule est très évolutive depuis quelques années. Les récentes découvertes du bassin clermontois ouvrent ainsi une nouvelle fenêtre pour la partie nord-orientale de la province d’Aquitaine.A rescue excavation was carried out near Clermont-Ferrand at Martres-d’Artière, on the site of “Champ Chalatras” (Auvergne, Puy-de-Dôme in 2008, on nearly seven hectares (P. Vallat the archaeologist in charge. This archaeological work, conducted on the site of a large Gallo-Roman villa, brought to light (for the first time in Auvergne a building associated with wine-growing and plantation ditches dating from the last quarter of the 2nd century AD to the beginning of the following century, which proved the presence of vines in the region of

  11. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by optical spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique du plutonium par spectroscopie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Chaput, M; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Isotopic analysis of mixtures of plutonium 239 and 240 has been carried out by means of the photo-electric spectrometer Fabry-Perot, the source being a hollow cathode cooled by liquid nitrogen. This first research has been concerned with finding among the spectral lines given by the hollow cathode, those suitable for use in analysis. Actually, the relative precision is of the order of 2 per cent (for samples containing 3 per cent of {sup 240}Pu). The study of the reproducibility of the measurements should make it possible to increase the precision; the relative precision which can be expected from this method should be 1 per cent for mixtures containing 1 per cent of {sup 240}Pu. (author) [French] L'analyse isotopique des melanges de plutonium 239 et 240 a ete effectuee a l'aide du spectrometre photoelectrique Fabry-Perot, la source etant une cathode creuse refroidie a l'azote liquide. Ce premier travail a eu pour but de discerner parmi les raies spectrales emises par la cathode creuse, celles susceptibles de servir de raies d'analyse. Actuellement, la precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent (pour des echantillons contenant 3 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu). L'etude de la reproductibilite des mesures devrait permettre d'ameliorer la precision; la precision relative que l'on pourrait atteindre par cette methode serait de 1 pour cent pour des melanges contenant 1 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu. (auteur)

  12. Comparison of Irradiation Damage in Artificial and Natural Graphite at Different Irradiation Temperatures; Comparaison des dommages subis par des graphites artificiels et naturels irradiés a des températures différentes; СРАВНЕНИЕ РАДИАЦИОННЫХ ПОВРЕЖДЕНИЙ В ИСКУССТВЕННОМ И ПРИРОДНОМ ГРАФИТЕ ПРИ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ТЕМПЕРАТУРАХ ВО ВРЕМЯ ОБЛУЧЕНИЯ; Comparación entre los danos causados por las radiaciones en grafitos artificiales y naturales por irradiacion a diversas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, R. [Reactor Materials Institute, Jülich Nuclear Research Establishment, Jülich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-08-15

    Results of irradiation experiments on artificial and natural graphite in the three temperature ranges 70 - 150°C, 300 - 400°C and 550 - 650°C are compared. These irradiation experiments were carried out in core or pool positions of the GETR, Vallecitos. The samples investigated received neutron doses up to 5 x l0{sup 21} nvt with E > 0.17 eV, which is approximately 3 x l0{sup 21} nvt with E > 0.18 MeV. Changes in the lattice parameters, the electric and thermal conductivity, the macroscopic dimensions and the bending strength are discussed. The natural graphite samples investigated were manufactured partly with, partly without a binding material. The results obtained during these investigations indicate, in addition to the dependence on the irradiation temperature and the neutron dose, a strong influence exerted by the basic materials, the treatment during production and the density. Strong anisotropic effects in natural graphite at lower irradiation temperatures, resulting from the treatment during production, level out at higher irradiation temperatures. (author) [French] L'auteur compare les résultats d'expériences consistant à exposer du graphite artificiel et naturel à un flux de neutrons, à des températures comprises dans les trois gammes suivantes: 70 - 150°C, 300 - 400°C et 550 - 650°C. Ces expériences ont eu lieu tant à 1'intérieur qu’à I'extérieur du coeur du réacteur GETR de Vallecitos. Les échantillons étudiés ont reçu des doses allant jusqu'à 5 * 10{sup 21} nvt avec une énergie de E > 0,17 eV, ce qui correspond à environ 3 * 10{sup 21} nvt avec E> 0,18 MeV. L’autei» discute les modifications observées dans les paramètres de réseau, la conductivité électrique et thermique, les dimensions macroscopiques et la flexibilité. Les échantillons de graphite naturel considérés avaient été fabriqués en partie à l'aide d'une substance liante et en partie sans une telle substance. Il ressort de ces expériences que les r

  13. A fortran program for elastic scattering of deuterons with an optical model containing tensorial potentials; Programme fortran pour la diffusion elastique de deutons avec un modele optique contenant des termes tensoriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The optical model has been applied with success to the elastic scattering of particles of spin 0 and 1/2 and to a lesser degree to that of deuterons. For particles of spin l/2, an LS coupling term is ordinarily used; this term is necessary to obtain a polarization; for deuterons, this coupling has been already introduced, but the possible forms of potentials are more numerous (in this case, scalar products of a second rank spin tensor with a tensor of the same rank in space or momentum can occur). These terms which may be necessary are primarily important for the tensor polarization. This problem is of particular interest at Saclay since a beam of polarized deuterons has become available. The FORTRAN program SPM 037 permits the study of the effect of tensorial potentials constructed from the distance of the deuteron from the target and its angular momentum with respect to it. This report should make possible the use and even the modification of the program. It consists of: a description of the problem and of the notation employed, a presentation of the methods adopted, an indication of the necessary data and how they should be introduced, and finally tables of symbols which are in equivalence or common statements: these tables must be considered when making any modification. (author) [French] Le modele optique a ete applique avec succes a la diffusion elastique des particules de spin nul et 1/2 et dans une moindre mesure a celle des deutons. Pour les particules de spin 1/2, on utilise habituellement un couplage LS, necessaire pour calculer la polarisation; pour les deutons, ce couplage a deja ete introduit, mais les formes de potentiel possibles sont plus nombreuses (intervention de produits scalaires d'un tenseur d'ordre 2 de spin avec un tenseur du meme ordre d'espace ou d'impulsion) et celles qui peuvent etre eventuellement necessaires ont une importance capitale pour la polarisation tensorielle. Ce probleme revet a Saclay un interet particulier depuis la mise au point d'un faisceau de deutons polarise. Le programme FORTRAN SPM 037 permet d'etudier l'effet de potentiels tensoriels formes avec la distance et le moment angulaire du deuton par rapport a la cible. Ce rapport doit permettre de l'utiliser et meme de le modifier. Il comprend: la description du probleme et des notations employees, la presentation des methodes adoptees, l'indication des donnees necessaires et de leur introduction et enfin des tableaux des symboles en equivalence ou dans le commun, dont il faut tenir compte pour toute modification. (auteur)

  14. A fortran program for elastic scattering of deuterons with an optical model containing tensorial potentials; Programme fortran pour la diffusion elastique de deutons avec un modele optique contenant des termes tensoriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The optical model has been applied with success to the elastic scattering of particles of spin 0 and 1/2 and to a lesser degree to that of deuterons. For particles of spin l/2, an LS coupling term is ordinarily used; this term is necessary to obtain a polarization; for deuterons, this coupling has been already introduced, but the possible forms of potentials are more numerous (in this case, scalar products of a second rank spin tensor with a tensor of the same rank in space or momentum can occur). These terms which may be necessary are primarily important for the tensor polarization. This problem is of particular interest at Saclay since a beam of polarized deuterons has become available. The FORTRAN program SPM 037 permits the study of the effect of tensorial potentials constructed from the distance of the deuteron from the target and its angular momentum with respect to it. This report should make possible the use and even the modification of the program. It consists of: a description of the problem and of the notation employed, a presentation of the methods adopted, an indication of the necessary data and how they should be introduced, and finally tables of symbols which are in equivalence or common statements: these tables must be considered when making any modification. (author) [French] Le modele optique a ete applique avec succes a la diffusion elastique des particules de spin nul et 1/2 et dans une moindre mesure a celle des deutons. Pour les particules de spin 1/2, on utilise habituellement un couplage LS, necessaire pour calculer la polarisation; pour les deutons, ce couplage a deja ete introduit, mais les formes de potentiel possibles sont plus nombreuses (intervention de produits scalaires d'un tenseur d'ordre 2 de spin avec un tenseur du meme ordre d'espace ou d'impulsion) et celles qui peuvent etre eventuellement necessaires ont une importance capitale pour la polarisation tensorielle. Ce probleme revet a Saclay un interet particulier depuis la mise au point d'un faisceau de deutons polarise. Le programme FORTRAN SPM 037 permet d'etudier l'effet de potentiels tensoriels formes avec la distance et le moment angulaire du deuton par rapport a la cible. Ce rapport doit permettre de l'utiliser et meme de le modifier. Il comprend: la description du probleme et des notations employees, la presentation des methodes adoptees, l'indication des donnees necessaires et de leur introduction et enfin des tableaux des symboles en equivalence ou dans le commun, dont il faut tenir compte pour toute modification. (auteur)

  15. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of f-element complexes by quantum chemical methods; Analyse de la structure electronique des complexes contenant des elements F par des methodes de la chimie quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetere, V

    2002-09-15

    This thesis is related to comparative studies of the chemical properties of molecular complexes containing lanthanide or actinide trivalent cations, in the context of the nuclear waste disposal. More precisely, our aim was a quantum chemical analysis of the metal-ligand bonding in such species. Various theoretical approaches were compared, for the inclusion of correlation (density functional theory, multiconfigurational methods) and of relativistic effects (relativistic scalar and 2-component Hamiltonians, relativistic pseudopotentials). The performance of these methods were checked by comparing computed structural properties to published experimental data, on small model systems: lanthanide and actinide tri-halides and on X{sub 3}M-L species (X=F, Cl; M=La, Nd, U; L = NH{sub 3}, acetonitrile, CO). We have thus shown the good performance of density functionals combined with a quasi-relativistic method, as well as of gradient-corrected functionals associated with relativistic pseudopotentials. In contrast, functionals including some part of exact exchange are less reliable to reproduce experimental trends, and we have given a possible explanation for this result . Then, a detailed analysis of the bonding has allowed us to interpret the discrepancies observed in the structural properties of uranium and lanthanides complexes, based on a covalent contribution to the bonding, in the case of uranium(III), which does not exist in the lanthanide(III) homologues. Finally, we have examined more sizeable systems, closer to experimental species, to analyse the influence of the coordination number, of the counter-ions and of the oxidation state of uranium, on the metal-ligand bonding. (author)

  16. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects; Etude des performances du controle par emission acoustique de tubes en materiaux composites resine-fibre de verre contenant des defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified `nuclear safety`. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends.

  17. Métathèse croisée d'alcènes contenant des N-hétéroaryles. Trifluorométhylation d'ène-carbamates cycliques et dérivés

    OpenAIRE

    Lafaye , Kévin

    2015-01-01

    Has now been applied to the synthesis of a wide range of compounds such as polymers, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and naturals compounds. A large range of functional groups are well tolerated including alcohols, amides, carbamates and sulfonamides. However, some limitations still have to be overcome Olefin metathesis has emerged has one of the most efficient carbon-carbon bond forming reaction and such as rich N-heteroaryles which are probably causing desactivation of the ruthenium catalys...

  18. Diagnóstico e alternativas de contenção da evasão no curso de administração em uma universidade pública no sul do brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Portella Teixeira de Mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project developed in a public university in southern Brazil. It aims to reveal factors that contribute to dropout in Administration Course from 2009 to 2011. As the places in Brazilian public higher education are amplified drop out has also increased, which implies a problem to be handled carefully by the management of higher education. The diagnosis is a preliminary step for future actions to minimize dropout in Higher Education Institutions. It is a theoretical review on the subject relating causes reported on literature. Alternatives are disclosed in the course and in institutional policies. The research is qualitative and uses semi-structured interview with open and closed questions carried out by e-mail and telephone. The results reveal: dropout rates are higher for males than for females, the predominant age is between 21 and 29 years old. The main reasons for dropout are: excessive workload, incompatibility between work time and the course, and different expectations about the course. Online control of the students’ attendance, better student-course-professor relationship, Permanence Scholarship, and prospective actions as publicizing in High Schools the profile of the graduate Administrator may restrict the dropout.

  19. Study of final states involving 2 particle jets and missing energy with the DELPHI detector at LEP; Etude des etats finals contenant deux jets de particules et de l'energie manquante avec le detecteur DELPHI a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Ribas, E

    2000-05-09

    The observation of the Higgs boson would be of great importance for the understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking. In the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), the lightest Higgs boson is neutral and scalar, and its mass must be less than 130 GeV/c{sup 2}. In this thesis, we have studied events characterized by the presence of two particle jets and missing energy. This is a very clear signature of the production of the Higgs boson in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. This production is followed by the decay of the Higgs boson into a bb-bar pair and the Z{sup 0} boson in {nu}{nu}-bar pair. In these studies, it is important to detect all particles in order to achieve a good resolution in energy. For these reasons, we have devoted ourselves to improving DELPHI's hermeticity mainly in the regions located at 40 deg C and 140 deg C. Using the data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP in 1998 and in 1999 at four different energies in the centre of mass ({radical}s = 189, 196, 200 and 202 GeV), no signal has been observed, allowing us to exclude the Higgs boson at 95 % confidence level up to a mass of: m{sub H} > 98.0 (98.5) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. this analysis; m{sub H} > 103.9 (106.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. DELPHI combined. The values in parentheses show the expected limits and indicate the sensitivity of the analysis. If these results are interpreted in the framework of the MSSM we obtain: m{sub h} > 85.0 (85.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. Studying the same topology, we have also searched for a Higgs boson decaying into a pair of non detectable particles (Invisible Higgs) in association with a Z{sup 0} boson decaying into a quark/antiquark pair. In this case too, no signal has been observed, which can be translated into a lower limit on the mass of the Higgs boson at 95% confidence level: m{sub h{sub inv}} > 105.5 (105.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. Finally, we have measured the production cross section of a pair of Z{sup 0} bosons where one decays to a quark/antiquark pair (all flavours) and the other to a pair of neutrinos. The result is in very good agreement with the value predicted by the Standard Model: {sigma}{sup NC02}/{sigma}{sup MS} = 0.94{+-}0.25 this analysis; {sigma}{sup NC02}/{sigma}{sup MS} = 1.04{+-}0.12 DELPHI combined. (author)

  20. Deformation and concentration fluctuations under stretching in a polymer network with free chains. The ``butterfly`` effect; Fluctuations de deformation et de concentration sous etirement dans un reseau polymere contenant des chaines libres. L`effet ``papillon``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramzi, A

    1994-06-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering gives access to concentration fluctuations of mobile labeled polymer chains embedded in a polymer network. At rest they appear progressively larger than for random mixing, with increasing ratio. Under uniaxial stretching, they decrease towards ideal mixing along the direction perpendicular to stretching, and can grow strongly along the parallel one, including the zero scattering vector q limit. This gives rise to intensity contours with double-winged patterns, in the shape of the figure `8`, or of `butterfly`. Random crosslinking and end-linking of monodisperse chains have both been studied. The strength of the `butterfly` effect increases with the molecular weight of the free chains, the crosslinking ratio, the network heterogeneity, and the elongation ratio. Eventually, the signal collapses on an `asymptotic` function I(q), of increasing correlation length with the elongation ratio. Deformation appears heterogeneous, maximal for soft areas, where the mobile chains localize preferentially. This could be due to spontaneous fluctuations, or linked to frozen fluctuations of the crosslink density. However, disagreement with the corresponding theoretical expressions makes it necessary to account for the spatial correlations of crosslink density, and their progressive unscreening as displayed by the asymptotic behavior. Networks containing pending labeled chains and free labeled stars lead to more precise understanding of the diffusion of free species and the heterogeneity of the deformation. It seems that the latter occurs even without diffusion for heterogeneous enough networks. In extreme cases (of the crosslinking parameters), the spatial correlations display on apparent fractal behavior, of dimensions 2 to 2.5, which is discussed here in terms of random clusters. 200 refs., 95 figs., 21 tabs., 10 appends.

  1. Price cap regulation: the case of natural gas transport in the UK; La reglementation par price cap: le cas du transport de gaz naturel au Royaume Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L. [ATER, Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France)

    1999-09-01

    The transport and storage activities of British Gas company are controlled by a distinct organization named Transco. The access charges paid by the suppliers for the use of Transco's network are regulated by a price cap since October 1, 1994. However, Ofgas, the office of gas supply which is the regulation authority in charge of the control of competition and of British Gas activities, considers this control system as inefficient and has chosen a RPI (retail price index)-X (expected productivity factor)-type price cap for the control of gas transport tariffs. This has led to a disagreement between Transco and Ofgas which has delayed the implementation of the new system up to February 1998. This article compares the choices made by Ofgas for the control of gas transport tariffs with the economical theory. It recalls first, the reasons why the price cap appears as more efficient than the service cost regulation, the alternate method used by regulation authorities to control the tariffs of natural monopolies. Then, the difficulties linked with the implementation of the price cap for the transport of natural gas in the UK are analyzed in order to explain the reasons that led Ofgas to change its formula. Finally, the bases of an optimum hybrid formula are proposed. (J.S.)

  2. Les oasis de l'Oued Noun : dégradation du milieu naturel et perspectives de développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oases of Oued Noun: degradation of the natural environment and perspectives of development. An oasis is considered as a vital space and a fundamental natural resource in the Oued Noun area. Irrigation water scarcity, desertification, terminal illnesses of different civilizations, space division and tininess of farms are all natural and economic constraints providing the oasis area from growing and developing. Officials have to be aware of those constraints and they need to urgently recommend solutions in the process of updating the local territory and in its potentialities valorisation.

  3. Natural gas combustion and indoor air quality in domestic premises; Combustion du gaz naturel et qualite de l'air a l'interieur des habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhio, L.; Riva, A. [Snam, (Italy); Canci, F.; Scevarolli, V. [Italgas, Torino (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Indoor air quality depends on many factors; combustion appliances are one of the sources of emissions inside dwellings. Their installation is regulated by UNI-CIG standards which also establish the ventilation and aeration requirements needed to guarantee the safety and healthiness of the environment. In order to critically evaluate the effect on indoor air quality of using gas appliances under different operational regimes and in different types of building, Snam and Italgas have developed a research project in co-operation with Enitecnologie and Turin Polytechnic, even to provide theoretical and experimental support for standardisation activities. The results of the presented research include experimental measurements made in real buildings, mathematical modelling and analysis of Italian and international literature. The results show that use of combustion appliances has little influence on indoor air quality and does not affect people's health. (authors)

  4. Radio-active pollution near natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors; La pollution radioactive aupres des piles uranium naturel - graphite - gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.; Pouthier, J.; Delmar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The results of numerous evaluations of the contamination are given: - Reactors in operation during maintenance operations. - Reactors shut-down during typical repair operations (coolants, exchangers, interior of the vessel, etc. ) - Following incidents on the cooling circuit and can-rupture. They show that, except in particular cases, it is the activation products which dominate. Furthermore, after ten years operation, the points at which contamination liable to emit strong doses accumulates are very localized and the individual protective equipment has not had to be reinforced. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses evaluations de la contamination sont donnes: - Piles en marche pendant les operations d'entretien - Piles a l'arret au cours des chantiers caracteristiques (refrigerants, echangeurs, interieur du caisson, etc.) - A la suite d'incidents sur le circuit de refroidissement et de rupture de gaine. Ils montrent que, sauf cas particulier, ce sont essentiellement les produits d'activation qui dominent. Par ailleurs apres 10 ans de fonctionnement, les points d'accumulation de la contamination susceptibles de delivrer des debits de dose importants restent tres localises et les moyens de protection individuels utilises n'ont pas du etre renforces. (auteurs)

  5. Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices; Vers un marche europeen concurrentiel du gaz naturel: incertitudes et choix tarifaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

  6. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France; La structure et le fonctionnement du marche du gaz naturel en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  7. Natural gas air-conditioning and the little tertiary: a successful partnership; Climatisation au gaz naturel et petit tertiaire: une alliance reussie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the market of the natural gas air-conditioning in France: 7% in 2000 for an an objective of 10% in 2002. Many example of installations in France are provided and discussed to present the technology, its cost and the maintenance. (A.L.B.)

  8. LES FACTEURS NATURELS ET LE FORÇAGE ANTHROPIQUE DES INONDATIONS EN ZONE SAHELIENNE DANS LE BASSIN DU NIGER AU BENIN (AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel BOKO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is noticed that from 1954 to 1984; the curve of water flow height is below that of discharge but there was no flooding. By cons, from 1985 to 2013, this curve is above that of water levels and floods are recorded in this period. It is concluded that of the 60 years, there has been a decrease in river flows and increase in the corresponding water levels. Flooding events recorded during last decades in Malaville and Karimama districts could be explained by a combination of different natural and man-made factors in Niger River watershed and in Malaville and Karimama districts Population growth has caused an expansion of cultivated areas, denudation of the banks with the resultant heavy erosion and filling of the main river bottom. The consequences of the reduction in the duration of the rainy season without a significant reduction in rainfall totals were amplified by anthropogenic forcing.

  9. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France); Caracterisation et modelisation des transferts de traceurs naturels dans les argilites de Tournemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patriarche, D

    2001-09-13

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta {sup 18}O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted solutions or internal transfers due to overpressures. (author)

  10. Radio-active pollution near natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors; La pollution radioactive aupres des piles uranium naturel - graphite - gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J; Pouthier, J; Delmar, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The results of numerous evaluations of the contamination are given: - Reactors in operation during maintenance operations. - Reactors shut-down during typical repair operations (coolants, exchangers, interior of the vessel, etc. ) - Following incidents on the cooling circuit and can-rupture. They show that, except in particular cases, it is the activation products which dominate. Furthermore, after ten years operation, the points at which contamination liable to emit strong doses accumulates are very localized and the individual protective equipment has not had to be reinforced. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses evaluations de la contamination sont donnes: - Piles en marche pendant les operations d'entretien - Piles a l'arret au cours des chantiers caracteristiques (refrigerants, echangeurs, interieur du caisson, etc.) - A la suite d'incidents sur le circuit de refroidissement et de rupture de gaine. Ils montrent que, sauf cas particulier, ce sont essentiellement les produits d'activation qui dominent. Par ailleurs apres 10 ans de fonctionnement, les points d'accumulation de la contamination susceptibles de delivrer des debits de dose importants restent tres localises et les moyens de protection individuels utilises n'ont pas du etre renforces. (auteurs)

  11. Social tariff of the natural gas. Part of the receivers and the lessors; Tarif social du gaz naturel. Role des syndics et des bailleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Since the fifteen of August 2008, low resources customers can buy their natural gas at a special social cost. This document presents the content of this derogation and the corresponding administrative procedures. A particular attention is given to the case of the group housing. (A.L.B.)

  12. Oklo 2 Billion Years Before Fermi; Les reacteurs naturels d'Oklo (Gabon): 2 milliards d'annees avant Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, B

    2005-02-15

    The author aims to present the little-known story of the Oklo natural reactors. He recalls the historical aspects of the Oklo reactors discovery by the CEA in 1972, he explains the scientific phenomenon and the interest, notably as a 'natural analogue' for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. (A.L.B.)

  13. INTERVENTION ET LAISSER-FAIRE CHEZ TURGOT (Le rôle de l'État selon le droit naturel)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco VERGARA

    2008-01-01

    Historians of ideas have frequently misunderstood the founders of classical liberalism. They often write that authors like Adam Smith or Turgot are inconsistent in their adherence to a supposed “principle of non-intervention” by Government, since they propose many types of public intervention in the economy. The truth is that none of the great economists who founded classical liberalism have ever professed such an absurd principle as that of “non-intervention”. They have, however, vigorously ...

  14. Studying uranium migration in natural environment: experimental approach and geochemical modeling; Etude de la migration de l'uranium en milieu naturel: approche experimentale et modelisation geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phrommavanh, V.

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with characterizing uranium migration in a limited zone of Le Bouchet site, a former uranium ore treatment facility, which is dismantled and the rehabilitation of which is under process. Some wastes are packed in a rehabilitated disposal nearby, called the Itteville site. In the framework of the monitoring of the deposit environment (air, water, sediment) set by prefectorial decrees, a piezometer (PZPK) located downstream to the latter, has shown total dissolved uranium peaks each winter since the 1990's. PZPK collects both the interstitial water of a calcareous peat formation, between the surface and 3 m, and an alluvial aquifer near 6 m of depth. Firstly, a hydrogeochemical characterization of the site has evidenced the uranium source term, which is present in the peat soil near 0.8 m, hence excluding any leaching from the waste disposal. Actually, a few microparticles of uranium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide have been detected, but they do not represent the major part of the source term. Secondly, water chemistry of the peat soil water and PZPK has been monitored every two months from 2004 to 2007 in order to understand the reasons of the seasonal fluctuations of [U]tot.diss.. Completed with geochemical modeling and a bacterial identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, water chemistry data showed an important sulfate-reducing bacterial activity in summertime, leading to reducing conditions and therefore, a total dissolved uranium content limited by the low solubility of uraninite U{sup IV}O{sub 2}(s). In wintertime, the latter bacterial activity being minimal and the effective pluviometry more important, conditions are more oxidant, which favors U(VI), more soluble, notably as the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) complex, evidenced by TRLFS. Finally, bacterial activity has been reproduced in laboratory in order to better characterize its impact on uranium solubility in the peat soil. Various parameters were tested (C sources, temperature, nutrients) to recreate conditions close and also different to those in situ. 16S rDNA sequence bacterial identifications, throughout the incubation time, have confirmed an increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria proportion. At the same time, water chemistry, as well as geochemical calculations and SEM observations and XANES analyses, have evidenced an decrease of [U]tot.diss., owing to its reduction as UO{sub 2}(s) (certainly as nano-particles). Even though the reaction mechanism could not be determined, that is to say biotic (direct uranium reduction by bacteria) or abiotic (indirect reduction), these experiments have showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria can prevail among a varied indigenous population in conditions close to those in situ. Moreover, the studied calcareous peat contains a significant amount of weddellite (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O(s)), accounting for a permanent input of oxalate ions C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} which can be used as C source in the course of sulfate and/or uranium reduction in the summer. (author)

  15. Low intensity natural gas infrared in sports centres; L'infrarouge a basse intensite au gaz naturel dans les centres sportifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S. [Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-09-30

    Infrared devices are being employed more and more for heating buildings. They were traditionally used to heat large spaces higher than 3 metres, such as aviation hangars and industrial buildings. Natural gas infrared devices have found other applications, namely in sports centres, due in large part to the energy efficiency and the resulting comfort. There are three types of infrared devices: low intensity or low intensity tubes, high intensity, and catalytic infrared. Each type of device possesses specific characteristics and applications. For example, infrared tubes are used to uniformly heat a specific area. High intensity devices possess a more intense heat and concentrated in a confined space. Catalytic devices do not have flames, and they can be used in industrial drying processes and thermoforming. In the case of skating rinks, the use of low intensity natural gas infrared tubes is ideal. They reduce the crossed effects of ice cooling load and the spectators need for heat. This is due to infrared acting more on mass (spectators and bleachers) than ambient air. The author described the situation at the Val d'Or arena, Quebec where an energy saving project was initiated two years ago, involving the installation for one of the ice surfaces, of movement sensors to turn off infrared tubes when the rink is unoccupied. The payback period for such equipment is short. The case of the Soccerplex at Lachine, part of the larger City of Montreal, was also discussed. This sports centre comprises indoor soccer fields with 30 foot-high ceilings and large area covering 66,000 square feet (3 soccer fields). Once again, low intensity natural gas infrared tubes were installed and have proved successful.

  16. The performance of the natural gas solutions in the accommodation; La performance des solutions gaz naturel dans l'habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Gaz De France Group policy concerning the utilization of the gas as energy source in residential buildings for heating and cooking. The market and more specially the manufacturers importance are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Thermoluminescence du quartz naturel et artificiel pur ou dopé des ions Fe++ et Fe+++: application à la datation des poteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available La thermoluminescence constatée sur les échantillons de poteries et conduisant à la datation archéologique de celles-ci, est due aux inclusions de quartz initialement contenues dans l'argile. Nous présentons une étude de la thermoluminescence d'échantillons de quartz monocristallin synthétique dans lesquels des impuretés ont été volontairement ajoutées et appliquons les résultats à une nouvelle technique de datation, la méthode DATE (différence d'atténuation temporelle des émissions. La termoluminiscencia constatada en muestras de cerámica permite una datación arqueológica es debida a las inclusiones de cuarzo inicialmente contenidas en la arcilla. Se presenta un estudio de la termoluminiscencia de muestras de cuarzo monocristalino sintético en las cuales han sido colocadas voluntariamente impurezas se han aplicado los resultados de una nueva técnica de fechado, el método DATE (Diferencia de atenuación temporal de emisiones. The thermoluminescence observed on samples of pottery and leading to their archaeological dating is a result of the presence of quartz particles originally enclosed in the clay. We offer a study of the termoluminescence of samples of synthetic mono-crystalline quartz doped in with impurities and apply the results to a new dating technique, the 'DATE' method, based upon difference in time attenuation of the emissions.

  18. Wobbe index control system in gas industry processes; Systeme de controle de l'index de Wobbe du gaz naturel dans les processus industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibba, M.; Bertani, M. [SNAM, (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Natural gas supplied to industry for process utilizations originates from different sources and that can cause fluctuations in gas composition. Changing gas composition may lead to production problems in industry with sensitive thermal processes (particularly glass industry and thermal metal treatments), such as efficiency and product quality. An equipment suitable to control and adjust such variations has been developed. Experimental tests in laboratory were carried out in order to investigate the control system accuracy and reliability. In particular five different settings were tested: at a preset thermal input by adjusting the natural gas flow rate in respect to Wobbe Index variations; at a set furnace temperature and stack oxygen level with variable thermal input by monitoring the Wobbe Index value; at constant Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas; at constant thermal input and prefixed Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas and varying the air and gas mixture flow rate; gross calorific value control by adding air or LPG to natural gas. All the tested settings gave good results. This report illustrates these results and the main features of the control system. The control and regulation system was installed in two glass factories for field tests. (authors)

  19. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas; Panorama 2010: Un point sur les ressources en hydrocarbures. 2 - Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-07-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm{sup 3} by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  20. The multi service cable network along a natural gas network for urban distribution; Reseau cable multiservice associe a un reseau de gaz naturel pour la consommation publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, D.; Krsmanovic, Z. [NIS-Energogas (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    The paper discusses parallel construction and development of natural gas and telecommunications projects in Europe, with an emphasis on the situation in FR Yugoslavia. Deregulation of postal services has created an opportunity for joint construction of multipurpose cable networks and gas distribution systems. Advantages are shown of such joint construction of gas pipeline and cable systems, and the strategy of further development of telecommunications and gas supply projects in FR Yugoslavia is presented. (authors)

  1. Taking advantage of the Kyoto mechanisms in the natural gas industry; Benefices des mecanismes de Kyoto pour l'industrie du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J. [Institute for Economy and the environment at the University of St. Gallen, IWOe-HSG (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has laid the basis of global markets for greenhouse gas emission reductions. By means of the Kyoto Mechanisms Joint Implementation, the Clean Development Mechanism and International Emissions Trading it will be possible to produce abroad and trade internationally the greenhouse gas emission reductions needed to satisfy cost-efficiently the respective demand of industrialized countries. The paper analyses options available in the natural gas sector for realizing Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects. Furthermore, it examines strategies that might be economically viable for companies operating in the natural gas sector for taking advantage of the Kyoto Mechanisms. (author)

  2. Natural gas air conditioning in the tertiary sector. Ambitions, realizations and tools; Climatisation au gaz naturel dans le tertiaire. Ambitions, realisations et outils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This meeting, organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat), makes a status of the market of natural gas air conditioning in office and public buildings: experience feedback, improvements of the technology, available tools. After a brief presentation of the status and perspectives of this market in France, the representatives of different companies involved in the fitting of natural gas air conditioning systems present their point of view about this technology. A last part presents the 'climogaz.com' tool launched by Gaz de France. It consists in a web site devoted to the share of knowledge and experience about this technology between professionals and applied to hotels, swimming pools, office buildings, food trade and other trades. (J.S.)

  3. Six fundamental principles that facilitates the transition from junior to professional in football: An example from the Danish Premier League

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    around the athlete or team. Fourth, an intervention should take into consideration that an environment is always situated in a larger cultural setting of e.g. a national culture and a sport specific culture, and plan accordingly. Fifth and sixth, the intervention should aim to create and maintain...

  4. Health Improvement for Men and Hard-to-Engage-Men Delivered in English Premier League Football Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Robertson, Steven; Daly-Smith, Andy; White, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as "hard-to-engage", distinctive…

  5. The Balanced Scorecard: A Management System for Wilford Hall Medical Center - The Premier Air Force Medical Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    meanings and functions of human actions. These meanings and functions take the form of qualitative descriptions and explanations ( Denzin , Lincoln 1994...a value-free framework ( Denzin , 1994). Equally important was the learning and educating about performance drivers versus outcome measures. Performance

  6. 76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Grant Products International, Inc... Brownsville, TX; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In...

  7. The Best of Planning for Higher Education: An Anthology of Articles from the Premier Journal in Higher Education Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George, Ed.

    This anthology contains selections from "Planning for Higher Education," the quarterly journal of the Society for College and University Planning. Following the preface, the second section, "Coming Changes in Academe," contains these articles: (1) "Designing Colleges for Greater Learning" (Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini, v20 n3); (2) "The…

  8. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  9. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  10. Next generation sequencing of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum 'Premier') and transcriptome comparisons to highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium virgatum (syn V. ashei) is commonly known as rabbiteye blueberry and native to the Southeastern United States. Cultivars are typically grown from North Carolina south to Florida and west to Texas for commercial blueberry production. In the Southeast, plants exhibit superior environmental ...

  11. Irradiations at low temperatures. 1. part: devices designs; Les irradiations aux basses temperatures. Premiere partie: conception des dispositifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, R.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    After an attempt to sort out the irradiation devices, the different refrigeration systems used: stored liquid or refrigerators, are presented. Some financial aspects of these two systems are discussed. For a long run, 1000 hr per year (100 hr for He) the refrigerator become less expensive than stored liquid devices. Some ideas about the principal criterions in the device design are discussed. Finally a few elements making easier the calculation of the different parts of a cryostat are given. (author) [French] Apres un essai de classification des dispositifs d'irradiation, on presente les divers modes de refrigeration: liquides stockes ou refrigerateurs. On discute quelques aspects financiers des deux principes. Il apparait que pour des durees de fonctionnement d'environ 1 000 heures par an les refrigerateurs deviennent plus rentables (-100 heures pour He). On classe ensuite quelques idees sur les principaux criteres de conception des dispositifs. Enfin on donne quelques elements facilitant le calcul des differentes parties d'un cryostat. (auteur)

  12. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  13. Energies and raw materials, economic energy situation april 1998; Energies et matieres premieres, conjoncture energetique avril 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Here is the economic energy situation in France in April 1998. The energy consumption, the evolution of the different energy sources are given. The energy invoice is decreasing with the fall of petroleum price. The imports and energy demand are studied. Energy data are given in tables, comparison between the months of January in the three years 1996, 1997,1998 for consumption, invoices, prices are reported in curves. (N.C.)

  14. Power exchanges in the German market: an initial assessment; Bourses d'electricite sur le marche Allemand - premieres evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinko, Raytchev [Universite de Montesquieu Bordeaux-4, Lab. d' Analyse et de Recherche en Economie-Economie et Finance Internationales LAREefi, 33 (France)

    2002-11-01

    The emergence of power exchanges is one of the key phenomena accompanying the liberation of the electricity industry. Apart from the Nordic countries, this is a recent event, especially for the countries of continental Europe. In this study, we will be focusing on the German electricity market for several reasons. Firstly, Germany has the largest market for electrical power in Europe. As the electricity sector is in the process of opening up to competition, this country is one of the 'good pupils' in the field of electrical deregulation. Next, it is a good idea to draw up an initial overview of the German experience following the launch on 27.11.2001 of an organised market in France (the PowerNext exchange). Currently, there are three exchanges able to negotiate contracts in the German hub: the Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX), the European Energy (EEX) and the Leipzig Power Exchange (LPX). The exchanges were created between May 1999 (APX) and August 2000 (EEX). They are in a situation of direct competition in the German market. This competition is particularly keen since the three players are well aware of the challenge at stake: becoming the leading exchange for the German market and (possibly) in a future integrated European market. The announcement of a merger between LPX and EEX in 2002 (published on 26.10.2001 on the sites of both exchanges) underlines the importance of these strategic issues. The purpose of this work is to carry out an assessment of the three exchanges during their first months in existence. Using an econometric analysis, we offer conclusions concerning the capacity of these exchanges to supply a reference price. The opportunities for arbitration are also examined. Despite the difficulties of the market launches, the exchanges have successfully maintained a certain degree of coherence in their prices and may now sit back a little and plan their expansion. It is difficult at this stage to see who the eventual 'winner' will be. The discussion which concludes this work nevertheless gives certain indications on this point. (author)

  15. Sur le monnayage du premier Hūdide Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadri, Mohamed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The coinages of the Taifas still constitute an invaluable source of historical information, extremely useful for the study of the political and ideological evolution of al-Andalus after the fall of the Caliphate. The coins of the Hūdides of Saragossa, and particularly those struck by the founder of this dynasty Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn are a good example of what the different inscriptions on coins can tell us concerning the political situation in the first years of this dynasty. This article deals with a particular and rare type of silver coins attributed to the first Hūdide, Sulaymān, that holds a very problematic Shiite slogan (related to the Wilāya of ‘Alī, and tries to discuss its ideological significance and the different political circumstances that might have justified its appearance on this type of issues.

    Las monedas de las Taifas siguen constituyendo una valiosa fuente de información histórica, de gran utilidad para el estudio de la evolución política e ideológica de al-Andalus después de la caída del califato. Las monedas de los hūdíes de Zaragoza y, en especial, las acuñadas por el fundador de la dinastía, Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn son un buen ejemplo de lo que pueden decirnos las distintas inscripciones de las monedas acerca de la situación política durante los primeros años de la dinastía. Este artículo se centra en un singular tipo de monedas de plata atribuidas al primer hūdí, Sulaymān, que muestra un lema šī‘í, relacionado con la wilāya de ‘Alī, problemático en extremo, ofreciéndose un estudio sobre su significación ideológica y las diferentes circunstancias políticas que pudieron haber justificado su aparición en esta emisión.

  16. À l'heure où les premiers projets de recherche financés par le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ACCA

    change, variability and adaptation strategies on agriculture in semi arid areas of .... and coping strategies in northern Kenya viable and sustainable in light of Global .... and Red Cross Volunteers to Discuss Better Use of Forecasts for. Disaster ...

  17. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  18. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  19. Lay the foundation stone of the Creteil NGV station; Pose de la premiere pierre de la station GNV de Creteil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This talk gives the advantages of the NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicles) and the policy in favour this automotive fuel. For the environment and the economy the NGV this fuel is the choice of the future. The author gives also the financial incentives for this channel development. (A.L.B.)

  20. Irradiations at low temperatures. 1. part: devices designs; Les irradiations aux basses temperatures. Premiere partie: conception des dispositifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, R R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    After an attempt to sort out the irradiation devices, the different refrigeration systems used: stored liquid or refrigerators, are presented. Some financial aspects of these two systems are discussed. For a long run, 1000 hr per year (100 hr for He) the refrigerator become less expensive than stored liquid devices. Some ideas about the principal criterions in the device design are discussed. Finally a few elements making easier the calculation of the different parts of a cryostat are given. (author) [French] Apres un essai de classification des dispositifs d'irradiation, on presente les divers modes de refrigeration: liquides stockes ou refrigerateurs. On discute quelques aspects financiers des deux principes. Il apparait que pour des durees de fonctionnement d'environ 1 000 heures par an les refrigerateurs deviennent plus rentables (-100 heures pour He). On classe ensuite quelques idees sur les principaux criteres de conception des dispositifs. Enfin on donne quelques elements facilitant le calcul des differentes parties d'un cryostat. (auteur)

  1. Genomic Anatomy of a Premier Major Histocompatibility Complex Paralogous Region on Chromosome 1q21–q22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Takashi; Ando, Asako; Suto, Yumiko; Kasai, Fumio; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takishima, Nobusada; Kikkawa, Eri; Iwata, Kyoko; Kuwano, Yuko; Kitamura, Yuka; Matsuzawa, Yumiko; Sano, Kazumi; Nogami, Masahiro; Kawata, Hisako; Li, Suyun; Fukuzumi, Yasuhito; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Kohda, Atsushi; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Soeda, Eiichi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Minoru; Bahram, Seiamak; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2001-01-01

    Human chromosomes 1q21–q25, 6p21.3–22.2, 9q33–q34, and 19p13.1–p13.4 carry clusters of paralogous loci, to date best defined by the flagship 6p MHC region. They have presumably been created by two rounds of large-scale genomic duplications around the time of vertebrate emergence. Phylogenetically, the 1q21–25 region seems most closely related to the 6p21.3 MHC region, as it is only the MHC paralogous region that includes bona fide MHC class I genes, the CD1 and MR1 loci. Here, to clarify the genomic structure of this model MHC paralogous region as well as to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the entire quadriplication process, a detailed analysis of a critical 1.7 megabase (Mb) region was performed. To this end, a composite, deep, YAC, BAC, and PAC contig encompassing all five CD1 genes and linking the centromeric +P5 locus to the telomeric KRTC7 locus was constructed. Within this contig a 1.1-Mb BAC and PAC core segment joining CD1D to FCER1A was fully sequenced and thoroughly analyzed. This led to the mapping of a total of 41 genes (12 expressed genes, 12 possibly expressed genes, and 17 pseudogenes), among which 31 were novel. The latter include 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 9 of which are potentially expressed. Importantly, CD1, SPTA1, OR, and FCERIA belong to multigene families, which have paralogues in the other three regions. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that 12 of the 13 expressed genes in the 1q21–q22 region around the CD1 loci are immunologically relevant. In addition to CD1A-E, these include SPTA1, MNDA, IFI-16, AIM2, BL1A, FY and FCERIA. This functional convergence of structurally unrelated genes is reminiscent of the 6p MHC region, and perhaps represents the emergence of yet another antigen presentation gene cluster, in this case dedicated to lipid/glycolipid antigens rather than antigen-derived peptides. [The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank databases under accession nos. AB045357–AB045365.] PMID:11337475

  2. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  3. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability.

  4. Strengthening the admissions process in health care professional education: focus on a premier Pacific Island medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chinyere Ezeala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relying solely on measures of intellectual aptitude and academic performance in university admissions can be disadvantageous to underprivileged students. The Fiji School of Medicine primarily uses such measures to evaluate and select student applicants, and the introduction of supplementary assessments could provide better access for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study examined the need for supplementary assessments in the admission process, types of additional assessments needed, and stakeholders??views on a multi-entry multi-exit strategy currently in use at the Fiji School of Medicine. A survey of the key stakeholders was conducted in February and March 2012 using closed and open ended questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two validated questionnaires were self-administered by key stakeholders from the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences (CMNHS and Fiji Ministries of Education and Health, with a response rate of 61%. Returned questionnaires were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Sixty-five percent of respondents supported the introduction of supplementary assessments, 49% favoured admissions test, and 16% preferred assessing non-academic factors. Many respondents supported the School?占퐏 multi-entry multi-exit strategy as a ?占퐂ood policy??that provided ?占퐀lexibility??and opportunity for students, but should be better regulated. These findings demonstrate the need for supplementary assessments in the selection process and for continued support for the use of multi-entry multi-exit strategy at the school.

  5. Proceedings (of the) first Canadian conference on environmental geotechnics. Comptes-rendus (de la) premiere conference canadienne de geotechnique environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, R P; Aubertin, M

    1991-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss responses to increasing soil and groundwater contamination. Papers were presented in the areas of regulations and guidelines, design, management and performance of sites, clay, soil-bentonite and geosynthetic barriers, hydrogeology, geochemistry and fate of contaminants, contaminated sites exploration and rehabilitation, leachate generation and treatment, and modelling and geostatistics. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 22 papers presented at the conference.

  6. La reconstruction du passé anglo-écossais par les premiers historiens whigs de l’Union (1707)

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Yannick

    2018-01-01

    À la différence des autres historiens de leur époque, Daniel Defoe (1660-1731), Abel Boyer (1667-1729) et Sir John Clerk of Penicuik (1676-1755) évoquent longuement les relations anglo-écossaises antérieures à l’Union de 1707. Whigs et unionistes, ces auteurs sont enclins à noircir le passé anglo-écossais préunioniste afin de mieux souligner la nécessité d’un rapprochement entre l’Angleterre et l’Écosse. S’ils tombent parfois dans les travers méthodologiques dénoncés par Herbert Butterfield, ...

  7. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  8. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  9. Coupling of neutron transport equations. First results; Couplage d`equations en transport neutronique. premiere approche 1D monocinetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, G.

    1995-07-01

    To achieve whole core calculations of the neutron transport equation, we have to follow this 2 step method: space and energy homogenization of the assemblies; resolution of the homogenized equation on the whole core. However, this is no more valid when accidents occur (for instance depressurization causing locally strong heterogeneous media). One solution consists then in coupling two kinds of resolutions: a fine computation on the damaged cell (fine mesh, high number of energy groups) coupled with a coarse one everywhere else. We only deal here with steady state solutions (which already live in 6D spaces). We present here two such methods: The coupling by transmission of homogenized sections and the coupling by transmission of boundary conditions. To understand what this coupling is, we first restrict ourselves to 1D with respect to space in one energy group. The first two chapters deal with a recall of basic properties of the neutron transport equation. We give at chapter 3 some indications of the behaviour of the flux with respect to the cross sections. We present at chapter 4 some couplings and give some properties. Chapter 5 is devoted to a presentation of some numerical applications. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Les premiers succès obtenus en matière de lutte contre la faim en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 nov. 2013 ... Les nutritionnistes peuvent habituellement traiter les carences en zinc et en fer au moyen de compléments alimentaires, mais il est apparu clairement que la cause profonde du problème était d'ordre environnemental. On a donc appris que la santé du sol et celle des plantes allaient de pair avec la santé ...

  11. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  12. Des organisations de recherche européennes de premier plan unissent leurs efforts dans le cadre du groupe EIROFORUM

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, a number of powerful research infrastructures and laboratories which are used by an extensive network of scientists have been developed and deployed within Europe by European Intergovernmental Research Organisations (EIRO). Together, they represent European spearheads in some of the most crucial basic and applied research fields.

  13. Analyse chronometrique intersexes de la resolution de la tache d'horizontalite des liquides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Francois

    D'abondantes recherches ont demontre que la reussite a la tache d'horizontalite des liquides est en moyenne plus elevee chez les individus de sexe masculin que chez ceux de sexe feminin. Deux facteurs principaux ont ete proposes: il s'agit de la connaissance du principe physique de l'invariance de l'orientation des liquides et de certaines habiletes perceptives d'ordre visuel. Le but de la presente recherche est d'etablir la duree detaillee de la resolution de la tache d'horizontalite des liquides chez 185 filles et 180 garcons, ages de 15 a 19 ans et repartis en 8 groupes. Dans une version informatisee, le premier groupe trace la position de la surface de l'eau a l'interieur d'un contenant dans diverses inclinaisons et le deuxieme evalue si l'orientation d'une ligne y represente bien cette position; le troisieme groupe trace une horizontale dans un rectangle et le quatrieme juge si la ligne illustree y est bien horizontale. Quatre autres groupes executent respectivement les memes taches dans la version classique papier-crayon. Le temps accorde a la reflexion avant de commencer le trace, le temps de tracage comme tel et le temps de verification du trace complete sont calcules. Chez les groupes qui evaluent l'orientation d'une ligne sur support informatique, le temps requis pour y parvenir est note. Enfin, un questionnaire estime si les participants connaissent ou non le principe physique d'invariance de l'orientation de la surface d'un liquide. Les resultats revelent que cette connaissance est plus frequente chez les garcons dans l'ensemble des groupes. Dans le cas ou les sujets ont a tracer une ligne, les filles reussissent moins d'essais que les garcons s'il faut, sur support informatique, tracer la surface de l'eau dans un contenant incline ou a l'horizontale. Il en va de meme s'il faut, sur support papier, tracer une horizontale dans un contenant incline. Le trace de la surface de l'eau est plus exact chez les sujets connaissant le principe d'invariance et l

  14. Classification of uraniferous vein deposits (1960); Essai d'une classification des gites uraniferes filiniens (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, J; Sarcia, J A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    On the basis of a study of French uraniferous seams and of information found in the literature from all parts of the world, especially since the first Geneva Conference (1955), the authors class these deposits according to two broad categories: - the first type, bound up with the differentiation of an acid rock, fall naturally into the conventional hydrothermal category; - the others come right outside it and seem to be connected to some age modifications, originally of tectonic origin, of the uranium dispersed amongst the rocks on a regional scale. (author) [French] Se basant sur l'etude des filons uraniferes francais, et sur ce qu'apporte la litterature mondiale surtout depuis la premiere conference de Geneve (1955), les auteurs distinguent deux grandes categories de gites: - les uns, lies a la differenciation d'une roche acide, se placent tout naturellement dans les cadres hydrothermalistes classiques; - les autres y echappent totalement, et apparaissent comme lies a des remaniements d'age quelconque, d'origine tectonique au depart, de l'uranium disperse dans les roches a l'echelle regionale. (auteur)

  15. Fine structure and spectral index measurements in natural uranium - graphite lattices; Mesures fines dans des reseaux a graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogne, F; Journet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The experiments described in this report have been carried out for the most part in the critical facility MARIUS, and a few during the start up of the EDF-1 power reactor. The first part deals with the fine structure measurements made in various lattices and with their analysis. Integration over the neutron spectrum of the mono-kinetic disadvantage factor derived by the A.B.H method yields results in good agreement with the experiments. The second part deals with spectral indexes measurements (Pu/U, In/Mn) made at room temperature in MARIUS. Comparison are made of experiments with calculations using various thermalization models. Experiments carried out at higher temperatures in EDF-1 are also described. (authors) [French] Les mesures decrites dans ce rapport ont ete faites pour la plupart dans l'empilement critique MARIUS sur des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Une premiere partie traite des mesures de structure fine faites dans differents reseaux et de leur interpretation. On montre en particulier qu'une integration sur le spectre d'un calcul monocinetique type A.B.H. rend bien compte des experiences. Dans une deuxieme partie, on donne les resultats de mesures d'indices de spectre Pu/U et In/Mn faites sur des reseaux froids a MARIUS et leur comparaison avec les differents modeles de calculs de thermalisation. On donne egalement les resultats de quelques mesures en temperature effectuees lors du demarrage du reacteur EDF-1. (auteurs)

  16. Fuel elements for pressurised-gas reactors; Elements combustibles des piles a gaz sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Englander, M; Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The design and fabrication of fuel elements for the first CO{sub 2} pressurized reactors have induced to investigate: various cladding materials, natural uranium base fuels, canning processes. The main analogical tests used in connection with the fuel element study are described. These various tests have enabled, among others, the fabrication of the fuel element for the EL2 reactor. Lastly, future solutions for electrical power producing reactors are foreseen. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude et la realisation d'elements combustibles pour les premieres piles a CO{sub 2} sous pression ont conduit a examiner: les divers materiaux de gaine, les combustibles a base d'uranium naturel, les modes de gainage. Les principaux essais analogiques ayant servi au cours de l'etude de la cartouche sont decrits. Ces divers essais ont notamment permis la realisation de la cartouche de la pile EL2. Enfin sont envisagees les solutions futures pour les piles productrices d'energie electrique. (auteur)

  17. Special graphites; Graphites speciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [French] Ameliorer les proprietes du graphite nucleaire pour empilements et ouvrir de nouveaux domaines d'application au graphite constituent une part importante de l'effort entrepris en commun par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) et la compagnie PECHINEY. Des procedes nouveaux de fabrication de carbones et graphites speciaux ont ete mis au point: graphite forge, pyrocarbone, graphite de haute densite, agglomeration de poudres de graphite par craquage de gaz naturel, graphites impermeables. Les proprietes physiques de ces produits ainsi que leur reaction avec differents gaz oxydants sont decrites. Les premiers resultats d'irradiation sont aussi donnes. (auteurs)

  18. L’hypermédia Géo-terrain : un outil pertinent au service des apprentissages en géologie de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Lamarti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conscient de l’apport des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication dans l’amélioration de l’enseignement et l’apprentissage, le ministère de l’Éducation nationale marocain a insisté, dans la Charte nationale d’éducation et de formation, sur leur utilisation. Étant donné l’évolution rapide des technologies, il y a une remise en question des modes de transmission, d’acquisition et de restitution des savoirs qui entraîne non seulement des changements dans la sélection et l’articulation des objectifs ainsi que dans les contenus d’apprentissage, mais également une réflexion sur la manière de concevoir et de mettre en œuvre les situations d’enseignement-apprentissage. Dans ce sens, l’enseignant des sciences de la Terre, qui se base en premier lieu sur le réel naturel, utilise des documents substituts qui rapprochent cette réalité de l’apprenant, et ce, à travers les représentations graphiques, iconiques, les moyens audiovisuels, etc. C’est dans cette perspective que le logiciel Géo-terrain est conçu, pour essayer de combler un vide largement ressenti dans nos établissements.

  19. Generalities on the dynamic behaviour of rapid reactors. Preliminary studies on Rapsodie; Generalites sur le comportement dynamique des piles rapides. Etudes preliminaires de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campan, J L; Chaumont, J P; Clauzon, P P; Ghesquiere, G; Leduc, J; Schmitt, A P; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behaviour of fast reactors may be divided into three section: 1. Stability studies around equilibrium power only the linear case was examining. S. Transient studies in the case of usual reactor operation (shut down, scram, etc.) with thermal shocks evaluation, for instance. 3. Explosion studies, for the maximum credible accidents. This report presents the status of the studies performed at the 'Physics Research Department' at Cadarache. Methods used are detailed and illustrated with the results obtained on a preliminary metallic core of the Rapsodie Reactor. (authors) [French] Le comportement dynamique des piles rapides, se presente tout naturellement sous trois aspects: 1. Etude de stabilite autour d'un regime d'equilibre (nous nous sommes bornes ici au cas lineaire). 2. Etude de regimes transitoires lors des operations normales de pile (arret, arret d'urgence, etc.) avec evaluation des chocs thermiques par exemple. 3. Etude des regimes transitoires de caractere explosif lors des accidents les plus graves possibles. Ce rapport presente l'etat des etudes a la date du 20 decembre 1961 a la Section d'Etudes de Piles Rapides a CADARACHE. Les methodes employees ont ete detaillees et illustrees a partir des resultats obtenus sur une premiere version 'combustible metallique' de Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  20. 76 FR 35062 - Apparel America, Inc. (n/k/a HSK Industries, Inc.), Decora Industries, Inc., Diversicon Holdings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Transportation Network Group, Inc., and Premier Wealth Management, Inc. (a/k/a Premiere Wealth Management, Inc... concerning the securities of Premier Wealth Management, Inc. (a/k/a Premiere Wealth Management, Inc.) because...

  1. Wideband Detection and Classification of Mines in a Simulated ship Hull Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Résumé …..... Ce rapport décrit une expérience au cours de laquelle nous avons placé un petit contenant de plastique contenant un mélange d’époxyde...décrit une expérience au cours de laquelle nous avons placé un petit contenant de plastique contenant un mélange d’époxyde-caoutchouc et de billes

  2. The drivers and their passengers: at the traffic and its pollution first lodges; Les automobilistes et leurs passagers: aux premieres loges du trafic et de sa pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-01-15

    In relation with air pollution in urban areas, studies on air quality in towns have been already tackled but the question of air quality breathed by the vehicle occupants was not studied until now. for the first time in france in the town of Rouen during 500 km in the traffic measurements were made and the strong levels surprised the experts. For particulates and nitrogen oxides the driver and his passengers breath concentrations three times higher than in situation of traffic proximity on the pavement along great axes and ten times higher in situation of back, far from the traffic. (N.C.)

  3. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  4. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  5. Remarks made by Vice Premier Mr. Zhang Dejiang at the opening ceremony of the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dejiang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of mankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health, and environment protection, and is playing an important role in prospering economy, improving people's livelihood, and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy source is becoming more stretched and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradiction among economic development, energy development and environment protection. Given its advantage as clean, safe and could be applied in large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating peaceful uses of nuclear energy is the common wishes and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power reached 9100 MWe, and nuclear power generation accounts for 2% of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role for China's economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States and France, the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China's energy supply mix is featured by coal dominant and low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socio-economic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of active promoting energy conservation and optimizing energy. structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China's energy development strategy. Currently, peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, and preparation for other new projects is going on in orderly manner, demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving on smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programs such as China experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and thermal nuclear fusion device are in positive progress. Nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development and the ability of assured supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system which is in line with international best practices. China has issued series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines, standards. Independent, strict, and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to sound nuclear safety record and boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

  6. First thermo-chronological data; Premieres donnees thermo-chronologiques sur les socles sarde et kabylo-peloritain submerges dans le canal de Sardaigne (Mediterranee occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillin, J.P.; Poupeau, G.; Tricart, P.; Bigot-Cormier, F.; Mascle, G. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Laboratoire de geodynamique des chaines alpines; Torelli, L. [Universita degli studi di Parma (Italy). Dept. di Scienze della Terra; Compagnoni, R.; Mascle, J.; Pecher, A.; Peis, D.; Rekhiss, F.; Rolfo, F

    1998-04-01

    Granite and gneiss sampled from the submarine fault scarps of the Sardinia Channel were dated using the apatite fission-track method. One sample provides an age of 22.8 {+-} 1.3 Ma, which is in the range of the cooling ages of the Calabrian-Peloritan basement, where cooling is due to erosion. Three other samples have ages around 10 Ma, probably due to a tectonic denudation during the Tortonian extension in the Sardinia Channel. (authors)

  7. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umedaly, M.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs.

  8. Is proton beam therapy the future of radiotherapy? Part I: Clinical aspects; La protontherapie: avenir de la radiotherapie? Premiere partie: aspects cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Feuvret, L.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V. [Centre de protontherapie d' Orsay, institut Curie, campus universitaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V.; Cosset, J.M.; Bey, P. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Feuvret, L. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    Proton beam therapy uses positively charged particles, protons, whose physical properties improve dose-distribution (Bragg peak characterized by a sharp distal and lateral penumbra) compared with conventional photon-based radiation therapy (X-ray). These ballistic advantages apply to the treatment of deep-sited tumours located close to critical structures and requiring high-dose levels. [60-250 MeV] proton-beam therapy is now widely accepted as the 'gold standard' in specific indications in adults - ocular melanoma, chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull - and is regarded as a highly promising treatment modality in the treatment of paediatric malignancies (brain tumours, sarcomas..). This includes the relative sparing of surrounding normal organs from low and mid-doses that can cause deleterious side-effects such as radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Other clinical studies are currently testing proton beam in dose-escalation evaluations, in prostate, lung, hepatocellular cancers, etc. Clinical validation of these new indications appears necessary. To date, over 60, 000 patients worldwide have received part or all of their radiation therapy program by proton beams, in approximately 30 treatment facilities. (authors)

  9. Description of the french graphite reactor and of the experiments performed in 1956; Presentation du premier reacteur a graphite francais et des experiences effectuees en 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussac, J; Leduc, C; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    This paper is an introduction to the experiments performed on the G1 reactor, experiments fully described in the papers following (670 'B to P'). The main results are given together with some comments. The neutronic parameters of the core, a description of the most important structures, and a few words of the tests leading to normal operation of the reactor under load complete our survey. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente les experiences qui furent faites sur le reacteur G1 et dont la description en detail fait l'objet des rapports suivants (670 'B a P'). Les principaux resultats sont fournis ici et commentes. On trouvera en outre les caracteristiques neutroniques du coeur actif de la pile, une description des principales installations et une mention des essais qui ont conduit au fonctionnement normal du reacteur en puissance. (auteur)

  10. The Fukushima accident: radiological consequences and first lessons. Proceedings; L'accident de Fukushima: consequences radiologiques et premiers enseignements. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about the Fukushima accident, its radiological consequences and the first lessons learnt. Sixteen presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Accident progress and first actions (Thierry Charles, IRSN); 2 - Conditions and health monitoring of the Japanese intervention teams (Bernard Le Guen, EDF); 3 - The Intra Group action after the Fukushima accident (Michel Chevallier, Groupe Intra; Frederic Mariotte, CEA); 4 - Processing of effluents (Georges Pagis, Areva); 5 - Fukushima accident: impact on the terrestrial environment in Japan (Didier Champion, IRSN); 6 - Consequences of the Fukushima accident on the marine environment (Dominique Boust, IRSN); 7 - Territories decontamination perspectives (Pierre Chagvardieff, CEA); 8 - Actions undertaken by Japanese authorities (Florence Gallay, ASN); 9 - Japanese population monitoring and health stakes (Philippe Pirard, InVS); 10 - Citizen oversight actions implemented in Japan (David Boilley, ACRO); 11 - Implementation of ICRP's (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendations by Japanese authorities: first analysis (Jacques Lochard, CIPR); 12 - Control of Japan imported food stuff (David Brouque, DGAL); 13 - Questions asked by populations in France and in Germany (Florence-Nathalie Sentuc, GRS; Pascale Monti, IRSN); 14 - Labour law applicable to French workers working abroad (Thierry Lahaye, DGT); 15 - Protection of French workers working in Japan, Areva's experience (Patrick Devin, Areva); 16 - Fukushima accident experience feedback and post-accident nuclear doctrine (Jean-Luc Godet, ASN)

  11. Executive report. From the preliminary phase to the first results of the pilot study; Rapport executif. De la phase preparatoire aux premiers resultats de l'etude pilote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report presents a status of the actions carried out since the end of 1999 to the account of the observatory of indoor air quality in the framework of the contracts and conventions signed between the scientific and technical centre of building engineering (CSTB), the French ministries of accommodation, research, health and environment, and the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). The actions concern: the production of data about the indoor environment (preliminary phase, pilot-campaign on 90 residential buildings and 9 schools of 3 different regions, preparation of the operational campaign on 800 sites (720 residential buildings and 80 schools), sampling strategy, optimization/development of investigation tools), the collection of available data in France, the management and exploitation of data, the development of information and communication tools, and the quality assurance of the observatory. (J.S.)

  12. Five-year study of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown deaths brought for medicolegal autopsy at Premier Hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Kumar, Adarsh; Swain, Rajanikanta; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest city of the world both in terms of population and area, as well as being the capital of India. Every year, thousands of people from different states throng to the capital in search of a job in order to earn a living. When these people die and their bodies are found without any identifying documentation, it is very difficult for the police to establish their identities. These bodies are labelled as unidentified/unclaimed or unknown, and are sent for usually sent for medicolegal autopsy. Invariably, skeletonised bodies are also recovered, which are also subjected to medicolegal autopsy. Female foeticide is another social problem, and whenever such foetuses are disposed of illegally, they are also grouped under this category and brought for medicolegal autopsy. We undertook a five-year retrospective analysis (for the period 2010-2014) of all such cases brought for medicolegal autopsy at our centre, which caters only for the south and south-east districts of Delhi. A total of 7964 cases were brought for medicolegal autopsy, of which unknown cases accounted for about 16%. About 25-30 foetuses and skeletonised bodies were brought each year that was studied. The manner of death was certified as natural in about 71% of cases, with predominant pathology in the lungs. There was a clear predominance of males over females, with the 31- to 50-year age group accounting for half of all cases. There was an increase in the number of deaths during months of extreme temperatures. The average time between the recovery of a body by the police and the post-mortem was about seven days. These findings raise many questions, including the failure of governmental policies, police investigating agencies and social menace. The creation of a national missing-persons database as well as a DNA databank is needed to aid in the identification of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown bodies.

  13. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading); Travaux du Senat: projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie (premiere lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  16. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J L

    1999-12-31

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  17. Fostering future organization of French Electric Power. A report to Prime Minister; Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise. Rapport au Premier Ministre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Jean Louis [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1998-07-02

    This report addressed to the prime minister deals with the main four issues relating to the problem of revamping the French electricity sector. These are featured as: 1. The public electricity supply; 2. The future development of 'Electricite de France'; 3. The social renovation of the electricity sector; 4. Management and the role of policy. In turn these four chapters are detailed. Thus the first one addresses the problems: 1. Customizing the general interest supply; 2. Electricity general supply and the state policy; 3. Sustaining innovation, environmental protection and energy management; 4. The transport and distribution grid, the resistance structure of the public supply. Also, this chapter describes the role of the operators in the public electricity supply and tackles the problem of financing the commitments of the public supply. The second chapter sketches the tasks and management of EDF, considers establishing an agency to ensure accounting transparency, discusses the major significance of local collectivities and personnel. The third chapter addresses the following issues: 1. The range of application of the statute of electric and gas industries; 2. Adaptation of the statute; 3. Development of the statute; 4. Pensioners. The forth chapter deals with the definition of regulation, i.e. the management of the network authority and makes proposals for constituting relating commissions. In conclusion, the author pleads for maintaining and developing a major national operator ensuring public supply requirements as well as promotion of French electricity industry. The proposals made by the report's author concerning the operational ways of renewing the nuclear sector, the management of grid of electric transport, the role of local collectivities, creation of a professional trade, the founding regulation commissions and others are thought to prepare France to cope efficiently to the international competition in the years to come. The report is completed by two appendices containing the proposals of the author and a list of the persons interviewed during the mission.

  18. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading); Travaux du Senat: projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie (premiere lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  19. First multifragmentation experiments with the 4{pi} INDRA multidetector; Premieres experiences de multifragmentation a l`aide du multidetecteur 4{pi} INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecomard, P.

    1995-03-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the formation and decay of excited nuclei produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL (Caen, France) with the 4{pi} => 4{pi} multidetector INDRA. This is a detector of charged particles and fragments with a high granularity, an excellent space coverage, low detection thresholds, and a large dynamic range in charge and in energy. The calibration of the Silicon detectors have been performed with light particles and heavy projectiles. Usual methods which calculate the pulse height defect are criticized and a new method is proposed. We also give experimental results about the charge carriers collection in partially depleted detectors. Data analysis needs a comparison between experimental results and phenomenological codes. We describe in chapter III the physical ingredients contained in two of this codes. In the last part, we show the first experimental results obtained with the Xe + Sn system, between 25 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u. Studies on fragment multiplicity distributions show that physical mechanisms with product this fragments are different from those observed at low bombarding energies. (author). 60 refs.

  20. Introducing Backchannel Technology into a Large Undergraduate Course | Introduction d’une technologie d’arrière-plan dans un vaste cours de premier cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Neustifter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Backchannel technology can be used to allow students in large lecture courses to communicate with each other and the instructor during the delivery of lecture content and class discussions. It can also be utilized by instructors to capture, summarize, and integrate student questions, ideas, and needs into course content both immediately and throughout the course. The authors integrated backchannel software in one of two sections of a course, leaving the other section as a control; combined, the two sections contained a total number of 871 students. Data was gathered comparing both groups using online surveys and semester grades; results showed that the section using backchannel software had higher class satisfaction and perception of engagement, used their mobile devices more for accessing class content, felt more comfortable participating in class discussions, and had a higher grade average than the section that did not. The authors also explore their own experiences of finding, integrating, and maintaining backchannel technology. La technologie d’arrière-plan peut permettre aux étudiants de grands cours magistraux de communiquer les uns avec les autres et avec l’instructeur durant le cours et les discussions en classe. Les instructeurs peuvent aussi l’utiliser pour saisir, résumer et intégrer les questions, idées et besoins des étudiants dans le contenu du cours, et ce, immédiatement et pendant toute la durée du cours. Les auteurs ont intégré un logiciel d’arrière-plan dans l’une des deux sections d’un cours, faisant de l’autre section son groupe témoin. Ensemble, les deux sections comprenaient 871 étudiants. Des données ont été recueillies pour comparer les deux groupes à l’aide de sondages en ligne et des notes du trimestre. Les résultats ont démontré que la section utilisant le logiciel d’arrière-plan avait une plus grande satisfaction et une meilleure perception de l’engagement, que ses étudiants se servaient de leurs appareils mobiles pour accéder à davantage de contenus, se sentaient plus à l’aise de prendre part aux discussions en classe et avaient une moyenne plus élevée que ceux du groupe qui n’avait pas accès au logiciel. Les auteurs explorent également leurs propres expériences pour trouver, intégrer et entretenir la technologie d’arrière-plan.

  1. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain with CFD wakes: Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J.; Stoevesandt, B.

    2015-01-01

    For a complex terrain site in Bahia, Brazil, 28 CFDRANS simulations were carried out, representing the relevant states of a wind rose with three degrees resolution. The resulting wind fields provide the background wind for the layout optimization of a wind farm with 64 wind turbines based on the AEP. The underlying wake model was deduced from CFD-RANS simulation results of an isolated actuator disk. We find that a hybrid optimization algorithm that combines genetic and gradient-based optimize...

  2. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of new battery materials. (author)

  3. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of new battery materials. (author)

  4. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. Methods We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35–65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2–9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. Findings 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95–5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64–5·08), both in favour of the intervention (p<0·0001). Eight serious adverse events were reported, five in the intervention group (lost consciousness due to drugs for pre-existing angina, gallbladder removal, hospital admission with suspected heart attack, ruptured gut, and ruptured Achilles tendon) and three in the comparison group (transient ischaemic attack, and two deaths). Of these, two adverse events were reported as related to participation in the programme (gallbladder removal and ruptured Achilles tendon). Interpretation The FFIT programme can help a large proportion of men to lose a clinically important amount of weight; it offers one effective strategy to challenge male obesity. PMID:24457205

  5. Mise en service du calorimetre electromagnetique d'Atlas et determination du potentiel de decouverte d'un Z' --> e+e- dans les premieres donnees LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangeard, Pierre-Simon

    2009-01-01

    After about fifteen years of development, the ATLAS detector is ready to operate and recorded, in 2008, several millions of cosmic events as well as first LHC data. This achievement is based on the long experience of beam tests and on the large effort towards the detector in situ commissioning undertaken by the ATLAS collaboration. This promises fast ability to perform searches for evidence of Higgs boson and new physics. I heavily contributed to the in situ commissioning of the EM calorimeter. To verify its performance, I studied the first cosmic data taken in 2006 which allowed the first in situ analysis of dead channels, energy reconstruction and detector response uniformity. This participation to the commissioning has continued with the study of the single beam data recorded during the first week of LHC operation (Sept. 2008). Expanding on my expertise of the EM calorimeter, I focused my physics analysis, prepared with simulation, on the promising discovery potential of new physics at LHC via the di-elect...

  6. Nuclear raw materials. Knowledge status after the Geneva conference (September 1958); Les matieres premieres nucleaires. Etat des connaissances apres la conference de Geneve (Septembre 1958)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecoq, M.; Mabile, J. [Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France); Carrat, G. [Service Central des Recherches, Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France); Ginocchio, A. [Service Central des Productions, Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France); Roques, E. [Service Concentration, Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France); Waynbaum, M. [Service Developpement et Programmes Generaux, Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France); Chervet, J.; Branche, G.; Geffroy, J. [Service de Mineralogie, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Le Goff, M. [Secretariat technique de la Direction des Recherches et Exploitations Minieres (France)

    1959-05-15

    The authors propose a synthesis of the numerous contributions presented at the Geneva conference. They first address deposits: uranium deposits (studies on uranium geochemistry and metallogeny, descriptions of various deposit types such as those associated with sedimentary layers or tectonic structures or petrographic types), thorium deposits, beryllium deposits, zirconium deposits. A second part addresses research methods and equipment: descriptive mineralogical studies, analytic physical or chemical methods, analytic field methods, isotope analysis, prospecting methods (geochemical techniques, radiometry, geophysical methods, general remarks on prospecting methods, organization of prospecting operations, and techniques of deep prospecting). The third part addresses the issues of reserves and resources: definitions, assessment techniques, geographical distribution of reserves and resources. The fourth part addresses the exploitation: quarries, underground exploitation, measures for personnel protection. The fifth part addresses ore concentration: determination of uranium ore and other raw material, concentration by physical means, ore concentration by chemical means, ore sampling, and plant monitoring and regulation. The last part addresses the economy of raw materials: uranium (cost price and production, and purchase and selling prices in different countries, world market in 1960 and on a longer term), thorium, beryllium, zirconium, lithium and helium.

  7. Un premier aperçu de la diversité génétique de cinq microbes eucaryotique de l'océan arctique

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Malgré leur abondance, leur diversité et leur importance pour la production primaire et l'écosystème marin arctique, la diversité génétique des microbes marins eucaryotes arctiques reste relativement inconnue. De récentes études moléculaires ont montré que les espèces florissantes dans l'Arctique sont phylogénétiquement divergentes des espèces de protistes marins non-polaires. Pour mieux à comprendre l'histoire évolutive et la diversité des espèces dans l'océan Arctique, cinq cultures de micr...

  8. A glimpse of the 'God particle'? Scientists pushed Europe's premier particle accelerator to the threshold of a fundamental breakthrough. Then they pulled the plug

    CERN Multimedia

    Morton, O

    2000-01-01

    The decision hung on the most slender of majorities; the data were recounted and reanalyzed exhaustively; tempers flared; appeals were made; committees few people have ever heard of had their say. But in the end the accelerator's fate was sealed and a chance for physicists to solve one of the basic mysteries of the universe was forgone (1 page).

  9. Fiches pratiques: La premiere seance; Dix difficultes a la carte; Commissions de reincarnation; Lipogrammaville (Practical Ideas: The First Meeting; Ten Difficulties "In the Cards"; Messages of Reincarnation; Lipogramville).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondavio, Anna; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four classroom activities are described: (1) one for stimulating beginning students' interest in finding evidence of French language and culture in their own environment; (2) a card game for learning grammar; (3) a letter-writing exercise; and (4) a game using lipograms in the creation of a fictional community. (MSE)

  10. Search for the first generation scalar leptoquarks with D0; Recherche de leptoquarks scalaires de premiere generation aupres de D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothenet, A

    2004-05-15

    This work was dedicated to the search for pairs of first generation scalar leptoquarks one decaying into ej and the other into {nu}j. The experimental data used (175,6 pb{sup -1}) is that collected during the run-II of the D0 experiment at Tevatron. The production cross-sections of scalar leptoquark pairs has been assessed at a 95% confidence level for different values of the mass. The comparison of these values with theoretical values has led us to state that for a branching ratio {beta} = 0.5 the existence of scalar leptoquarks with a mass lower than 194 GeV is not possible. For a branching ratio {beta} = 1, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 238 GeV may be excluded while for {beta} = 0.5, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 213 GeV are excluded.

  11. Success for the Vulcano`s team. First real corium flow; Succes pour l`equipe de Vulcano. Premiere coulee de corium reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnoy, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etude des Reacteurs

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the joint CEA-DRN/EDF-DER project `Vulcano` is the mastery of the corium spreading and cooling on a recovery device. The first real corium spreading test has been successfully performed at the CEA/Cadarache centre (France). This short paper describes the experimental setup and the first results of the experiment. (J.S.)

  12. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  13. Areva. Nine-month 2007 sales revenue and data; Areva. Informations et chiffre d'affaires relatifs au neuf premiers mois de l'exercice 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The main information concerning the nine-month 2007 financial data of the Areva group is a steady growth of 9-month sales revenue, at euro 8.066 billion (+6.8% like-for-like), including euro 2.692 billion in the 3. quarter, i.e. +7.6% like-for-like. The group confirms its strong sales revenue growth objective for 2007.

  14. Energy vulnerability. Away from urban centers, space heating and fuels weight heavily in the budget. Insee Premiere no. 1530 - January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  15. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedaly, M.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs

  16. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  17. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity; Etude au moyen de la resistivite electrique des defauts ponctuels dans le fer pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier-Cassayre, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cette etude, apres avoir passe en revue la production, l'observation et les modes de guerison des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux, nous exposons l'etat actuel des recherches. La seconde partie est consacree aux techniques que nous avons employees pour produire des defauts ponctuels a basse temperature: irradiations, trempe et ecrouissage puis a l'etude de leur migration et de leur guerison. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le fer pur et le fer contenant certaines impuretes sont presentes dans le troisieme chapitre. Nous proposons ensuite un modele qui explique les differents stades de guerison observes et leurs nombreuses proprietes: nous comparons les energies d'interaction entre defauts ponctuels aux valeurs que l'on pourrait deduire d'un modele elastique. (auteur)

  18. Monte-Carlo method - codes for the study of criticality problems (on IBM 7094); Methode de Monte- Carlo - codes pour l'etude des problemes de criticite (IBM 7094)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J; Rabot, H; Robin, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The two codes presented here allow to determine the multiplication constant of media containing fissionable materials under numerous and divided forms; they are based on the Monte-Carlo method. The first code apply to x, y, z, geometries. The volume to be studied ought to be divisible in parallelepipeds, the media within each parallelepiped being limited by non-secant surfaces. The second code is intended for r, 0, z geometries. The results include an analysis of collisions in each medium. Applications and examples with informations on time and accuracy are given. (authors) [French] Les deux codes presentes dans ce rapport permettent la determination des coefficients de multiplication de milieux contenant des matieres fissiles sous des formes tres variees et divisees, ils reposent sur la methode de Monte-Carlo. Le premier code s'applique aux geometries x, y, z, le volume a etudier doit pouvoir etre decompose en parallelepipedes, les milieux a l'interieur de chaque parallelepipede etant limites par des surfaces non secantes. Le deuxieme code s'applique aux geometries r, 0, z. Les resultats comportent une analyse des collisions dans chaque milieu. Des applications et des exemples avec les indications de temps et de precision sont fournis. (auteurs)

  19. Compared study of the local structure of alteration products of SON 68 glass and natural gels; Etude comparee de la structure locale des produits d'alteration du verre SON 68 et de gels naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrin, E

    2000-07-01

    This study is a contribution in the understanding of the long time behavior of alteration products of the glass SON 68, used to simulate the nuclear glass R7T7. The local structure around Zirconium and iron has been probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in altered surface layer of glass SON 68. Alteration products of this glass have been prepared for short (3 hours to 7 days) and long (17 months) time, using various indexes of saturation for the leaching solution with respect to the Si content of the glass (from 0 to 90 %). The evolution of the local structure around Fe has also been studied in recent and old natural ferric gels. Zr, Fe- L{sub 2,3} XANES and Zr, Fe-K EXAFS spectroscopies have shown that, in the pristine glass, these elements are connected to the polymeric network. Zr is found in an environment close to that of a zircon-silicate containing Na and Ca. Trivalent Fe is a network former. The leached layer of glass SON 68 is constituted of poorly ordered Zr-and Fe-(oxi-hydr)oxides that may have been formed by a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation; a relict phase with the same Zr local structure as that observed in the pristine glass, probably obtained thanks to in-situ solid condensation. The structural characteristics of the leached layer are observed from the first steps of alteration for Zr and Fe. Conversely to Fe, the structural status of Zr depends on the leaching kinetic as well as the contents of Ca and Si in the solid. Fe-K EXAFS results in recent natural ferri-hydrides present a clear structural similarity with that determined in glass SON 68 leached products. The study of old paleosols (between 1,800 and 200,000 years) has demonstrated the long time stability of ferric gels, although an increase of medium range order around Fe is seen. (author)

  20. Regulations concerning the cooking installations using the natural gas in the bakeries and the cake shops of the shopping Centers; Reglementation des installations de cuisson au gaz naturel en boulangerie-patisserie dans les centres commerciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This brochure presents the regulation relative to the cooking installations using the natural gas in bakeries and cake shops of the shopping Centers. Following the general regulation context, the guide presents the ovens which can be installed and the associated technical restraints. The necessary conditions for the buildings, the gas alimentation, the natural gas pipelines in the buildings and the installations conditions are also presented. Finally the guide presents the maintenance facilities obligations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Catalytic removal of methane and NO{sub x} in lean-burn natural-gas engine exhaust; Elimination par catalyse du methane et des NO{sub x} dans les echappements de moteur au gaz naturel a basse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Satokawa, S.; Yahagi, M.; Yamaseki, K.; Hoshi, F.; Uchida, H.; Yokota, H. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a new catalytic system to reduce the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) contained in the exhaust gases from a lean-burn natural-gas engine. Catalytic oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO in the exhaust has been studied for noble metals supported on alumina. (1) A low-loading catalyst comprising platinum supported on alumina (Pt/alumina) was efficient for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons without methane. The CO conversions were maintained at more than 98 % for 20,000 hours over the Pt/alumina. (2) A catalyst comprising platinum and palladium supported on alumina (Pt-Pd/alumina) exhibited higher levels of oxidation of hydrocarbons (including methane) than a catalyst comprising only palladium supported on alumina (Pd/alumina). Its oxidation also lasted longer. The combined effects of the platinum and palladium metals achieved high sulfur dioxide resistance. Increasing the palladium content in the Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst increased the level of oxidation and extended the lifetime of the catalyst. (3) A catalyst comprising silver supported on alumina (Ag/alumina) was effective at reducing the amount of NO{sub X} by using the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas. The NO{sub x} conversions over Ag/alumina were maintained at more than 30 % for 3,500 hours. We describe a total clean-up system consisting of a Ag/alumina catalyst and a Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst in series on the exhaust gas stream. (authors)

  2. Contributions of vitreous natural analogs to the investigation of long-term nuclear glass behavior; Apports des analogues naturels vitreux a la validation des codes de prediction du comportement a long terme des verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techer, I

    1999-07-01

    This study assesses the extend of the analogy between the alteration behavior in water and in a moist clay environment of aluminosilicate volcanic glass and alumino-borosilicate nuclear containment glass. Basaltic glass alteration in water initially occurs by hydrolysis processes with an activation energy on the order of 73 kJ.mol{sup -1}. As the reaction progresses, the alteration rate drops by over four orders of magnitude from the initial rate r{sub 0}, The alteration kinetics are not governed by the alteration solution chemistry alone, the glass alteration film appears to have a major role as a diffusion barrier limiting the transfer of reaction species and products. All these aspects highlight the behavioral analogy between basaltic glass and nuclear borosilicate glass in aqueous media. Conversely, the alteration reaction of obsidian-type volcanic glass involves other mechanisms than those governing the dissolution of borosilicate glass. Basaltic glass alteration is also examined in the presence of a clay environmental material, in a study of the natural basaltic glass and argillaceous pelites system of the Salagou basin in southern France, in an approach combining mineralogical, chemical and isotopic data to assess the interactions between a basaltic glass and the argillaceous pelites. Laboratory leach test results with basaltic glass and measured data for the Salagou glass in its natural environment are modeled using a code implementing a kinetic law coupling diffusive transfer of dissolved silica with a reaction affinity law. (author)

  3. Recent developments concerning French fuel elements used in natural uranium - graphite - CO{sub 2} reactor systems; Developpements recents des elements combustibles francais de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M; Stohr, J A; Jeanpierre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The policy followed in France for the development of fuel elements for reactors belonging to the Electricite de France has been to benefit as much as possible, for each new pile from the most recent technical progress by developing in each case a fuel element allowing the maximum power per channel. The two latest fuel elements thus studied by the French Atomic Energy Commission are of two different types: a tubular uranium element closed at both ends and cooled externally. (This type of element, chosen for the reactors EDF 2, EDF 3 and EDF 4 makes it possible to attain maximum specific powers of the order of 6 MW/metric ton.); an open tubular uranium element cooled both internally and externally, called an annular element which in being studied as a possibility for EDF 5. Such an element makes it possible to attain specific powers of over 12 MW/metric ton. The two types of element have the following common characteristics: - the can, for external cooling, has herning-bone type fins. This type of profile which has been vastly improved recently thereby increasing its thermal efficiency, has the important advantage of avoiding vibration of the element, but has posed problems of resistance to thermal cycling necessitating much research. - the fuel rods are placed inside graphite jackets, this limiting the vertical forces to which they are subjected and protecting them during charging and discharging. On the other hand, these elements present very different problems as for as the following points are concerned: - the characteristics required of the uranium tubes apart of course from a good dimensional stability during irradiation in the two cases are in the case of the closed tubes a very high resistance to external pressure, and in the case of the annular elements a low neutron absorption. Thus for each of these two cases it has been necessary to develop a suitable type of alloy. - a possible loosening of the can during thermal cycling, which is peculiar to the internal can of the annular element, has necessitated very much research work. - the exact temperature drop at the contact between the uranium and the can, and the strength of the lower end of the cartridge are points which are increasingly crucial in the case of the annular element. All in all the annular element thus calls for a great research effort. This effort is justified by the big step forwards in which it will result in the case of the EDF reactors thanks to its high specific power and to the high weight of uranium in each cartridge. (authors) [French] La politique choisie en France pour le developpement des elements combustibles destines aux reacteurs de l'Electricite de France, consiste a chercher, pour chaque pile nouvelle, a beneficier au maximum des progres techniques les plus recents en etudiant chaque fois un nouvel element combustible permettant une puissance par canal aussi elevee que possible. Les derniers elements combustibles ainsi etudies par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique sont de deux types differents: un element a tube d'uranium ferme aux deux extremites et refroidi exterieurement (ce type d'element, retenu pour les reacteurs EDF 2, EDF 3 et EDF 4 permet des puissances specifiques maximum de l'ordre de 6 MW/t). Un element a tube d'uranium ouvert, refroidi interieurement et exterieurement, appele clemont annulaire et dont on etudie la possibilite pour EDF5. Un tel element peut permettre des puissances specifiques superieures a 12 MW/t. Ces deux types d'elements possedent des caracteristiques communes: la gaine, pour le refroidissement externe, comporte des ailettes en chevron. Ce type de profil, qui a recu recemment des ameliorations notables augmentant son efficacite thermique, a l'avantage important d'eviter les vibrations de cartouche mais a pose des problemes technologiques de tenue au cyclage thermique qui ont necessite une etude approfondie. les cartouches sont placees a l'interieur de chemise en graphite, ce qui limite les efforts verticaux auxquels elles sont soumises et les protege lors des operations de chargement et de dechargement. Par contre ces deux types d'elements posent des problemes tres differents en ce qui concerne les points suivants: les qualites demandees aux tubes d'uranium - outre bien entendu dans les deux cas une bonne stabilite dimensionnelle sous irradiation - sont dans le cas des tubes fermes une excellente resistance a la pression exterieure et dans le cas des elements annulaires une faible absorption neutronique. On a donc du developper, pour chacun de ces cas, une categorie d'alliage appropriee. le decollement possible de la gaine au cyclage thermique, qui est particulier a la gaine interne de l'element annulaire, necessite des etudes approfondies. la chute de temperature au contact entre l'uranium et la gaine et la resistance de l'extremite inferieure de la cartouche sont des questions qui presentent une difficulte accrue avec l'element annulaire. Au total, l'element annulaire necessite donc un effort important. Cet effort trouve sa justification dans le saut en avant qu'il peut permettre de faire aux reacteurs EDF grace a sa forte puissance specifique et a son poids d'uranium eleve par cartouche. (auteurs)

  4. Economical and geopolitical aspects bond to the foreseen development of the natural gas in an open market; Aspects economiques et geopolitiques lies au developpement prevu du gaz naturel dans un marche ouvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    For the first time in 2000, the part of natural gas is equal to those of coal in the world energy accounting. The economy and the geo-policy of this developing energy is analyzed, showing an economy dominated by the transport costs, the specificity of the european sector and the opening market since 1980. The european market opening incertitudes and opportunities are detailed. In conclusion the Gaz De France role in the european energy pole and the new regulations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Study of the oocyte degenerescence at mouse: role of the caspases and toxicity of natural uranium; Etude de la degenerescence ovocytaire chez la souris: role des caspases et toxicite de l'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, E

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the uranium toxicity on the ovarian function and on the oocyte and more fundamentally to characterize the molecular ways regulating the oocyte degenerescence. At first, will be described the different exposure modes at uranium and the known toxic effects of this heavy metal on man and animal. The mechanisms regulating the follicle genesis and the oogenesis are then developed. At last, will be given the data available in literature and concerning the apoptosis ways intervening in the follicular atresia and in the oocyte degenerescence while referring to the known ways of the somatic cells. (O.M.)

  6. The Measurement of Natural Tritium Levels in Geiger Counters; Determination quantitative du tritium naturel par compteurs Geiger; Izmerenie urovnej estestvennogo tritiya v schetchikakh Gejgera; Medicion de concentraciones naturales de tritio mediante contadores Geiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, B J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Gracefield (New Zealand)

    1962-01-15

    A method for the counting of tritium in a 300 ml gas counter with internal quenching gases is described. Originally a system with ethylene-argon as a quenching gas was used in conjunction with an anticoincidence ring. The anticoincidence count-rate plateau characteristics were unsatisfactory at low count rates because of unsatisfactory quenching, and a search was made for more efficient quenching gases. The source of the background count-rate plateau slope is discussed, and the properties required of a suitable quenching gas for hydrogen counting are given. Results of a study made of the counting characteristics of hydrogen quenched with benzene, ethyl-bromide, ethyl-ether, isopropyl amine, hexane, ethylamine and isoprene are given. Ethylamine and ether in particular gave very satisfactory quenching characteristics. A counting system with a counter filled with 40 cm of hydrogen and quenchcd with ethylamine is described. The background rate is 3 cpm with a comparatively flat background plateau. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit une methode de dosage du tritium au moyen d'un compteur de 300 ml dans lequel on utilise des gaz de coupage internes. Il avait tout d'abord utilise, comme gaz de coupage, un melange d'ethylene et d'argon avec un anneau d'anticoincidence . Mais pour les taux de comptage faibles, les caracteristiques du palier, avec un montage en anticoincidence, n'etaient pas satisfaisantes en raison de l'insuffisance du coupage, et l'auteur a cherche un melange plus efficace. Il analyse la cause de la pente du palier de la courbe du bruit de fond et enumere les proprietes que devrait presenter un gaz de coupage efficace pour le comptage de l'hydrogene. Il donne ensuite les resultats obtenus, au point de vue des caracteristiques du comptage de l'hydrogene, avec les substances de coupage suivantes : benzene, bromure d'ethyle, ether ethylique, isopropylamine, hexane, ethylamine et isoprene. Avec l'ethylamine et l'ether ethylique, les caracteristiques de coupage sont particulierement satisfaisantes. L'auteur decrit un dispositif de comptage qui comprend un compteur rempli d'hydrogene a la pression de 40 cm de mercure, la substance de coupage utilisee etant l'ethylamine. Le bruit de fond est de 3 cpm, et la pente du palier correspondant relativement faible. (author) [Spanish] El autor describe un metodo de analisis de tritio en un contador de 300 ml que funciona con arreglo al principio de la extincion interna por medio de gases. Originariamente se aplico un sistema basado en el empleo de una mezcla de etileno y argon como gas extintor, en combinacion con un anillo de anticoincidencias. Ahora bien, las caracteristicas del rellano de la curva de recuento al emplear un circuito de anticoincidencias no resultaban satisfactorias cuando el numero de impulsos era reducido, debido a una extincion deficiente, y por tal motivo se trato de encontrar una mezcla gaseosa mas eficaz. El autor estudia la causa de la pendiente del rellano de la curva del recuento de fondo y enumera las propiedades que debe reunir un gas extintor adecuado para el recuento del hidrogeno. Detalla los resultados de un estudio de las caracteristicas de recuento del hidrogeno usando como sustancias extintoras el benceno, el bromuro de etilo, el eter etilico, la isopropil amina, el hexano, la etilamina y el isopieno. Se comprobo que la etilamina y el eter etilico, en particular, presentan caracteristicas de extincion muy satisfactorias. El autor describe un sistema de recuento basado en el empleo de un contador que se rellena con hidrogeno a la presion de 40 cm de Hg y en el cual se usa etilamina para la extincion. La actividad de fondo asciende a 3 impulsos por minuto, siendo relativamente debil la pendiente del rellano de la curva correspondiente. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie metoda podscheta tritiya v 300ml gazovom schetchike s ispol'zovaniem gazov dlya gasheniya. Pervonachal'no byla primenena sistema s kol'tsom nesovpadenij pri ispol'zovanii ehtilen-argona v kachestve gaza dlya gasheniya. Pologaya chast' kharakteristiki skorosti otscheta nesovpadenij byla neudovletvoritel'noj pri nizkikh skorostyakh scheta, chto ob{sup y}asnyaetsya plokhim gasheniem, a poehtomu byli provedeny poiski gazov s bolee ehffektivnym gasheniem. Rassmatrivaetsya nakonl pologoj chasti kharakteristiki skorosti otscheta istochnika Fona, a takzhe ukazyvayutsya neobkhodimye svojstva podkhodyashchego gasyashchego gaza dlya otscheta vodoroda. Privodyatsya rezul'taty izucheniya kharakteristik podscheta vodoroda, kotoryj gasitsya s pomoshch'yu benzola, bromistogo ehtila, prostogo ehtilovogo ehfira, izopropilovogo amina, geksana, ehtil-amina i izoprena. V chastnosti, ehtil-amin i ehfir dayut ves'ma udovletvoritel'nye gasyashchie kharakteristiki. Soderzhitsya opisanie schetnoj sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej schetchik, napolnennyj do 40 cm vodorodom i gasimyj ehtil-aminom. Koehffitsient fona sostavlyaet 3 otscheta v minutu pri sravnitel'no ploskom fone pologoj chasti kharakteristiki . (author)

  7. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  8. Tritium enrichment by thermal diffusion. I. Calculation of an installation for measuring natural tritium; Enrichissement du tritium par diffusion thermique. - I. Calcul d'une installation destinee a la mesure du tritium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Ravoire, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The natural content of tritium is so low that its measurement generally requires a preliminary enrichment. The thermal diffusion on hydrogen is studied as an enrichment method. The installation studied comprises two stages of columns of the hot-wire type, together with a device for transferring the tritium from the water sample into the hydrogen in the columns using catalytic exchange. A complete mathematical treatment for the operation of such a unit has been made and programmed for the IBM 7094 computer. An optimization has been effected by means of this program. It is shown that for similar performances, less hydrogen is retained in the case of hot-wire type columns than in the case of columns composed of concentric tubes. (authors) [French] La teneur naturelle du tritium est si faible que sa mesure demande generalement un enrichissement prealable. On etudie la diffusion thermique sur l'hydrogene comme moyen d'enrichissement. L'installation que l'on etudie comprend deux etages de colonnes du type fil chaud, et un dispositif de transfert du tritium de l'echantillon d'eau dans l'hydrogene des colonnes par echange catalytique. Un traitement mathematique complet du fonctionnement d'un tel ensemble a ete etabli et programme sur machine IBM 7094. Une optimisation a ete faite a l'aide du programme. On montre egalement qu'a performances egales, la retenue d'hydrogene est plus faible dans le cas des colonnes du type fil chaud que dans le cas des colonnes du type tubes concentriques. (auteurs)

  9. Etudes de quelques paramètres de croissance et de valeur nutritive des variétés d'escargot Archachatina marginata (Swainson élevées en milieu naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouadio, EJP.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of some Parameters of Growth and Nutritive Values of Snail Varieties Archachatina marginata (Swainson Bred in Natural Environment. Approximately two months old juvenile snails of from black and white body varieties Archachatina marginata obtained from indoor rearing were introduced in Banco forest of Nangui Abogoua University in order to study some growth and nutritive values parameters after 24 months. The result obtained showed that 12% of black body snails exhibited average shell length of 12.5 cm with 218.19 and 44.57 average live weight respectively. Concerning white body snails, only 3% exhibited average shell length of 12.5 cm with 231.1 and 50.96 g of average live and body weight respectively. Numbers of these white body snails were small with percentage of 22%, and average live and body weight of 128.5 and 30.2 g, respectively. This result suggests that snail A. marginata under breeding in this natural medium showed good performance of growth comparable to those from the original natural medium. Moreover, the study of nutritive value parameters revealed that body of both varieties of A. marginata had the similar ash content of 9.8% with important calcium contents of 17.38±0.37 and 20.34±2.94% for black and white body varieties, respectively. The shell ash content of both snail varieties showed identical value of 95% with calcium contents of 17.38±0.37 and 20.34±2.94% for black and white body varieties, respectively. Their body protein content was estimated at approximately 62%.

  10. Inventaire préliminaire des ravageurs et des ennemis naturels du cotonnier du département de l'Ouémé (République du Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchibozo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary Inventory of Pests and Natural Enemies on Cotton in Oueme Department, Benin. The cotton plant is attacked by thousand of insects pests whose natural enemies are not well known in some producing countries. In order to make an inventory of pests and natural enemies, a first work has been realized on cotton entomological fauna in Oueme Department during agricultural campaign 1993-1994. The results obtained, allowed us to list ail the pests, and their natural enemies met on cotton per locality. The main destructors are classified according to their relative importance. For each pest the frequency of natural enemies is assessed.

  11. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir; Monitoring geochimique par couplage entre les gaz rares et les isotopes du carbone: etude d'un reservoir naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, E

    2008-12-15

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO{sub 2}. Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  12. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  13. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  14. The use of natural and archaeological analogues for understanding the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses; L'utilisation des analogues naturels et archeologiques pour la comprehension de l'evolution a long terme des verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libourel, G.; Verney-Carron, A.; Morlok, A. [CNRS UPR2300, centre de recherches petrographiques et geochimiques (CRPG), Nancy-universite, 15, rue Notre-Dame-des-Pauvres, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Libourel, G. [INPL, Ecole nationale superieure de geologie (ENSG), Nancy-universite, rue du Doyen-Marcel-Roubault, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gin, St. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/SECM/LCLT, 30 (France); Sterpenich, J. [G2R, CNRS-UMR 7566, Nancy-universite, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Michelin, A.; Neff, D.; Dillmann, Ph. [Laboratoire archeomateriaux et prevision de l' alteration LAPA/SIS2 M, CEA and CNRS, Bat 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Michelin, A.; Dillmann, Ph. [LMC IRAMAT UMR5060 CNRS (France)

    2011-02-15

    The knowledge of the long-term behavior of nuclear waste in anticipation of ultimate disposal in a deep geological formation is of prime importance in a waste management strategy. If phenomenological models have been developed to predict the long-term behavior of these materials, validating these models remains a challenge, when considering the time scale of radioactive decay of radionuclides of environmental concern, typically 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yrs. Here we show how natural or archaeological analogues provide critical constraints not only on the phenomenology of glass alteration and the mechanisms involved, but also on the ability of experimental short-term data to predict long-term alteration in complex environments. (authors)

  15. Dehumidification by dessiccant regenerated by natural gas at the Campeau ice rink in Gatineau; La deshumidification par dessiccant regenere par le gaz naturel a l'Arena Campeau de Gatineau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S.

    2003-03-01

    As air quality gains in importance, dehumidification by dessiccant represents an interesting technological solution, especially in ice rinks where bad air quality (carbon monoxide) is not unknown. Contrary to conventional technologies, dehumidification by dessiccant allows to maintain adequate levels of air quality and optimum humidity levels. Three major advantages are: improved user comfort, the building structure is protected from corrosion, and superior air quality levels are achieved. The document first provided the reader with a brief overview of conventional mechanical dehumidification systems before discussing dehumidification by natural gas dessiccant. A quick historical review of the Campeau ice rink in Gatineau, Quebec was provided, including results obtained. The article concluded by indicating that the technology offers interesting potential for ice rinks. Energy savings are made possible through the utilization of this technology, and improves revenues by stretching operations for longer periods. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Report of working committee 1 ''exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas''; Rapport du comite de travail 1 ''exploration, production, traitement et stockage souterrain du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekdal, Ottar

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the activities of Working Committee 1 during the triennium 1997 - 2000. The first part of the report gives an overview of the current situation world-wide within the basic activities of the committee, i.e. exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas. In the second part of the report analyses of three prioritized topics important to the industry are described: - Improving the performance of existing gas storages; - Use of 3-D seismic data in exploration, production and underground storage. - Development of small-scale offshore gas fields. The report will be presented during the WOC 1 sessions at the World Gas Conference 2000, together with papers selected by the committee. Other relevant papers will be presented during the poster session. Furthermore, the committee will organize a round table session addressing reductions of greenhouse gas emissions along the gas chain. Representatives from industry, environmental organisations and politicians will take part in this round table discussion. (author)

  17. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report; Le fonctionnement des marches de gros francais de l'electricite et du gaz naturel en 2007. Rapport de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Settled on 24 March 2000, the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is an independent authority. CRE supports an efficient functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, to the advantage of final consumers. CRE ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. CRE has examined the functioning of the wholesale markets for electricity and gas for the year 2007. The report discloses the results of a first set of analyses, as well as the next actions to be conducted in order to explain some observed behaviour. On the basis of analyses led on the electricity market, CRE observes that nuclear generation was marginal during 15% of the hours in 2007. Hydraulic generation was marginal during 25% of the hours, coal generation during 25% to 30% of the hours and oil generation during less than 2% of the hours in 2007. Finally, prices on the border markets were of high importance on the French prices which they determined during 20% to 25% of the hours of the year. On an efficient market, the price is driven by the marginal power plant among all those which contribute to satisfy the demand. Therefore the wholesale price formation is conditioned by the frequency of marginality of each generation sector and by the associated valuation of production. On the day-ahead market, when nuclear or hydraulic generation was marginal, the day-ahead price reflected the associated valuation which was decided by EDF. The level of this valuation was generally higher than the marginal generation cost of these plants. As a matter of fact, a producer, even market dominant, may legitimately seek to optimise its income, provided that there is no abuse of a dominant position or any price manipulation. Consequently, at this stage, the relevance of the valuation method for nuclear and hydraulic generation on the wholesale market is still to be checked. CRE has also demonstrated that generation transparency, even if it gradually increased, still needs to be improved at this stage. Published information on availability forecasts of power generation facilities were insufficient. Finally, CRE has established that the limited development of competition on the retail market and the implementation of the transitional regulated tariff for balancing markets (TaRTAM) have curbed the increase of the wholesale electricity market's activity. Considering these findings, CRE will carry out audits on the valuation methods used by EDF for its nuclear and hydraulic generation. Based on a public consultation, CRE will also formulate recommendations on generation transparency. On the gas wholesale market, CRE observes that the activity on the wholesale market has grown all along 2007 but remained focused on short-term trading. In particular, little public information was available on the market because most of the deals were concluded without intermediary. Moreover, CRE notes that the supplying conditions of suppliers who are not former incumbents in Europe were not satisfactory. These suppliers had to acquire most of their gas on the French market. In order to improve the transparency of the gas wholesale market, CRE will publish aggregated and anonymous information on the bilateral market according to information on volumes that will be collected from market participants.

  18. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  19. Tritium enrichment by thermal diffusion. I. Calculation of an installation for measuring natural tritium; Enrichissement du tritium par diffusion thermique. - I. Calcul d'une installation destinee a la mesure du tritium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M; Ravoire, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The natural content of tritium is so low that its measurement generally requires a preliminary enrichment. The thermal diffusion on hydrogen is studied as an enrichment method. The installation studied comprises two stages of columns of the hot-wire type, together with a device for transferring the tritium from the water sample into the hydrogen in the columns using catalytic exchange. A complete mathematical treatment for the operation of such a unit has been made and programmed for the IBM 7094 computer. An optimization has been effected by means of this program. It is shown that for similar performances, less hydrogen is retained in the case of hot-wire type columns than in the case of columns composed of concentric tubes. (authors) [French] La teneur naturelle du tritium est si faible que sa mesure demande generalement un enrichissement prealable. On etudie la diffusion thermique sur l'hydrogene comme moyen d'enrichissement. L'installation que l'on etudie comprend deux etages de colonnes du type fil chaud, et un dispositif de transfert du tritium de l'echantillon d'eau dans l'hydrogene des colonnes par echange catalytique. Un traitement mathematique complet du fonctionnement d'un tel ensemble a ete etabli et programme sur machine IBM 7094. Une optimisation a ete faite a l'aide du programme. On montre egalement qu'a performances egales, la retenue d'hydrogene est plus faible dans le cas des colonnes du type fil chaud que dans le cas des colonnes du type tubes concentriques. (auteurs)

  20. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  1. National arrangements in favour of the alternative vehicles: electrical , natural gas (NGV) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The public will find in this document all the financial assistances concerning the acquisition and the maintenance of an alternative vehicle, at the date of january 2000. The vehicles concerned are: all type of electrical vehicles, NGV vehicles and LPG vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  2. Dioxines, furans and other pollutants emissions bond to the combustion of natural and additive woods; Facteurs d'emission. Emissions de dioxines, de furanes et d'autres polluants liees a la combustion de bois naturels et adjuvantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, S

    2000-02-15

    This report deals especially on the dioxines and furans bond to the combustion of wood in industrial furnaces and domestic furnaces. It aims to define the environmental strategy which would allow the combustion of wood residues to produce energy. The first part recalls general aspects concerning the wood. The six other parts presents the wood resources and wastes, the additive used, the combustion and the different factors of combustion and finally the pollutants emissions. (A.L.B.)

  3. The opening of electricity and gas markets to professional clients. Main lessons - December 2007; L'ouverture des marches du gaz naturel et de l'electricite pour les clients professionnels. Principaux enseignements - decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since 2004, electricity and gas markets are opened to all professional clients who can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by BVA on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1503 companies representative of both the private and public sectors. The aim of this inquiry is to gain information on the following points: what are the professionals' motivations or brakes concerning the change of energy supplier? What is their general opinion about markets opening? What are the false questions or ideas? what is their level of knowledge about the July 2004 opening of energy markets? What has it changed for them? Do they know the new suppliers? What are the new terms and conditions? What is their intention (faithfulness or changing). The lessons learnt from this inquiry are summarized in this document. (J.S.)

  4. Système de prévention du risque de renversement latéral pour des véhicules évoluant en milieu naturel

    OpenAIRE

    Richier , M.; Lenain , R.; Thuilot , Benoît; Debain , C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Un algorithme dédié aux Véhicules Légers Tout-Terrain (VLTT) permettant l'estimation et l'anticipation du renversement est présenté dans ce papier. Il repose sur une estimation temps réel du Transfert de Charge Latéral (TCL), représentatif des instabilités dynamiques latérales. Le TCL est calculé grâce à un modèle dynamique divisé en deux projections 2D. A partir de ce modèle et d'un système de perception bas prix, un observateur est proposé. Il permet d'estimer en tem...

  5. Natural gas: which growth and which markets in a context of high petroleum prices?; Le gaz naturel: quelle croissance, quels marches dans un conteste de prix eleves du petrole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [CEDIGAZ, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Zofrea, F.; Bellussi, G. [EniTecnologie (Italy); Dauger, J.M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bigeard, P.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 69 - Vernaison (France); Courtois, A.; Renaudie, Th. [Gaz de France, 26 - Valence (France); Cervantes, V. [IRISBUS / Iveco (France); Buffet, P. [Groupe Suez (France)

    2006-07-01

    Beyond the technological stakes linked with the use of natural gas, a new geopolitical equilibrium is coming due to the different geographical distribution of gas and petroleum reserves. New countries and new markets are entering the game and may change the worldwide balance of energy powers. At the occasion of its annual 'Panorama' colloquium, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) tackles the question of the crucial role that natural gas will play in a context of high petroleum prices. Natural gas has serious economical and environmental advantages and already occupies an important position in the residential, industrial and power generation sectors and should become a major fuel for tomorrows' transportation systems. This document gathers 10 presentations (article and transparencies) given at the colloquium and dealing with: the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the future of natural gas in Europe (M.F. Chabrelie); the perspectives and new openings for LNG in a changing market (P. Buffet); the perspectives of the gas-to-liquid (GTL) industry (F. Zofrea); the opening of the natural gas market in Europe (J.M. Dauger); a presentation of natural gas (P.H. Bigeard); the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the new synthetic fuels from the GTL industry (G. Bellussi); the successes and perspectives of natural gas in the transportation sector (A. Courtois); the urban natural gas-fueled captive fleets: point of view of a car-maker (V. Cervantes). A press kit with 11 synthetic notes written by IFP's experts complete the preceding presentations, they treat of: activities and markets in exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects, petroleum supply and demand, gas reserves, discoveries and production, strategy of the European gas market actors, gas markets liberalization in Europe, natural gas for vehicles, perspectives of development of the GTL technology, LNG: a coming up convenience, ties between natural gas and petroleum prices. (J.S.)

  6. Etude de l’activité anti-inflammatoire des phosphatidyl-inositol mannosides : composants naturels de la paroi des mycobactéries et dérivés synthétiques

    OpenAIRE

    Rose , Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    Les phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides sont des précurseurs biosynthétiques de lipoarabinomannanes et lipomanannes qui sont des composants de la paroi des bactéries du genre Mycobacterium. Les phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannosides (PIM2) et hexamannosides (PIM6) sont les deux formes les plus abondantes de PIM chez les M. tuberculosis et M.bovis (BCG). La synthèse complète des différents PIMs a été rapportée. Nous avons déjà démontré que les fractions de PIM6 ont une activité inhibitrice su...

  7. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States; La convergence des industries de l'electricite et du gaz naturel: les fusions-acquisitions aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, S

    2000-07-01

    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  8. Le patrimoine paysager de Grazalema (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romero de Solís

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Le patrimoine paysager de Grazalema (1945-2005. Nous nous proposons, dans ce texte, de décrire l’environnement de Grazalema à l’époque du séjour de J. Pitt-Rivers et d’analyser les changements les plus importants que l’on peut les observer aujourd’hui. Prenant en compte l’intérêt suscité par les valeurs de la nature à travers le temps, depuis les premiers naturalistes du xviiie siècle jusqu’à nos jours, nous nous intéressons à l’attrait croissant pour la « nature » et à la création du Parc Naturel qui a généré un type de tourisme inconnu dans cette région dans les années 1940 et qui est devenu le principal moteur des transformations sociales observées dans le village ainsi que le vecteur de la perception locale de l’environnement. Nous analysons également les changements de la société locale et de ses valeurs et nous essayions de comprendre comment les habitants de Grazalema appréhendent le paysage et comment ils ressentent la création du Parc naturel, ses avantages et ses inconvénients.The pastoral heritage of Grazalema (1945-2005. In this text we intend to describe Grazalema’s environment at the time of J. Pitt-Rivers’ visit and to analyse the most significant changes that may be observed today. In light of the interest aroused by the values of nature through the ages, from the first naturalists of the 18th century through to the present day, we take a look at the growing attraction of “nature” and the creation of a Natural Park which generated a kind of tourism which was unknown in the region in the 1940s and has become the main driving force for the social transformation observed in the village, as well as the vector for local perception of the environment. We also analyse the changes in local society and its values, and try to understand how the inhabitants of Grazalema perceive the landscape and what they feel about the creation of the Natural Park and the advantages and

  9. Concentration and Storage of Highly-Active Wastes from the First Stages of the United Kingdom Civil Nuclear Power Programme; Concentration et Stockage des Dechets de Haute Activite au Cours des Premiers Stades du Programme Civil de Production d'Energie d'Origine Nucleaire au Royaume-UNL; КОНЦЕНТРИРОВАНИЕ И ХРАНЕНИЕ ВЫСОКОАКТИВНЫХ ОТХОДОВ НА ПЕРВЫХ СТАДИЯХ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЯ ПРОГРАММЫ СОЕДИНЕННОГО КОРОЛЕВСТВА ПО ПРОИЗВОДСТВУ ЯДЕPHОЙ ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИИ ДЛЯ ГРАЖДАНСКИХ ЦЕЛЕЙ; Concentracion y Almacenamiento de Desechos de Elevada Radiactividad en las Primeras Etapas del Programa Civil de Energia Nucleoelectrica del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clelland, D. W. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Production Group, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    The general problems of highly-active waste disposal are discussed and in particular the United Kingdom system of concentrating and storing highly-active waste as an acidic liquid concentrate is described. A speculative estimate is made of the amount of highly- active waste which will arise from reprocessing during the first two decades of the United Kingdom Civil Nuclear Power Programme and engineering design and technical problems associated with the safe and economic confinement of this material are examined. (author) [French] L'auteur analyse les problemes generaux que pose l'elimination des dechets de- haute activite; il decrit plus particulierement la methode appliquee au Royaume-Uni pour concentrer et stocker des dechets de haute activite sous forme d'un liquide concentre acide. U evalue la quantite des dechets de haute activite qui seront produits au cours du traitement de combustibles irradies pendant les deux premieres deconnies du programme civil de production d'energie d'orgine nucleaire et il examine les problemes techniques que pose l'isolement economique et sur de ces substances. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina los problemas generales de la evacuacion de desechos de elevada radiactividad y, en particular, el procedimiento que se aplica en el Reino Unido para concentrar y almacenar desechos muy radiactivos en forma de concentrados liquidos de reaccion acida. Efectua un calculo aproximado de la cantidad de desechos de elevada radiactividad que se orginaran en las operaciones de regeneracion de combustibles durante las dos primeras decadas de ejecucion del programa civil de energia nucleoelectrica en el Reino Unido y analiza los problemas tecnicos y constructivos relacionados con el confinamiento seguro y economico de estas sustancias. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja obshhie problemy udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov vysokoj aktivnosti i, v chastnosti, prinjatyj v Soedinennom Korolevstve metod koncentrirovanija i hranenija takih othodov v vide

  10. Double protection passive pour les equipages de l'helicoptere d'attaque "Tigre" : Concept et etude experimentale (Design and Experimental Study of the Passive Double Hearing Protection for the Crew of the Attack Helicopter "Tiger")

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baudou, J; Reynaud, G; Poussin, G; Leger, A

    2005-01-01

    ... naturellement imposee comme axe de travail. Prealablement evalues de facon empirique, des bouchons de type "mousses Quies" ont ete selectionnes pour leur port confortable et leur forte attenuation...

  11. Development of 3D models of buildings for containment of the nuclear power plant of Almaraz and of the Trillo Nuclear with the GOTHIC 8.0 code; Desarrollo de modelos 3D de los edificios de conten cion de la Central Nuclear de Almaraz y de la Central Nuclear de Trillo con el codigo GOTHIC 8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, G.; Bocanegra Melian, R.; Fernandez Cosils, K.; Barreira Pereira, P.; Rey Peinado, L.; Posada Barral, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the first phase of the research of CNAT and the UPM project is the construction of several three-dimensional models detailed GOTHIC 8.0 code of containment of a buildings plant type PWR-W and KWU, corresponding to the Central Nuclear de Almaraz (CNA) and Trillo (CNT) respectively. (Author)

  12. Experimental Study of the Process of Neutron Thermalization in Time in Aqueous Moderators; Etude Experimentale du Processus de Thermalisation des Neutrons en Fonction du Temps dans les Ralentisseurs Contenant de l'Eau; Ehksperimental'noe izuchenie protsessa termalizatsii nejtronov vo vremeni v vodorodosoderzhashchikh zamedlitelyakh; Estudio Experimental del Proceso de Termalizacion de Neutrones en Funcion del Tiempo en Moderadores Acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishmaev, S. N.; Mostovoj, V. I.; Sadikov, I. P.; Chernyshov, A. A. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniju Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V.Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-08-15

    Using a method described in another paper presented at this Symposium, the authors measured non-stationary neutron spectra in zirconium hydride and in water at room temperature as a function of slowing-down time, with a resolution of 3.5 {mu}s. The spectra measured in a large ZrH prism (B{sup 2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}) belong to a slowing-down time range (t > 30 {mu}s) in which the mean neutron energy is less than 0.13 eV and the energy exchange between neutron gas and the medium is caused mainly by the excitation of acoustic lattice vibrations. In this range thermalization proceeds at a comparatively slow rate and the time required to establish an equilibrium neutron spectrum is of the order of 400 {mu}s. In a small ZrH assembly (B{sup 2} Asymptotically-Equal-To 20 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}) a strong diffusion-cooling effect is observed. The spectra measured at long slowing-down times are found to differ considerably from the Maxwellian distribution with the temperature of the medium. The time required to establish an equilibrium energy distribution increases with decreasing system size. The neutron energy spectra in water (B{sup 2} = 2.56 x 10{sup -2}cm{sup 2}) are presented for slowing-down times of over 13 {mu}s, where distortions from resolution are insignificant. The shape of the spectrum is only fully consistent with the Maxwellian distribution at room temperature after about 100 {mu}s following a fast neutron burst. The time required to establish an equilibrium neutron spectrum in this experiment is three to four times longer than the values calculated by various other authors. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (author) [French] A l'aide de la methode que les auteurs ont decrite dans un autre memoire presente au Colloque, ils ont mesure, en fonction du temps de ralentissement, les spectres non stationnaires des neutrons dans l'hydrure de zirconium et dans l'eau a la temperature ambiante, avec un pouvoir de resolution de 3,5 {mu}s. Les spectres ont ete determines au moyen d'un prisme de ZrH de grande dimension (B{sup 2} = 3,8 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup -2}) pour des temps de ralentissement superieurs a 30 {mu}s; pour ces valeurs du temps, l'energie moyenne des neutrons est inferieure a 0,13 eV et l'echange d'energie entre le gaz neutronique et le milieu s'opere essentiellement du fait de l'apparition d'oscillations acoustiques dans le reseau; en outre, le processus de thermalisation suit un rythme relativement lent et le temps necessaire pour obtenir un spectre de neutrons a l'etat d'equilibre est de l'ordre de 400 {mu}s. Dans un assemblage a ZrH de petite dimension (B{sup 2} Asymptotically-Equal-To 20 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup -2}) on constate un puissant effet de refroidissement par diffusion. Les spectres mesures pour des temps de ralentissement prolonges different sensiblement de la distribution maxwellienne a la temperature ambiante. Le temps requis pour obtenir une distribution equilibree de l'energie augmente avec la reduction des dimensions dy systeme. Les auteurs presentent les spectres energetiques des neutrons dans l'eau (B{sup 2} = 2,56 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup -2}) pour des temps de ralentissement superieurs a 13 {mu}s ou les deformations provoquees aux depens du pouvoir de resolution sont insignifiantes. La forme du spectre ne concorde entierement avec la distribution maxwellienne a la temperature ambiante qu'apres un delai d'environ 100 {mu}s apres la bouffee de neutrons rapides. Dans l'experience, le temps necessaire a la formation d'un spectre de neutrons a l'etat d'equilibre etait de trois a quatre fois superieur a celui qu'indiquent les calculs effectues par differents auteurs. Les causes possibles de ces divergences font l'objet d'un examen critique. (author) [Spanish] Con ayuda del metodo descrito en otra memoria presentada a este Simposio, los autores han medido en funcion del tiempo de moderacion los espectros neutronicos no estacionarios en hidruro de circonio y en agua a temperatura ambiente, con un poder de resolucion de 3,5 {mu}s. Los espectros medidos en un prisma de ZrH de gran tamano (B{sup 2} = 3,8 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}) pertenecen a un intervalo de tiempos de moderacion (t > 30 {mu}s) en el cual la energia media de los neutrones es inferior a 0,13 eV y el intercambio de energia entre el gas neutronico y el medio se debe fundamentalmente a la excitacion de vibraciones acusticas en el reticulado. Dentro de este intervalo, la termaiizacion se desarrolla a un ritmo comparativamente lento y el tiempo necesario para obtener un espectro neutronico de equilibrio es del orden de 400 {mu}s. En montajes de ZrH de pequenas dimensiones (B{sup 2} Asymptotically-Equal-To 20 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup -2}) se observa un marcado efecto de enfriamiento por difusion. Los espectros medidos para tiempos de moderacion prolongados difieren considerablemente de la distribucion maxwelliana correspondiente a la temperatura ambiente. El tiempo necesario para lograr una distribucion energetica de equilibrio aumenta a medida que disminuyen las dimensiones del sistema. Los autores presentan espectros energeticos de neutrones en agua (B{sup 2} = 2,56 * 10{sup -2} cm{sup -2}) para tiempos de moderacion superiores a 13 {mu}s donde las deformaciones debidas a la resolucion son insignificantes. La forma del espectro solo concuerda con la distribucion maxwelliana a temperatura ambiente, al cabo de unos 100 {mu}s despues de emitida una rafaga de neutrones rapidos. El tiempo necesario para que el espectro de neutrones alcance el equilibrio es, en este experimento, tres a cuatro veces mas prolongado que los valores calculados por diversos autores. En la memoria se analizan los posibles motivos de esta discrepancia. (author) [Russian] S pomoshh'ju metodiki, opisannoj v drugom doklade avtorov na dannuju konferenciju, izmereny nestacionarnye spektry nejtronov v gidride cirkonija i vode pri komnatnoj temperature s razresheniem 3,5 mksek po vremeni zamedlenija. Spektry, izmerennye v prizme iz Z gN bol'shogo razmera (V{sup 2} = 3,8 * 10{sup -2} sm{sup 2}), otnosjatsja k oblasti vremen zamedlenija (t > 30 mksek), gde srednjaja energija nejtronov nizhe 0,13 jev i obmen energiej mezhdu nejtronnym gazom i sredoj proishodit, v osnovnom, za schet vozbuzhdenija akusticheskih kolebanij reshetki. V jetoj oblasti process termalizacii idet sravnitel'no medlenno i vremja, neobhodimoe dlja ustanovlenija ravnovesnogo spektra nejtronov, okazyvaetsja porjadka 400 mksek. V sborke iz ZrH malogo razmera (V{sup 2} Asymptotically-Equal-To 20 * 10{sup -2} sm{sup 2}) projavljaetsja sil'nyj jeffekt diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija. Spektry, izmerennye pri bol'shih vremenah zamedlenija, sil'no otlichajutsja ot maksvellovskogo raspredelenija s temperaturoj sredy. Vremja, neobhodimoe dlja ustanovlenija ravnovesnogo energeticheskogo raspredelenija, vozrastaet s umen'sheniem razmerov sistemy. energeticheskie spektry nejtronov v vode (V{sup 2} = 2,56 * 10{sup -2} sm{sup -2}) predstavleny dlja vremen zamedlenija bol'shih 13 mksek, gde iskazhenija za schet razreshenija neznachitel'ny. Forma spektra polnost'ju sovpadaet s raspredeleniem Maksvella pri komnatnoj temperature lish' spustja Tilde-Operator 100 mksek posle vspyshki bystryh nejtronov. Nabljudaemoe v jeksperimente vremja ustanovlenija ravnovesnogo spektra nejtronov v 3 - 4 raza bol'she, chem dajut raschety, vypolnennye razlichnymi avtorami. Obsuzhdajutsja vozmozhnye prichiny rashozhdenij. (author)

  13. Aluminium alloy containing iron and nickel. Influence of structure and composition on the corrosion behaviour in high temperature water; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel. Influence de la structure et de la teneur sur la resistance a la corrosion par l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Roux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The corrosion structures are determined on a series of aluminium (A{sub 9}) base alloys which contain a total Fe + Ni not superior to 3%. The tests are carried out to 5,000 hours in 350 deg. C deionized water in autoclave. The principal results were as follows: - For iron and nickel contents superior to 0,5%, the first factor is the distribution structure of insoluble intermetallic compounds: the particles must be as fine and randomly dispersed as possible. - The corrosion products developed on the surface may be subdivided in three distinct layers which total thickness tends rapidly towards a limit and stabilises itself. (author) [French] On a determine les structures de corrosion d'une gamme d'alliages a base d'aluminium A{sub 9} ayant une teneur Fe + Ni ne depassant pas 3%. Les essais ont ete effectues jusqu'a 5000 heures en autoclave a 350 deg. C dans l'eau demineralisee. Les resultats principaux sont les suivants: - Pour les teneurs superieures a 0,5 % en fer et en nickel, le facteur preponderant est la structure de repartition des composes intermetalliques en phase separee, qui doivent etre en particules aussi fines et uniformement reparties que possible. - Les produits de corrosion developpes en surface se subdivisent en trois couches distinctes dont l'epaisseur totale tend rapidement vers une limite et se stabilise. (auteur)

  14. Evaluación de la efectividad de las áreas protegidas para contener procesos de cambio en el uso del suelo y la vegetación. ¿Un índice es suficiente? Evaluation of protected area effectiveness for preventing land use and land cover changes in Mexico. Is an index good enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueroa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la efectividad de 44 áreas protegidas federales (AP en México para evitar procesos de cambio en el uso del suelo y la vegetación (CUSV y se comparan los métodos y resultados con los de algunos estudios previos. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de superficie transformada (ST en 2002 y su tasa de cambio entre 1993 y de 2002 y se compararon las tasas de cambio observadas en las AP, en las áreas circundantes de cada AP y en sus respectivas ecorregiones. Se integró un índice de efectividad y se caracterizaron los procesos de CUSV en cada AP. En 2002, el 77% de las AP analizadas tenía menos de 20% de ST; casi 30% mostró una reducción en la ST, en tanto que en otro 30%, el incremento en la ST fue mayor que la tasa promedio de las AP analizadas. Poco más del 70% de las AP mostraron tasas de CUSV menores a las de sus áreas circundantes y en 80% de las AP, las tasas fueron menores que en sus ecorregiones. En general, estos resultados coinciden con estudios previos, pero existen variaciones según el enfoque metodológico utilizado. Consecuentemente, los índices de efectividad deben complementarse con una caracterización detallada de los procesos de CUSV y la interpretación de los resultados debe matizarse en función de los métodos.Effectiveness of 44 federal protected areas (PA for preventing land use and land cover changes (LULC in Mexico is examined, comparing results and methodological approaches used in previous studies. We quantified the percentage of transformed area (TS in 2002 and its rate of change between 1993 and 2002. We compared observed TS rate of change in PA, adjacent areas, and their ecoregions of location. An effectiveness index was build to produce a characterization of LULC processes developed for each PA. In 2002, 77% PA showed less than 20% covered by TS; nearly 30% of PA showed a reduction of TS. Additionally, in 30% of PA, TS increase exceeded the mean rate for all PA. More than 70% of PA showed lower LULC rates than their surrounding areas, and in 80% of PA, these rates were lower than those observed in their corresponding ecoregions. Overall, PA were effective to prevent LULC processes as previously suggested. However, trends derived from this type of analyses depend on methodological specifications. Effectiveness indexes should be complemented with a detailed characterization of LULC processes and their interpretation should correspond to the specific methodological approach used.

  15. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a material containing spherical cavities under pressure; example of the aging of a metal tritide; Modelisation du comportement mecanique d'un materiau contenant des cavites sous pression; cas du vieillissement d'un tritiure metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalon, F

    2001-07-01

    The study aims at modeling the mechanical behaviour of a material containing spherical cavities under pressure (bubbles) of nano-metric size. This work deals with research on tritium storage in metals. In this way, metal tritides are obtained. During time, helium is generated by tritium decay. Helium appears as a gas, which forms bubbles in the metal tritide. These bubbles subsequently cause damage within the material. The purpose of this work was therefore the following: (i) to determine the overall elastic moduli as a function of the volume fraction of cavities. thus providing an information about material damage, (ii) to analyze the macroscopic inflation of the material in order to solve storage problems, (iii) to determine the local stress fields for predicting the evolutions of the bubbles and the matrix. With the help of the scale change methods (homogenization) the macroscopic mechanical properties of the material can be determined as a function of its morphology on a microscopic scale. Thus the damage of the material can be estimated by experimental measurements of the global elastic moduli. Homogenization also allows the elastic inflation to be evaluated as well as the effects of cavity clusters and local variations of the elastic moduli. The internal stresses are determined on the microscopic scale (cavity scale). Two analytical methods (Eshelby-Mura and Legendre polynomials) and one numerical approach (Abaqus) are used to obtain more information and a best description of the material. It is shown that bubbles should attain the same size and same pressure and the plastic strain zones are determined. (author)

  16. A eficácia do licenciamento ambiental na contenção de atividades impactantes na Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP (Nota Científica. The environmental licensing’s effectiveness in constraining environmental impacts in the Buffer Zone of Assis Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia De Luca VITALLI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O reconhecimento jurídico da Zona de Amortecimento – ZA de unidades deconservação tem sido considerado o mais forte instrumento para impedir que atividades impactantessobre os ecossistemas sejam desenvolvidas junto às áreas protegidas. Com o objetivo de analisar ademanda de informação de processos, a natureza das atividades cujo licenciamento foi solicitadoe a eficácia das políticas públicas na aplicação da legislação vigente, consultamos 155 processosque tratavam de empreendimentos ao redor da Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP, tomando comobase o raio de 10 km a partir do perímetro da UC, estabelecido pela Resolução CONAMA nº 13/90.No período considerado (1990-2006, que antecedeu a delimitação da ZA e estabelecimentode suas normas em Plano de Manejo, a demanda potencial de análise de pedidos de licença ouautorização ambiental foi, em média, de 10 processos por ano, o que corresponde a um processopara cada 6.000 ha por ano, relacionados, em sua maioria, com a conversão do uso da terra, depecuária para agricultura, o que requer o corte de árvores isoladas e a recuperação de áreas depreservação permanente. Uma vez que apenas 8% dos processos foram encaminhados ao órgãogestor, a demanda real foi inferior a um décimo da demanda potencial. Nos raros casos em queo órgão gestor foi ouvido, o parecer contrário do gestor nem sempre foi suficiente para impediro licenciamento solicitado. Com base no estudo de caso da Estação Ecológica de Assis, concluiu-se quea legislação correlata ao licenciamento ambiental ao redor de unidades de conservação não foi aplicadade modo a impedir a instalação de atividades potencialmente impactantes aos ecossistemas naturais.Legal recognition of the buffer zone of protected areas has been considered themost powerful tool to prevent environmental impacts to the natural ecosystems coming from thesurrounding areas. In order to analyze the demand for process analysis, the nature of the activitieswhose license has been requested and effectiveness of public policies in the implementation ofexisting legislation, we analyzed 155 cases that dealt with projects around the Assis EcologicalStation, SP, based on the 10 km radius from the perimeter of the protected area established byCONAMA Resolution No. 13/90. During the analyzed period (1990-2006, which precededthe definition of the buffer zone and its rules in the management plan, the potential demand forexamining applications for the environmental license was, on an average, 10 cases per year, whichcorresponds to a process for every 6,000 ha per year, mostly related to the conversion of land usefrom pasture to agriculture, which requires the cutting of individual trees and recovery of riparianforests. Since the opinion of the managing institution (Forestry Institute was requested in only 8%of cases, the actual demand was less than a tenth of the potential demand. In the rare cases wherethe Forestry Institute was listened, it was not always enough to prevent the licensing approval.Based on the case study of Assis Ecological Station, we concluded that the accomplishmentof the existing laws has not been adequate to ensure the effectiveness of the buffer zone.

  17. Les choses…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Curie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans la culture tant des Monuments historiques que de l’Université française, le monumental a longtemps prévalu sur l’objet, peinture, sculpture ou objet d’art qui, lui, dans l’inconscient collectif, relevait tout naturellement du musée. Dans la pensée et dans les goûts d’André Chastel, les catégories n’étaient pas aussi manichéennes et à l’Inventaire, malgré une certaine prééminence de l’architecture, l’objet - au sens large - tint, dès le début de l’aventure, une place non négligeable. Le premier des Vocabulaires parus, en 1969, fut consacré à la tapisserie, suivi, en une vingtaine d’années, par la sculpture, les objets et le mobilier civil domestique, le vitrail…In the culture of France’s historic monuments, as in French universities, the monumental has long been considered as more important than sculptures or works of art, generally seen as more to do with museums. In the writings and tastes of André Chastel, however, the categories were not so clear-cut and, at the French Inventory, although architecture has enjoyed a certain pre-eminence, the object, in the broadest sense of the term, has been taken into consideration form the outset. Over 17,000 items now feature in the national database Palissy, on moveable objects. The first scientific vocabulary, published by the Inventory services in 1969, was devoted to tapestry and, over the last twenty years, other vocabularies have dealt with sculpture, domestic civil furniture and stained glass.

  18. L'Europe en images… à la manière des offices de tourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Tabeaud

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L'activité touristique, véritable industrie, fait l'objet de stratégies marketing tout comme n'importe quel bien de consommation. Le désir d'évasion est généré par la publicité y compris dans sa forme la plus institutionnelle : les brochures nationales d'office de tourisme. Ce travail propose une analyse systématique, d'un corpus de brochures européennes, axée sur le premier élément arrivant au regard : l'image. Si l'image veut être vectrice d'une identité territoriale propre, nous démontrons que la plupart des brochures propose des images de construction similaire tant sur la forme (photographies couleurs prises en plan moyen, aux couleurs froides que sur le fond (paysages "naturels" estivaux ou centres villes historiques. Finalement, les images pourraient très bien être interchangeables d'une brochure à l'autre… Quelle identité territoriale pour des images "a-territorialisées" ?The tourist activity, real industry, is the object of marketing strategies quite as any consumer good. The desire of evasion is generated by the advertising including in its most institutional shape: the national brochures of tourist office. This work proposes a systematic analysis, of a corpus of European brochures, centered on the first element arriving at the glance: the image. If the image wants to be vector of an appropriate territorial identity, we demonstrate that most of the brochures propose images of similar construction as well as on the shape (photograph colors taken in average plan, in the cold colors as on the bottom (summer "natural" landscapes or historic city centers. Finally, the images could very well be exchangeable from a brochure to the other one … What territorial identity for images "un-territorialized"?

  19. Study and realization of an electron linear accelerator. Dynamics of accelerated electrons; Etude et realisation d'un accelerateur lineaire d'electrons. Dynamique des electrons acceleres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-01

    The theoretical characteristics of the electron linear accelerator are: 30 MeV for the energy W{sub S} and 250 mA for the peak current I{sub c}. The main utilization is the intense production of fast neutrons by the reactions ({gamma},n) and ({gamma},f) induced in a target of natural uranium by the accelerated electrons. In the first part of the thesis, relative to the study and the realization of the accelerator, a new equation of dispersion is established analytically when the guide is loaded with round-edged irises. The relation is compared with the equation established by CHU and Hansen, WALKINSHAW, KVASIL in the case of a guide loaded with flat-edged irises. The experimental and theoretical curves of dispersion are compared. The accuracy of every relation of dispersion is estimated. The second part of the thesis is relative to the theoretical study of the electrons dynamics in the guide; it allows the derivation of the parameters of the beam: dispersion of phase, energy, dispersion of energy and the relation W{sub S} = f (I{sub c}). The results relative to the first experiments are given and compared with the theoretical expectations. (author) [French] Les caracteristiques nominales theoriques de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons sont: 30 MeV pour l'energie W{sub S} et 250 mA pour le courant de crete I{sub c}. L'utilisation principale envisagee est la production de neutrons rapides par les reactions ({gamma},n) et ({gamma},f) induites dans une cible d'uranium naturel par les electrons acceleres. Dans la premiere partie de la these relative a l'elude et a la realisation de l'accelerateur, une nouvelle equation de dispersion (ou equation aux frequences) est etablie analytiquement pour un guide charge par des iris a bord rond. Cette relation est comparee a celles etablies par CHU et HANSEN, WALKINSHAW, KVASIL dans le cas du guide charge par des iris a bord plat. On compare les courbes de dispersion theoriques et experimentales et on evalue la precision de

  20. EFFET DES TRAITEMENTS THERMIQUES SUR LA REACTION ENTRE DES COUCHES MINCES DE TITANE ET DES SUBSTRATS EN ACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Slimani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches minces du titane pur ont été déposées avec la méthode de pulvérisation cathodique sur des substrats en acier, type FF80 K-1 contenants ~1% mass. en carbone. La réaction entre les deux parties du système substrat-couche mince est activée avec des traitements thermiques sous vide dans l’intervalle de températures de 400 à900°Cpendant 30 minutes. Les Spectres de diffraction de rayons x confirment l’inter- diffusion des éléments  chimiques du système résultants la formation et la croissance des nouvelles phases en particulier le carbure binaire TiC ayant des caractéristiques thermomécaniques importantes. L’analyse morphologique des échantillons traités  avec le microscope électronique à balayage (MEB montre l’augmentation du flux de diffusion atomique avec la température de recuit, notamment la diffusion du manganèse et du fer vers la surface libre des échantillons aux températures élevées provoquant la dégradation des propriétés mécaniques des revêtements contrairement au premiers stades d’interaction où on a obtenu des bonnes valeurs de la microdureté.