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Sample records for premier ski resort

  1. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  2. Land degradation at the Stara Planina ski resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Ratko; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Radić, Boris; Nikić, Zoran; Vasiljević, Nevena

    2012-03-01

    The environmental impacts of ski resorts in the Balkan region are great and can lead to landscape degradation and loss of land functionality. In this study, we present an example of the negative effects of human activities at the Stara Planina ski resort in southeastern Serbia. The objective of this study is detailed analysis of the characteristics of environmental impacts at the Stara Planina. The management of the ski area and ski slope development caused severe degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The morphological characteristics of the area, lithological properties of the exposed material and climate conditions resulted in various geomorphic impacts, including rills, deep gullies, solifluctions and debris from rock weathering. Significant changes in land usage altered hydrological conditions, resulting in more frequent torrential floods in the downstream sections of the Zubska River and increased the sediment yield. Environmental impacts were analyzed in the immediate and wider zones of the ski resort in accordance with the specific topography and visual exposure. The restoration and erosion control measures have stopped degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results show the importance of considering lithological (the type and characteristics of minerals present) and hydrological (precipitation, water storage capacity of soil, runoff) factors under the conditions of significant changes in land usage. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  3. Land Degradation at the Stara Planina Ski Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Ratko; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Radić, Boris; Nikić, Zoran; Vasiljević, Nevena

    2012-03-01

    The environmental impacts of ski resorts in the Balkan region are great and can lead to landscape degradation and loss of land functionality. In this study, we present an example of the negative effects of human activities at the Stara Planina ski resort in southeastern Serbia. The objective of this study is detailed analysis of the characteristics of environmental impacts at the Stara Planina. The management of the ski area and ski slope development caused severe degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The morphological characteristics of the area, lithological properties of the exposed material and climate conditions resulted in various geomorphic impacts, including rills, deep gullies, solifluctions and debris from rock weathering. Significant changes in land usage altered hydrological conditions, resulting in more frequent torrential floods in the downstream sections of the Zubska River and increased the sediment yield. Environmental impacts were analyzed in the immediate and wider zones of the ski resort in accordance with the specific topography and visual exposure. The restoration and erosion control measures have stopped degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results show the importance of considering lithological (the type and characteristics of minerals present) and hydrological (precipitation, water storage capacity of soil, runoff) factors under the conditions of significant changes in land usage. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  4. Limitations of modeling snow in ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Robert; Abegg, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The body of literature on snow modeling in a ski area operations context has been growing over the last decades in an accelerating speed. The majority of snow model applications for ski areas can be found in the climate change impacts literature. These studies differ in many aspects: the type of model used; the meteorological variables used in the models; the spatial and temporal resolution of the meteorological variables; the method how the climate change signal is derived and applied in the model concept; the number of climate models and emission scenarios used and consequently the handling of uncertainties; the indicators used to interpret the impacts for the skiing tourism industry; the incorporation of adaptation measures (e.g. snowmaking); and the geographical scale of analysis. In this contribution we will present a review of approaches used for modeling snow conditions in a ski area context. The major limitations both from a scientific as well as from a users' perspective will be discussed and solutions for shortcomings of existing approaches will be presented.

  5. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  6. Risk assessment in the North Caucasus ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton Y.; Seliverstov, Yury G.; Glazovskaya, Tatyana G.; Turchaninova, Alla S.

    2016-10-01

    Avalanches pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of Russia. The constant growth of economic activity, and therefore the increased avalanche hazard, in the North Caucasus region lead to demand for the development of large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments.The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation (Federal Law 21.12.1994 N 68-FZ, 2016). However, Russian guidelines (SNIP 11-02-96, 2013; SNIP 22-02-2003, 2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. Thus, we discuss these problems by presenting a new avalanche risk assessment approach, with the example of developing but poorly researched ski resort areas. The suggested method includes the formulas to calculate collective and individual avalanche risk. The results of risk analysis are shown in quantitative data that can be used to determine levels of avalanche risk (appropriate, acceptable and inappropriate) and to suggest methods to decrease the individual risk to an acceptable level or better. The analysis makes it possible to compare risk quantitative data obtained from different regions, analyze them and evaluate the economic feasibility of protection measures.

  7. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  8. Exploring the negotiation thesis application among ski resort tourists: a segmentation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The negotiation thesis offers a framework for understanding the participation decision making of tourists. Unlike previous studies that investigate the causal relationship between constraints and tourists’ revisit intention, this study identified distinct segments of ski tourist based on the relative strength of constraints experienced and then investigated their decision-making process across a sample of 1,348 tourists of ski resorts. Chi-Squared Automated Interaction Detection (CHAID) analy...

  9. Forecasting the Effects of 21st Century Climate Change on Eighteen Ski Resorts in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Soroke, M.

    2013-12-01

    This research uses climate data generated from ClimateWNA to determine the effect future global warming will have on eighteen ski resorts in the western United States. The ski resorts selected for this study range in latitude from 48.5° N (Whitefish Mountain Resort, Montana) to 33.4° N (Ski Apache Resort, New Mexico). ClimateWNA is a high quality spatially interpolated climate dataset program that contains historical datasets for the period 1901-2011 and future climate datasets generated by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 climate models. From the ClimateWNA program, three emission scenarios (A1B, A2, and B1) were applied to a subset of selected climate models to produce 20 climate forecasts for each of 2050 and 2080. Three derived climate variables were selected to determine the influence of climate change on the viability of the ski resorts: snowfall, number of frost days, and degree days ski resorts depending on the model and emission scenario used when compared to the 1961-1990 normal period. 2050 and 2080 projections generally suggest declines in ski resort viability because of reductions in snowfall, warmer temperatures, and shorter seasons even under best-case scenarios. However, some of the best-case model predictions do suggest an increase in snowfall in a few of the resorts studied. Worst-case scenarios almost always indicate significant declines in all of the climate variables.

  10. What Crested Butte Mountain Resort Feels the Ski Industry Is, In General, Looking for in College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Rick

    This paper describes general employment requirements for employment candidates in the skiing industry, as seen by Crested Butte Mountain Resort personnel. General educational requirements are primarily business skills, including: communications, computers, math, finance, accounting, economics, personnel administration, and psychology. Other…

  11. Assessment of the economic risk for the ski resorts of changes in snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the present time, a snowy cluster of mountain ski resorts is intensively progressing in vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. This region in the West Caucasus (Russia is characterized by relatively warm climate conditions. The snow cover thickness (of 1% insurance in area of the Aibga mountain range may reach 8.1 m. But the snow cover thickness is not the only characteristic of the mountain skiing attractiveness. According to the Swiss standards a mountain ski resort can be considered reliable if during seven seasons of ten ones the snow cover with minimal thickness of 30–50 cm exists for a time not shorter than 100 days during a period from 1st December till 15th April.According to the forecast, during future decades the calculated amount of solid precipitation should reduce by 25–30% in mountain regions on the south macro-slope of the Great Caucasus. As the calculations show, by 2041–2050 the maximal decade thickness of snow cover will decrease by 29–35% while a number of days with snow – by 35–40%. If this is the case, artificial snow will be needed in addition to the natural one. But, under warm climate conditions using of plants for artificial snow production will require a certain perfecting of the nowadays technologies, and very likely, with use of chemicals. That is why a shadowing of existing mountain ski routes by means of the tree planting along them could be ecologically more promising. As for the mountain ski resorts of the West Caucasus, we should mention a possible weakening of the avalanche activity as a potential positive effect of the climate warming predicted by models.

  12. Using GIS Techniques to Create the Catalog of Romanian Ski Resorts

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    MÃDÃLINA TEODOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project is to use the geographical and geomorphological information by means of GIS techniques in order to create an atlas book (catalog of the Romanian ski resorts. The methodology used to create the atlas aimed to create unitary, complete and complex maps for all Romanian resorts. The maps contain all the necessary information for tourists in order to choose the suitable resort, either for a level of training, preference or depending on proximity in relation to their location. The utility of this work is sustained by the necessity of having such a catalog in Romania that provides a wide range of information. The English version of this atlas could very well attract foreign tourists. All in all, the goal is to promote Romania as a touristic destination on an internal and international level.

  13. Local reduction of decadal glacier thickness loss through mass balance management in ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay; Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin

    2016-11-01

    For Austrian glacier ski resorts, established in the 1970s and 1980s during a period of glacier advance, negative mass balances with resulting glacier area loss and decrease in surface elevation present an operational challenge. Glacier cover, snow farming, and technical snow production were introduced as adaptation measures based on studies on the effect of these measures on energy and mass balance. After a decade of the application of the various measures, we studied the transition from the proven short-term effects of the measures on mass balance to long-term effects on elevation changes. Based on lidar digital elevation models and differential GPS measurements, decadal surface elevation changes in 15 locations with mass balance management were compared to those without measures (apart from piste grooming) in five Tyrolean ski resorts on seven glaciers. The comparison of surface elevation changes presents clear local differences in mass change, and it shows the potential to retain local ice thickness over 1 decade. Locally up to 21.1 m ± 0.4 m of ice thickness was preserved on mass balance managed areas compared to non-maintained areas over a period of 9 years. In this period, mean annual thickness loss in 15 of the mass balance managed profiles is 0.54 ± 0.04 m yr-1 lower (-0.23 ± 0.04 m yr-1on average) than in the respective reference areas (-0.78 ± 0.04 m yr-1). At two of these profiles the surface elevation was preserved altogether, which is promising for a sustainable maintenance of the infrastructure at glacier ski resorts. In general the results demonstrate the high potential of the combination of mass balance management by snow production and glacier cover, not only in the short term but also for multi-year application to maintain the skiing infrastructure.

  14. Degradation of landscape in Serbian ski resorts-aspects of scale and transfer of impacts

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    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski resorts (Kopaonik, Zlatibor, Stara planina, Divčibare are very strong, leading to degradation of unique mountain landscape, and functionality losses. Processes of urbanization, construction or improvement works, cause hard degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The logging, large excavation activities, erosion, noise and water pollution constantly impact the habitats of all animal and plant species residing in small areas. The process leads to severe fragmentation of the remaining old-growth forests, endangering future subsistence. Consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition, with high concentration of pollutants, in reservoirs for water supply. Legal nature-protection standards are weakly implemented in regional ski areas. Effective protection of landscape in Serbian ski-areas is based on careful considerations of impact assessment at all levels of planning (spatial and urban planning and designing activities, which enables application of restoration concept, in accordance with general goals of environmental protection (preserving biodiversity, CO2 sequestration, attenuation of effects of global climate changes.

  15. Failures in Building Partnership for Success in the Competitive Market: The Case of Polish Ski Resorts

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    Michal Zemla

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of local stakeholders’ collaboration for success on the tourism market is a popular one, however research is usually devoted to well established Western economies. Created in this way, rules of cooperation are not fully suitable for new democracies in Central and Eastern European countries. Western standards of cooperation can not be achieved in Polish winter sports destinations, which is mirrored in the analyzed example of the Polish biggest ski resort – Szczyrk. Mutual mistrust and hostile attitude are typical for stakeholders in this example. The very low competitiveness level of the product is the most visible effect. Additionally, ski product development in Poland is highly criticized from the environmental point of view, which results in another difficult to manage, severe conflict sourced in different interpretations of the idea of sustainable tourism development.

  16. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days < 0°C (a measure of winter season coldness) using the spatially interpolated climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days < 0°C was also estimated from recorded climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  17. PROSNOW - Provision of a prediction system allowing for management and optimization of snow in Alpine ski resorts

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    Morin, Samuel; Ghislain, Dubois

    2017-04-01

    Snow on the ground is a critical resource for mountain regions to sustain river flow, to provide freshwater input to ecosystems and to support winter tourism, in particular in ski resorts. The level of activity, employment, turnover and profit of hundreds of ski resorts in the European Alps primarily depends on meteorological conditions, in particular natural snowfall but also increasingly conditions favourable for snowmaking (production of machine made snow, also referred to as technical snow). Ski resorts highly depend on appropriate conditions for snowmaking (mainly the availability of cold water, as well as sub-freezing temperature with sufficiently low humidity conditions). However, beyond the time scale of weather forecasts (a few days), managers of ski resorts have to rely on various and scattered sources of information, hampering their ability to cope with highly variable meteorological conditions. Improved anticipation capabilities at all time scales, spanning from "weather forecast" (up to 5 days typically) to "climate prediction" at the seasonal scale (up to several months) holds significant potential to increase the resilience of socio-economic stakeholders and supports their real-time adaptation potential. To address this issue, the recently funded (2017-2020) H2020 PROSNOW project will build a demonstrator of a meteorological and climate prediction and snow management system from one week to several months ahead, specifically tailored to the needs of the ski industry. PROSNOW will apply state-of-the-art knowledge relevant to the predictability of atmospheric and snow conditions, and investigate and document the added value of such services. The project proposes an Alpine-wide system (including ski resorts located in France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy). It will join and link providers of weather forecasts and climate predictions at the seasonal scale, research institutions specializing in snowpack modelling, a relevant ensemble of at least

  18. Confronting the demand and supply of snow seasonal forecasts for ski resorts : the case of French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Ghislain

    2017-04-01

    Alpine ski resorts are highly dependent on snow, which availability is characterized by a both a high inter-annual variability and a gradual diminution due to climate change. Due to this dependency to climatic resources, the ski industry is increasingly affected by climate change: higher temperatures limit snow falls, increase melting and limit the possibilities of technical snow making. Therefore, since the seventies, managers drastically improved their practices, both to adapt to climate change and to this inter-annual variability of snow conditions. Through slope preparation and maintenance, snow stock management, artificial snow making, a typical resort can approximately keep the same season duration with 30% less snow. The ski industry became an activity of high technicity The EUPORIAS FP7 (www.euporias.eu) project developed between 2012 and 2016 a deep understanding of the supply and demand conditions for the provision of climate services disseminating seasonal forecasts. In particular, we developed a case study, which allowed conducting several activities for a better understanding of the demand and of the business model of future services applied to the ski industry. The investigations conducted in France inventoried the existing tools and databases, assessed the decision making process and data needs of ski operators, and provided evidences that some discernable skill of seasonal forecasts exist. This case study formed the basis of the recently funded PROSNOW H2020 project. We will present the main results of EUPORIAS project for the ski industry.

  19. One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's glacier ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay

    2016-04-01

    After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when melt affected Austria's glaciers up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of glacier covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the glacier was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of glacier melt in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying glacier mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the glacier area (ski resort area and less than one per mille of the total glacier area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. Glacier covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite glacier dynamics, glacier surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.

  20. Assessing the efficiency of machine made snow production using observations in ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; Thibert, Emmanuel; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The interannual variability of snow conditions has encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However the efficiency of the method i.e. the ratio of water actually converted into snow on ski fields to the water used for production may highly differ depending on meteorological conditions and is still poorly known. Previous investigations of water losses accounting for sublimation and evaporation estimated that 5 to 10% of the water was lost during the snowmaking process. A recent study consisting in a field campaign on four distinct sites (2014-2015 winter season) estimated that water losses may exceed 50% and speculated this to be due to a combination of wind effects (suspension, further sublimation and transport beyond ski slopes limits) and trapping by the vegetation. The present study introduces a method we set up to assess water losses during the snowmaking process by using differential GPS measurements on machine made snow piles: snow depth observations are interpolated on a regular spatial grid from the originally variable grid. Snow and water volumes are deduced thanks to complementary density measurements. The uncertainty of the interpolation method was assessed using a high-resolution laser scanner of a given snow pile and with respect to a digital terrain. Uncertainties on snow depth, snow density and the resulting water equivalent volume are presented and discussed. The method provided relevant measurements of water volumes within a 20 to 30 m distance to the snowgun. Beyond this distance, the relative error due to increasing interpolation error and decreasing snow depth highlighted the limits of the method. However water volumes were derived in several occasions during the season and confirmed that a significant ratio of the water volume either falls beyond a 30 m distance to the snowgun or is lost due to sublimation and evaporation.

  1. Snowmaking in ski resorts: spatial decision support for management of snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubier, Jean-Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail; Doctor, Marut; Schumacher, Michael; Timonin, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, the question of snowmaking that ensures activity in ski areas is controversial, because solutions to face climate change and sustainable development seem to be opposed to the economical needs of winter tourism. Actually, according to the Advisory Body on Climate Change (OCCC), we can expect an average rise of the limit of 0 degrees to 360 m in 2050. The application of the rule of 100 days (30 cm of snow for 100 days) shows that 1 ° increase in temperature reduced by 20% the number of viable skiing areas. Snowmaking seems thus to be a solution for continuing an optimal economical usage of the ski resorts. The usage of machine-made snow raises environmental issues which can no longer be denied. [Badre et al.2009] However, these issues should not be disconnected from local economic specificities of the high mountain valleys, where the ski economy is critical. This paper presents a study at the economic-environmental interface. The aim is to develop a tool for managing the production of artificial snow, with the goal to: • Reduce production costs and improve profit margins of companies operating ski areas; • Reduce environmental impacts by an optimized snow production "just in time". In this way, water and energy needs will be reduced. The problem of managing the snow is a highly complex problem: it cannot be solved analytically. Indeed, changes in height of snow are subject to intakes of snow (natural or manufactured) associated with changing weather conditions and the impact of skiers. Therefore, the work presented in this paper has chosen a probabilistic approach in a simulation using neural networks to predict and to manage snow height. We do this in two points: • We measure snowpack heights with radars mounted on grooming machines; • We produce a snow cover prediction in relation with weather prediction using a neuron network. This neural approach thus deals with the spatial prediction of snow cover [Kanevski et al., 2009] The

  2. Characterization of the artificially triggered avalanches in the MonterosaSki resort (North-western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Margherita; Brulport, A.; Freppaz, M.; Welf, A.; Purves, R.

    2010-05-01

    Artificially triggering methods are nowadays commonly used for avalanche prevention within ski-resorts. The knowledge of possible relations between the characteristics of the avalanche events and the snowpack and weather conditions might help to foresee the avalanche release probability after a favorable weather cycle. The forecast might be helped by models, like for example snowpack evolution models or nearest neighbor models. The latters are based on statistics performed on large databases where the avalanche events, together with the related snow and weather conditions, are well recorded. Within the Operational programme 'Italy - France (Alps - ALCOTRA)', Project "Gestion en sécurité des territories de montagne transfrontalière - Risk-Nat", from winter 2009-2010, in the MonterosaSki resort all the artificially triggered avalanches are registered with their characteristics (e.g. outline, type of avalanches, elevation, aspect), the triggering method (e.g. explosive, Daisy-Bell) and the snow and weather conditions. The aim of this project is to create a well documented database in order to perform some simple statistical analysis to find possible relation between the characteristics of the avalanches (e.g. type, size, run-out distance), the topography of the site (e.g. slope angle, aspect), snowpack condition (e.g. snow crystal type, snow temperature, density) and meteorological parameters (e.g. new snow, air temperature, wind). Moreover, the avalanche release method and the result of the triggering are recorded, in order to understand which are the most favorable conditions for avalanche release. This project is at its first operational winter, therefore in this work we present preliminary data concerning the study area, the methodology and the results from the first winter season, which might be useful to improve our knowledge about artificially triggered avalanches and to help the ski-piste security personnel to take decisions about the avalanche situation

  3. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  4. The Influence of El Niño and La Niña on Winter Climate Conditions at 138 Ski Resorts in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Mei Turney, A.

    2014-12-01

    This research examines the effect El Niño and La Niña have on the climate conditions of 138 ski resorts in western North America. Using ClimateWNA, monthly values for snowfall and degree days ski season months of December, January, February, and March. From this data, composite values were computed by summing the four months analyzed for each of the two variables, with the December value coming from the previous year. Regression analysis was used to see if a relationship exists between the two climate variables and a summed composite of the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) for the same four months. Correlation coefficients were determined by regressing the observations for the time period 1935 to 2012. The correlation coefficients were then mapped using ARCGIS to display possible spatial patterns across the study area. Different map symbols were used to identify whether the correlation coefficient was positive or negative, and whether it fell within four levels of statistical significance: P ≥ 0.01, P Ski Apache in New Mexico showed the opposite trend. Snowfall was found to be higher during La Niña events and lower with El Niño events for a number of resorts above 42° N latitude. Further, the strength of these correlations generally decreased with distance from the coast. Resorts in New Mexico and Arizona generally had more snowfall with El Niño and less snowfall with La Niña.

  5. Projections for Changes in Natural and Technical Snow Reliability of a Major Turkish Ski Resort by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Cenk Demiroglu, O.; Tufan Turp, M.; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has been and increasingly will be a major threat to the ski tourism industry whose survival is highly dependent on existence of snow cover of sufficient depth and duration. The common knowledge requires that in order for a ski resort to be viable, it has to perform operations for at least 100 days in seven out of ten winters. For this matter, it is now even more usual for the ski resorts to adapt to this issue by technical snowmaking. In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100 in air temperature, relative humidity, and snow depth climatology and variability with respect to the control period of 1970-2000 were assessed for the domain of a major ski resort in Turkey. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre, MPI-ESM-MR of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, GFDL-ESM2M of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory were downscaled to 10 km for the resort and its surrounding region. Both the projections and the downscaling were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC. The outputs on snow depth were used for a count of the changes on snow cover duration sufficient for skiing actitivies, signaling natural snow-reliability, whereas the outputs on air temperature and relative humidity were utilized for determination of wet-bulb temperatures. The latter measure was used to interpret the changes in the snowmaking capacity, in other words; technical snow-reliability, of the resort. This work was supported by the BU Reasearch Fund under the project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  6. The Study on Ski Facilities and Ski Equipments of the Ski Resorts in Our Country%我国滑雪市场滑雪设备和滑雪装备的调查研究——以沈阳市滑雪场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志海

    2015-01-01

    Using the literature reviews , visiting investigation and mathematical statistics to the ski Facilities and ski equipments of the four ski resorts in Shenyang by the comprehensive investigation and study, found that ski Facilities is almost imported brand, and high-end products of ski equipments are mainly imported, and only low-end products are domestic, that is to say, Sheny-ang ski market is occupied by foreign products. Suggestions:1 Try to reverse the backward situation of skiing products manufactur-ing of our country with the government support. 2 Improve the technical level and innovation ability of Chinese brand continuously. 3 develop high ,middle and low-end products comprehensively with abundant kinds of ski products to meet different needs.%运用文献资料法、走访调查法和数理统计法对沈阳4家滑雪场的滑雪设备和滑雪装备进行了全面调查研究,发现大型滑雪设备几乎都是进口品牌,滑雪装备的高端产品也以进口为主,只有滑雪装备的低端产品是以国产为主,我国滑雪市场的主要市场份额被国外产品占据着.建议:1 加大政府扶持力度扭转我国滑雪产品制造业的落后局面.2 国产品牌企业要不断提升自身的技术水平和创新能力.3 全面开发高中低端滑雪产品,丰富产品的种类,满足不同需求.

  7. Severe spinal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding: a 6-year review of a tertiary trauma centre for the Bernese Alps ski resorts, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Hasler, R M; Benneker, L; Zimmermann, H; Siebenrock, K A; Exadaktylos, A K

    2008-01-01

    To analyse the epidemiological data, injury pattern, clinical features and mechanisms of severe spinal injuries related to alpine skiing and snowboarding. A six-year review of all adult patients with severe spinal injuries sustained from alpine skiing or snowboarding. Tertiary trauma centre in Bern, Switzerland. All adult patients (over 16 years of age) admitted to a tertiary trauma centre from 1 July 2000, through 30 June 2006, were reviewed using a computerised database. From these records, a total of 728 patients injured from snow sports were identified. Severe spinal injuries (defined as spinal fractures, subluxations, dislocations or concomitant spinal cord injuries) were found in 73 patients (17 female, 56 male). The clinical features of these patients were reviewed with respect to epidemiological factors, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, and neurological status. The majority of severe spinal injuries (n = 63) were related to skiing. Fatal central-nervous injuries and transient or persistent neurological symptoms occurred in 28 patients (23 skiers, 5 snowboarders). None of the snowboarders suffered from persistent neurological sequelae. Snowboarders with severe spinal injuries (n = 10) were all male (p<0.05), and were significantly younger than skiers (p<0.001). The most commonly affected site was the lumbar spine. However, 39 patients (53.4%) suffered from injury pattern at two or more levels. With advances in technology and slope maintenance, skiers and snowboarders progress to higher skill levels and faster speeds more rapidly than ever before. Great efforts have been focused on reducing extremity injuries in snow sports, but until recently very little attention has been given to spinal injury prevention on the slopes. Suggestions for injury prevention include the use of spine protectors, participation on appropriate runs for ability level, proper fit and adjustment of equipment, and taking lessons with the goal of increasing ability and learning

  8. Research on the Management and Development Trend of the Ski Resorts in Beijing City%北京市滑雪场经营及发展趋势的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓华; 伊剑

    2014-01-01

    近十年来,北京滑雪场数量和规模迅速增加,对雪场运营的分析有助于了解其未来发展趋势。通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法对北京市滑雪场经营状况进行调查。以北京南山滑雪场、北京怀北国际滑雪场、北京渔阳国际滑雪场等为例,深入探讨北京滑雪场经营现状、影响北京滑雪场健康发展的因素,认为北京滑雪场具有向超级滑雪度假区方向发展、向四季度假旅游胜地方向发展、向着生态环境保护性开发方向发展等发展趋势,以促进北京滑雪场运行更加规范、管理更加科学。%Analyzing the operation of the ski resorts in Beijing city is helpful to understand the development trend of these resorts, which rapidly increased in quantity and scale in the past decade. With the methods of literature, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, the paper has an investigation of the ski resorts' operation in Beijing city. With the example of the ski resorts in Beijing city such as Nanshan resort, Huaibei international resort, Yuyang international resort, it in-depth discusses these resorts' operation situation and inlfuencing factors. It thinks their developments tend to super holiday resort, tourist attraction at all seasons, protective exploitation of ecological environment. Its purpose is to advance the more standardized and more scientiifc development of the ski resorts in Beijing city.

  9. Research on the Management Dilemma and Development Strategy of the Ski Resorts in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省滑雪场经营困境与发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 叶海波; 陈艳霞

    2016-01-01

    京张联合申奥的成功,在中国掀起了一阵崭新的滑雪热潮,随着崇礼县滑雪市场的崛起,黑龙江省昔日“滑雪霸主”的身份岌岌可危。从黑龙江省滑雪场发展现状入手,通过对问题根源的深入探究,以及对优质滑雪场的成功经验进行借鉴,为黑龙江省滑雪场未来的发展提出融合文化特征及地域优势,培育世界一流滑雪品牌、建立完善的法制保障体系,培养专业滑雪人才,提高服务水平,完善管理机制、把握市场动向,创新营销模式等策略,以期实现黑龙江省滑雪市场的壮大繁荣。%The success of Beijing and Zhangjiakou jointly bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics sets off a new upsurge of skiing in China. With the rise of the ski market in Chongli county, the former ski overlord of Heilongjiang province is in a critical situation. Starting with the current development of ski resorts in Heilongjiang province,after deep explorating the root of the problem and learning the successful experience of some high quality ski resorts, the paper puts forward the strategy for the ski resorts' development in Heilongjiang province such as integrating the cultural characteristics and regional advantages, developing a world-class ski brand, establishing a sound Legal safeguard system, training professional ski talents, improving service level, perfecting management mechanism, grasping market trends, innovating marketing mode. The purpose is to achieve the growth of the ski market in Heilongjiang province.

  10. [Skiing injuries: analysis in a German ski area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, M; Beyer, M

    1989-12-01

    An analysis of frequencies, causes and injury patterns in skiing with emphasis to knee injuries was done. In our clinic next to the slopes of the ski resort Pfronten and the skiing region Ostallgäu skiing injuries contribute with 58% of all stationary treated sports injuries to a big part of our in-patients. Out of all skiing injuries 52% are ligament lesions and 63% concern the knee joint. Thus the knee ligament lesions are leading in our sports related orthopaedic surgery. The results of this analysis were compared with data from Swiss skiing areas and Austrian and German university clinics. Possible ways of injury prophylaxis are presented.

  11. Ski Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In cooperation with Raichle Molitor USA Inc. and the international Raichle organization, Comfort Products developed the Raichle Flexon concept in ski boots. The Flexon concept is an adaptation of the accordion-like corrugations of extravehicular space suit joints, which allows ski boots to flex without significant distortion. The design provides immediate transmission of power and therefore precision skiing. Comfort Products also applied heating element circuitry from Apollo astronaut's clothing to foot-warming devices in their boots in the 1970s.

  12. Ski club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski club

    2013-01-01

    For it 50 anniversary the ski club CERN organise a conference the Wednesday 23th of January from 7:00 pm to  8:30 pm in the council room at CERN. The subject of the conference will be : « Approche scientifique du ski : de la perception à l’action… », by Nicolas Coulmy, responsible of the technical and scientific department of the French Federation of Ski.

  13. Ski club

    CERN Document Server

    Ski club

    2013-01-01

    Gym Comme chaque année, la première activité à reprendre du service au SKI Club du CERN est la gymnastique ; les cours reprendront le mardi 17 septembre prochain. Si vous voulez améliorer votre condition physique en vue de la prochaine saison de ski (alpin ou de fond, ou snowboard), venez participer à nos cours au CO La Golette à Meyrin. Vous pouvez déjà vous inscrire en vous rendant sur le site du Ski club : http://cern.ch/club-ski/.

  14. Current Situation of the Skiing Competition Resorts Operation and Management after the 24th World University Winter Games%第24届世界大学生冬季运动会滑雪比赛场所赛后经营管理的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕冰; 李江

    2013-01-01

    After the 24th World University Winter Games, the operation and management of skiing competi-tion resorts can use the reputation and international influence to improve the social and economic benefits or not, which will have important reference value and enlightening role for using large comprehensive interna-tional competition venues and having reasonable marketing, scientific management of Chinese skiing compe-tition resorts.The investigation shows that the operation of snow competition venues has become an important resources of Heilongjiang ice -snow sports tourism, and provide teaching and training base for colleges and other sports industries.At the same time, it’s used for undertaking Chinese and international snow competi-tions.But in the field of management, lack of professional managers, administrative management mode of public institution, less development capital and its limited source restrict the economic and social benefits maximum of these skiing resorts.%  大冬会滑雪比赛场所的赛后经营、管理能否利用赛会的知名度、美誉度和国际影响提高其社会效益和经济效益,对大型综合性国际比赛场馆(所)的使用具有重要的借鉴价值,对国内滑雪比赛场所的合理营销、科学管理具有启示作用。大冬会雪上项目场地赛后经营与管理的调查表明,雪上项目比赛场所在经营上已经成为黑龙江省重要的冰雪体育旅游资源,并为高校、其他体育产业提供教学和训练基地,同时承办国内外雪上项目的竞赛;但在管理方面,缺乏专业的管理人才,管理模式的事业单位行政管理方式,以及发展资金少、来源有限等问题,制约着大冬会滑雪场所经济效益和社会效益的最大化。

  15. Ski Club

    CERN Document Server

    Ski Club

    2012-01-01

    René Oberli, un très bon ami et un des membres importants des débuts du Ski Club CERN est décédé à Noël 2011. Membre co-fondateur du Ski Club CERN en 1963, René Oberli a été 13 ans au comité dont 11 ans en tant que président. Grace à son action, le Ski Club a pris de l’ampleur, et était devenu un club actif et familial, proposant des cours de ski pour enfants et adultes, des week-ends de ski, des randonnées pédestres en été. René était aussi un moniteur de ski très apprécié et a enseigné le ski pendant de longues années. Nous nous souviendrons de sa grande compétence, de sa gentillesse, de sa bonne humeur et de son enthousiasme.  

  16. Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski Club

    2012-01-01

    The Ski Club CERN invites you to a Public Information Meeting Thursday, 8th November at 6:30 pm Filtration Plant (222/R–001) for the presentation of its activities during the season 2012/2013. After the presentation, the people responsible for the different sections will be available to answer your questions and to provide you with detailed information about our activities. Come and learn more about our club over a drink! For more information on our activities please have look at our web site: http://club-ski.web.cern.ch/club-ski/

  17. Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski Club

    2011-01-01

    The Ski Club CERN invites you to a Public Information Meeting Thursday, 3rd November at 6:30 pm Council Chamber (503/1–001) for the presentation of its activities during the season 2011/2012. After the presentation, the people responsible for the different sections will be available to answer your questions and to provide you with detailed information about our activities. Come and learn more about our club over a drink! For more information on our activities please have look at our web site: http://club-ski.web.cern.ch/club-ski/

  18. Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ski Club

    2013-01-01

    The registration for the ski season 2013-2014 is open. The standard permanences for the inscriptions will start: Thursday, November 14th at 6 pm CERN, Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504) (1st floor) Old members can collect their Carte neige from the 28th of november. New members and members who did not have a carte neige before must produce a medical certificate certifying that there are no medical reasons for which they should not be allowed to ski (french (legally correct) formulation : certificat médical de "non-contre indication à la pratique du ski"). You can obtain one from your family doctor.

  19. Ski club

    CERN Document Server

    Ski club

    2015-01-01

    The ski season 2015-2016 is approaching! An information evening will take place: Thursday, November 5th, at 6.30 pm in the Salle de Pas Perdus (next to the Council Chamber) Online registration to the Ski Club activities will open the same evening at http://cern.ch/club-ski. Regular permanences will take place every Thursday starting with November 12th, at 6 pm in the 1st floor of Bld. 504 (Restaurant 2). All members can collect their Carte Neige from the 26th of November. New members and members who did not have a Carte Neige before must provide when signing up a medical certificate certifying that there are no medical restrictions for practicing ski activities (French legally correct formulation: certificat médical de "non-contre indication à la pratique du ski"). You can obtain one from your family doctor: certificates in English, French, Italian, German, Spanish are accepted. Please note that you are the only responsible for the validity of your medical certificate ...

  20. Investigations on socio economic indicators of French Alps ski industry from an explicit spatial modelling of managed snow on ski slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; François, Hugues; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Investigations of the capacity of ski resorts to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of natural snow scarcity through snow management (grooming, snowmaking) have been realized in most of the major regions in terms of international ski offer although not in the French Alps hitherto. The present work therefore introduces an innovative approach for the investigation of socio economic implications of changes in snow conditions for the French Alps ski resorts based on a panel of 129 resorts representing 96% of the total French Alps ski lifts infrastructures. We integrated detailed spatial representations of ski resorts (including priority areas for snowmaking equipment) along with physically based snowpack modelling (including the physical impact of grooming and snowmaking). The viability of ski resorts was further adressed thanks to a commonly used rule based on the snow season duration at the village and ski lifts average elevations along with the development of original viability indicators of snow conditions in the French Alps ski resorts based on the specific periods for the economic success of winter sports: Christmas and February school holidays. Such indicators were correlated to the number of ski lifts tickets sales over the 2001 - 2014 period and proved to be relevant to investigate and predict the evolutions of ski lifts tickets sales under the current ski market conditions in the French Alps. Our results outlined the contrast of snow conditions between French Alps ski resorts, even when accounting for snow management, particularly regarding the geographical location of resorts (Southern versus Northern Alps), the size and related elevation range of ski resorts. Our physically based approach also allowed to compute the water and energy requirements for the production of Machine Made snow since the start of the development of snowguns in the French Alps. Our computations proved to be strongly correlated to the observed amounts of water from the

  1. Historical Way of Sochi Development: From Resort to Olympic Games Host City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article traces historical way of destination development from resort to Winter Olympic Games host city, discloses the unusual method of natural resources use both for resort treatment and winter sports development. The characteristic of unique natural and climatic conditions and curative factors of the resort, such as mineral springs, landscapes, climate, Esto Sadok, Roza Khutor, Krasnaya Ployana, Laura ski resorts is presented. The article analyzes sports facilities and the use of Sochi as a center for athletes’ rehabilitation. The future use of Olympic facilities, both exhibition, shopping and entertainment and business centers is revealed. The zone of international hospitality will enable Sochi to develop as international resort.

  2. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  3. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  4. Vulnerability assessment of skiing-dependent businesses to the effects of climate change in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Michael

    This qualitative study examines the potential positive and negative socio-economic impacts that may emerge from the long-term effects of climate change on skiing-dependent businesses in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada. My goal was to determine whether or not skiing-related tourism in the parks in the 2020s and 2050s is more or less socio-economically vulnerable to the effects of climate change on snow cover, temperatures and ski season length at ski resorts in the parks. My study explored the level of awareness and personal perceptions of 60 skiing-dependent business managers about how the impact of climate change on ski resorts may influence future socio-economics of ski tourism businesses. I employed a vulnerability assessment approach and adopted some elements of grounded theory. My primary data sources are interviews with managers and the outcome of the geographical factors index (GFI). Supporting methods include: an analysis and interpretation of climate model data and an interpretation of the economic analysis of skiing in the parks. The interview data were sorted and coded to establish concepts and findings by interview questions, while the GFI model rated and ranked 24 regional ski resorts in the Canadian Cordillera. The findings answered the research questions and helped me conclude what the future socio-economic vulnerability may be of skiing-dependent businesses in the parks. The interviews revealed that managers are not informed about climate change and they have not seen any urgency to consider the effects on business. The GFI revealed that the ski resorts in the parks ranked in the top ten of 24 ski resorts in the Cordillera based on 14 common geographical factors. The economic reports suggest skiing is the foundation of the winter economy in the parks and any impact on skiing would directly impact other skiing-dependent businesses. Research indicates that the effects of climate change may have less economic impact on skiing

  5. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  6. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  7. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  8. 14 medals for the CERN Ski Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    From 22 to 29 January, the ski resort of La Clusaz in Haute Savoie hosted the 11th Winter Atomiades. With nine gold medals and four silver medals in cross-country skiing, and a bronze medal in downhill skiing, the team from the CERN Ski Club finished third in the medals table.   Group photo at the 2011 Atomiades Organised by the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, nearly 260 participants from 15 research centres throughout Europe competed against each other in this skiing event. Each in their own discipline and age category, the fourteen members of the CERN team defended the colours of the Organization in the spirit of fun and fair play: “I had a really good week,” explained Simone Campana from the IT Department. “There was a great atmosphere. I’m only sorry that there was no general ranking this year. Let’s hope they’ll think about having one next time!” Despite the competition, the event is ...

  9. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... new facility would include a fueling station and storm water management system. A water supply line... alternatives. This alternative will offer no changes to the parking within the permit area. It will be fully...

  10. Ski resorts in crisis and territorial construction in French Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vlès, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of inter-municipal relations in regenerating or restructuring the economy of mountain tourist areas is well suited to an analysis in terms of governance. Focussing on the negotiation, consultation and cooperation processes between the public and private spheres, and associated networks of actors, provides an opportunity to assess the ties of solidarity in the management of crises. More specifically, this study examines inter-municipal relations in the context of the crisis now ...

  11. Structural and functional characterization of the yeast Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 complex

    OpenAIRE

    Halbach, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 (SKI) complex is a conserved multi-protein assembly required for the cytoplasmic functions of the exosome, including messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover, surveillance and interference. The helicase Ski2, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein Ski3 and the �-propeller Ski8 assemble in a heterotetramer with 1:1:2 stoichiometry. While the function of the Ski2-Ski3-Ski8 complex as a general cofactor of the cytoplasmic exosome has been well established, it remains largely uncle...

  12. How alpine heathlands response to the snow cover change on the ski slope? Long-lasting ski slope impact case study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zeidler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and duration of snow cover are important variables that affect ecosystem processes in the alpine zone. The establishment of ski resorts dramatically change their surrounding environment and ski slopes represent significant anthropogenic impact in the mountains. We assessed the changes in environmental factors, phenology, growth, and reproductive performance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, a dominant species of alpine heathlands, caused by a “nature-friendly” managed ski slope (i.e., without artificial snow and machine grading at permanent plots established on the ski slope under operations (inside the ski slope and on an unaffected control area (outside the ski slope. A lower mean temperature and a shorter time of great temperature fluctuation during snow melting, a longer time span of snow cover, and a higher snow water equivalent were observed inside the ski slope compared to outside it. Due to changed environmental conditions, the beginning of growth was postponed, and a delay in phenological development was observed in the bilberry at the ski slope. However, bilberry ripened both inside and outside the ski slope in a similar period and showed similar cover and even higher flower and fruit densities inside the ski slope compared with natural surroundings. The persistence of bilberry was not deteriorated and its performance was even better inside the ski slope. On the ski slope, managed snow cover can reduce the potential vegetation shifts due to expected impact of the climate warming. That should be taken into account in conservation and management planning.

  13. Design of alpine skis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Alison Audrey

    Models were developed to calculate the mechanical properties and the turning characteristics of alpine skis. The skis considered are constructed of layers of materials which may include wood, foam, metal, plastics, and fiber reinforced composites. The ski may be manufactured with or without camber and sidecut. The first model, and the corresponding SKI-MECH computer code, yields the mass, the bending and torsional stiffness distributions along the length, the flex, the twist, the natural frequencies, and the pressure distribution along the base of the ski. The second model, and the corresponding SKI-TURN code, simulates the motion of a skier of given height, weight, and skill level going down a smooth slope while executing a constant radius turn. The computer code provides the time it requires the skier to complete the turn. Both the SKI-MECH and SKI-TURN codes were verified by comparing the outputs of these codes to laboratory data and to data generated by skiers executing turns on a hill. The results of the model and the data are in good agreement lending confidence to the models and the computer codes. Numerical results are also presented which illustrate the usefulness of the computer codes for assessing the performance of skis and shed light on the role sidecut plays in affecting an efficient turn.

  14. a Study on Mental Representations for Realistic Visualization the Particular Case of Ski Trail Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Dalmasso, A.; Murat, M.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making) and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  15. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  16. Ecological impacts of revegetation and management practices of ski slopes in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Katja; Tolvanen, Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs.

  17. Numerical simulation of a turning alpine ski during recreational skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Tada, N

    1996-09-01

    While downhill snow skiing, recreational alpine skiers enjoy making turning motions with their skis. These motions are mainly induced by skidding, while turning by alpine ski racers is made by carving a trace in the snow. In the present study we treat the turning motions by recreational alpine skiers. This "skidding" turning motion is made possible by centripetal forces acting on the ski and skier dynamic motion systems, with these forces arising due to the skier placing the ski's longitudinal axis at an angle that is inclined away from the velocity vector and edging the ski into the snow. When snow is soft, the edged ski creates a snow impacting force, whereas a snow cutting force occurs when it is hard. Here, we calculate the former force using a three-dimensional water jet analogy, while the latter one using conventional metal cutting theory, after which the corresponding equations of motion for each system are derived and numerically solved. This methodology enables simulating the curvilinear and rotational motion of the ski and skier systems. Resultant simulations quantitatively show for the first time that the resultant radius of curvature of a ski track while downhill skiing is strongly dependent on the location of the ski boot on the ski's longitudinal axis and also on its side-cut (midlength taper).

  18. Premier Wen on Domestic Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Second Session of the 11th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on March 13. Premier Wen Jiabao answered questions from the Chinese and foreign press. Below are highlights of his answers on domestic policies.

  19. Our Measures Are Effective, Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27, 2009, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government's economic policy orientations for 2010. Here are the highlights of the interview.

  20. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  1. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  2. Implications of climate change for downhill skiing in Quebec. Repercussions d'un changement climatique sur l'industrie du ski alpin au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity of downhill skiing to eventual climatic change expected due to increasing levels of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and other greenhouse gases. The first phase of the study consisted of identifying meteorological criteria relevant to the definition of skiable days. These criteria were subsequently applied to current climatic conditions; they were also applied to projected scenarios of climatic change in order to gauge the impacts of a warmer climate on the alpine ski industry. Preliminary socio-economic impact assessments were then made. Results show a decrease in the number of skiable days of 50% to 70% for southern Quebec; ski resorts equipped with snow-making devices would likely experience a smaller reduction in the number of skiable days ranging from 40% to 50%. Ski resorts in Eastern townships and the Laurentians would be unlikely to operate during the Christmas holidays without significant snow-making facilities. Considering that a day of skiing brings approximately $34 (1981) per person into the Quebec economy, a major revenue loss would result. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  4. Bãile Herculane Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Baile Herculane is a balneary resort located in Caraş-Severin County, in South-Western Romania and is located 41 km to the Northwest of the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti County. Resort Baile Herculane is documentary attested since 153 a.d. and is an attraction for its healing power of water. The Romans will be arriving in Dacia were impressed with the power of exceptional quality healing waters of the Cernei Vally, therefore, have made an important point of attraction here. In those times you keep bathrooms, statues, coins, culverts, signs of gratitude to the gods that were cured with water. The aqueducts, baths and hot springs from the time of the Romans. The beauty of the places where the resort Baile Herculane cannot be described in words, you have to go to see with your eyes

  5. Domain interactions within the Ski2/3/8 complex and between the Ski complex and Ski7p

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingna; LEWIS, MARC S.; Johnson, Arlen W

    2005-01-01

    The Ski complex (composed of Ski3p, Ski8p, and the DEVH ATPase Ski2p) is a central component of the 3′–5′ cytoplasmic mRNA degradation pathway in yeast. Although the proteins of the complex interact with each other as well as with Ski7p to mediate degradation by exosome, a 3′-exonuclease complex, the nature of these interactions is not well understood. Here we explore interactions within the Ski complex and between the Ski complex and Ski7p using a directed two-hybrid approach combined with c...

  6. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  7. Alpine Skiing in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many students settle indoors in the winter. However, this does not mean that winter should be a period of time with no physical activity. Several snow activities could be practiced during those months, such as ice-skating, ice-hockey, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, or snowboarding. In order to counteract the tendency for…

  8. Teaching Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan E.

    1984-01-01

    Cross-country skiing instruction can be done both inside and outside the gymnasium. This article provides activities to be performed inside to prepare students for skiing. Outside organization techniques and drills are suggested. A list of common errors is given. (DF)

  9. The Physics of Ski Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonle, John I.; Nordick, Douglas L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the application of basic dynamics of rotations to the case of turning on skis, first without and then with external torques. Various elements are combined in different techniques and suggestions for further extensions and a list of laboratory exercises based on skiing are included. (DF)

  10. The yeast antiviral proteins Ski2p, Ski3p, and Ski8p exist as a complex in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. T.; Bai, X.; Johnson, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast superkiller (SKI) genes were originally identified from mutations allowing increased production of killer toxin encoded by M "killer" virus, a satellite of the dsRNA virus L-A. XRN1 (SKI1) encodes a cytoplasmic 5'-exoribonuclease responsible for the majority of cytoplasmic RNA turnover, whereas SKI2, SKI3, and SKI8 are required for normal 3'-degradation of mRNA and for repression of translation of poly(A) minus RNA. Ski2p is a putative RNA helicase, Ski3p is a tetratricopeptide repe...

  11. Comparing balance and instep angle of premier and non- premier leg in female soccer athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohammadzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare balanceand instep angle in premier and non- premier leg. The number of 30 female futsal athletics of Tehran Province (in the age of years old, in the weight of kg participated in this study. To determine premier and non- premier leg of subjects, they besides questioning requested to shoot 5 times and the leg with less error recorded as premier leg. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS test was used for evaluating static balance. 4 markers were used for evaluating instep angle according to Clark Model. For evaluating dynamic balance of subjects single-leg landing test on 3- axes force board with 1000 hertz frequency was used and the time to stability was computed in line with anteroposterior and internal- external based on sequential estimation technique. Data analyzing was done in two sections, first, instep angle was compared in different status and static and dynamic balance in premier and non- premier leg by paired t- test and then the relationship between instep angle was examined in different status with static balance (total score of balance in the test (BESS with instep angle in standing on two leg and single leg for premier leg and dynamic balance in 3 anteroposterior (AP, mediolateral (ML and vertical (V sides by using from correlation coefficient test (for normal data of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman abnormal data. There is significant difference between dynamic balance in premier and dynamic balance in non- premier leg of futsal athletics and the premier leg has further balance than non- premier leg. There is negative and significant relationship between dynamic balance and instep angle in all statusexcept premier leg of single- leg in vertical side. Futsal athletics in premier leg have further balance than non- premier leg.

  12. Thumb injuries in downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, O; Balkfors, B; Lindsjö, U

    1982-02-01

    Thumb injuries are next to knee injuries the most common injury in downhill skiing today. In this material they constituted 17% of all skiing injuries. Three-fourths of the thumb injuries were lesions of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Compared to a control population consisting of 1619 randomly chosen uninjured skiers, we found that no type of ski pole handle in common use today eliminated the risk of thumb injury, but the injury frequency was higher when using a ski pole with a big plate on the top of the handle. It was, however, of no importance how the skier gripped the ski pole in relation to the strap. It is suggested that the skier during a fall holds on to the ski pole until the very last moment before the hand hits the ground. The ski pole handle then remains in the hand and constitutes the hypomochlium that forces the thumb into abduction and extension, which causes the typical ulnar collateral ligament injury.

  13. Magnetic damping of ski vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonnet, J.-P. [CNRS, St. Martin d' Heres (France). Lab. d' Electrotech. de Grenoble; Patton, A.C.; Philippe; Arnould; Bressan, C. [CNRS, St. Martin d' Heres (France). Lab. d' Electrotech. de Grenoble]|[Skis Dynastar S.A., Sallanches (France)

    1998-07-01

    An original damping device has been developed to reduce ski vibrations. Ski movement is transmitted to a conductive sheet situated in a multipole magnetic field created by permanent magnets. The conductive sheet is simultaneously submitted to eddy current and friction forces, giving the damping effect. The eddy current damper is more efficient for high frequency than for low frequency vibrations and consequently is very well adapted to ski vibrations. Bench and snow tests show the positive effects of the damper, which will be commercially available before the end of this year. (orig.)

  14. Bãile Tusnad Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The village is situated in the central-eastern Romania (Harghita county, Olt River in extreme southern part of Ciuc Depression, altitude 656m, 32 km south of Miercurea Ciuc. Quay Malnas- Tusnad of Olt, the air highly ozoned, the peace, the comfort and treatment of with mineral waters Tusnad Bath have made of a fine resort and an ideal place for holidays in any season. City has a subalpine climate, of mountain valley, with cool summers (July average temperature is 17.5 ° C and cold winters (average temperature in January is -7 ° C. Moderate rainfall (between 600 and 700 mm annually. Mountains shield against the wind.

  15. The yeast Ski complex is a hetero-tetramer

    OpenAIRE

    Synowsky, S.A.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast Ski complex assists the exosome in the degradation of mRNA. The Ski complex consists of three components; Ski2, Ski3, and Ski8, believed to be present in a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. Measuring the mass of intact isolated endogenously expressed Ski complexes by native mass spectrometry we unambiguously demonstrate that the Ski complex has a hetero-tetrameric stoichiometry consisting of one copy of Ski2 and Ski3 and two copies of Ski8. To validate the stoichiometry of the Ski complex, we pe...

  16. [Health resorts and development of the health resort medicine in Lithuania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2005-01-01

    Lithuanian health resorts are national resources of this country. Body hardening, health promotion, disease prevention and rehabilitation by means of applying natural factors are linked for centuries with the names of health resorts such as Druskininkai and Birstonas. The effect of natural factors is multiplex and depends on many parameters the study of which in concrete health resorts is indispensable in order to individualize the treatment at the health resorts and avoid undesirable side effects. As the contingent of the patients being referred to the sanatoria is changing--the number of severe patients after acute disorders and traumas is increasing constantly--the need of such studies becomes relevant. However, after renewal of independence of Lithuania in 1990, the policy of health resort development on the national scale has not been carried out yet. Besides, the number of localities that aim for becoming health resorts is increasing, however, such localities often do not meet the required criteria. The article reviews the status of health resorts and their localities together with their regulations in Lithuania, their development, specificity, the effects of the health resort natural factors (climatotherapy, balneotherapy, pelotherapy) on the healthy body and patients. The data are presented on the development of research studies concerning health resorts and main trends of health resort medicine: health promotion, prevention of disorders, early health resort rehabilitation, health resort tourism, treatment and health resort etiology. Possibilities of revival of studies concerning the effects of health resort factors on the rehabilities are discussed.

  17. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  18. The yeast Ski complex is a hetero-tetramer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synowsky, S.A.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast Ski complex assists the exosome in the degradation of mRNA. The Ski complex consists of three components; Ski2, Ski3, and Ski8, believed to be present in a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. Measuring the mass of intact isolated endogenously expressed Ski complexes by native mass spectrometry we unambig

  19. 50 CFR 27.33 - Water skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife refuge waters, the public will be notified...

  20. Industry sources of trend data - skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F., Jr. Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    With precious few exceptions, ski industry trend data does not exist. This paper will enumerate sources of trend data known to the author. The paper considers the probable causes of the lack of ski industry trend data and means to ameliorate the lack of trend data. Finally, the paper presents a rationale for acquiring improved ski industry trend data.

  1. Gloria Hotels & Resorts Hosts Appreciation Dinner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Gloria Hotels & Resorts 2011 Road Show kicked off on September 1 at the Celebrity International Grand Hotel Beijing with a "Xiexie Evening." The cele bration was held to thank media, corporate clients,travel agents and partners for their support of Gloria Hotels & Resorts in China and abroad.During the evening,

  2. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  3. Materials, Designs and Standards Used in Ski-Boots for Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Moncalero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article reports the recent advances in the study, design and production of ski-boots for alpine skiing. An overview of the different designs and the materials used in ski-boot construction is provided giving particular emphasis to the effect of these parameters on the final performances and on the prevention of injuries. The use of specific materials for ski-boots dedicated to different disciplines (race skiing, mogul skiing, ski-mountaineering etc. has been correlated with the chemical and physical properties of the polymeric materials employed. A review of the scientific literature and the most interesting patents is also presented, correlating the results reported with the performances and industrial production of ski-boots. Suggestions for new studies and the use of advanced materials are also provided. A final section dedicated to the standards involved in ski-boot design completes this review article.

  4. Development prospects of resort townsin the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Narek Avetisovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the resort towns and their diversification in Armenia are discussed in the context of sustainable development. Armenia doesn’t currently stand out among the tourist destinations of the world, despite its historical and cultural heritage and natural resources. In this article the town Jermuk is described, which is located in Vayots Dzor region of Armenia. Health centers and other infrastructures of Armenian resorts were built in the period of the Soviet Union; they were restored in recent times. The main development trends of Jermuk should follow the upgrade of already built resorts (their leading examples at the European level, at the same time creating more active environment in order to meet the requirements of local population and visitors, taking into account the surrounding natural landscape and its features. One of the important issues, which should be taken into account, is the problem of seasonality (the city has no money to give for the opportunity to diversify the tourism offer in winter, and the economy with the only activity (thermal function.Within a few years, Jermuk has rediscovered its perspectives and expresses the desire to acquire its place in the international market of spa tourism at a future date. Thus, the question of assessing the historical and cultural heritage is now one of the most pressing problems of the city, which is on the eve of important decisions on the future direction of resuming recovery services. For the revival and development of Jermuk in the medium and long term, and in order to identify urban and architectural interventions, we should note some important issues:Updating the thermal functions of the city: This area of Jermuk still attracts a large clientele in summer, mainly from Yerevan, the Armenian diaspora and from the former Soviet republics (mainly from Russia. At the same time, the increase in the tourist attraction level requires upgrading public-safety and recreational

  5. Effects of mountain resort development - a case study in Vermont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    The mountainous landscape of northern New England, USA, faces intense development pressure from recreational and tourism use. In 2000 we began a paired-watershed study in northern Vermont to examine the effects of alpine resort development on stream flow and water quality. To our knowledge this is the only gaged watershed study at a mountain resort. The adjacent paired watersheds have similar topography, relief, geology and forest type, and differ primarily in land use. Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is the undeveloped, nearly 100% forested control basin. West Branch watershed (11.7 km2) is the developed basin, encompassing a pre-existing alpine ski resort and state highway, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces. Measurements during 2000-2003 showed suspended sediment yield was >2.5 times greater and concentrations of nitrate and chloride were significantly elevated at West Branch. From 2004 through 2007 the resort expanded with more ski trails, roads, parking areas, and vacation home development and now has 24% cleared land, with storm sewers draining lower developed areas of the alpine watershed. For the 11-year period of study, water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by an average of nearly 21%. The higher runoff at West Branch occurred primarily as result of higher sustained base flow, driven by a more prolonged snowmelt period, and greater runoff during small events. The annual flow differential had a strong positive correlation to maximum snow water equivalent, suggesting that differences in snow accumulation may explain the flow differential. We are investigating whether these differences are a direct consequence of management activities and resulting vegetation shifts and land clearing on snow capture. Several of the highest peak flows in both watersheds have occurred in the last 2 years of the 11-yr study. Our analysis is aimed at determining whether absolute peak flows have increased

  6. Our Measures Are Effective,Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27,2009,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government’s economic policy orientations for 2010.Here are the highlights of the interview.

  7. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  8. Cool Wool Iaunched at Premiere Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Visitors to Premiere Vision were greeted by the inspired The Woolmark Company image, rapidly becoming iconic, of a welcoming flock of stylish Merino sheep in sunglasses. It raised many a smile and set the scene for a feel- good exhibition, putting Cool Wool firmly at the doorway to the new summer season 2013.

  9. Pakistanis Eager to Welcome Premier Li Keqiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Ali; Nawaz; Gilani

    2013-01-01

    <正>"We the Pakistani Nation,are very much eager to welcome Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on his first visit to Pakistan after taking over the Premiership of the People’s Republic of China whom we are enjoying deep rooted and exemplary friendship for

  10. Integrating spatio-temporal environmental models for planning ski runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of ski runs and ski lifts, the action of skiing and maintenance of ski runs may cause considerable environmental impact. Clearly, for improvements to be made in the planning of ski runs in alpine terrain a good understanding of the environmental system and the response of environme

  11. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  12. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Çileroğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits

  13. Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chropeňová, Mária; Karásková, Pavlína; Kallenborn, Roland; Gregušková, Eva Klemmová; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-09-06

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended.

  14. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  15. Le Premier Amendement : un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude‑Jean Bertrand

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier, plein de verve, d’humeur et d’humour, pose, comme sait si bien le faire l’auteur, des questions profondes sous une apparence paradoxale. Il a été présenté lors d’un colloque sur le Premier amendement organisé à l’Université Lumière-Lyon 2 les 17 et 18 janvier 2003. Certaines communications ont été publiées dans le volume XXIV, n°1 (2003, « Le premier amendement : un modèle américain des libertés » (sous la direction de Vincent Michelot de la Revue Tocqueville.

  16. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  17. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  18. Possible paths towards sustainable tourism development in a high-mountain resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Arcuset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in 2004 within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering (today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the 2000s kept pace with a vast real estate program. The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed, seems for the moment rather to aim - as in many other high mountain ski resorts - towards a more environmental management of the basic urban functions than a real questioning of a tourist model based upon the triptych development of the ski slopes, securizing of the snow resource and touristic real estate programs.Ce texte part des enseignements issus d’une évaluation des pratiques touristiques à l’aune des principes du tourisme durable, réalisée en 2004 dans le cadre d’un réseau national piloté par l’Agence Française d’Ingénierie Touristique (aujourd’hui ODIT France, pour la station de Valloire, station de première génération de Maurienne dont le développement et la modernisation dans les années 2000 sont allés de pair avec un vaste programme immobilier. L’article explore les enjeux et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre du développement durable à Valloire, pose la question de la « révolution culturelle » que les acteurs devraient accomplir pour changer de modèle de développement économique, et suggère quelques pistes pour y parvenir. L’approche locale du « tourisme durable », en effet, semble pour l’heure plutôt tendre – comme dans bien

  19. Balneotherapy in the Boghiş Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Gáspár Boróka; Gabriela Dogaru

    2015-01-01

    The Băile Boghiş resort in Sălaj county is situated in the Barcău depression, at 15 km distance from Şimleu Silvaniei, in a sedative-indifferent climate of hills, at an altitude of 300 m, without excessive temperatures, with a mean annual rainfall of 650 mm. The first evidence of the climate and thermal mineral waters of the resort dates back to the 18th century. The Nuşfalău-Boghiş thermal mineral water reservoir is confined to deep permeable aquiferous layers that correspond to the alter...

  20. Injury Prevention for Ski-Area Employees: A Physiological Assessment of Lift Operators, Instructors, and Patrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Momentary lapses in concentration contribute to workplace accidents. Given that blood glucose (BG and hydration levels have been shown to affect vigilance, this study proposed to investigate these parameters and functional movement patterns of ski-resort workers and to determine whether an educational program to stabilize BG and hydration and encourage joint stability had an effect in decreasing occupational injuries. Methods. Seventy-five instructors, patrollers and, lift-operators at five snowsport resorts were evaluated for BG, vigilance, workload, dietary/hydration practices, and functional-movement patterns. Injury rates were tabulated before and after an educational program for nutrition and functional-movement awareness and compared to other resorts. Results. Workers showed poor stability at the lumbar spine, knee, and shoulder. BG levels were normal but variable (%CV = 14±6. Diets were high in sugar and fat and low in water and many nutrients. Medical Aid and Lost Time claims declined significantly by 65.1±20.0% (confidence interval −90.0% ≤μ≤−40.2% in resorts that used the educational program whereas four control resorts not using the program experienced increases of 33.4±42.9% (confidence interval −19.7% ≤μ≤−86.7%; F[2,12] = 21.35, P<0.0001 over the same season. Conclusion. Provision of snowsport resort workers with educational programs encouraging hydration, diet to stabilize BG, and functional-movement awareness was effective in reducing worksite injuries in this population.

  1. 14 CFR 29.505 - Ski landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ski landing conditions. 29.505 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.505 Ski landing conditions. If certification for ski operation is requested, the rotorcraft, with skis, must be designed...

  2. 14 CFR 27.505 - Ski landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ski landing conditions. 27.505 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.505 Ski landing conditions. If certification for ski operation is requested, the rotorcraft, with skis, must be designed...

  3. Balneotherapy in the Boghiş Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gáspár Boróka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Băile Boghiş resort in Sălaj county is situated in the Barcău depression, at 15 km distance from Şimleu Silvaniei, in a sedative-indifferent climate of hills, at an altitude of 300 m, without excessive temperatures, with a mean annual rainfall of 650 mm. The first evidence of the climate and thermal mineral waters of the resort dates back to the 18th century. The Nuşfalău-Boghiş thermal mineral water reservoir is confined to deep permeable aquiferous layers that correspond to the altered zone of crystalline basement and sedimentary formations of Miocene and Pliocene age. It is an all-season spa and climatic resort; the bicarbonate, sodium, sulfur, iodine hypotonic hyperthermal mineral springs (with a total mineralization of 1016.2-1432.8 mg/l come from hydrogeological wells, producing over 1900 m3/day waters with a temperature of 40-42˚C. The spa has 2 outdoor pools (in summer time, bathtubs (in the process of being rehabilitated and an indoor pool. The peat mud from Stoboru (Cuzăplac commune is another therapeutic factor used in the resort. Therapeutic indications are related to the following disorders: osteoarticular system diseases, abarticular and degenerative rheumatic diseases, posttraumatic, peripheral neurological, gynecological, endocrine, nutrition and metabolic disorders, treated by external use (pool or bathtubs, while cooled water is used for crenotherapy. A specific feature is that thermal water, which has a temperature of 40-42˚C, can be used without being successively cooled or heated in pools or bathtubs, which allows to maintain its initial qualities. This paper includes early and recent data on a resort that is progressing from a local level to the national circuit, having an important extension potential.

  4. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    OpenAIRE

    A. Movahed; S. Amanpoor; Zarei, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is ne...

  5. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  6. From après-ski to après-tourism: the Alps in transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter sports occupy a prominent place in European tourism, not only because of their economic importance in mountainous areas but also due to their major symbolic significance in the "leisure civilisation". Yet the world of winter tourism is full of uncertainties connected with climate change and also with evolutions and structural breaks that call into question the development model on which it is based. This context of profound change gives us the opportunity to question the limits of the industrial model that has governed the development of the Alps for the practice of skiing and to examine alternative future scenarios to "all-out skiing" and even "all-out tourism".Les sports d’hiver occupent une place de premier plan dans le tourisme européen, non seulement du fait de leur poids économique dans les régions de montagne, mais aussi par leur forte dimension symbolique dans la « civilisation des loisirs ». Pourtant l’univers du tourisme hivernal est parcouru par de nombreuses incertitudes liées au changement climatique, mais aussi à des évolutions et des ruptures structurelles qui remettent en question le modèle de développement sur lequel il repose. Ce contexte de mutation permet d’interroger les limites du modèle industriel qui a présidé à l’aménagement des Alpes pour la pratique du ski et d’examiner des figures d’avenir alternatives au « tout ski » et même au « tout tourisme ».

  7. The impacts of ski slope development on stream channel morphology in the White River National Forest, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    The combined influence of tree-clearing, road construction, snowmaking, and machine-grading can cause increased flow and sediment loads along streams in or adjacent to commercial ski resorts. These changes to stream channels can increase bank failures, bed material size, pool scour, and, in extreme cases, channel incision. We used field data from the White River National Forest in Colorado, which includes several major ski resorts, to test the hypothesis that ski slope development causes a significant difference in bank stability, undercut banks, fine sediment, wood load, pool residual depth, and particle size ( D84) between the ski area project streams and reference streams. We further hypothesize that the changes in a stream are mitigated by the density and type of vegetation growing along the banks. A significant difference is defined as a project stream that is outside the range of variability of the reference streams. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed channel conditions, channel dimensions, and vegetation along 47 stream reaches (200-300 m in length). Twenty-four of these streams are within ski areas (project streams), either adjacent to or downstream from ski slopes. Twenty-three reference streams with very little to no development in their basins are used to define reference conditions of bank stability, bank undercutting, bank height, wood load, pool residual depth, sediment size, and vegetation structure. A combination of statistical techniques, including Principal Components Analysis and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis, was used to assess the controls on stream channel morphology and to analyze the differences between project and reference streams. Project streams that are significantly different than reference streams have a combination of a higher percentage of fine sediment, smaller pool residual depth, and higher percentage of unstable banks. The impacted project streams have bed material derived from granitic rocks and a lower density

  8. Development of Digitex premier digital angiographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has come to be widely utilized in the field of angiography. This has brought forth a strong demand that digital angiographic systems provide high efficiency in patient examinations and high level of interventional support. This report refers to our newly developed Digitex Premier Series digital angiographic systems, designed to meet the above demands. The new systems utilize a high-speed, wide-range C-arm system, a high-resolution image intensifier, a fluid-lubricant X-ray tube, and a digital image processing system, in order to ensure high patient examination efficiency. Their IVR (interventional radiology)-Master bed-side image controller further enhances the efficiency of patient examinations, and also, their CAT (comfortable angio terminal) and FMC (file management console) improve the patient examination throughput and diagnostic workflow of the systems. (author)

  9. AN INNOVATIVE SKI-BOOT: DESIGN, NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corazza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing. A simplified model of the effect of ski-boot deformation on skiing behavior is used to evaluate the minimal stiffness the system must have. An experimental analysis on the ski slopes was carried out to provide ski-boot deformations and loading data in different skiing conditions, to be used in numerical simulations. Finite Elements Method (FEM simulations were performed for optimal design of the joint between ski-boot and sole. The active loads and local ski-boot deformations during small- and large-radius turns were experimentally determined and used to validate a FEM model of the ski-boot. The model was used to optimize the design for maximum stiffness and to demonstrate the efficacy of virtual design supported by proper experimental data. Mean loads up to 164% body weight were measured on the outer ski during turning. The new SGS design system allows the adjustment of lateral stance before using the ski-boot, optimizing the ski-boot stiffness through FEM analysis. Innovative aspects of this work included not only the stance geometry system ski-boot but also the setup of a virtual design environment that was validated by experimental evidence. An entire dataset describing loads during skiing has been obtained. The optimized SGS ski-boot increases intrinsic knee stability due to proper adjustment of lateral stance, guaranteeing appropriate stiffness of the ski-boot system

  10. 42 CFR 136.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136.61 Section 136.61 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of last resort for persons defined as eligible for contract...

  11. 42 CFR 136a.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136a.61 Section 136a.61..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136a.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of last resort of persons defined as eligible for contract...

  12. Effects of mountain resort development on stream geomorphic function in the White River National Forest, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of ski slope development on morphology and stability of stream channels is poorly understood. Development of ski slopes includes tree-clearing, road construction, machine-grading and snow-making. Although, each of these types of development has been studied individually, particularly the effects of tree-clearing and road construction, the combined effect of all four on channel morphology has not been investigated thoroughly. Changes in land-use affect the hydrology of a basin by either causing an increase in the water yield or peak flow, or a change in the size and amount of sediment that the stream transports. The United States Forest Service (USFS) funded this project because of their concern with the potential impacts of development on stream channels in national forest land, where the majority of ski resorts are located. Changes in the channel morphology can result in a decrease in habitat diversity and water quality as the stream moves towards a new equilibrium. We used field data from the White River National Forest in Colorado, which includes several major ski resorts, to test the hypothesis that there is a significant difference in bank stability, undercut banks, fine sediment, wood loading, pool residual depth and D84 between the ski area "project" and reference streams, because of ski slope development. We further hypothesize that the changes in a stream are mitigated by the density and type of vegetation growing along the banks. A significant impact is defined as a project stream that is outside the range of variability of the reference streams. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed channel condition, channel dimensions, and vegetation along 47 stream reaches (200 - 800 m in length). Twenty-three "reference" streams with very little to no development in their basins are used to define reference conditions of bank stability, bank undercutting, bank height, wood loading, pool residual depth, sediment size, and vegetation structure. Twenty

  13. Intentional extraction and replantation: the last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahiman, V T; Jolly, Sanju John; Khader, M Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don't have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  14. Intentional extraction and replantation: The last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V T Abdurahiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don′t have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  15. Alpine skiing habitual practices as free time entertainment for the students of West University of Timişoara – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Sinitean-Singer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The students of the West University of Timişoara represent a numerous social category, thus quite significant, continuously in search of new ways to practice sports in their free time. The winter season brings to our attention a number of specific activities, most appealing, amongst which alpine skiing, too. The present paper aims at defining the students’ habits regarding the way they spend their spare time, mainly as practicing alpine skiing. This sports branch enhances its attractiveness by the very special environment it can be practiced – into the mountains, in the open air, which actually raises the students’ interest for this free time activity, mainly during the winter vacation or the vacation between semesters, when the number of students largely exceeds the number of those practicing ski during the week or in weekends. We must take into account the fact that they prefer mountain resorts in Romania, not being picky at all when it comes to meals and accommodation facilities, but very demanding about the quality of the ski slopes and the correspondent facilities. The window of time allocated for skiing activities, an average between 1-3 hours/day, illustrates the students’ interest in spending their spare time in an active way. The relatively high costs of this sports branch, mainly because of the expensive equipments but also because of the high costs of the activity itself- courses, utilities, etc.- haven’t kept the students away; they have been manifesting their availability to invest the necessary amounts of money in order to be able to practice this sport. An excellent promotion factor of the alpine skiing amongst students has been the Timisoara West University by organizing theme camps – like ski teaching, but also a number of activities related to such a camp.

  16. Metabolic Demand of Paralympic Alpine Skiing in Sit-Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Maren; Wiedemann, Michael S. F.; Spitzenpfeil, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic Alpine Skiing comprises three main categories, namely Standing, Visually Impaired and Sitting, to one of which athletes get classified depending on their individual impairment of ability. An existing sport profile of alpine skiing for able-bodied athletes facilitates the physical preparation process of Standing and Visually Impaired athletes. However, very little is known about performance determinants as well as content and structure of the physical preparation of athletes with congenital or acquired spinal cord injury competing in the Sitting class. The objective of this study was to describe the metabolic demands of Paralympic Alpine Skiing Sitting class athletes using laboratory and field measurements. The study determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La-]) as well as ventilatory thresholds in laboratory testing (n = 6) as well as on-snow in Slalom (SL) carried out in a ski dome, and Giant-Slalom (GS) on a natural slope. On-snow test variables are expressed normalized to laboratory maximum values (%VO2max, %HRmax). For SL, values reached ~30% VO2max and ~60% HRmax whereas GS values were slightly higher reaching ~50% VO2max and ~75% HRmax. Lactate concentration remained close to baseline values for SL and was slightly higher at ~3 mmol·L-1 for GS. All athletes remained below their second ventilatory threshold and even skied for a long portion of runtime below their first ventilatory threshold. In general, measured metabolic values were lower than reported for able-bodied alpine skiers. However, despite the small and inhomogeneous sample covering all but one sit-skiing classes, strain of sit-skiing appears to be consistent throughout the five sit-skiing classes. Common measures of aerobic or anaerobic performance variables do not suggest further investigations in the field of metabolism for performance determinants in sit-skiing. Key points Metabolic demand and strain of

  17. Metabolic Demand of Paralympic Alpine Skiing in Sit-Skiing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Maren; Wiedemann, Michael S F; Spitzenpfeil, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Paralympic Alpine Skiing comprises three main categories, namely Standing, Visually Impaired and Sitting, to one of which athletes get classified depending on their individual impairment of ability. An existing sport profile of alpine skiing for able-bodied athletes facilitates the physical preparation process of Standing and Visually Impaired athletes. However, very little is known about performance determinants as well as content and structure of the physical preparation of athletes with congenital or acquired spinal cord injury competing in the Sitting class. The objective of this study was to describe the metabolic demands of Paralympic Alpine Skiing Sitting class athletes using laboratory and field measurements. The study determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as ventilatory thresholds in laboratory testing (n = 6) as well as on-snow in Slalom (SL) carried out in a ski dome, and Giant-Slalom (GS) on a natural slope. On-snow test variables are expressed normalized to laboratory maximum values (%VO2max, %HRmax). For SL, values reached ~30% VO2max and ~60% HRmax whereas GS values were slightly higher reaching ~50% VO2max and ~75% HRmax. Lactate concentration remained close to baseline values for SL and was slightly higher at ~3 mmol·L(-1) for GS. All athletes remained below their second ventilatory threshold and even skied for a long portion of runtime below their first ventilatory threshold. In general, measured metabolic values were lower than reported for able-bodied alpine skiers. However, despite the small and inhomogeneous sample covering all but one sit-skiing classes, strain of sit-skiing appears to be consistent throughout the five sit-skiing classes. Common measures of aerobic or anaerobic performance variables do not suggest further investigations in the field of metabolism for performance determinants in sit-skiing. Key pointsMetabolic demand and strain of

  18. Morphology of polyethylene ski base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jörg; Wallner, Gernot M; Pieber, Alois

    2010-03-01

    We used high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for a comprehensive analysis of carbon black-filled polyethylene ski base grades at processing stages from the raw material to the structured ski base. Based on Raman mapping, we assessed the applicability of an advanced evaluation procedure for amorphous, disordered, and crystalline phase fractions of polyethylene for polyethylene extrusion and sinter grades. For sinter grades, a sufficient segregation between carbon black and polyethylene was confirmed, allowing for a comprehensive Raman spectroscopic morphological analysis. Significant morphological changes in polyethylene due to processing from the raw material to the semi-finished film and to the structured ski base were identified. Throughout the processing chain, we observed a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in the amorphous phase fraction. Although the raw material and the sintered semi-finished film exhibited a different but uniform polyethylene morphology, the morphological changes due to structuring of the ski base are limited to the top surface layer. The highest amorphous phase fractions were detected in the surface of the structured ski bases.

  19. Intra-articular temperatures of the knee in sports – An in-vivo study of jogging and alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerulli Guiliano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to date, no information exists about the intra-articular temperature changes of the knee related to activity and ambient temperature. Methods In 6 healthy males, a probe for intra-articular measurement was inserted into the notch of the right knee. Each subject was jogging on a treadmill in a closed room at 19°C room temperature and skiing in a ski resort at -3°C outside temperature for 60 minutes. In both conditions, temperatures were measured every fifteen minutes intra-articulary and at the skin surface of the knee. A possible influence on joint function and laxity was evaluated before and after activity. Statistical analysis of intra-articular and skin temperatures was done using nonparametric Wilcoxon's sign rank sum test and Mann-Whitney's-U-Test. Results Median intra-articular temperatures increased from 31.4°C before activity by 2.1°C, 4°C, 5.8°C and 6.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of jogging (all p ≤ 0.05. Median intra-articular temperatures dropped from 32.2°C before activity by 0.5°C, 1.9°C, 3.6°C and 1.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of skiing (all n.s.. After 60 minutes of skiing (jogging, the median intra-articular temperature was 19.6% (8.7% higher than the skin surface temperature at the knee. Joint function and laxity appeared not to be different before and after activity within both groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates different changes of intra-articular and skin temperatures during sports in jogging and alpine skiing and suggests that changes are related to activity and ambient temperature.

  20. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  1. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  2. 78 FR 38842 - Definition of a Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 251 RIN 0596-AD12 Definition of a Ski Area AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is amending the definition of a ski area in its regulations to make it consistent with the authority in section 3 of the Ski Area Recreational...

  3. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  4. Metabolic Demand of Paralympic Alpine Skiing in Sit-Skiing Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Goll, Michael S. F. Wiedemann, Peter Spitzenpfeil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paralympic Alpine Skiing comprises three main categories, namely Standing, Visually Impaired and Sitting, to one of which athletes get classified depending on their individual impairment of ability. An existing sport profile of alpine skiing for able-bodied athletes facilitates the physical preparation process of Standing and Visually Impaired athletes. However, very little is known about performance determinants as well as content and structure of the physical preparation of athletes with congenital or acquired spinal cord injury competing in the Sitting class. The objective of this study was to describe the metabolic demands of Paralympic Alpine Skiing Sitting class athletes using laboratory and field measurements. The study determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, maximum heart rate (HRmax and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La-] as well as ventilatory thresholds in laboratory testing (n = 6 as well as on-snow in Slalom (SL carried out in a ski dome, and Giant-Slalom (GS on a natural slope. On-snow test variables are expressed normalized to laboratory maximum values (%VO2max, %HRmax. For SL, values reached ~30% VO2max and ~60% HRmax whereas GS values were slightly higher reaching ~50% VO2max and ~75% HRmax. Lactate concentration remained close to baseline values for SL and was slightly higher at ~3 mmol·L-1 for GS. All athletes remained below their second ventilatory threshold and even skied for a long portion of runtime below their first ventilatory threshold. In general, measured metabolic values were lower than reported for able-bodied alpine skiers. However, despite the small and inhomogeneous sample covering all but one sit-skiing classes, strain of sit-skiing appears to be consistent throughout the five sit-skiing classes. Common measures of aerobic or anaerobic performance variables do not suggest further investigations in the field of metabolism for performance determinants in sit-skiing.

  5. Cálculo de resortes helicoidales con SolidWorks

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Carpio, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto no es otro que aunar el diseño de resortes teórico o tradicional con los métodos computacionales mencionados, generando una metodología de trabajo para el cálculo computacional de resortes con SolidWorks. Esta metodología consiste, en primer lugar, en la construcción del modelo del resorte, describiendo el proceso a seguir para modelizar un resorte helicoidal de compresión. Tras ello se abordará la simulación del mismo bajo las cargas y condi...

  6. Consumption Skill Acquisition in Ski Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas; Wieser, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping, and the soc......Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping...

  7. CARVING SKIS – A BENEFIT OR A TREND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Joksimović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of innovations in sport often is met with opposition from society, or in other words, incomprehension from the supporters of previous premises, in terms of understanding the new methods and the like. The manifestation of a certain dose of resistance is most frequently done by voicing unsubstantiated criticism by means of the media. We are primarily referring to the incomprehension of new methods and principles of work, which leads to prejudice among poorly or insufficiently informed individuals. This was the reason why, at first, during the 1990’s, a prejudice against carving skis was born, which could confuse the inexperienced and uninformed, and should therefore be clarified. Carving is much easier to learn than classic skiing. There is pleasure to be gained from the very fact that carving skis, due to their structure, have no problem entering and going through a turn, the ease of which can be seen in the relaxed body posture during that time. The term “carving” refers to the shape of the skis, which remind one of an hourglass shape. Depending on how far the tip and tail of the skis are from the mid section of the skills, we can determine various carving ski types, from the mildest to the most extreme, including: carving plus skis, all-round carving skis, classic skis, turn skiing, telemark – free skiing.

  8. Ski Control Model for Parallel Turn Using Multibody System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Keishi; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    Now, it is possible to discuss qualitatively the effects of skis, skier’s ski control and slope on a ski turn by simulation. The reliability of a simulation depends on the accuracy of the models used in the simulation. In the present study, we attempt to develop a new ski control model for a “parallel turn” using a computer graphics technique. The “ski control” necessary for the simulation is the relative motion of the skier’s center of gravity to the ski and the force acting on the ski from the skier. The developed procedure is as follows. First, the skier is modeled using a multibody system consisting of body parts. Second, various postures of the skier during the “parallel turn” are drawn using a 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) system referring to the pictures videotaped on a slope. The position of the skier’s center of gravity is estimated from the produced posture. Third, the skier’s ski control is obtained by arranging these postures in a time schedule. One can watch the ski control on a TV. Last, the three types of forces acting on the ski from the skier are estimated from the gravity force and the three relative types of inertia forces acting on the skier. Consequently, one can obtain accurate ski control for the simulation of the “parallel turn”, that is, the relative motion of the skier’s center of gravity to the ski and the force acting on the ski from the skier. Furthermore, it follows that one can numerically estimate the edging angle from the ski control model.

  9. 34 CFR 303.126 - Payor of last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.126 Section 303.126 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.126 Payor of last resort....

  10. 34 CFR 303.527 - Payor of last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.527 Section 303.527 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... resort. (a) Nonsubstitution of funds. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, funds...

  11. Frostbite in ski boots for marines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Schols, E.; Kistemaker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research have showed that cold injuries of feet occur more often than cold injuries of hands. Recently, an unexpectedly large number of cold injuries were observed during military training in Norway and a relationship between cold injuries and the use of the Alico ski boot was suspected. Th

  12. The Winter Park Amputee Ski Teaching System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Hal

    The three track method of teaching amputees to ski is presented in the illustrated manual. Problems unique to amputee skiers--care of hands, conditioning, care of stump, fatigue, excessive standing, wind, and balance--are discussed in terms of their implications to the amputee skier and practical solutions in attempting to solve them. Specific…

  13. Frostbite in Ski Boots for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Geh-simulator. Ski boot without gaiter, test 1: Water just above lasting margin Cycles New boot Used boot 3360 Dry water in the boot, test stopped...boot 2260 Dry feels wet 4375 Dry water in the boot, test stopped 8500 Humid 16600 water in the boot Water absorption 5.0% 8.5% Hiking shoe

  14. SKI's research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    SKI's research is a prerequisite for SKI's ability to fulfil its assignment. Research to support supervision is focused today on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, material and fuel questions, human factors, waste and non-proliferation (safeguards). SKI's intelligence analysis shows that this focus should be maintained over the next few years. Some reallocation of priorities between research areas may be necessary due to changes in the nuclear area. For this research, SKI contracts universities as well as consulting companies. The resources that are of importance for nuclear research are concentrated to a few organisations in Sweden. But the national research resources alone do not cover the existing needs. One reason is that the previously highly competent and well funded Swedish expert organisations within the nuclear power utilities have gradually been phased out or transformed into consulting firms. Changes have also taken place at the Swedish vendor of boiling-water plants, now Westinghouse Atom, and the activities have been down sized considerably in Sweden. There has been a similar trend in other countries. Moreover, countries which previously conducted expensive experiments have themselves increasingly sought international support as their research resources have dwindled. As a result, numerous international projects have or are planned to be started. SKI notes that Swedish nuclear activities are also becoming increasingly dependent on international collaboration. SKI further notes that in order to fulfil its assignment, the Inspectorate needs not only financial resources but also competent personnel. This enables targeted support to be maintained to strategic national infrastructure and to international cooperation including internationally financed projects. With this is meant above all experimental research where small countries such as Sweden can join forces with other countries on to important research

  15. Frostbite in ski boots for marines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Schols, E.; Kistemaker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research have showed that cold injuries of feet occur more often than cold injuries of hands. Recently, an unexpectedly large number of cold injuries were observed during military training in Norway and a relationship between cold injuries and the use of the Alico ski boot was suspected.

  16. Slope stability of proposed ski facilities at the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the proposed expansion of ski facilities at Crested Butte Mountain Resort, Gunnison County, Colorado, is in an area underlain by landslide deposits that are on the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain. Except for localized movement, the landslides do not appear to be moving at present or to have moved in the past several decades. Shallow sliding and debris flows have occurred in similar materials nearby and are likely to occur in the landslide deposits during the 50-100 year life of the proposed facilities. Hazards related to debris flow, shallow slumping, and expansive soils in the deposits can be reduced by appropriate engineering and remedial measures but maintenance for the proposed facility may become costly. Snow making is likely to aggravate the hazards of shallow slumping, deep-seated sliding, and debris flow. Reactivation and deep-seated movement of a 1.6-million-m3 slide at the east side of the deposits would damage or destroy a proposed gondola, ski lift N-3, and related facilities. Moving the gondola and lift off the slide and prohibiting snow making on the slide will protect the gondola and lift and reduce the chances of debris-flow damage to a proposed development near the toe of the slide. Insufficient data are available to assess the current or future stability of the landslides or to evaluate possible mitigation strategies; detailed stability analyses are needed before developing any facilities on the landslide deposits.

  17. Feature-specific ski injuries in snow parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carús, Luis; Escorihuela, María

    2016-10-01

    Previous research suggests that snow park (SP) injuries are proportionally more frequent and more likely to be more severe than those sustained on traditional slopes. The aim of this study was to calculate skiers' overall and feature-specific injury rates and determine potential risk factors for severe injury in an SP. This is a retrospective study conducted during the 2013/2014 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. Cases were skiers who suffered feature-related injuries in the SP. Denominator data consisted of the estimated total number of skier runs and the estimated total number of times each feature was used by a skier. Injury rates were calculated and logistic regression used to determine the feature-specific odds of injury. A total of 113 cases met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was of 0.9 per 1000 skier runs. Rates of injury were highest for Big jumps (2.9/1000 uses) and lowest for Rainbow boxes (0.1/1000 uses). Compared with Boxes, there were increased odds of severe injury versus minor injury for C-rails (OR 9.1; 95% CI 0.6-13.18), Half-pipe (OR 4.5; 95% CI 0.3-6.27) and Big jumps (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.3-3.53). Higher feature-specific ski injury rates and increased odds of injury were associated with features that require a very clean technique or promote aerial maneuvers and result in a larger drop to the ground.

  18. Resort Project Selection by Using Compromise Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Popović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is a landlocked country deprived of the possibility of developing maritime tourism. On the other hand, it has the opportunity to develop the other types of tourism, such as: mountain tourism, spa tourism, rural tourism, etc. Serbia has to improve its tourism infrastructure in order to achieve better quality and meet tourists’ requirements. In that sense, it is necessary to enhance the number of the accommodation facilities that will meet set standards. The selection of the type of the accommodation facility, as well as its location, is a very delicate issue because the right choice influences future operations and revenue. Making a decision without considering the problem from every available aspect could lead to making the wrong decisions. Multiple Criteria Decision Making methods are imposed as the logical approach to solving problems in an effective manner. In this paper, the ranking and selection of the optimal resort project focused on the tourism development of Bačka and is performed using compromise programming.

  19. Identification of Ski as a target for Aurora A kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Jocelyn; Armisen, Ricardo; Zhao, Hongling; Rojas, Diego A; Maldonado, Edio; Tapia, Julio C; Colombo, Alicia; Hayman, Michael J; Marcelain, Katherine

    2011-06-10

    Ski is a negative regulator of the transforming growth factor-β and other signalling pathways. The absence of SKI in mouse fibroblasts leads to chromosome segregation defects and genomic instability, suggesting a role for Ski during mitosis. At this stage, Ski is phosphorylated but to date little is known about the kinases involved in this process. Here, we show that Aurora A kinase is able to phosphorylate Ski in vitro. In vivo, Aurora A and Ski co-localized at the centrosomes and co-immunoprecipitated. Conversely, a C-terminal truncation mutant of Ski (SkiΔ491-728) lacking a coiled-coil domain, displayed decreased centrosomal localization. This mutant no longer co-immunoprecipitated with Aurora-A in vivo, but was still phosphorylated in vitro, indicating that the Ski-Aurora A interaction takes place at the centrosomes. These data identify Ski as a novel target of Aurora A and contribute to an understanding of the role of these proteins in the mitotic process.

  20. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  1. A TOUR AT EUROPEAN SKIING RESORTS IN SPRING%春天,我在欧洲滑雪胜地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    子冈

    2003-01-01

    @@ 五月是北半球的初春,整个欧洲也在这时苏醒过来,开始了一年中的浪漫之旅.此时,我们考察团一行,正沐浴着暖暖的阳光,追逐着渐渐消逝的雪山的倩影,来到欧洲.虽然是走马观花,但各地滑雪场的不同风格和那里的风土民情毕竟给我们留下了深深的烙印……

  2. An Analysis of Performance in Elite Young Cross-Country Skiing: Classical Style Vs Skate Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P.D. la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the skiing performance of two skiing styles (classical style Vs. skate skiing, in a group of young high-level skiers. Approach: Four high-level male junior cross-country skiers from the Centre of Winter Sports of Aragon (Spain, were selected for this study that was developed during two competitions: 10 km free technique and 10 km classical technique performed in the same circuit and under the same conditions (snow quality, temperature, wind and relative humidity. Physiological variables, maximal and medium heart rate, blood lactate concentration (basal, final and during the recovery, after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min and medium skiing speed, were analyzed with GPS Garmin Forerruner 305® Heart Rate Pulse and Lactate Dr. Lange analyzer®. Normally distributed data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and Shapiro-Wilk were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and t-Test for post-hoc comparisons (pResults: No significant differences have been recorded in the medium skiing speed, maximal and medium heart rate between the two styles. The peak heart rate was the same in both styles (188 bpm, although medium heart rate was lower in skate skiing vs. classical skiing (165 bpm Vs. 175 bpm. Blood lactate concentrations recorded significant differences during 4, 6, 8 and 10 min of recovery, being higher in free technique (12.7±1.7; 11.4±1.8; 10.4±1.4 and 8.9±1.6 mmol L-1 Vs. 8.7±1.3; 7.5±1.6; 6.3±1.3 and 5.6±1.1 mmol L-1, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that skate skiing generates a higher impact on the cross-country skier than classical skiing, due to higher blood lactate concentrations during 4, 6, 8 and 10 min of recovery. The own characteristics of the free technique may be the reason of the lower mean heart rate.

  3. Patterns of binge drinking at an international nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of substance use in young Danes while holidaying in the Bulgarian holiday resort of Sunny Beach (SB) to their patterns of substance use in Denmark. METHODS: Data were collected from visitors to SB in 2007 (n = 1011). Information on alcohol a...... nightlife resorts provide a context for excess in drug use and alcohol use. Alcohol poses a potentially severe threat to the short- and long-term health of young tourists, but little attention has been paid to form interventions targeting binge drinking in nightlife resorts....

  4. Translation of a Ski School Sun Safety Program to North American Ski and Snowboard Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, M D; Liu, X; Cutter, G R; Dignan, M B

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion programs that develop and implement strategies to promote sun safety practices to children have the potential to reduce skin cancer occurrence later in life. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a sun safety program for employees and guests of ski areas, was distributed to determine if an enhanced dissemination strategy was more effective than a basic dissemination strategy at reaching parents at ski and snowboard schools. On-site observations of GSS use and surveys of 909 parents/caregivers with children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools at 63 ski areas were conducted and analyzed using techniques for clustered designs. No differences were identified by dissemination strategy. Greater implementation of GSS (>5 messages posted) was associated with greater parental recall, 36.6% versus 16.7%, of materials, but not greater sun protection practices. Greater recall of messages, regardless of level of implementation, resulted in greater sun protection practices including applying sunscreen (p Ski areas with more program materials appeared to reach parents with sun safety advice and thus convinced them to take more precautions for their children. Sun safety need not be at odds with children's outdoor recreation activities.

  5. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  6. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  7. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  8. SKI AREAS AND SLOPES IN ROMANIA. REVIEWING CURRENT STATE OF WINTER SPORTS TOURISM UNFOLDING POSSIBILITIES WITHIN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CIANGĂ

    2015-06-01

    comparison of statistical data, well-synthesized within tables, graphical and cartographical representations. Aiming to highlight Romania’s specificity concerning mountain tourism and winter sports unfolding possibilities, with an almost century-old tradition, came out that the best numerical and typological tourism supply representation belongs to the Central Region whereas for the North-West Development Region, Maramureş and Cluj counties impose themselves through the potential of their largest ski areas and resorts: Cavnic and Muntele Băişorii.

  9. Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: Assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.; Ross, D.; Mills, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped 'control' basin. West Branch (11.7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001-2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36-46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3-4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18-36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area.

  10. An Innovative Ski-Boot: Design, Numerical Simulations and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Corazza; Claudio Cobelli

    2005-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System) developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing). A si...

  11. Climate Change Risk Appraisal in the Austrian Ski Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsegger, C.

    2009-04-01

    Ski tourism is an economically and culturally important industry in many parts of Europe. A growing number of studies in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have concluded that climate change has potentially serious implications for the sustainability of ski operations by reducing the average length of ski seasons and, where applicable, increasing snowmaking costs. To date, however, the climate change risk awareness and adaptive responses of stakeholders in the ski industry have not been examined. A survey of managers at low elevation ski areas in Austria was undertaken to explore their perceptions of climate change (past and future), how climate change had/will affect their operations, and their adaptive responses (past and planned). The results indicate that climate change is not perceived to be a serious threat to ski operations and that with technological adaptation, principally snowmaking, ski area managers believe they will be able to effectively cope with climate change in the 21st century. The consequences of these perceptions for the future operation of these ski areas are discussed and conclusions drawn for the future of ski tourism in Austria.

  12. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1992-09-01

    The development of new techniques for cross-country skiing based on skating movements has stimulated biomechanical research aimed at understanding the various movement patterns, the forces driving the motions, and the mechanical factors affecting performance. Research methods have evolved from two-dimensional kinematic descriptions of classic ski techniques to three-dimensional analyses involving measurement of the forces and energy relations of skating. While numerous skiing projects have been completed, most have focused on either the diagonal stride or the V1 skating technique on uphill terrain. Current understanding of skiing mechanics is not sufficiently complete to adequately assess and optimize an individual skier's technique.

  14. The Snow Characteristics of Aircraft Skis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    bottoms are given in Table 1. The skis of different shapes were surfaced with beeswax scraped to a very smooth surface. When damaged this surface...could be restored very eas- ily. Since the low friction of smooth beeswax on snow was a relatively small part of the total slid- ing resistance of...paper coated with a very thin layer of wax. A stylus, with a smooth rounded point, made very sharp records by squeezing away the wax. There was

  15. Gardening and Agricultural Application in Chengde Summer Mountain Resort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; LI; Yiyong; ZHANG; Haicheng; YU

    2013-01-01

    Taking Chengde Summer Mountain Resort for example, agricultural development and application in gardening practices in the flourishing ages of Kangxi and Qianlong, and cultural connotations of valuing the fundamental role of agriculture in national economy were analyzed.

  16. Lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Igci, Yesim; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2005-11-01

    A simplified mathematical model is derived to describe the lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding, where the lift contributions due to both the transiently trapped air and the compressed snow crystals are determined for the first time. Using Shimizu's empirical relation to predict the local variation in snow permeability, we employ force and moment analysis to predict the angle of attack of the planing surface, the penetration depth at the leading edge and the shift in the center of pressure for two typical snow types, fresh and wind-packed snow. We present numerical solutions for snowboarding and asymptotic analytic solutions for skiing for the case where there are no edging or turning maneuvers, which shows that approximately 50% of the total lift force is generated by the trapped air in the case of wind-packed snow for snowboarding and 40% for skiing. For highly permeable fresh powder snow the lift contribution from the pore air pressure drops to < 20%. This new theory is an extension of the series of studies on lift generation in highly compressible porous media.

  17. Salzburg Skiing for the Elderly Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederseer, David; Ledl-Kurkowski, E; Kvita, K

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that treatment of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) results in a decreased risk to suffer from stroke or myocardial infarction. Despite the fact that exercise training is a potent treatment choice for CVRF, this is the first randomized study to assess...... the effects of alpine skiing on CVRF in elderly skiers. Subjects (n=42) were randomized into an intervention group (IG; n=22; 12 males/10 females; age: 66.6 ± 2.1 years) completing 12 weeks of guided skiing or a control group (CG; n=20; 10 males/10 females; age: 67.3 ± 4.4 years). CVRF were assessed before...... and after the intervention period. No cardiovascular event occurred within a total of 795.1 h of skiing. A significant increase in exercise capacity in IG (ΔVO(2 max) : +2.0 mL/kg/min, P=0.005) but not in CG (ΔVO(2 max) : -0.1 mL/kg/min, P=0.858; IG vs CG: P=0.008) as well as a decrease in body fat mass [IG...

  18. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  19. Star Coloring of Sierpi(n)ski Gasket Graphs%Sierpi(n)ski Gasket图的星着色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉美; 莫明忠

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, star coloring of Sierpi(n)ski gasket graphs Sn is studied.Meanwhile, it proved that S3 is uniquely 4-star-colorable up to isomorphism, and gave the exact star chromatic number of Sierpi(n)ski gasket Graphs: xs(Sn) =5 (n≥4).%研究了Sierpi(n)ski gasket图Sn的星着色,证明了在同构意义下S3是唯一的4-星可着色的,且给出了Sierp(n)ski gasket图Sn的星色数的精确值为Xs(Sn)=5(n≥4).

  20. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p skiing power (VMAST, p skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  1. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: I. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehan; Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Heesu; Ahn, Eunhye; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we construct a model of a ski jumper by using three-dimensional surface data obtained by scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). An experiment on this model is conducted in a wind tunnel. We consider four posture parameters (forward leaning angle, ski opening angle, ski rolling angle, and ski spacing) and measure the drag and lift forces for various flight postures at various angles of attack (α = 0° - 40°) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 5.4 × 105 - 1.6 × 106) based on the length of the jump ski. Then, we derive optimum values of posture parameters for maximum lift-to-drag ratio using a response surface method. We also conduct a full-scale wind tunnel experiment with members of the Korean national team and confirm the results obtained from the experiment on the model. Supported by the NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848).

  2. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  3. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory.

  4. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  5. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  6. Reducing the Odds: Backcountry Powder Skiing in Avalanche Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffern, Tony

    This paper provides information and strategies to reduce the risk of encountering an avalanche when skiing or climbing on steep slopes. Skiers must recognize that the risk exists, be aware of their own tolerance for risk, and not allow companions to pressure them into taking more risk than they can tolerate. Ideally, one should ski with a small…

  7. A Guide to Equipment: Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ned

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are guidelines for asking questions and selecting cross-country skis, boots, bindings, poles, and touring packs. To choose any type of cross-country gear, the strategy recommended is to match the equipment to the athelete's skiing style. (WB)

  8. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  9. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a great activity for taking a physical education class outside during the cold winter months. It is also a diverse activity that appeals to students of all ages, and is an excellent cardio-respiratory activity to keep students active. This article has provided the first steps in preparing a cross-country skiing lesson in…

  10. Premiere of Film Nine-Mile Fragrance Held in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-HABITAT) in Kenya staged the premiere of the film Nine-Mile Fragrance depicting the Wenchuan earthquake relief efforts. The film, showing the unique culture of the Qiang ethnic group and the great spirit of love of the Chinese people in their earthquake relief work, left a deep impression on the African audience.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries......The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury...... and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...

  12. 25 CFR 700.213 - Methods of providing last resort replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Last Resort Replacement Housing § 700.213 Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. (a) General. The methods of providing last resort housing include, but are not limited to—...

  13. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  14. The effect of skiing on soil, hydrology and erosion hazard in the ski area of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.

    2006-01-01

    In July and August 1999, we investigated the influence of skiing on the catchment hydrology and soil (erosion) in the surroundings of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria. Sölden is a ski village located in the Ötztal valley in between the Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. During this research, we conducted 122 rainfal

  15. Resources of dark skies in German climatic health resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Katharina M. A.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Falchi, Fabio; Wosniok, Werner; Hölker, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Illumination of nocturnal environments is increasing steadily worldwide. While there are some benefits for mankind, light at night affects animals, plants, and human health by blurring the natural distinction between day and night. International regulations exist to protect the environment for the maintenance of human health but nocturnal darkness is not considered. In Germany, cities and communities labeled as Climatic Health Resorts provide for high standards in air quality. However, their degree of nocturnal darkness is unexplored so far. In our study, we examined the degree of nocturnal darkness in German Climatic Health Resorts by two datasets based on georeferenced remote sensing data. The majority of Climatic Health Resorts (93.1 %) are able to offer a relative respite (≥ 20 mag/arcsec2) from a degraded nocturnal environment, while only 3.4 % are able to offer a dark, if by no means pristine, night environment (≥ 21 mag/arcsec2). Climatic Health Resorts emit less light as well as are less affected by night sky brightness compared to the average of non-classified communities. In combination with daytime requirements, the resorts provide conditions for a more distinct day-and-night-cycle than non-classified communities.

  16. Resources of dark skies in German climatic health resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Katharina M. A.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Falchi, Fabio; Wosniok, Werner; Hölker, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Illumination of nocturnal environments is increasing steadily worldwide. While there are some benefits for mankind, light at night affects animals, plants, and human health by blurring the natural distinction between day and night. International regulations exist to protect the environment for the maintenance of human health but nocturnal darkness is not considered. In Germany, cities and communities labeled as Climatic Health Resorts provide for high standards in air quality. However, their degree of nocturnal darkness is unexplored so far. In our study, we examined the degree of nocturnal darkness in German Climatic Health Resorts by two datasets based on georeferenced remote sensing data. The majority of Climatic Health Resorts (93.1 %) are able to offer a relative respite (≥ 20 mag/arcsec2) from a degraded nocturnal environment, while only 3.4 % are able to offer a dark, if by no means pristine, night environment (≥ 21 mag/arcsec2). Climatic Health Resorts emit less light as well as are less affected by night sky brightness compared to the average of non-classified communities. In combination with daytime requirements, the resorts provide conditions for a more distinct day-and-night-cycle than non-classified communities.

  17. [Advertising and safety in skiing (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, G; Nöth, W

    1977-02-11

    Pertinent accident statistics show that, opposed to the need for safety which ought to be expected, there is an insufficiently practiced safety consciousness. The objective probability of getting into danger rises with the increasing readiness to take risks. Advertising tries to influence the potential customer quantitatively and qualitatively in such a way that he believes that his secret desires will be fulfilled by the acquisition and use of certain products. The mechanism of character transference through paralogical conclusions required for this shows parallels to the logic schizophrenia. Both sponsors and ad-men can contribute decisively to safety in skiing if they dispense with the use of certain attributes in their advertisements.

  18. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  19. The Assessment of Hotel Services in Poiana Brasov Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltescu C.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a holiday destination is determined by the features of the existing accommodation offer. The quality of hotel services provided influence the attracted customer segment, the satisfaction degree of consumption, the loyalty degree for the accommodation unit and destination, and also the economic-financial performance of the company. This article analyzes the opinions of tourists staying in Poiana Braşov resort regarding their consumption experience in one of the most representative hotels of the resort. The results obtained show customers’ expectations, satisfaction degree after consumption and future ways for adapting and improving hotel services.

  20. The planning of urban green areas and its protective importance in resort cities (case of Georgian resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Khoshtaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of green areas reduction and degradation in Southern Georgia, for three resort cities located in Samtskhe-Javakheti region. These cities are well known balneological and climatic resorts of Georgia - Akhaltsikhe, Borjomi and Abastumani. In the frames of this study, the actual conditions of urban green areas and neighboring to tourism and recreation zones forests are mentioned, by comparing these three resorts. Case study for natural disasters of last time - heavy rainflows case is analyzed. The protective role of green areas planting for this case is estimated. For each city planning concepts of green areas are worked out and recommendations for sustainable development of urban landscapes are concluded.

  1. "no snow - no skiing excursion - consequences of climatic change?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Climatology and climate change have become central topics in Geography at our school. Because of that we set up a climatological station at our school. The data are an important basis to observe sudden changes in the weather. The present winter (2013/2014) shows the importance of climate change in Alzey / Germany. In winter many students think of the yearly skiing trip to Schwaz / Austria which is part of our school programme. Due to that the following questions arise: Will skiing still be possible if climate change accelerates? How are the skiing regions in the Alpes going to change? What will happen in about 20 years? How does artificial snow change the landscape and the skiing sport? Students have to be aware of the ecological damage of skiing trips. Each class has to come up with a concept how these trips can be as environmentally friendly as possible. - the trip is for a restricted number of students only (year 8 only) - a small skiing region is chosen which is not overcrowded - snow has to be guaranteed in the ski area to avoid the production of artificial snow (avoidance of high water consumption) - the bus arrives with a class and returns with the one that had been there before These are but a few ideas of students in order to make their trip as environmentally friendly as possible. What is missing is only what is going to happen in the future. What will be the effect of climate change for skiing regions in the secondary mountains? How is the average temperature for winter going to develop? Are there possibilities for summer tourism (e.g. hiking) instead of skiing in winter? The students are going to try to find answers to these questions which are going to be presented on a poster on the GIFT-Workshop in Vienna.

  2. De l’après-ski à l’après-tourisme, une figure de transition pour les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les sports d’hiver occupent une place de premier plan dans le tourisme européen, non seulement du fait de leur poids économique dans les régions de montagne, mais aussi par leur forte dimension symbolique dans la « civilisation des loisirs ». Pourtant l’univers du tourisme hivernal est parcouru par de nombreuses incertitudes liées au changement climatique, mais aussi à des évolutions et des ruptures structurelles qui remettent en question le modèle de développement sur lequel il repose. Ce contexte de mutation permet d’interroger les limites du modèle industriel qui a présidé à l’aménagement des Alpes pour la pratique du ski et d’examiner des figures d’avenir alternatives au « tout ski » et même au « tout tourisme ».Winter sports occupy a prominent place in European tourism, not only because of their economic importance in mountainous areas but also due to their major symbolic significance in the "leisure civilisation". Yet the world of winter tourism is full of uncertainties connected with climate change and also with evolutions and structural breaks that call into question the development model on which it is based. This context of profound change gives us the opportunity to question the limits of the industrial model that has governed the development of the Alps for the practice of skiing and to examine alternative future scenarios to "all-out skiing" and even "all-out tourism".

  3. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Movahed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is necessary to locate a place with appropriate climate in the province. In this study, we use the descriptive combination and analytical method and this research is applied. We aim to examine three patterns: the final level pattern walkway areas of major cities, Robert pattern and standard distance pattern. Results show that, because of the long distance between Ahvaz and Malaga, the above-mentioned models could not determine Ahvaz walkway field.2- Theoretical basesThe Tourism has expressed as the specific spatial patterns. One of them is spatial patterns of urban tourism. Urban areas are important tourism places because they have historical and cultural attractions. The major cities have many diverse attractions, including museums, monuments, theaters, sports stadiums, parks, toy city, Shopping centers, and places of historical and architectural sites of important events with famous people. Moreover, if the tourist attractions are located in rural areas, urban movement supports the objective location.To examine the influence of large urban parks, three methods are used that are: A - The final model of the metropolitan parkB - Robert patternC - Standard distance model3– DiscussionThere are three different variations of climate in Khuzestan province: desert climate, semi desert climate and mountainous climate that are suitable for tourism. Ahvaz city has taken in desert climatology; therefore, there is a need for amusement places at mountainous climates. As map

  4. Vice Premier Li Keqiang Meets Chinese and Russian Friendly Personages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The scene: 5 pm on April 26 at the President Hotel in Moscow, and Vice Premier Li Keqiang, having just arrived in Russia for an official visit, cordially meets Chinese and Russian friendly personages from various sectors of society including people-to-people diplomatic, academic, cultural, scientific and educational, and business circles. Among them are experts and scholars in their seventies and eighties, important professionals of their respective workplaces in their prime, as well as students in the bloom of their youth.

  5. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  6. Flight style optimization in ski jumping on normal, large, and ski flying hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Alexander; Staat, Manfred; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-02-07

    In V-style ski jumping, aerodynamic forces are predominant performance factors and athletes have to solve difficult optimization problems in parts of a second in order to obtain their jump length maximum and to keep the flight stable. Here, a comprehensive set of wind tunnel data was used for optimization studies based on Pontryagin's minimum principle with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as controls. Various combinations of the constraints αmax and βmin(t) were analyzed in order to compare different optimization strategies. For the computer simulation studies, the Olympic hill profiles in Esto-Sadok, Russia (HS 106m, HS 140m), and in Harrachov, Czech Republic, host of the Ski Flying World Championships 2014 (HS 205m) were used. It is of high importance for ski jumping practice that various aerodynamic strategies, i.e. combinations of α- and β-time courses, can lead to similar jump lengths which enables athletes to win competitions using individual aerodynamic strategies. Optimization results also show that aerodynamic behavior has to be different at different hill sizes (HS). Optimized time courses of α and β using reduced drag and lift areas in order to mimic recent equipment regulations differed only in a negligible way. This indicates that optimization results presented here are not very sensitive to minor changes of the aerodynamic equipment features when similar jump length are obtained by using adequately higher in-run velocities. However, wind tunnel measurements with athletes including take-off and transition to stabilized flight, flight, and landing behavior would enable a more detailed understanding of individual flight style optimization.

  7. Multifunction laser systems in clinical and resort practice

    OpenAIRE

    ZABULONOV, Yuriy; Vladimirov, Alexander; Chukhraiev, Nikolay; Elmehsenawi, Yousry; Zukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    SHUPYKNATIONALMEDICALACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION UKRAINIANSOCIETY OFPHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE RADOM UNIVERSITY       Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow       MULTIFUNCTION LASER SYSTEMS IN CLINICAL AND RESORT PRACTICE   Edited by Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow  ...

  8. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling unless... may be taken to provide for “last resort” housing for eligible displaced persons. (b) Basic Rights of Persons to be Displaced. The provisions of this section do not deprive any displaced person of any...

  9. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  10. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narici, Marco; Conte, M; Salvioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated features of skeletal muscle ageing in elderly individuals having previously undergone unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and whether markers of sarcopenia could be mitigated by a 12-week alpine skiing intervention. Novel biomarkers agrin, indicative of neuromuscular ...

  11. A simulation model for forecasting downhill ski participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Stynes; Daniel M. Spotts

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe progress in the development of a general computer simulation model to forecast future levels of outdoor recreation participation. The model is applied and tested for downhill skiing in Michigan.

  12. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.

  13. Dashing through the Snow--On Cross-Country Skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Roger

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of factors to consider when developing a cross-country area for skiing includes consideration of the components of a successful cross-country operation and how the sport can be effectively promoted. (JD)

  14. Concept of Operating Indoor Skiing Halls with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Indoor skiing halls are conventionally operated at low temperatures and with either crushed ice as snow substitute or snow made from freezing water in cold air. Both systems have a high energy demand for air cooling, floor freezing and consequently snow harvest. At the same time the snow at the top...... floor cooling/freezing and insulation become obsolete, significant savings in piping and building costs can be achieved. Due to the much higher evaporating temperature for the refrigeration system, the energy demand is kept low. Since the same equipment is used for both snowmaking and air cooling......, the running time of the equipment is high, resulting in a better economy. Using Binary Snow, with its unique qualities such as fluffy, crisp, white and ¿ since made daily ¿ "fresh and hygienic", offers great advantages in operating costs, investment costs and quality....

  15. Concept of Operating Indoor Skiing Halls with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Indoor skiing halls are conventionally operated at low temperatures and with either crushed ice as snow substitute or snow made from freezing water in cold air. Both systems have a high energy demand for air cooling, floor freezing and consequently snow harvest. At the same time the snow at the top...... floor cooling/freezing and insulation become obsolete, significant savings in piping and building costs can be achieved. Due to the much higher evaporating temperature for the refrigeration system, the energy demand is kept low. Since the same equipment is used for both snowmaking and air cooling......, the running time of the equipment is high, resulting in a better economy. Using Binary Snow, with its unique qualities such as fluffy, crisp, white and ¿ since made daily ¿ "fresh and hygienic", offers great advantages in operating costs, investment costs and quality....

  16. Searching for ski-lift injury: an uphill struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David

    2010-03-01

    Injuries arising from ski-lift malfunction are rare. Most arise from skier error when embarking or disembarking, or from improper lift operation. A search of the literature failed to uncover any studies focusing specifically on ski-lift injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise ski-lift injury resulting in hospitalisation and comment on barriers to reporting and reporting omissions. New Zealand hospitalised injury discharges 2000-2005 formed the primary dataset. To aid case identification these data were linked to ACC compensated claims for the same period and the data searched for all hospitalised cases of injury arising from ski-lifts. 44 cases were identified representing 2% of snow-skiing/snowboarding cases. 28 cases (64%) were male and 16 (36%) female, the average age was 32 yrs (range 5-73 yrs). The majority of cases were snow-skiers (35 cases, 80%). Most of the injuries were serious, or potentially so, with 1 case of traumatic pneumothorax, one of pulmonary embolism (after jumping from a ski-lift) and 28 cases sustaining fractures (six to the neck-of-femur, one to the lumbar spine and one to the pubis). ICISS scores for all cases ranged from 1.00 to 0.8182 (probability of dying in hospital 0-18.18%). Only 14 (32%) cases could be easily identified from ICD-10-AM e-codes and activity codes in the discharge summary. The ICD-10-AM external cause code for ski-lift injury V98 ("other specified transport accidents") was only assigned to 39% of cases. The type of ski-lift could only be determined in 24 cases (55%).

  17. Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-12-18

    The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.

  18. Biomechanics research in ski jumping, 1991-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameder, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I review biomechanics research in ski jumping with a specific focus on publications presented between 1991 and 2006 on performance enhancement, limiting factors of the take-off, specific training and conditioning, aerodynamics, and safety. The first section presents a brief description of ski jumping phases (in-run, take-off, early flight, stable flight, and landing) regarding the biomechanical and functional fundamentals. The most important and frequently used biomechanical methods in ski jumping (kinematics, ground reaction force analyses, muscle activation patterns, aerodynamics) are summarized in the second section. The third section focuses on ski jumping articles and research findings published after the establishment of the V-technique in 1991, as the introduction of this technique has had a major influence on performance enhancement, ski jumping regulations, and the construction of hill profiles. The final section proposes topics for future research in the biomechanics of ski jumping, including: take-off and early flight and the relative roles of vertical velocity and forward somersaulting angular momentum; optimal jumping patterns utilizing the capabilities of individual athletes; development of kinematic and kinetic feedback systems for hill jumps; comparisons of simulated and hill jumps; effect of equipment modifications on performance and safety enhancement.

  19. Net efficiency of roller skiing with a diagonal stride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Akira; Ito, Akira

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to determine net efficiency during roller skiing with a diagonal stride at various speeds; (b) to assess the development of net efficiency across speeds; and (c) to examine the characteristics of efficiency in diagonal roller skiing. Two-dimensional kinematics and oxygen uptake were determined in eight male collegiate cross-country ski athletes who roller skied with the diagonal stride at various speeds on a level track. Net efficiency was calculated from rates of internal and external work and net energy expenditure. Individual net efficiency ranged from 17.7% to 52.1%. Net efficiency in the entire group of athletes increased with increasing speed, reached a maximum value of 37.3% at 3.68 m · s(-1), before slowly decreasing. These findings indicate that roller skiing with the diagonal stride at high speed is a highly efficient movement and that an optimal speed exists at which net efficiency can be maximally enhanced in diagonal roller skiing.

  20. c-Ski/SnoN and renal interstitial fibrosis%c-Ski/SnoN与肾间质纤维化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏; 张悦; 刘煜敏; 陆海英

    2007-01-01

    c-Ski/SnoN是由原癌基因c-ski/sno编码的核蛋白,属于Ski家族成员.近年来有研究表明c-Ski/SnoN是TGF-β1/Smad信号通路的重要负性调控因子,通过与Smad蛋白相互作用来抑制TGF-β1靶基因的活化.本文就c-Ski/SnoN对TGF-β1/Smad信号通路的调节作用,以及在肾间质纤维化的发生发展中的作用及机制作一综述.

  1. The Russians Are the Fastest in Marathon Cross-Country Skiing: The “Engadin Ski Marathon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” All athletes (n=197,125 who finished the “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%, Grisons (19.2%, and Berne (10.3%. Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.

  2. Solicitant -exciting plain bioclimate / Amara Balneoclimateric Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spa and balneotherapy is one of studying medicine and therapy and apply natural factors intherapy: natural mineral water springs and lakes mineralized, therapeuticmineral mud and peat, gas emanations and climate zones,orlocalities developed intosources respective treatment , the spa resort climate.Resources are the mineral spa and climatic treatment ,whose physicochemical properties meet the needs of prevention and health maintenance, strengthening and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.Climatic is a form of treatment, well-run, have fewer side effects than chemo therapeutictreatment and prolonged effects, because the way treatment is as close to normal activity in a relaxing environment.Bioclimate turn-applicant is characterized by general biological effects resulting from theapplication marked the central nervous system and autonomic and endocrine activity. Bioclimatic conditions, demanding aplain exciting resorts are located in northeasternbalneoclimatice Baragan, on the shores of salt lakes: Amara, Lacul Sarat.

  3. Air quality in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the quality of the surface atmosphere in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk (MCBRK) to treat by means of climate and landscape (TCL) of the patients suffering from bronchial asthma (PBA) [1]. 60 children (31 boys and 29 girls at the age of 9-11 years) were examined in the course of 34 days of the resort treatment in MCBRK, PBA (ICD-10 G45,0) in a remission stage. There have been used the data of the long-term bioclimatic monitoring (BCM) that is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol monitoring of IFA RAS, landscape monitoring of SNP in Kislovodsk Resort Park (KRP) as well as the data of medical monitoring, daily testing of meteopathic reactions (MPR), indicators dynamics of bronchial patency, cardiac rhythm, neurovascular reactivity, psychoemotional status of patients. TCL was carried out in the form of walks under the canopy of Betula pendula Roth., Salix f. pendula, acer platanoides globosum, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Phellodendron amurense, Tilia caucasica in KRP daily lasting from 1 till 2 hours. The results of a complex research showed that at TCL in KRP the favourable heat balance had 92% warm relations (TB300C), aerosol growth till 6-12 particles/cm3 in the blocking anti-cyclone. Conclusion: the surface atmosphere in KRP is mainly at the level of background rural territories, it is perspective for usage in the medical and improving purposes. Episodes of slightly polluted surface atmosphere are connected with forest fires, autopollution during the periods of the blocking anti-cyclones. References 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineral Vody region/Under the general edition of MD, prof. V.V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335p; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368p.

  4. Suppression of p53 activity through the cooperative action of Ski and histone deacetylase SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasumichi; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Miyazawa, Keiji; Imamura, Takeshi

    2011-02-25

    Ski was originally identified as an oncogene based on the fact that Ski overexpression transformed chicken and quail embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with these proposed oncogenic roles, Ski is overexpressed in various human tumors. However, whether and how Ski functions in mammalian tumorigenesis has not been fully investigated. Here, we show that Ski interacts with p53 and attenuates the biological functions of p53. Ski overexpression attenuated p53-dependent transactivation, whereas Ski knockdown enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53. Interestingly, Ski bound to the histone deacetylase SIRT1 and stabilized p53-SIRT1 interaction to promote p53 deacetylation, which subsequently decreased the DNA binding activity of p53. Consistent with the ability of Ski to inactivate p53, overexpressing Ski desensitized cells to genotoxic drugs and Nutlin-3, a small-molecule antagonist of Mdm2 that stabilizes p53 and activates the p53 pathway, whereas knocking down Ski increased the cellular sensitivity to these agents. These results indicate that Ski negatively regulates p53 and suggest that the p53-Ski-SIRT1 axis is an attractive target for cancer therapy.

  5. Changes in the Balance Performance of Polish Recreational Skiers after Seven Days of Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtyczek Beata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is one of the most popular leisure time winter sporting activities. Skiing imposes high requirements concerning physical fitness, particularly regarding balance abilities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in balance performance of recreational skiers after a seven-day ski camp. A total of 78 students - 24 women and 54 men - participated in the study. The ski course was held in accordance with the official program of the Polish Ski Federation. The study sample was comprised of 43 beginners and 35 intermediate skiers. All students were tested with the MFT S3-Check, the day before and the day after the ski camp. The test system consisted of an unstable uniaxial platform, with an integrated sensor and corresponding software. Changes in balance performance (sensory and stability index were evaluated using paired t-tests. Additionally, changes in sensory and stability categories, which were based on the norm data, were analyzed. Female and male participants showed significantly better sensory and stability indices after skiing. Considerable changes from weak or very weak to average or good balance categories could be seen after skiing for both sexes. Regarding skiing experience, both beginners and intermediate skiers improved their sensory and stability indices significantly after skiing. Hence, recreational alpine skiing resulted in better balance performance regardless of sex or skiing experience. Skiing as an outdoor activity offers the opportunity to improve balance performance with a positive impact on everyday life activities.

  6. Tears of a Chinese Premier Hussein Ismail Hussein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    THE day Premier Wen took office he stated.""Leaders should be closer to the masses."" His visit to comfort and talk with everyday workers in Tongchuan City, Shaanxi Province on January 1, 2005, where a few weeks previously a gas blast in the Chenjiashan Coalmine had killed 166 workers, was by no means his first. But it was the first time he publicly shed tears. In one household that had lost its breadwinner, Wen Jiabao embraced the victim's son and shared his grief. He later had a simple lunch of steamed bread and tea in a tunnel 1,300 meters belowg round as he chatted with workers at another mine in the city.

  7. L’abri premier, de Vitruve à Nils-Udo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Huvenne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude se propose de mettre en écho les écrits de Vitruve, livre second, chapitre 1 du De architectura et les créations plastiques de l’artiste contemporain Nils-Udo.Ce vis-à-vis des réflexions de Vitruve avec celles de l’artiste nous permettra de tisser un lien entre ces deux hommes et de voir dans leurs travaux respectifs des points de similitude.Le texte extrait du De architectura II, 1, sous-titré par M. Nisard, De la manière de vivre des premiers hommes, et quels ont été les commenc...

  8. Effect of flow material ski boots on foot circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflin, F; Kempi, V; van der Linden, W; Ringquist, I

    1976-01-01

    The effect of modern "flow material" ski boots on foot circulation was studied. Pressure inside a flow material ski boot was found to be markedly higher than in a conventional ski boot. In some places the pressure exceeded the diastolic pressure in the foot. 113mIndium chloride, which when injected intravenously is bound to transferrin was used for blood pool scanning. In healthy young volunteers the uptake of radioactivity in the two feet--one with and one without a ski boot--was compared. The activity level of the foot with the ski boot was significantly lower than in the other foot. After corrections were made for absorption by the boot, a significant difference remained. Plethysmographic studies were performed with a mercury strain gauge using a ski boot in which a hole was cut over the big toe. No difference was demonstrated between the blood pressure at the leg just above the boot top and at the big toe. The arterial pulse wave at the big toe was altered; i.e., there was an absence of a dichrotic wave. Intramuscular perfusion was studied with 133xenon. The disappearance curve in a foot with a boot was more shallow than that in a bare foot. Unbuckling resulted in an immediate fall in radioactivity, the disappearance curve then becoming identical to that of the bare foot. The results indicate that when flow material ski boots are to be used by skiers who are not in the habit of unbuckling for short intervals, buckle tension should not be too high.

  9. Premier Li Keqiang and Indian Prime Minister Modi Attend Regional Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2015-01-01

    The First Forum of Leaders of the Regions of China and India,cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA),was held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on May 15.Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi gave addresses.Premier Li expressed his congrat-

  10. Evaluation of energy economics of solar resorts on the Red Sea in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modet, Georgei

    2011-10-28

    This thesis investigates the energy performance of resorts in Egypt. The expansive tourism development results in higher demands of energy whilst increasing the burden on the country's economy. The objective is to evaluate solar resorts versus the conventional design in terms of energy, economic and environmental performances. An energy audit is conducted among five stars resorts in Sharm el Sheikh. A self developed evaluation model using environmental life cycle costing is used to evaluate the conventional resort versus the solar resort concept. The thesis concludes with the discussion of the results and recommendations for encouraging the use of renewable energy in the hotel sector in Egypt.

  11. Performance Diagnostic in Cross-Country Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Benedikt A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recreational cross-country skiers can benefit from a performance diagnostic when planning a training program. The aim of this study was to establish a simple test protocol to measure endurance capacity and provide training recommendations. Methods. The relationship between endurance performance and cross-country skiing technique was assessed using two tests. First, a lactate threshold test whereby running speed was determined on a treadmill at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Second, participants completed a variation of the Cooper test using skating technique on flat terrain to determine the distance covered in 12 min and maximum heart rate. Results. There was a correlative (r = 0.18 respectivelly R2 = 0.43 relationship of between the distance covered in the Cooper test and treadmill running speed at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Conclusions. The two tests allow recreational athletes to rank themselves with regards to their endurance capacity within a population. The relationship between distance covered and maximum heart rate can indicate whether future training should focus on technical or physical improvement.

  12. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  13. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  14. Rent, Lease or Buy: Randomized Algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental

    CERN Document Server

    Lotker, Zvi; Rawitz, Dror

    2008-01-01

    In the Multislope Ski Rental problem, the user needs a certain resource for some unknown period of time. To use the resource, the user must subscribe to one of several options, each of which consists of a one-time setup cost (``buying price''), and cost proportional to the duration of the usage (``rental rate''). The larger the price, the smaller the rent. The actual usage time is determined by an adversary, and the goal of an algorithm is to minimize the cost by choosing the best option at any point in time. Multislope Ski Rental is a natural generalization of the classical Ski Rental problem (where the only options are pure rent and pure buy), which is one of the fundamental problems of online computation. The Multislope Ski Rental problem is an abstraction of many problems where online decisions cannot be modeled by just two options, e.g., power management in systems which can be shut down in parts. In this paper we study randomized algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental. Our results include the best possibl...

  15. Grade influences blood lactate kinetics during cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P; Amann, Markus; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of level vs. graded skate skiing on capillary blood lactate (B(La)), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (V(O2)), and training intensity prescriptions. Eleven Nordic skiers completed 2 submaximal skate roller skiing treadmill protocols during which intensity was increased either by grade (G(inc)) or by speed (S(inc)). The protocols were compared for prethreshold BLa, HR, and V(O2) at lactate threshold (LT) and the HR/V(O2) relationship. Additionally, double-pole (primarily upper body) and skating (arms and legs combined) protocols were used to measure peak V(O2) and peak HR. Heart rate and V(O2) at LT were lower during G(inc) compared with S(inc) (154.9 +/- 6.8 b.min(-1) vs. 162.0 +/- 9.1 b.min(-1) and 46.3 +/- 2.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) vs. 49.1 +/- 1.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively, both p skiing and its associated lower aerobic capacity increases B(La) when compared with level skiing. The leftward shift in the B(La) vs. intensity curve during uphill skiing should be recognized to properly prescribe training intensity as well as interpret laboratory results.

  16. CHANGES IN QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING SUSTAINED RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kröll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs

  17. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  18. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Soo Bong; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Woo; Do, Yoon Jun; Park, Jae-Hong; Yang, Boh-Suk

    2012-05-01

    Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski) was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  19. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  20. Isolated fracture of the fibular shaft due to alpine skiing; a specific injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Atıl Atilla, Ozkan Kose, Ferhat Guler, H

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal injuries of lower leg due to alpine skiing is well known and widely reported, an acute isolated fibula fracture as a specific ski injury has not been reported in the relevant literature. Herein, we present a case of isolated fibula fracture which is missed at initial admission, and discuss the mechanism of injury and relationship with alpine skiing equipment.

  1. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  2. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  3. Disneyland resort's environmentality'' program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohel, M.E. (Disneyland, Anaheim, CA (United States))

    Today at Disneyland Resort more than 12,000 Cast Members (employees) have pledged to think and act environmentally. The Environmental Affairs Department and the environmentality logo were established about 2-1/2 years ago to promote environmental awareness throughout the company. In 1993, a new campaign stressing recycling took place. Cast members were asked to pledge to recycle plastic containers. The goal was to raise their awareness of various grades of recyclable plastic. In turn, they received a T-shirt made from 50% recycled plastic (from The Walt Disney Company) and 50% virgin plastic.

  4. Effective Factors on Reducing the Number of Spectators in Iran Football Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khadem Azghadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of reducing the number of spectators of football premier league, this study is seeking for identifying factors put the most impact on this decline. The statistical population consisted of all spectators in Iran football premier league in 2015-16, out of which 395 spectators were randomly selected as the research samples. The data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic information and the second part, at 6 aspects, includes 35 questions analyzing the reasons for reducing the number of spectators in Iran's football Premier League. For analyzing data, it was used from first and second order confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equations through using SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.8 software. The results of first order confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measurement model of factors affecting on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league is an appropriate model and model parameters are significant. All factors are approved as effective variables on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. The results also showed that the second order measurement model of effective factors on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league are also appropriate, and economic, facilitative, administrative, technical, cultural-social, and personal-family respectively put the most effects on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. It is suggested for the sport marketers to analyze identified factors in this research and develop applicable strategies and guidelines for them.

  5. Facial trauma: how dangerous are skiing and snowboarding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Tarkan; Haechl, Oliver; Berger, Natalie; Laimer, Klaus; Jank, Siegfried; Kloss, Frank; Brandstätter, Anita; Gassner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate maxillofacial injuries sustained in both skiing and snowboarding accidents and correlate injury mechanisms and patterns evaluating a large population. Between 1991 and 2003, all patients with maxillofacial injuries due to skiing and snowboarding accidents (1,393 cases) were reviewed and statistically analyzed according to age, gender, type of injury, cause of accident, location of trauma, and associated injuries. Skiing accidents resulted in a total of 1,250 injuries, and snowboarding resulted in 143. In this study 686 skiers presented with 1,452 facial bone fractures and 80 snowboarders sustained 160 fractures of the face. Skiers had dentoalveolar trauma in 810 cases and 1,295 soft tissue injuries, whereas snowboarders had 88 dental injuries and 187 soft tissue lesions. Mechanisms of injury included 542 cases due to skiing and 85 falls due to snowboarding (a 1.79-fold higher risk for snowboarders). The gender distribution showed a male-female ratio of 3:1 in skiers and 5.5:1 in snowboarders. In both groups male patients were more prone to have a facial bone fracture than female patients. Snowboarders aged between 10 and 29 years had a 2.14-fold higher risk of sustaining a maxillofacial injury than skiers. In both groups facial bone fractures occurred more often in male patients, and they were more likely to result from falls and collisions with other persons. Young snowboarders had a higher risk of maxillofacial injuries (especially soft tissue lesions) than skiers, whereas for children and old persons, skiing posed a much higher risk. Wearing a helmet while skiing and snowboarding should be mandatory to prevent serious trauma to the head. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Up on the Mountain As more and more Chinese hit the slopes,a fledgling ski industry looks to boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAITLIN; ELLEN; THOMPSON

    2004-01-01

    EVERY year in China, one million people take up skiing. China. Skiing. Although the two aren’t yet synonymous, flocks of newly converted devotees, a booming industry and even faint Olympic hopes are snowballing the sport into a cultural phenomenon.The Swiss Alps it isn’t, but the closest ski area to the capital is Nanshan Ski Village. Outfitted with

  7. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Creek, Kim E., E-mail: creekk@sccp.sc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. • Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. • Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. • Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski.

  8. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, C; Borg, H; Thelander, D; Elmqvist, L G

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated telemark injuries in a Swedish ski area in terms of injury ratio, location, and causes over time. During the seasons of 1989-2000 all injured telemark skiers ( n=94) who attended the medical center in Tärnaby, Sweden, within 48 h after the accident were registered and asked to fill in an injury form. A control group of noninjured telemark skiers were interviewed in the season of 1999-2000. The most common cause of injury was fall (70%) and the injury ratio was 1.2. There was a higher proportion of beginners in the injured population, and they had a fall/run ratio of 0.7, compared with 0.3 for average and advanced skiers. Ankle/foot injuries were most common (28% of injuries) followed by knee (20%) and head/neck (17%). The ankle/foot injuries decreased from 35% to 22% in the seasons 1989-1995 to 1995-2000. Beginners had more ankle/foot injuries than skilled participants. The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period. Twenty-seven percent used plastic and 73% leather boots. We found no association between boot material and ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots with two or more buckles was 51%. High boots appeared to be protective against ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots increased from 24% to 67% during the study period. Thus ankle/foot injuries were the most common injury location, but have decreased over time. The severity of these injuries has also decreased. A possible explanation could be the increased use of high boots.

  9. SKI-bestyrelse kan være erstatningspligtig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Lars Bo Langsted vurderer at SKI bestyrelsen handlede korrekt ved at indhente en ekstern vurdering fra kammeradvokaten af de rammeaftaler, der nu er opsagt. Han stiller dog spørgsmålstegn ved, om bestyrelsen handlede tilstrækkeligt hurtigt.......Lars Bo Langsted vurderer at SKI bestyrelsen handlede korrekt ved at indhente en ekstern vurdering fra kammeradvokaten af de rammeaftaler, der nu er opsagt. Han stiller dog spørgsmålstegn ved, om bestyrelsen handlede tilstrækkeligt hurtigt....

  10. Evaluation of Ski Center Services in Greece based on the Multiattribute Measurement Model of Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilos Masmanidis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate ski center services in Greece. Our research sample consists of n=1,614 visitors in 11 of the largest ski centers in Greece. The 22-item SERVQUAL standard questionnaire has been used, with each item classified based on five quality-assessment dimensions. In order to assess ski center offered services, the Multiattribute Attitude Measurement Model has been used. The values gathered by applying this model were used as reference values for ski center evaluation. Ski centers have then been ranked based on their total attitude score. The paper provides administrative suggestions on improving center offered services.

  11. Lender of last resort in a monetary union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of optimal currency areas was developed during the 1960’s and 1970’s. At that time the international financial system was very different from the current system, banking systems were smaller and the flow of funds across borders limited. Developments in the Eurozone in recent years have shown that when the theory was developed and the decision made to adopt the euro some of the drawbacks of a common currency were not foreseen and important issues were not addressed. This includes the role of a common central bank as a lender of last resort to national governments. In addition, few foresaw how many closely linked financial systems could create problems that are unsolvable without the cooperation of several governments. An adequate framework for dealing with such problems was thus not put in place. The possibility that macro-economic shocks could originate in the financial system was mainly ignored. During the current crisis it has been necessary to address all these issues. It took four years to find a politically viable solution. This involves the redefinition of the role of the European Central Bank, making it a lender of last resort to national governments. This policy change buys time to deal with many fundamental imbalances within the Eurozone but does not in and of itself solve the underlying problems. The delay in implementing this policy was however very costly.

  12. Simulation of realization of ski-racers’ functional potentials in passing ski trails of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelnytska J.K.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate model characteristics of functional fitness components of elite ski-racers, depending on competitions’ conditions. Material: We tested 20 sportsmen of combined team of Ukraine. Results: it was found that climbing hills of different length and steepness is accompanied by certain functional tension of organism and changes in cardio-respiratory system. It influences on effectiveness of further descent and moving on plain. It was also determined that correlation of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency changes according to trail relief. Conclusions: we worked out model characteristics of skiers’ fitness most important parameters, usage of which can facilitate maintaining high special workability on all segments of competition distance. In particular it concerns climbing hills of different steepness.

  13. Developing restoration planting mixes for active ski slopes: a multi-site reference community approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer Williamson

    2012-03-01

    Downhill ski areas occupy large expanses of mountainous lands where restoration of ecosystem function is of increasing importance and interest. Establishing diverse native plant communities on ski runs should enhance sediment and water retention, wildlife habitat, biodiversity and aesthetics. Because ski slopes are managed for recreation, ski slope revegetation mixes must consist of low-stature or herbaceous plants that can tolerate typical environmental conditions on ski slopes (high elevation, disturbed soils, open, steep slopes). The most appropriate reference communities for selecting ski slope revegetation species are thus successional, or seral plant communities in similar environments (i.e., other ski slopes). Using results from a broad-scale reference community analysis, I evaluated plant communities naturally occurring on ski slopes from 21 active and abandoned ski areas throughout the northern Sierra Nevada to identify native plant species suitable for use in ski slope restoration. I constructed a baseline planting palette of regionally appropriate plant species (for restoration of either newly created or already existing ski runs) that is functionally diverse and is likely to succeed across a broad range of environments. I also identify a more comprehensive list of species for more specialized planting mixes based on site-specific goals and particular environmental settings. Establishing seral plant communities may be an appropriate restoration goal for many other types of managed lands, including roadsides, firebreaks and utility rights-of-way. This study describes an ecological (and potentially cost-effective) approach to developing restoration planting palettes for such managed lands.

  14. Antifibrotic properties of c-Ski and its regulation of cardiac myofibroblast phenotype and contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Ryan H; Wang, Baiqiu; Ghavami, Saeid; Bathe, Krista L; Rattan, Sunil G; Dixon, Ian M C

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac myofibroblasts are key players in chronic remodeling of the cardiac extracellular matrix, which is mediated in part by elevated transforming growth factor-β₁ (TGF-β₁). The c-Ski proto-oncoprotein has been shown to modify TGF-β₁ post-receptor signaling through receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads); however, little is known about how c-Ski regulates fibroblast phenotype and function. We sought to elucidate the function of c-Ski in primary cardiac myofibroblasts using a c-Ski overexpression system. Cardiac myofibroblasts expressed three forms of c-Ski with the predominant band at 105 kDa, and adenoviral c-Ski treatment resulted in overexpression of 95-kDa c-Ski in cellular nuclei. Exogenous c-Ski led to significant inhibition of type I collagen secretion and myofibroblast contractility using two-dimensional semifloating gel contraction assay in both basal and with TGF-β₁ (10 ng/ml for 24 h) stimulation. Overexpressed c-Ski did not inhibit nuclear translocation of phosphorylated R-Smad2, despite their binding, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. Acute treatment of primary myofibroblasts with TGF-β₁ in vitro revealed a marked nuclear shuttling of c-Ski at 24 and 48 h following stimulation. Remarkably, overexpression of c-Ski led to a stepwise reduction of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin with increasing multiplicity of infection, and these results indicate that 95-kDa c-Ski overexpression may effect a loss of the myofibroblastic phenotype. Furthermore, adenovirus (Ad) for hemagglutinin-tagged c-Ski infection led to a reduction in the number of myofibroblasts versus Ad-LacZ-infected and uninfected controls, due to induction of apoptosis. Finally, we observed a significant increase in 105-kDa c-Ski in the cytosolic fraction of cells of the infarct scar and adjacent remnant myocardium vs. noninfarcted controls.

  15. NE TIGER Premieres New Hua Fu At Bird’s Nest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the evening of September 25, China’s leading luxury fashion brand NE TIGER presented its premiere fashion show of Hua Fu(Chinese national dress) at a concert of superstars from China, Japan and South Korea,

  16. From hydrological regimes to water use regimes: influence of the type of habitat on drinking water demand dynamics in alpine tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calianno, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, integrated water resources management studies produced integrated models that focus mainly on the assessment of water resources and water stress in the future. In some cases, socioeconomic development results to cause more impacts on the evolution of water systems than climate (Reynard et al., 2014). There is thus a need to develop demand-side approaches in the observation and modeling of human-influenced hydrological systems (Grouillet et al., 2015). We define the notion of water use cycle to differentiate water volumes that are withdrawn from the hydrological system and that circulate through anthropic hydro-systems along various steps: withdrawals, distribution, demands, consumption, restitution (Calianno et al., submitted). To address the spatial distribution and the temporal dynamics of the water use cycle, we define the concepts of water use basins and water use regimes (Calianno et al., submitted). The assessment of the temporal variability of water demands is important at thin time steps in touristic areas, where water resource regimes and water demands are highly variable. This is the case for are alpine ski resorts, where the high touristic season (winter) takes place during the low flow period in nival and glacio-nival basins. In this work, a monitoring of drinking water demands was undergone, at high temporal resolution, on different types of buildings in the ski resort of Megève (France). A dataset was created, from which a typology of water demand regimes was extracted. The analysis of these temporal signatures highlighted the factors influencing the volumes and the dynamics of drinking water demand. The main factors are the type of habitat (single family, collective, house, apartment blocks), the presence of a garden or an infrastructure linked to high standing chalets (pool, spa), the proportion of permanent and temporary habitat, the presence of snow in the ski resort. Also, temporalities linked to weekends and weekly tourism

  17. Mutations in the G-domain of Ski7 cause specific dysfunction in non-stop decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Wataru; Endo, Kei; Wada, Miki; Ito, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Ski7 functions as a cofactor in both normal mRNA turnover and non-stop mRNA decay (NSD) mRNA surveillance in budding yeast. The N-terminal region of Ski7 (Ski7N) interacts with the ski-complex and the exosome. The C-terminal region of Ski7 (Ski7C) binds guanine nucleotides and shares overall sequence and structural homology with the proteins of the translational GTPase superfamily, especially the tRNA/tRNA-mimic carrier protein subfamilies such as EF1α, eRF3, and Hbs1. Previous reports showed that Ski7N polypeptide functions adequately in vivo, while Ski7C, if any, only slightly. Furthermore, Ski7C does not exhibit GTP-hydrolysing activities under normal conditions. Therefore, the physiological and functional significance of the conserved Ski7C is unclear. Here, we report strong genetic evidence suggesting differential roles for Ski7N and Ski7C in normal and specific mRNA turnover pathways by creating/isolating mutations in both Ski7N and Ski7C conserved motifs using indicator yeast strains. We concluded that Ski7C participates in mRNA surveillance as a regulatory module competitively with the Hbs1/Dom34 complex. Our results provide insights into the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying mRNA surveillance. PMID:27381255

  18. [Anorectal injury after a fall from a jet ski

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, T.E.; Assmann, R.F.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Geeraedts, L.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A 28-year-old female sustained an anorectal rupture after a fall from a jet ski. The rupture was sutured and a double-loop colostomy was created. Three months later, following a test of functional continence, the colostomy was removed. The patient recovered without complications and with preservatio

  19. Kinematic structure at the early flight position in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodičar, Janez; Coh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our research was to establish the variability of correlation between the length of the jumps and selected multi-item kinematic variables (n=9) in the early flight phase technique of ski jumping. This study was conducted on a sample of elite Slovenian ski jumpers (N=29) who participated in the experiment on a jumping hill in Hinterzarten, Germany (HS95m) on the 20(th) of August, 2008. The highest and most significant correlations (p=0.01) with the length of the ski jump were found in the multi-item variable height of flying, which was also expressed with the highest level of stability of the explained total variance (TV) on the first factor (TV=69.13%). The most important characteristic of the aerodynamic aspect of early flight was the variable angle between the body chord and the horizontal axis with significantly high correlations (pski and left leg (TV=50.13%), had an explained common variance on the first factor greater than 50% of total variance. The results indicated that some kinematic parameters of ski jumping early flight technique were more important for success considering the length of the jump.

  20. A Validation of the Ski Hi Language Development Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelson, Stephen W.

    The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and the validity of the Ski Hi Language Development Scale which was designed to determine the receptive and the expressive language levels of hearing impaired children from birth to age 5. The reliability of the instrument was estimated through: (1) internal consistency, (2) inter-rater…

  1. The SKI-HI Program: A Descriptive Update, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Sandy; And Others

    This document provides updated information on the SKI-HI program model which presently serves over 2000 young hearing impaired children in 35 states and Canada. The program focuses on training parents in the skills needed to maximize language stimulation and minimize language deprivation. Among 14 educational and philosophical underpinnings of the…

  2. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Six Danish male cross-country skiers were studied during the end-of-summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double-poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double...

  3. Dziewoński Receives 2002 William Bowie Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Dziewoński was awarded the William Bowie Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 8 December 2002, in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and unselfish cooperation in research.

  4. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  5. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koesters, A.; Poetzelsberger, B.; Dela, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on health-related parameters and implant related factors like loosening and wear in patients with total knee arthroplasty. This paper describes the overall study design, general demographics, and physiological demand of the inte...

  6. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Pötzelsberger, B.; Scheiber, P.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of alpine skiing for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle characteristics and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-three patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were studied 2.9 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SD) after the operation. Fourteen...

  7. UPAYA POLISI RESORT (POLRES) SLEMAN DALAM MENCEGAH DAN MENANGGULANGI PRAKTEK JUDI SEPAK BOLA ONLINE

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The title of this legal research is "effort Sleman Resort Police in preventing and repressing practice football online gambling". background on which to base this legal research is, Sleman Resort Police efforts to prevent and repressive the practice of online gambling in Sleman regency. purpose of this study to determine the Sleman Resort Police efforts to prevent and repressive the practice of online gambling and what the barriers are, as well as one of the requirements to earn h...

  8. A History of Last-resort Lending and Other Support for Troubled Financial Institutions in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Fitz-Gibbon; Marianne Gizycki

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys the history of last-resort lending and other support provided to financial institutions in Australia and compares the practical implementation of lender-of-last-resort policy with policy prescriptions derived from the theoretical literature. Last-resort support serves to counter the market failures that can see fundamentally sound financial institutions fail due to a lack of liquidity, and to protect the economy from the systemic costs of such failures. The provision of len...

  9. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  10. Specific Features of the Tourist Flow in Borsec Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE-BOGDAN TOFAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Borsec resort, tourism occupies a special place, as an economic alternative, still remaining viable and a form of exploitation of natu ral and human potential, with its own history and traditions, with a bottling industry, operating for more than two centuries and which practically today offers one of Romanian representa tive brands of mineral water – Borsec. The drawback of the resort’s tourism, based exclusi vely on the exploitation of mineral water, is analyzed in the context of the recovery op portunities through diversification of tourist facilities, rehabilitation and application of moder n means of image promotion. Moreover, the Carpathian road rehabilitation project will also cont ribute to this. One of the most important Romanian projects related to transport axes, the fu ture Târgu Mure ş -Ia ş i-Ungheni highway may already be considered favourable in providing a nat ional and international reputation.

  11. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  12. MicroRNA-155 targets the SKI gene in human melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, Lauretta; Pagani, Elena; Romani, Sveva; Castiglia, Daniele; Piccinni, Eugenia; Covaciu, Claudia; Caporaso, Patrizia; Bondanza, Sergio; Antonetti, Francesca R; Bonmassar, Enzo; Martelli, Fabio; Alvino, Ester; D'Atri, Stefania

    2011-06-01

    The SKI protein is a transcriptional coregulator over-expressed in melanoma. Experimentally induced down-regulation of SKI inhibits melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively modulate gene expression and have been implicated in oncogenesis. We previously showed that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is down-regulated in melanoma cells as compared with normal melanocytes and that its ectopic expression impairs proliferation and induces apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether miR-155 could mediate melanoma growth inhibition via SKI gene silencing. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-155 interacted with SKI 3'UTR and impaired gene expression. Transfection of melanoma cells with miR-155 reduced SKI levels, while inhibition of endogenous miR-155 up-regulated SKI expression. Specifically designed small interfering RNAs reduced SKI expression and inhibited proliferation. However, melanoma cells over-expressing a 3'UTR-deleted SKI were still susceptible to the antiproliferative effect of miR-155. Our data demonstrate for the first time that SKI is a target of miR-155 in melanoma. However, impairment of SKI expression is not the leading mechanism involved in the growth-suppressive effect of miR-155 found in this malignancy.

  13. Context-dependent dual role of SKI8 homologs in mRNA synthesis and turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eavan Dorcey

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic mRNA transcription and turnover is controlled by an enzymatic machinery that includes RNA polymerase II and the 3' to 5' exosome. The activity of these protein complexes is modulated by additional factors, such as the nuclear RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (Paf1c and the cytoplasmic Superkiller (SKI complex, respectively. Their components are conserved across uni- as well as multi-cellular organisms, including yeast, Arabidopsis, and humans. Among them, SKI8 displays multiple facets on top of its cytoplasmic role in the SKI complex. For instance, nuclear yeast ScSKI8 has an additional function in meiotic recombination, whereas nuclear human hSKI8 (unlike ScSKI8 associates with Paf1c. The Arabidopsis SKI8 homolog VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENT 3 (VIP3 has been found in Paf1c as well; however, whether it also has a role in the SKI complex remains obscure so far. We found that transgenic VIP3-GFP, which complements a novel vip3 mutant allele, localizes to both nucleus and cytoplasm. Consistently, biochemical analyses suggest that VIP3-GFP associates with the SKI complex. A role of VIP3 in the turnover of nuclear encoded mRNAs is supported by random-primed RNA sequencing of wild-type and vip3 seedlings, which indicates mRNA stabilization in vip3. Another SKI subunit homolog mutant, ski2, displays a dwarf phenotype similar to vip3. However, unlike vip3, it displays neither early flowering nor flower development phenotypes, suggesting that the latter reflect VIP3's role in Paf1c. Surprisingly then, transgenic ScSKI8 rescued all aspects of the vip3 phenotype, suggesting that the dual role of SKI8 depends on species-specific cellular context.

  14. Knee injuries and Alpine skiing. Treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, G A; Warren, R F

    1994-06-01

    Alpine skiing is an increasingly popular recreational sport worldwide. While the overall injury rate has declined and the pattern of injury changed over the years, the incidence of knee injuries has not changed substantially and accounts for 20 to 30% of all alpine skiing injuries. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common in skiing, accounting for 15 to 20% of all skiing injuries and 60% of knee injuries in skiers. Tears are commonly isolated, but may occur in association with other ligamentous injuries. Associated meniscal pathology is rare. Isolated MCL injuries are treated nonoperatively with a programme of initial immobilisation, early range-of-motion, and isometric quadriceps strengthening exercises. When full range of motion is achieved, a programme of progressive resistance exercises, isokinetic and closed chain exercises, and functional rehabilitation is instituted. Good results with return to skiing can be expected in most cases. Isolated lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries are rare in skiers. There is usually associated cruciate or arcuate ligament complex. Careful physical examination is essential to rule out associated ligament injuries and more complex instability patterns. In the rare case of isolated LCL injury, a similar approach to isolated MCL injury should be instituted. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become increasingly common in skiers. This may reflect a true increase in the incidence or an improved awareness and ability to diagnose ACL injury. Physical examination and arthrometric analysis are important in assessing the integrity of the ACL. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation may be helpful in assessing associated meniscal pathology. Treatment of the ACL-deficient knee is usually surgical. However, prior to reconstruction, a programme aimed at reducing effusion and regaining a full, pain-free range of motion is recommended. Surgical reconstruction is usually with the

  15. Quality of customer service: perceptions from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel L. Frater

    2007-01-01

    With data collected from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica, West Indies, the purposes of this study were to: (1) delineate unique dimensions of customer service perceptions among guests and (2) report the finding of a study that measured guests' perceptions of the quality of customer service in all-inclusive resorts. The study asked the following research...

  16. ‘Sochi’ resort development and functioning in 1935–1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the history of ‘Sochi’ rest home establishment and functioning. Later ‘Sochi’ was turned into resort and was included into Sochi group of resorts, first under the supervision of USSR Central Executive Committee and in 1938 it passed into jurisdiction of USSR Council of People's Commissars – USSR Council of Ministers.

  17. 77 FR 63734 - Security Zone; James River, Kingsmill Resort, Williamsburg, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Security Zone; James River, Kingsmill Resort... establishing a temporary security zone on the James River in the vicinity of Kingsmill Resort...

  18. Ski and SnoN,potent negative regulators of TGF-β signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julien Deheuninck; Kunxin Luo

    2009-01-01

    SKi and the closely related SnoN were discovered as oncogenes by their ability to transform chicken embryo fi-broblasts upon overexpression.While elevated expressions of Ski and SnoN have also been reported in many human cancer cells and tissues,consistent with their pro-oncogenic activity,emerging evidence also suggests a potential anti-oncogenic activity for both.In addition,Ski and SnoN have been implicated in regulation of cell differentiation,especially in the muscle and neuronal lineages.Multiple cellular partners of Ski and SnoN have been identified in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex roles of Ski and SnoN.In this review,we summarize recent findings on the biological functions of Ski and SnoN.their mechanisms of action and how theirlevels of expression are regulated.

  19. Tank Investigation of the EDO Model 142 Hydro-Ski Research Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsen, John A.; Wadlin, Kenneth L.; Gray, George R.

    1951-01-01

    A tank investigation has been conducted of a 1/10-size powered-dynamic model of the Edo model 142 hydra-ski research airplane. The results of tests of two configurations are presented: One included a large ski and a ski well; the other, a small ski without a well. Water take-offs would be possible with the available thrust for either configuration: however, the configuration with the large ski emerged sooner and had less resistance from ski emergence until take-off. Longitudinal stability and landing behavior in smooth water were satisfactory for both configurations. Some alteration to the design of the tail would be desirable in order to reduce the spray loads.

  20. Engineering movement of qualified skiers-racers skating style in the current development of ski races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kotliar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of technique of skiing skating style of leading sportsmen of the world. Material and Methods: research was conducted by means of analysis of video data and кинограмм of of skilled racing cross-country ski and biathlon of leading countries of the world. Results: the analysis of dynamic descriptions of technique of the same name ski motions educed the row of factors, from that sportsmen, what applied «Double Push» in the technique of skiing, increase speed of passing of short segments on 4-6%. Conclusions: implementation of «Double Push» can useful for racing cross-country ski and biathlon on competitions on a sprint, on rollers-ski and at implementation of short accelerations on distance, and also on a finish

  1. The evaluation of Râusor ski area (Retezat Mountains/Romania in the context of becoming touristic resort for local interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ALINA LUPULESC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation du domaine skiable de Râuşor pour le déclarer ressort touristique d’intérêt local. Cette étude est destiné pour attirer l'attention sur le domaine skiable du notre pays. Aussi que notre bien-connu ressort touristique d’hiver, en Roumanie il y a autre montagne compartiments où on peut skier. Un tel lieu est cela de Râuşor en Mont du Retezat (Montagnes Coupées où, grâce { son position favorable (exclusivement sur le versant du nord, la saison d’hiver dure jusqu'{ la fin d’Avril. Dans ce papier on tient { souligner les aspects favorables pour déclarer le complexe touristique de Râuşor ressort touristique d’intérêt local, faisant une évaluation de son domaine skiable et analyser les indicateurs touristiques spécifiques. Tandis, on veut utiliser les résultats obtenus pour proposer quelques directions de développement ainsi que le Complexe Touristique Râuşor améliore ses conditions et services offerts aux touristes et, pour quoi non, pour deviendra connu au plan national, non seulement local, comme jusque’a présent.

  2. Health Resort Opatija Volunteer Fire Brigade and Rescue Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Janez; Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Dusa

    2011-01-01

    Not only the health service but also several other humanitarian institutions and societies were active in Abbazia÷Opatija, the most important town on the once Austrian Riviera, the town that was also known as the Austrian Nice. The most important of the societies was The Health Resort Opatija Volunteer Fire Brigade and Rescue Society. The authors of this article have been particularly interested in the society's founding and its activity until it moved into the new building at 6, St. Florjan's Street in 1910. The fast urbanisation and the development of the industry raised the need of the well organised activity of putting out fires. The German gymnastics societies were the first to include the education and the skills development of the volunteer firemen into their programmes. The first volunteer fire brigades appeared in Austria after 1863. The huge fire that broke out in Vienna in 1881 showed that the fast and efficient rescuing demanded a well prepared organization of a team of rescuers. Based on the initiative of the chimney sweep Franz Drescher and The South Railway Company, the volunteer fire brigade was founded in Opatija already in 1886. The founding of the volunteer rescue society was based on the idea given by dr. Jaromir Mundy, the permanent guest in Opatija and a friend of prof. dr. Theodor Billroth, in 1894. The intertwining activity of the both societies resulted in their formal joining. The head physician became dr. Franz Tripold, the chief commander was Franz Doberlet junior. For his special merits, the general assembly of the Health Resort Opatija Volunteer Fire Brigade and Rescue Society appointed him the honourable commander of the society in 1903 and he received a special photo album with the photos of the volunteer firemen and the rescuers' practice. The Emperor Franz Joseph I Jubilee Fire Station, the Rescue Station And the Sanatorium (Kaiser Franz Joseph I Jubiläums - Feuerwehrrüstungshaus, Rettungsstation und Erholungsheim) was given to

  3. Evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.Ya. Dobush

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify natural resources potential of balneological resorts and evaluation of the level of its use by means of an integrated indicator. The article is dedicated to investigation of balneological resorts natural resources potential use, as one of the recommended potentials: namely: productive-economic, socio-economic and infrastructural. In this article the following is actualized: the question of necessity of evaluation of balneological resorts natural resources potential, with the aim of identifying a level of its use and showing possibilities of its use and providing recommendations regarding planning of recreational activities. This article deals with methodological approaches to evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use by domestic and foreign scientists, and possibilities of their improvement and development are displayed. The methodology of evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use by using an index of natural resources use, air quality index, index of resort landscaping is proposed in this article. The methods of evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use consists in use of standard and actual indicators on which the evaluation of possibilities of balneological resorts on placing tourists proceeding from stocks of natural resources, evaluation of cleanliness of air, proceeding from maximum permissible concentration of polluting substances thrown out in environment and evaluation of level of landscaping of balneological resorts, proceeding from the area of a resort occupied with green plantings is spent. The results of the analysis are the conclusion of an integrated indicator as average on weight factors of partial indicators that allows to evaluation of the level of balneological resorts natural resources potential use and identify areas of marketing strategy to ensure

  4. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization.

  5. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental Study of the Mechanism of Skiing Turns. I. An Uphill Turn from Straight Running Downhill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Toshio; Ichino, Shoji

    1987-07-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show, using a small model ski sliding on a flat sand slope, that by setting a ski on its left/right edge in a straight downhill run that this will lead to a left/rightward turn. The turn is assisted by an accompanying upward flex of the tip section. The result is supported by a field experiment with a real ski on snow.

  7. On the names of Babiński.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasecki, A P; Hachinski, V

    1996-02-01

    The 100th anniversary of the discovery of the extensor plantar response will be celebrated in 1996. It was Joseph François Félix Babiński who became known worldwide for the sign that bears his name. In order to help Joseph in establishing his career, brother Henri gave up his aspirations and abandoned engineering. Clovis Vincent, "father' of French neurosurgery and pupil of Joseph, stated: "Joseph Babinski lived for science, and Henri lived for his brother; without Henri Babinski, Joseph would not have accomplished that much". However, Henri's name became famous in all Paris for a cookbook Gastronomie Pratique written under the pseudonym of "Ali-Bab.' Throughout Joseph's career his surname remained distorted despite his own efforts to spell and pronounce it correctly. Several people can claim the name Babiński, but in neurology and neurosurgery there is only one, Joseph.

  8. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry`s R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs.

  9. c-Ski activates cancer-associated fibroblasts to regulate breast cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyang; Hou, Yixuan; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Liuyang; Tang, Xi; Hu, Ping; Yang, Jiajia; Zeng, Zongyue; Yang, Guanglun; Cui, Xiaojiang; Liu, Manran

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant expression of c-Ski oncoprotein in some tumor cells has been shown to be associated with cancer development. However, the role of c-Ski in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of tumor microenvironment has not been characterized. In the current study, we found that c-Ski is highly expressed in CAFs derived from breast carcinoma microenvironment and this CAF-associated c-Ski expression is associated with invasion and metastasis of human breast tumors. We showed that c-Ski overexpression in immortalized breast normal fibroblasts (NFs) induces conversion to breast CAFs by repressing p53 and thereby upregulating SDF-1 in NFs. SDF-1 treatment or p53 knockdown in NFs had similar effects on the activation of NFs as c-Ski overexpression. The c-Ski-activated CAFs show increased proliferation, migration, invasion and contraction compared with NFs. Furthermore, c-Ski-activated CAFs facilitated the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that c-Ski is an important regulator in the activation of CAFs and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to block breast cancer progression.

  10. A sit-ski design aimed at controlling centre of mass and inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Eve; Martel, Stéphane; Millot, Anne; Lessard, Jean-Luc; Smeesters, Cécile; Rancourt, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a sit-ski developed for the Canadian Alpine Ski Team in view of the Vancouver 2010 Paralympic games. The design is predominantly based on controlling the mass distribution of the sit-ski, a critical factor in skiing performance and control. Both the antero-posterior location of the centre of mass and the sit-ski moment of inertia were addressed in our design. Our design provides means to adjust the antero-posterior centre of mass location of a sit-ski to compensate for masses that would tend to move the antero-posterior centre of mass location away from the midline of the binding area along the ski axis. The adjustment range provided is as large as 140 mm, thereby providing sufficient adaptability for most situations. The suspension mechanism selected is a four-bar linkage optimised to limit antero-posterior seat movement, due to suspension compression, to 7 mm maximum. This is about 5% of the maximum antero-posterior centre of mass control capacity (151 mm) of a human participant. Foot rest inclination was included in the design to modify the sit-ski inertia by as much as 11%. Together, these mass adjustment features were shown to drastically help athletes' skiing performance.

  11. The Role of SnoN and Ski in Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    are members of Ski oncoprotein family. Overexpression of Ski or SnoN can induce transformation of chicken embryonic fibroblast. Ski/SnoN is recently...Ras (Q61L) alone or retrovirus based constructs with Neomycin selection gene for c-Myc alone or both were used to infect MEFs at P3. After 24hrs of...infection, MEFs were selected by Puromycin or Neomycin or both. The survival cells were cultured in soft agar. 11 Reference: 1. Luo K. Ski and SnoN

  12. Modelo resorte-paríicula para telas hiperlasticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo computacional para la simulación de telas hiperelásticas. El modelo propuesto tiene un enfoque multi−partículas y simula la interacción de un material textil con un objeto deformante. La tela está representada por mallas rectangulares compuestas por resortes, este hecho permite al modelo comportarse ortotrópicamente y en consecuencia es posible simular sus propiedades en ambos sentidos. Las relaciones constitutivas del material preservan las capacidades hiperelásticas naturales de la tela. En el modelo desarrollado aquí, inicialmente la tela se encuentra en su estado natural no deformado. Luego se le da una deformación inicial que garantice el no contacto o intersección con el objeto deformante. Finalmente, la tela deformada es liberada, en consecuencia ella comienza a moverse iterativamente hacia a una posición de equilibrio. La posición final de equilibrio es alcanzada cuando las fuerzas internas son balanceadas por las fuerzas externas de contacto causadas por el objeto. Esto se logra cuando el criterio de parada ha sido satisfecho.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids: a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-10-01

    The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

  14. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally.

  15. Examination on the Aggression Levels of Turkish National Skiing Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay GACAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leading the aggression in some athletes ensures productivity; however, misleading does not give the same result. The aggression may reach dangerous extents. Nevertheless, aggressive behavior can be regarded as a relaxation. One of the important reasons of violence and aggression seen in sports is the belief that it increases the performance or success. Based upon these arguments, we aim to examine the aggression levels of Turkey national skiing athletes. The study has been conducted on 9 female and 11 male national skiing athletes who participated in International Alpine Skiing Cup held in Sarıkamış in 2012. An assessment instrument that comprises 2 parts was used to acquire data. At the first part, demographic data of the participants were gathered; at the second part, a 30-item Aggression Scale of which reliability has been developed by İpek İlter was used to analyze the participants’ aggression and factors influencing aggression. Consequently, the aggression levels were observed below the average pursuant to the gender, age and year of sports. Furthermore, assertiveness level was observed as high while disruptive and passive dimensions of aggression were found low. It is believed the athletes’ being national athletes at the elite level has importance in both team success and individual success.

  16. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  17. 77 FR 36994 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). All proposed projects would be..., Taos Ski Valley MDP--Phase 1 Projects, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571. Comments may also be...

  18. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... authorize several (Phase 1) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP... National Forest, Taos Ski Valley MDP--Phase 1 Projects, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571. Comments...

  19. Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13

  20. Bioaerosols of subterraneotherapy chambers at salt mine health resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Krzysztof; Górny, Rafał L; Ropek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, an inhalation of naturally generated aerosols has again become a widely practiced method of balneological treatment of various respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial aerosol of subterraneotherapy chambers at the Bochnia Salt Mine Health Resort in southern Poland. The measurements were carried out using a 6-stage Andersen impactor over a period of 1 year in both indoor (i.e., two subterranean chambers, where curative treatments took place) and outdoor air. The maximum bacterial aerosol concentrations in the chambers reached 11,688 cfu/m(3). In such interiors, a high-performance method of microbial contaminant reduction need be introduced, especially when large groups of young patients are medically cured. Respecting fungal aerosol, its average indoor concentration (88 cfu/m(3)) was significantly lower than outdoor level (538 cfu/m(3)). It confirms that ventilation system provides efficient barrier against this type of biologically active propagules. Among identified micro-organisms, the most prevalent indoors were Gram-positive cocci, which constituted up to 80 % of airborne microflora. As highly adapted to the diverse environments of its human host (skin, respiratory tract), they can be easily released in high quantities into the air. The number of people introduced into such subterranean chambers should be in some way limited. The analysis of microclimate parameters revealed that temperature and relative humidity influenced significantly the level of bacterial aerosol only. Hence, a constant control of these parameters should be scrupulously superintended at this type of subterranean premises.

  1. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA)...

  2. MiR-21 inhibits c-Ski signaling to promote the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Yang, Ting; Yang, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation after arterial injury. However, the molecular mechanism of the down-regulation of c-Ski is not clear. In this study, a potential miR-21 recognition element was identified in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of rat c-Ski mRNA. A reporter assay revealed that miR-21 could recognize the miR-21 recognition element of c-Ski mRNA. In A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of miR-21 significantly inhibited the expression of c-Ski protein and promoted cell proliferation, which could be blocked by inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of c-Ski. Further investigation demonstrated that the effect of miR-21 on VSMC proliferation resulted from negative regulation of c-Ski to suppress p38-p21/p27 signaling, the downstream pathway of c-Ski in VSMCs. These results indicate that c-Ski is a target gene of miR-21. miR-21 specifically binds to the 3'-untranslated region of c-Ski and negatively regulates c-Ski expression to diminish the protective effects of c-Ski and stimulate VSMC proliferation in the progression of arterial injury.

  3. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox... restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River due to a water ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the water ski...

  4. Health-resort fee and a stay in a health-resort hospital – comments based on the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the argumentation of the Minister of Finance included in the general interpretation of 3 October 2014 concerning the interpretation of Article 17 paragraph 2 clause 2 of the Act on Local Taxes and Fees. It was explained what was understood by the term “hospital” before 3 October 2014 and what changed in this subject after the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance was issued. It was emphasized that now the health-resort fee should not be charged from legal persons staying in health resort hospitals.

  5. Overexpression of SKI oncoprotein leads to p53 degradation through regulation of MDM2 protein sumoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Boxiao; Sun, Yin; Huang, Jiaoti

    2012-04-27

    Protooncogene Ski was identified based on its ability to transform avian fibroblasts in vitro. In support of its oncogenic activity, SKI was found to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, although the exact molecular mechanism(s) responsible for its oncogenic activity is not fully understood. We found that SKI can negatively regulate p53 by decreasing its level through up-regulation of MDM2 activity, which is mediated by the ability of SKI to enhance sumoylation of MDM2. This stimulation of MDM2 sumoylation is accomplished through a direct interaction of SKI with SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2, Ubc9, resulting in enhanced thioester bond formation and mono-sumoylation of Ubc9. A mutant SKI defective in transformation fails to increase p53 ubiquitination and is unable to increase MDM2 levels and to increase mono-sumoylation of Ubc9, suggesting that the ability of SKI to enhance Ubc9 activity is essential for its transforming function. These results established a detailed molecular mechanism that underlies the ability of SKI to cause cellular transformation while unraveling a novel connection between sumoylation and tumorigenesis, providing potential new therapeutic targets for cancer.

  6. Modulating epigenetic mechanisms: the diverse functions of Ski during cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Constanze; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2012-07-01

    In the developing forebrain, neural stem and progenitor cells generate a large variety of neurons with specific functions in the mature cortex. A central issue is to understand the roles of transcriptional networks and regulatory pathways that control these complex developmental processes. The proto-oncogene Ski is a transcriptional regulator linked to the human 1p36 deletion syndrome, which involves a set of phenotypes including nervous system defects. Ski shows a dynamic expression pattern during cortical development and, accordingly, the phenotype of Ski-deficient cortices is complex, involving altered cell cycle characteristics of neural progenitors, disturbed timing of neurogenesis and mis-specification of projection neurons. Ski is likely to play a role in various pathways by virtue of its ability to interact with a range of signaling molecules, thereby modulating transcriptional activity of corresponding target genes. Ski regulates proliferation and differentiation of various cell types, and more recent data from my laboratory demonstrates that Ski is also involved in the specification of cortical projection neurons. This Point-of-View elucidates the role of Ski as an essential linker between sequence-specific transcription factors and non-DNA binding cofactors with chromatin modifying activities. In particular, it puts forward the hypothesis that the diverse functions of Ski as a co-repressor might be related to its association with distinct HDAC-complexes.

  7. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration.

  8. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites.

  9. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...

  10. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  11. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacem

  12. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs, CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party. Deutsche Bank AG, a global multipurpose bank

  13. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  14. Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome et sa perception de l'enseignement de l'anatomie. ... Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome ... aux différentes questions des paramètres étudiés.

  15. Premiere of TV Documentary Choe Chi-won Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The premiere of the TV documentary Choe Chi-won was held in Beijing on August 19. The TV documentary,a joint production by the CPAFFC,the Jiangsu Provincial Association for Cultural Exchange with Foreign Countries,the

  16. The Ski Protein is Involved in the Transformation Pathway of Aurora Kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Solange; Armisén, Ricardo; Rojas, Diego A; Maldonado, Edio; Huerta, Hernán; Tapia, Julio C; Espinoza, Jaime; Colombo, Alicia; Michea, Luis; Hayman, Michael J; Marcelain, Katherine

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic kinase Aurora A (AURKA) has been found to be overexpresed in several tumors including colorectal, breast, and hematological cancers. Overexpression of AURKA induces centrosome amplification and aneuploidy and it is related with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Here we show that AURKA phosphorylates in vitro the transcripcional co-repressor Ski on aminoacids Ser326 and Ser383. Phosphorylations on these aminoacids decreased Ski protein half-life. Reduced levels of Ski resulted in centrosomes amplification and multipolar spindles formation, same as AURKA overexpressing cells. Importantly, overexpression of Ski wild type, but not S326D and S383D mutants inhibited centrosome amplification and cellular transformation induced by AURKA. Altogether, these results suggest that the Ski protein is a target in the transformation pathway mediated by the AURKA oncogene.

  17. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainegren, Mats; Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  18. A Brief Analysis on the Landscape Design and Application in Leisure Resorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Chen

    2016-01-01

    "Natural phenomena, as the interactional and dynamic development process, reflect various natural laws". Leisure resorts, which integrate agritourism and locate in scenic suburbs and rural areas, offer not only pure natural green food, but beautiful scenery like a feast for eyes as well. The development of leisure resorts brings economic benefits for promoting rural tourism and regional economic construction, quickening process of agricultural marketalization. What's more, it serves modern people by reflecting local, national and original ecological organic agriculture features.

  19. Resort-oriented tourism development and local tourism networks – a case study from northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Kulusjärvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.

  20. The influence of guides on alcohol consumption among young tourists at a nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Jæger, Mads Meier; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how participation in party activities with guides affects alcohol consumption among young tourists at an international nightlife resort. Methods: Prospective survey of 112 Danish tourists in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, who were asked about their drinking...... in party activities with guides increases drinking among young tourists who are already drinking large amounts of alcohol during their vacation. Further studies are needed to measure, describe and change the role played by guides at nightlife resorts....

  1. Seasonality as a Factor of Resort Treatment Efficiency of Patients with Cerebral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Bitsadze

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the results of examination of 369 patients with cerebrovascular disorders considers the features of seasonality impact on the cerebral haemodynamics correction and climatic balneotherapy efficiency in the course of subtropical balneotherapy resort treatment. The findings indicate the necessity to differentiate the approaches to patients with cerebrovascular disorders referral to resort treatment and climatic balneotherapy procedures prescription, considering both cerebral ischemia stage and seasonality.

  2. Ski inhibits TGF-β/phospho-Smad3 signaling and accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Sampson, Erik R; Maynard, Robert D; O'Keefe, Regis J; Chen, Di; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N; Hilton, Matthew J; Zuscik, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Since transforming growing factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling inhibits chondrocyte maturation, endogenous negative regulators of TGF-β signaling are likely also important regulators of the chondrocyte differentiation process. One such negative regulator, Ski, is an oncoprotein that is known to inhibit TGF-β/Smad3 signaling via its interaction with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the DNA binding complex. Based on this, we hypothesized that Ski inhibits TGF-β signaling and accelerates maturation in chondrocytes via recruitment of HDACs to transcriptional complexes containing Smads. We tested this hypothesis in chick upper sternal chondrocytes (USCs), where gain and loss of Ski expression experiments were performed. Over-expression of Ski not only reversed the inhibitory effect of TGF-β on the expression of hypertrophic marker genes such as type X collagen (colX) and osteocalcin, it induced these genes basally as well. Conversely, knockdown of Ski by RNA interference led to a reduction of colX and osteocalcin expression under basal conditions. Furthermore, Ski blocked TGF-β induction of cyclinD1 and caused a basal up-regulation of Runx2, consistent with the observed acceleration of hypertrophy. Regarding mechanism, not only does Ski associate with phospho-Smad2 and 3, but its association with phospho-Smad3 is required for recruitment of HDAC4 and 5. Implicating this recruitment of HDACs in the phenotypic effects of Ski in chondrocytes, the HDAC inhibitor SAHA reversed the up-regulation of colX and osteocalcin in Ski over-expressing cells. These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-β signaling by Ski, which involves its association with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of HDAC4 and 5, leads to accelerated chondrocyte differentiation.

  3. [Industrial waste as indicator of population size: possible utilization in mountain resort tourist stations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, F; Rey, S; Zmirou, D

    1998-09-01

    Epidemiological studies, conducted in touristic resorts, often face the difficulty of assessing the size of the referent population. Recently, some population size indicators, have been tested. Among them, the amount of municipal waste seems to be easy and readily accessible. The purpose of the study is to describe how this indicator can be used in touristic mountain resorts. Four touristic resorts were chosen in Isère departement (France): Alpe d'Huez, Deux Alpes, Chamrousse, plateau du Vercors. The evolution of municipal waste over several years was used to compute an individual output level for residents and for tourists. This waste indicator was compared with data on tourists reservations in hotels in the resorts. We found a good fit during touristic seasons in three resorts (Spearman test). For the last one (Chamrousse), the correlation rate was low. We think that the type of tourism is different in this resort with many non residents. This indicator is reliable but needs further validation by sample surveys across several sites and several types of lodging. We propose to estimate the size of the referent population, based on an individual output of 1 kg per person and per day for residents and 0.5 kg per person per day for tourists.

  4. Resorts, second home owners and distance: a case study in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors for the site selection of a second home is the space-time dimension. For example, the popularity of second home tourism in the hinterland of population centres is based on the short distance between second homes and the permanent residence of second home owners. In the case of peripheral resorts, however, the main reason for a large number of second homes is the attractiveness of the area associated with a high level of touristic elements. The study examines the municipalities of residence of the second home owners in four large resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in northern Finland. After analysing the geographical distribution of the owners with maps and diagrams the aim of the paper is to present a distance model for the resorts located in a northern periphery from the viewpoint of the regions of destination. Generally speaking, the model resembles a U-letter. In this respect, the resorts have three zones – day trip, weekend and vacation – and each of them has their own characteristics based on accessibility and regional structure, the number and structure of population (potential owners and land ownership. In the planning context, the proposed model can be utilised as a tool for the marketing of resorts as a second home environment as well as for analysing and comparing the overall attractiveness of resorts.

  5. A conversation with Professor Tadeusz Caliński

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Tadeusz Caliński was born in Poznań, Poland in 1928. Despite the absence of formal secondary eduction for Poles during the Second World War, he entered the University of Poznań in 1948, initially studying agronomy and in later years mathematics. From 1953 to 1988 he taught statistics, biometry and experimental design at the Agricultural University of Poznań. During this period he founded and developed the Poznań inter-university school of mathematical statistics and biometry, which has become...

  6. A Conversation with Professor Tadeusz Caliński

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Tadeusz Caliński was born in Poznań, Poland in 1928. Despite the absence of formal secondary eduction for Poles during the Second World War, he entered the University of Poznań in 1948, initially studying agronomy and in later years mathematics. From 1953 to 1988 he taught statistics, biometry and experimental design at the Agricultural University of Poznań. During this period he founded and developed the Poznań inter-university school of mathematical statistics and biometry, which has become...

  7. A Conversation with Professor Tadeusz Cali\\'{n}ski

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Tadeusz Cali\\'{n}ski was born in Pozna\\'{n}, Poland in 1928. Despite the absence of formal secondary eduction for Poles during the Second World War, he entered the University of Pozna\\'{n} in 1948, initially studying agronomy and in later years mathematics. From 1953 to 1988 he taught statistics, biometry and experimental design at the Agricultural University of Pozna\\'{n}. During this period he founded and developed the Pozna\\'{n} inter-university school of mathematical statistics and biomet...

  8. A new design of ski-jump-step spillway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 钱尚拓; 马飞

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of ski-jump-step spillway was reported. By means of the effects of the aeration basin, it supplies the sufficient aeration flow from the first step for stepped chutes, especially for large unit discharge. The physical model experiments demonstrated that, this spillway makes a far better hydraulic performance as regards energy dissipation and cavitation damage protection than the current and conventional stepped spillways, and the unit discharge can be enlarged from about 50 m3/s-60 m3/s·m to 118 m3/s·m in order to significantly reduce the width of the spillways.

  9. Sir Galahad, skiing and a woman's quest for freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (Mütter und Amazone [1932]), a cultural history of women focusing on matriarchies. Bertha Eckstein-Diener had an unusual life: the daughter of a well-to-do factory owner, she grew up in Vienna, married polymath Friedrich Eckstein against her father's will, divorced her husband after several years...... of marriage, survived a tragic love affair and travelled constantly. She was proud both of her slim figure and of her sporting achievements. As a young woman, she was one of Vienna's best figure skaters, an excellent horse rider and a mountaineer. She gave up skating for skiing, which became her main pastime...

  10. Cisplatin sensitivity and mechanisms of anti-HPV16 E6-ribozyme on cervical carcinoma CaSKi cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo Rao; Jianfei Gao; Bicheng Zhang; Bo Yang; Jiren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the cisplatin sensitizing effect and mechanism of anti-HPV16 E6- ribozyme on cervical carcinoma cell line.Methods: The anti-HPV16E6-ribozyme and empty eucaryotic expressing plasmids were transfected into CaSKi cell, which named as CaSKi-R, CaSKi-P respectively.E6 mRNA, the sensitivity to cisplatin, apoptosis rates, expression of p53, Bcl-2, Bax and C-myc proteins and mRNA were examined by Northern blot, MTT colorimetric assay, PI/Annexin V stained methods, flow cytometry anslysis and RT-PCR, respectively.Results: E6 mRNA was less in CaSKi-R than in CaSKi.The sensitivity of CaSKi-R cells to cisplatin was 2.28 and 2.21 times than that of CaSKi and CaSKi-P cells.The apoptotic rates in CaSKi, CaSKi-P and CaSKi-R cells was (18.9 ± 3.5)%, (19.7 ± 4.8)% and (40.4 ± 4.5)%.The apoptotic rates was increased in CaSKi-R than that of CaSKi cells treated with cisplatin (P = 0.003).Comapred with CaSKi cell, the expression of p53 (P = 0.000), Bax protein (P = 0.002) was significantly higher and the expression of Bcl-2 protein (P = 0.005), C-myc protein (P = 0.005) was significantly lower in CaSKi-R than that of CaSKi cell treated with cisplatin.Comapred with CaSKi cell, the expression of p53, Bax mRNA in CaSKi-R cell treated with cisplatin increased, while Bcl-2, C-myc mRNA decreased.Conclusion: CaSKi-R cells transfected by anti-HPVE6-ribozyme increased the sensitivity to cisplatin.The increase of sensitivity to cisplatin in CaSKi-R cells may be associated with increasing expression of p53, Bax protein, and decreasing expression of C-myc, Bcl-2 proteins.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELDERLY RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIERS OF DIFFERENT FITNESS AND SKIING ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We measured physiological responses of elderly recreational skiers of different fitness and skiing abilities. Six subjects (mean age: 61.2 ± 4.6 yrs; Wt: 76.8 ± 15.6 kg; Ht: 1.69 ± 0.10 m; BMI: 26.9 ± 5.0 were tested in a laboratory and during 30 and 75 min of recreational downhill skiing. Oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, blood lactate (LA concentration, and diastolic (DBP and systolic (SBP blood pressure were used to estimate energy demands while skiing. During maximal testing in a laboratory, subjects achieved a mean maximal VO2max of 28.2 ± 7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 and a mean HRpeak of 165 ± 4 bpm (98 ± 1% of HRmax. Mean maximal workload measured on a cycle ergometer was 2.2 ± 0.7 W.kg-1 with a mean LApeak of 7.4 ± 1 mmol.l-1. During field testing, mean VO2 during skiing was 12 ± 2 ml.kg-1.min-1 (45 ± 16% of VO2max. Skiing VO2peak was 19 ± 5 ml. kg-1.min-1 (72 ± 23% of VO2max was lower than VO2max in the lab (p = 0.04. Mean HR during skiing was 126 ± 2 bpm (77 ± 1% of HRmax from lab tests. Skiing HRpeak was 162 ± 2 bpm. This was not different from HRmax in the lab (p = 0.68. Mean LA after 30 and 75 min of skiing was not different (2.2 ± 0.8 mmol.l-1 and 2.0 ± 0.8, respectively, p = 0.71. Both LA samples during skiing were lower than lab tests (p < 0.0001. There was no difference for DBP between field and laboratory tests; however, SBP increased after 30 min of skiing to 171 ± 20 (p < 0.009 and 165 ± 17 (p < 0.003 after 75 min. These remained below the mean peak SBP determined in lab tests (218+31. Mean oxygen demand during 30 and 75 min of recreational skiing is only 45% of VO2max while mean HR is 77% of HRmax. This departure from linearity not often seen in typical aerobic activities suggests that alpine skiing requires a combination of aerobic and anaerobic activity. Blood LA remained low during skiing suggesting that elderly skiers may govern their intensity via signals closer to VO2 and LA compared to HR or BP.

  12. Automated identification and evaluation of subtechniques in classical-style roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) the development of an automated system for identifying classical-style ski subtechniques using angular rate sensors, and (2) the determination of the relationships among skiing velocity, ski course conditions, and ski subtechniques using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and the developed automated identification system. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated system for identifying classical-style ski subtechniques. In the second one, the performances of five male and five female college cross-country skiers were used to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, a small video camera on the helmet, and a GNSS receiver. All subjects skied a 6,900-m roller ski course using the classical-style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, and also by visual count from a video recording of the same ski run. The results showed that the automated identification method could be definitively used to recognize various subtechniques. Specifically, the system correctly identified 9,307 subtechnique cycles out of a total of 9,444 counted visually, which indicated an accuracy of 98.5%. We also measured the skiing velocity and the course slope using the GNSS module. The data was then used to determine the subtechnique distributions as a function of the inclination and skiing velocity. It was observed that male and female skiers selected double poling below 6.7° and 5.5° uphill, respectively. In addition, male and female skiers selected diagonal stride above 0.7° and 2.5° uphill, and below 5.4 m/s and 4.5 m/s velocity, respectively. These results implied that the subtechnique distribution plot could be used to analyze the technical characteristics of each skier. Key PointsThe automatic identification

  13. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-09-01

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer.

  14. Training for cross-country skiing and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, E M; Puhl, J L; Temples, T E

    1986-04-01

    Effects of iron supplements and training for cross-country skiing on hematological and iron status were studied in nine men and ten women from the U. S. Nordic ski team. Four men and five women received a multiple vitamin, multiple mineral supplement containing 18 mg iron for 8 months while five men and five women received a placebo. Fasting blood samples were taken from all skiers prior to supplementation (May) and in August, November, and January. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percentage of transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, free erythrocyte porphyrin, and haptoglobin were measured on each sample. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and TIBC were higher in November when both men and women skiers trained at altitude than in August. In January TIBC was further increased, haptoglobin was increased, hemoglobin for the men fell below May levels, and hematocrit returned to May levels. Skiers receiving iron had lower TIBC levels in November and January than the placebo group. Six women and two men had ferritin levels below 28 ng X ml-1, which suggests prelatent iron deficiency. Free erythrocyte porphyrin levels above 100 micrograms X dl-1 RBC were found in all skiers at some point during training. The results suggest that multivitamin, multimineral supplements containing iron have little effect on the iron status of cross-country skiers.

  15. Annual trauma load of the world's largest indoor skiing center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, S N; Latten, G; de Loos, E; van Hemert, W; Vles, G F

    2017-04-01

    There is limited data on the trauma load caused by indoor skiing centers. Therefore, all patients treated at the accident and emergency department of our level I trauma center who sustained injuries at the world's largest indoor skiing center were analyzed during a 3-year period. Business intelligence was used to identify all patients who sustained injury at SnowWorld, Landgraaf, The Netherlands, and were seen at the accident and emergency department of the Zuyderland Medical Center from January 1, 2012 till December 31, 2014. Data were collected on patient characteristics, trauma mechanism, transportation, admission, diagnostics, injury and its severity, and treatment. Of the 732 patients seen, 305 had a fracture and 80 a dislocation. Most patients were male snowboarders and most injuries were sustained during winter. More than 2000 X-rays and 100 CT scans were required. Seventy-two patients were admitted and immediate surgery was performed in 21 patients. Ten patients had Injury Severity Scores of 10 or higher. Snowboarders differed significantly from skiers on several parameters, e.g., 1 in 4 snowboarders seen had sustained a distal radius fracture compared to 1 in 100 skiers. Acquiring more insight into the characteristics of this specific patient population could benefit clinical care and help clinicians identify and target preventive strategies. IV.

  16. Protooncogene Ski cooperates with the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 in specifying callosal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Constanze; Dittrich, Manuela; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Bonnon, Carine Gaiser; Britanova, Olga; Lanshakov, Dmitriy; Boukhtouche, Fatiha; Sommer, Julia E; Colmenares, Clemencia; Tarabykin, Victor; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2012-02-28

    First insights into the molecular programs orchestrating the progression from neural stem cells to cortical projection neurons are emerging. Loss of the transcriptional regulator Ski has been linked to the human 1p36 deletion syndrome, which includes central nervous system defects. Here, we report critical roles for Ski in the maintenance of the neural stem cell pool and the specification of callosal neurons. Ski-deficient callosal neurons lose their identity and ectopically express the transcription factor Ctip2. The misspecified callosal neurons largely fail to form the corpus callosum and instead redirect their axons toward subcortical targets. We identify the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 as a partner of Ski, and show that both proteins are required for transcriptional repression of Ctip2 in callosal neurons. We propose a model in which Satb2 recruits Ski to the Ctip2 locus, and Ski attracts histone deacetylases, thereby enabling the formation of a functional nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase repressor complex. Our findings establish a central role for Ski-Satb2 interactions in regulating transcriptional mechanisms of callosal neuron specification.

  17. MicroRNA29a regulates the expression of the nuclear oncogene Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Sabine; Illmer, Thomas; Roemhild, Josephine; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Stiewe, Thorsten; Neubauer, Andreas

    2011-08-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate growth and differentiation. miRNAs are frequently located at cancer-specific fragile sites in the human genome, such as chromosome 7q. The nuclear oncogene SKI is up-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with -7/del7q. Here we asked whether loss of miRNAs on chromosome 7q may explain this up-regulation. miR-29a expression was found to be down-regulated in AML with -7/del7q. Forced expression of miR-29a down-regulated Ski and its target gene, Nr-CAM, whereas miR-29a inhibition induced Ski expression. Luciferase assays validated a functional binding site for miR-29a in the 3' untranslated region of SKI. Finally, in samples of AML patients, we observed an inverse correlation of Ski and miR-29a expression, respectively. In conclusion, up-regulation of Ski in AML with -7/del7q is caused by loss of miR-29a. miR-29a may therefore function as an important tumor suppressor in AML by restraining expression of the SKI oncogene.

  18. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  19. Chronic expression of Ski induces apoptosis and represses autophagy in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglinski, Matthew R; Davies, Jared J L; Ghavami, Saeid; Rattan, Sunil G; Halayko, Andrew J; Dixon, Ian M C

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate cardiac interstitial remodeling is mediated by activated phenoconverted myofibroblasts. The synthesis of matrix proteins by these cells is triggered by both chemical and mechanical stimuli. Ski is a repressor of TGFβ1/Smad signaling and has been described as possessing anti-fibrotic properties within the myocardium. We hypothesized that overexpression of Ski in myofibroblasts will induce an apoptotic response, which may either be supported or opposed by autophagic flux. We used primary myofibroblasts (activated fibroblasts) which were sourced from whole heart preparations that were only passaged once. We found that overexpression of Ski results in distinct morphological and biochemical changes within primary cardiac myofibroblasts associated with apoptosis. Ski treatment was associated with the expression of pro-apoptotic factors such as Bax, caspase-7, and -9. Our results indicate that Ski triggers a pro-death mechanism in primary rat cardiac myofibroblasts that is mediated through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Myofibroblast survival is prolonged by an autophagic response, as the dataset indicate that apoptosis is hastened when autophagy is inhibited. We suggest that the apoptotic death response of myofibroblasts is working in parallel with the previously observed anti-fibrotic properties of Ski within this cell type. As myofibroblasts are the sole mediators of matrix expansion in heart failure, we suggest that Ski, or a putative Ski-mimetic, may induce graded apoptosis in myofibroblasts within the failing heart and may be a novel therapeutic approach towards controlling cardiac fibrosis. Future studies are needed to examine the potential effects of Ski overexpression on other cell types in the heart.

  20. Ski regulates Hippo and TAZ signaling to suppress breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Juliet; Le Scolan, Erwan; Ji, Xiaodan; Zhu, Qingwei; Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel; Luo, Kunxin

    2015-02-10

    Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling is likely responsible for the pro-oncogenic activity of Ski. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski and found that Ski suppressed the activity of the Hippo signaling effectors TAZ and YAP to inhibit breast cancer progression. TAZ and YAP are transcriptional coactivators that can contribute to cancer by promoting proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer stem cell expansion. Hippo signaling activates the the Lats family of kinases, which phosphorylate TAZ and YAP, resulting in cytoplasmic retention and degradation and inhibition of their transcriptional activity. We showed that Ski interacted with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to facilitate activation of Lats2, resulting in increased phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of TAZ. Ski also promoted the degradation of a constitutively active TAZ mutant that is not phosphorylated by Lats, suggesting the existence of a Lats2-independent degradation pathway. Finally, we showed that Ski repressed the transcriptional activity of TAZ by binding to the TAZ partner TEAD and recruiting the transcriptional co-repressor NCoR1 to the TEAD-TAZ complex. Ski effectively reversed transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition in cultured breast cancer cells and metastasis in TAZ-expressing xenografted tumors. Thus, Ski inhibited the function of TAZ through multiple mechanisms in human cancer cells.

  1. Effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic injuries in alpine downhill ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Injuries in downhill (DH) are often related to high speed and, therefore, to high energy and forces which are involved in injury situations. Yet to date, no study has investigated the effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy (EKIN) in DH. This knowledge would be essential to define appropriate equipment rules that have the potential to protect the athletes' health. During a field experiment on an official World Cup DH course, 2 recently retired world class skiers skied on 5 different pairs of skis varying in width, length and standing height. Course characteristics, terrain and the skiers' centre of mass position were captured by a differential Global Navigational Satellite System-based methodology. EKIN, speed, ski-snow friction force (FF), ground reaction force (FGRF) and ski-snow friction coefficient (CoeffF) were calculated and analysed in dependency of the used skis. In the steep terrain, longer skis with reduced width and standing height significantly decreased average EKIN by ∼ 3%. Locally, even larger reductions of EKIN were observed (up to 7%). These local decreases in EKIN were mainly explainable by higher FF. Moreover, CoeffF differences seem of greater importance for explaining local FF differences than the differences in FGRF. Knowing that increased speed and EKIN likely lead to increased forces in fall/crash situations, the observed equipment-induced reduction in EKIN can be considered a reasonable measure to improve athlete safety, even though the achieved preventative gains are rather small and limited to steep terrain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Influence of facilities of ski preparation on the bodily condition of teenagers 11-12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona V.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Community in Competition: The American Birkebeiner Cross-Country Ski Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Donahue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, few people use skis as transportation, but each year, millions of people in colder climates enjoy cross-country skiing for recreation and fitness. And those familiar with the Winter Olympics know that it is also a serious sport. Donahue is particularly interested in exploring the idea of the “train,” in which a large group of skiers bind together like a pack to harness group dynamics in the largest ski race in North America, the 50 kilometer American Birkebeiner, in Hayward, Wisconsin. The key to this race, implies Donahue, is knowing and deciding when to compete with and when to compete against.

  4. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  5. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  6. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as "medicine in health resorts" (or "health resort medicine"). Health resort medicine includes "all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation". Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called hydrotherapy

  7. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were.......01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P game, high-intensity running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P ....01) and without ball possession (229 m, s=85 vs. 278 m, s=97, P game. Mean recovery time between very high-intensity running bouts was 72 s (s=28), with a 28% longer recovery time during the last 15 min than the first 15 min of the game (83 s, s=26 vs...

  8. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; Bevan-Dye, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  9. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  10. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-01-01

    Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies it...

  11. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  12. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent.

  13. Ski overexpression in skeletal muscle modulates genetic programs that control susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marianne; Martel, Nick; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Eriksson, Natalie A; Cowin, Gary J; Thomas, Gethin P; Cao, Kim-Anh Lê; Muscat, George E O; Leong, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing chicken Ski (c-Ski) have marked decrease in adipose mass with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence indicates a role for c-Ski in lipogenesis and energy expenditure. In the present study, wild type (WT) and c-Ski mice were challenged on a high-fat (HF) diet to determine whether c-Ski mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. During the HF feeding WT mice gained significantly more weight than chow-fed animals, while c-Ski mice were partially resistant to the effects of the HF diet on weight. Body composition analysis confirmed the decreased adipose mass in c-Ski mice compared to WT mice. c-Ski mice possess a similar metabolic rate and level of food consumption to WT littermates, despite lower activity levels and on chow diet show mild glucose intolerance relative to WT littermates. On HF diet, glucose tolerance surprisingly remained unchanged in c-Ski mice, while it became worse in WT mice. Skeletal muscle of c-Ski mice exhibit impaired insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In concordance, gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle of chow and HF-fed mice indicated that Ski suppresses gene expression associated with insulin signaling and glucose uptake and alters gene pathways involved in myogenesis and adipogenesis. In conclusion, c-Ski mice are partially resistant to diet-induced obesity and display aberrant insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis which is associated with alterations in gene expression that inhibit lipogenesis and insulin signaling. These results suggest Ski plays a major role in skeletal muscle metabolism and adipogenesis and hence influences risk of obesity and diabetes.

  14. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as “medicine in health resorts” (or “health resort medicine”). Health resort medicine includes “all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation”. Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called

  15. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs,CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party.

  16. Application software GeoniCS when designing the olympic ski runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GeoniCS implementation for Olympic mountain skiing routes designing is considered an international standard. This program allows optimizing plan and profiling development. Besides, the author adapted the program for lines engineering protection with special metal mesh.

  17. Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Brenn, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Graz (Austria); Mayer, M. [VRVis GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Schmoelzer, B.; Mueller, W. [Medical University of Graz, Department for Biophysics, Graz (Austria)

    2006-12-15

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required. (orig.)

  18. GENETIC PROGRAMMING TO PREDICT SKI-JUMP BUCKET SPILLWAY SCOUR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZAMATHULLA H. MD; GHANI A. AB; ZAKARIA N. A; LAI S. H; CHANG C. K; LEOW C. S; ABUHASAN Z

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in the past had noticed that application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in place of conventional statistics on the basis of data mining techniques predicts more accurate results in hydraulic predictions. Mostly these works pertained to applications of ANN. Recently, another tool of soft computing, namely, Genetic Programming (GP) has caught the attention of researchers in civil engineering computing. This article examines the usefulness of the GP based approach to predict the relative scour depth downstream of a common type of ski-jump bucket spillway. Actual field measurements were used to develop the GP model. The GP based estimations were found to be equally and more accurate than the ANN based ones, especially, when the underlying cause-effect relationship became more uncertain to model.

  19. Rise and Fall of Recent Chinese Coastal Resort Development:Case of Beihai Silver Beach, Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; BAO Jigang

    2012-01-01

    Based upon a case study of Silver Beach coastal resort of Beihai,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this article examines the rise and fall of Chinese coastal tourist resort development since the 1980s.It explores the causes for and responses to the decline of Chinese coastal resorts.The data were collected through in-depth interviews with twelve local key information providers,and secondary information sources such as government archives,survey reports,and resort plans.It was found that the rise and fall of Chinese coastal resorts in the last three decades is closely linked to the transitional reform from a central planned economy to a market economy.Three stages of coastal tourism development were identified in a sequence of rapid growth,decline and redevelopment.It was government financial funds and high local government involvement that promoted the rapid expansion of coastal resorts during the 1980s.However,coastal resort decline occurred when transitional reform was intensified and deflationary policy executed after 1992.Institutional failure is found to be the main reason of Chinese coastal resorts decline since the mid-1990s.The government-dominated pattern could not be sustained and should be restructured in forthcoming coastal tourism development in China.Revival strategies should emphasize enhancing market-oriented reform in the declining resorts on both supply and demand sides.

  20. Automated Identification and Evaluation of Subtechniques in Classical-Style Roller Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Sakurai, Zenya Fujita, Yusuke Ishige

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were (1 the development of an automated system for identifying classical-style ski subtechniques using angular rate sensors, and (2 the determination of the relationships among skiing velocity, ski course conditions, and ski subtechniques using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and the developed automated identification system. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated system for identifying classical-style ski subtechniques. In the second one, the performances of five male and five female college cross-country skiers were used to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, a small video camera on the helmet, and a GNSS receiver. All subjects skied a 6,900-m roller ski course using the classical-style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, and also by visual count from a video recording of the same ski run. The results showed that the automated identification method could be definitively used to recognize various subtechniques. Specifically, the system correctly identified 9,307 subtechnique cycles out of a total of 9,444 counted visually, which indicated an accuracy of 98.5%. We also measured the skiing velocity and the course slope using the GNSS module. The data was then used to determine the subtechnique distributions as a function of the inclination and skiing velocity. It was observed that male and female skiers selected double poling below 6.7° and 5.5° uphill, respectively. In addition, male and female skiers selected diagonal stride above 0.7° and 2.5° uphill, and below 5.4 m/s and 4.5 m/s velocity, respectively. These results implied that the subtechnique distribution plot could be used to analyze the technical characteristics of each skier.

  1. Cross-country skiing and postexercise heart-rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah; Buchheit, Martin; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-01-01

    Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD; 28.2 ± 5.4 y, 181 ± 8 cm, 77.9 ± 9.4 kg, 69.5 ± 4.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1 maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 × 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between the 800-m time-trial time and VO2, HR, or BLa. In addition, in no case was any clear correlation between any of the HRR indices and performance time or VO2max observed. These findings confirm that XCS performance is largely correlated with VO2max and the ability to tolerate high levels of BLa; however, postexercise HRR showed no clear association with performance. The homogeneity of the group of athletes involved and the contribution of the arms and upper body to the exercise preceding determination of HRR may explain this absence of a relationship.

  2. Attitude of the population of Slovenian alpine tourist resorts toward tourism and its impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to fnd out how the local inhabitants perceive positive and negative tourism impacts in Slovenian alpine areas and how this perception infuence their attitude toward tourism. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in fve different tourist resorts. Despite the differences between resorts there are many similarities in perception of tourism impacts. In all cases positive attitudes toward tourism prevail. In general the economic impacts were perceived as the most important and the socio-cultural impacts as the least important.

  3. Xanthohumol Induces Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Kuan Yong; Sri Nurestri Abd Malek

    2015-01-01

    We investigate induction of apoptosis by xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. The present study showed that xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase cont...

  4. [Doctor's degree thesis of Tomasz Adolf Wołkowiński "Carditidis rheumaticae historia"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stembrowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.

  5. Alpine skiing: Effects of mental training program of junior representatives of the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Hřebíčková; Hana Válková; Sigmund Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Qualitative evaluation case study deals with the implementation of mental skills training program conducted with the Czech national junior alpine skiing team over a period of an annual training cycle and evaluation of its effects by one of the members of the team. The concept of the study is based on current findings of sport psychology in the field of mental training in alpine skiing and other sports. The theoretical framework of the study is the socio-cognitive psychologic...

  6. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and Russia look to move beyond resources and light manufacturing to hi-tech trade Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12, Putin’s first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.

  7. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU YAN

    2011-01-01

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12,Putin's first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.The visit strengthened diversified practical cooperation and promoted the SinoRussian strategic cooperative partnership in an all-around way,said Chinese analysts.

  8. SKI-II reverses the chemoresistance of SGC7901/DDP gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhu, Zuan; Cai, Hongxing; Liu, Qinghua; Zhou, Honglian; Zhu, Zhengqiu

    2014-07-01

    Cisplatin is frequently used in treating gastric cancers; however, acquired resistance to the drug often reduces the efficacy of therapy. The present study analyzed the efficacy of the combination of 4-[4-(4-chloro-phenyl)-thiazol-2-ylamino]-phenol (SKI-II) and cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II); DDP] on the gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line. The results revealed that SKI-II and DDP had a clear synergistic effect. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels decreased significantly subsequent to the cells being treated with the combination of DDP and SKI-II compared with the cells that were treated with DDP or SKI-II alone. Phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) expression levels also decreased following treatment with SKI-II. The results suggested that SKI-II is able to reverse the drug resistance in human gastric carcinoma cells and enhance the antitumor effect of DDP through the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proliferation pathway.

  9. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kopp, Mirjam Wolf, Gerhard Ruedl, Martin Burtscher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2 = 41.5, p < 0.001. Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions “thrill- and adventure-seeking” and “experience-seeking” than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in “disinhibition” related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and “boredom susceptibility” compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group.

  10. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  11. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  12. The physiological and biomechanical contributions of poling to roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-08-01

    Poling is considered to make a significant contribution to cross-country skiing with the skating technique. To better understand this contribution, the current investigation compared roller ski skating on a treadmill with the so-called G3 skating technique with (G3-P) and without poling (G3-NP). Seven male elite skiers performed 5-min submaximal tests at 8, 12, and 15 km h(-1), as well as an incremental test to exhaustion with both techniques on a 5 % incline. Ventilatory variables were assessed by open-circuit indirect calorimetry and three-dimensional kinematics analyzed using the Qualisys Pro Reflex system. G3-P was associated with approximately 15 % higher peak velocity and 10 % higher peak oxygen uptake than G3-NP in the incremental test (both P ski gliding and swing phases were longer and the angle between the skis smaller with G3-P (both P ski skating, specifically by enhancing peak oxygen uptake, skiing efficiency and associated biomechanical variables.

  13. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years. A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI and overuse injuries (OI. At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index; biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Relatively low rates of injuries were reported for both traumatic (0.63 TI/athlete and overuse injuries (0.21 OI/athlete. Athletes with higher body weight, body height, and sitting height; lower APHV values; better core flexion strength; smaller core flexion:extension strength ratio; shorter drop jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However

  14. Crisis management and lender of last resort in the European banking market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some key issues related to supervisory arrangements in the Euro-system countries. In particular, we address the lender of last resort (LOLR) structure and the related crisis management framework. We focus on the responsibilities and powers of individual countries (and national central ban

  15. Evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability policy of a mass tourism resort: A narrative account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Swart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recordation of the life stories of individuals residing in the community of Ledig, who have been dependent on the Sun City Resort situated in the Pilanesberg area in the North West Province of South Africa for their quality of life for more than 20 years, provided the basis for the evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability of this micro-cosmos on a multidisciplinary level. This study focused on the hermeneutical arch of narrative theory within the framework of human geography and sustainability science. The natural environment was evaluated for the role it plays in the sustainability of the livelihoods of the Ledig community members as well as the institutional life of the Sun City Resort. The results of this study suggested that the environmental policy for the Sun City Resort, formalised in 2004, has been guiding the Sun City Resort to contribute positively to the sustainability of the area. The study also demonstrated that a focus on the next generation of potential employees and the environmental education of all the communities were crucial to ensure the resilience of the social and ecological capacity of the area.

  16. Fever with rash in patients returning from popular tourist resort Phuket, Thailand: dengue--or measles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Mattila, Leena; Ott, Kristi; Davidkin, Irja; Siikamäki, Heli

    2012-01-01

    We report three recent cases of measles in travelers to a popular vacation resort, Phuket, Thailand, two initially diagnosed clinically as dengue, one as drug reaction. In countries with no indigenous measles, clinicians may no longer recognize the disease. When left misdiagnosed, the patients continue to be potential transmitters.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mediates a Ski oncogene-induced shift from glycolysis to oxidative energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Lemieux, Hélène; Hoppel, Charles L; Hanson, Richard W; Hakimi, Parvin; Croniger, Colleen M; Puchowicz, Michelle; Anderson, Vernon E; Fujioka, Hisashi; Stavnezer, Ed

    2011-11-18

    Overexpression of the Ski oncogene induces oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). However, unlike most other oncogene-transformed cells, Ski-transformed CEFs (Ski-CEFs) do not display the classical Warburg effect. On the contrary, Ski transformation reduced lactate production and glucose utilization in CEFs. Compared with CEFs, Ski-CEFs exhibited enhanced TCA cycle activity, fatty acid catabolism through β-oxidation, glutamate oxidation, oxygen consumption, as well as increased numbers and mass of mitochondria. Interestingly, expression of PPARγ, a key transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, was dramatically elevated at both the mRNA and protein levels in Ski-CEFs. Accordingly, PPARγ target genes that are involved in lipid uptake, transport, and oxidation were also markedly up-regulated by Ski. Knocking down PPARγ in Ski-CEFs by RNA interference reversed the elevated expression of these PPARγ target genes, as well as the shift to oxidative metabolism and the increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we found that Ski co-immunoprecipitates with PPARγ and co-activates PPARγ-driven transcription.

  18. Evaluation of Explosive Power Performance in Ski Jumpers and Nordic Combined Competitive Athletes: A 19-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2010, a total of 334 males participated in this study that assessed the differences and relationships between anthropometric variables and lower limb muscle strength in young and adult ski jumpers (n = 207) and Nordic combined (NC, n = 127) athletes. All athletes completed a maximal vertical jump from an in-run position and a maximal relative isometric force (MRIF) of the knee extensor measurement in a laboratory setting. The body mass index (BMI) in young competitors was lower than in adult groups (NC: p ski jumping [SJ]: p ski jumpers even at lower-body weights. These changes are in accordance with the change in ski jump techniques.

  19. Environmental problems of resort towns of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody region during the anthropocene era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Artamonova, Mariya; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of ecological factors on rehabilitation properties of the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) in the mountain resorts of the Caucasian Mineralnye Vody Region (CMVR) according to the research methods [1] accepted in balneology. Taking into consideration the data of the long-term complex multiple-factor bioclimatic monitoring (PRIC FMBA, IFA RAS, SNP), it has been revealed: - the increase in frequency of inter-day variability of the integral index of weather pathogenicity (IIWP) in the range of 0,352,0). These signs are noted on the background of the continuing period of climate warming. At the present time the rehabilitation potential of ASL in the resorts of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody region is estimated within 2,08-2,68 points (max =3,0 points). Mountainous areas are more sensitive to anthropogenic impacts, changes of radiation mode and circulation modes. It was revealed that there are a number of phenomena and trends in ASL of the mountainous sites, which are negative markers of urbanization process and advent of Anthropocene era. Therefore, it is actual to form a new concept of sustainable development of mountainous resort towns with scientifically grounded territorial complex system of conservation based on the modern principles of resort town-planning that will contain some scientifically proven and legally defended criteria of environmental pressures, principles of environmentally protective gardening, regulation of transportation flows, ecologically reasonable methods of waste elimination. Finally, all the efforts must be directed to preserving natural medical resources and ensuring of their renewal. References: 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody region / Under the general edition of MD, prof. V. V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335 p.; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368 p.

  20. Hubs and Authorities of the English Premier League for 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Leznik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this work author applies well known web search algorithm Hyperlink - Induced Topic Search (HITS) to problem of ranking football teams in English Premier League (EPL). The algorithm allows the ranking of the teams using the notions of hubs and authorities well known for ranking pages in the World Wide Web. Results of the games introduced as a graph where losing team 'gives a link' to a winning team and, if draw registered both team give links to each other. In case of a win link is weighted...

  1. Health-resort fee and a stay in a health-resort hospital – comments based on the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2016-01-01

    The publication presents the argumentation of the Minister of Finance included in the general interpretation of 3 October 2014 concerning the interpretation of Article 17 paragraph 2 clause 2 of the Act on Local Taxes and Fees. It was explained what was understood by the term “hospital” before 3 October 2014 and what changed in this subject after the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance was issued. It was emphasized that now the health-resort fee should not be charged from legal ...

  2. A five-year study of mortality in a busy ski population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, J T; Moore, S M; Rich, T H

    1977-01-01

    A 5-year study of a busy ski population in Utah revealed a total at-risk period of approximately 3.5 million skier-days. While the morbidity (fractures, strains, sprains, and occasionally more severe injuries) associated with skiing is well recognized and considered by most physicians concerned to be distributed somewhat unevenly within the various skills of skiing, the authors have identified an exceedingly low mortality among the same population. Six individuals died as a result of injuries directly attributable to skiing. Three of these were considered to be advanced skiers and three were of intermediate skill. In three instances the environment was considered to play a role in the accident. Two of these victims were skiing out of control, one as a result of ice-covered snow and one as a result of speed in combination with a small jump. The third victim was crushed in an avalanche. One accident was completely unexplained, the skier having skied without apparent attempt at checking or change of course into a nonrecreational area. The two remaining skiers of intermediate skill both suffered injuries incident to falling forward with considerable force onto a relatively flat, hard snow surface. Notwithstanding the intense and sometimes prolonged exertion at relatively high altitudes (9,400 to 11,000 ft or 2.9 to 3.3 km), only one skier with a previous history of atherosclerotic heart disease died while skiing. One additional middle-aged skier with similar history died at the conclusion of the day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Xinjiang Altay skiing%新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不拉·玉素甫; 胡金明; 阿依夏木古丽·吐尔逊

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of the Winter Olympics,as athletes from European countries have won almost all the skiing competition gold medals,and there is a broad participation of skiing in Europe,it is generally thought that skiing originated from Europe.On the basis of Xinjiang Altay skiing history,this article has employed the methods of literature review,field survey and expert interview to probe into Xinjiang Altay skiing,including its origin and characteristics, distribution and inheritance, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures in view of the present situation,thus better accelerating development of Xinjiang Altay skiing as well as China competitive skiing.%自从开展冬季奥运会以来,欧洲国家运动员几乎包揽所有雪上竞赛项目金牌,欧洲大众参与滑雪运动的人数众多,使得世人普遍认为滑雪运动起源于欧洲。运用文献资料、实地调查、专家访谈等方法以新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动的产生历史背景为基础,探究新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动的产生与特点、分布与传承,并针对现状提出相应发展对策,从而更好地发展新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动,发展中国竞技滑雪运动。

  4. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup. Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative.

  5. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  6. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Coaches in Premier Under-20 Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among coaches in premier Under-20 football league. The research method was descriptive-correlative, the performance method was survey, and data collection was done through field study. Research population consisted of 56 coaching staff in 14 teams participating in premier Under-20 football league. Finally, there were 48 questionnaires useable in data analysis. Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Syber Yashring and JDI (Wysocki & Kromm were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to describe data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to know whether the distribution of data was normal, and Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were applied to investigate the significance of hypotheses. Results showed that there was significant association between emotional intelligence, subscale self-awareness, subscale empathy, and subscale social skills with job satisfaction (p≤0.05. However, there was not significant association between subscale self-motivation and subscale self-control with job satisfaction. Self-awareness, empathy, and social skills (predictors predicted job satisfaction (criterion significantly. Predicted value of self-awareness, empathy, and social skills was 0.4, 0.29, and 0.26 respectively. Training and aging increase emotional intelligence so it is predicted more job satisfaction over the time. From other side, clubs and football federation as the head can create scientific atmosphere and instruct psychological coaching principles. It will lead to enjoy creative, willing players as output.

  7. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  8. Chromosomal instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for the transcriptional co-repressor Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelain, Katherine; Armisen, Ricardo; Aguirre, Adam; Ueki, Nobuhide; Toro, Jessica; Colmenares, Clemencia; Hayman, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ski is a transcriptional regulator that has been considered an oncoprotein given its ability to induce oncogenic transformation in avian model systems. However, studies in mouse and in some human tumor cells have also indicated a tumor suppressor activity for this protein. We found that Ski-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit high levels of genome instability, namely aneuploidy, consistent with a tumor suppressor function for Ski. Time-lapse microscopy revealed lagging chromosomes and chromatin/chromosome bridges as the major cause of micronuclei (MN) formation and the subsequent aneuploidy. Although these cells arrested in mitosis after treatment with spindle disrupting drugs and exhibited a delayed metaphase/anaphase transition, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was not sufficient to prevent chromosome missegregation, consistent with a weakened SAC. Our in vivo analysis also showed dynamic metaphase plate rearrangements with switches in polarity in cells arrested in metaphase. Importantly, after ectopic expression of Ski the cells that displayed this metaphase arrest died directly during metaphase or after aberrant cell division, relating SAC activation and mitotic cell death. This increased susceptibility to undergo mitosis-associated cell death reduced the number of MN-containing cells. The presented data support a new role for Ski in the mitotic process and in maintenance of genetic stability, providing insights into the mechanism of tumor suppression mediated by this protein.

  9. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance.

  10. Distributed, explicit modeling of technical snow production and ski area management with the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a module for simulating technical snow production in ski areas coupled to the spatially distributed physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN is presented. The module explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand. An empirical rule in the modeling for snow production, derived from common snowmaking practices, splits the winter season into a period of maximum snowmaking and a successive period of selective on-demand snowmaking. The model is exemplarily set up for a ski area in the Schladming region (Austrian Alps) using actual snowmaking infrastructure data. Integration of these data as model variables, as well as stakeholder-defined indicators and thresholds, have been implemented as defined interfaces in a coupled component model architecture. Comparison of the model results with recordings of snowmaking operation and satellite-derived snow cover maps indicate that the model is capable of accurately simulating the real-world snowmaking practice, and the combined natural and technical snow conditions on the slopes. The explicit consideration of individual snow guns and ski area infrastructure makes the model a valuable tool for scenario applications, e.g. to assess the effects of different ski area management strategies and changes in snowmaking infrastructure for climate change impact studies.

  11. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TWO SKIING SIMULATORS AS FUNCTIONAL TRAINING DEVICES FOR RECREATIONAL SKIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto A. Panizzolo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine two ski simulators, Skimagic and Skier's Edge, and to evaluate their efficacy as functional training devices for skiers. Vertical ground reaction forces, knee flexion angle kinematics and muscles activity were recorded on these devices and compared with those measured in similar condition while skiing on snow. Five ski instructors performed three randomized testing sessions (snow, Skimagic and Skier's Edge. During the testing sessions, vertical ground reaction forces were recorded by means of pressure insoles in synchronisation with a portable data logger that collected values of knee flexion-extension and EMG activation of rectus femoris and vastus medialis. EMG activations and ground reaction forces measured while skiing on simulators were lower than on snow. Although less overall EMG activation was present on the simulators, the pattern of EMG activity was closer to real snow on Skimagic than on Skiers' Edge. Results of the present study suggested that the two devices are not effectively applicable for strength training. However, based on the recorded EMG patterns, the Skimagic treadmill is potentially suitable to act as a functional training device for recreational skiers provided that an increase of speed and slope on Skimagic could induce a closer matching of the studied biomechanical parameters with the snow skiing conditions.

  12. Laser Treatment of Wood Surfaces for Ski Cores: An Experimental Parameter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Petutschnigg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the production of skis with wooden cores has increased due to changes in customer awareness concerning ecological issues and rising raw material costs for mineral oil resources. The preparation of ski surfaces is one of the main expense factors in the production of skis. Thus, one perspective of the AMER SPORTS CORPORATION is to treat wood surfaces with laser beams to develop new aesthetic possibilities in ski design. This study deals with different laser treatments for samples from various wood species: beech, ash, lime, and spruce. The parameters investigated are laser beam intensity and number of laser points on the surface. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, the CIELab color measurements were applied. Changes in the main wood components were observed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR using an ATR (attenuated total reflectance unit. The results show that the laser treatments on wood surfaces have an influence on wood color and the chemical composition. Especially the intensity of laser beams affects the color changes in different patterns for the parameters observed. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities of wood surfaces for ski cores as well as for further product design applications (e.g., mass customization.

  13. General strength and kinetics: fundamental to sprinting faster in cross country skiing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Müller, E; Ainegren, M; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    To determine relationships between general strength, maximal skiing speed (V(max)), pole and leg kinetics and kinematics, 16 male elite skiers underwent three V(max) tests in double poling, diagonal stride and V2 on a treadmill. The analyzed skiing speeds and leg and arm kinetics were among the highest ever recorded. Relationships between general strength exercises and V(max) were technique dependent. Power output in bench press and bench pull were related to V(max) in DP and diagonal stride, whereas each 1 repetition maximum was related to V2. Isometric squats were not associated with V(max) in all three techniques, whereas jump height and rate of force development during squat jump were. Analysis of kinetics and kinematics revealed that it was not exclusively the magnitude of applied forces during skiing, but the timing and proper instant of force application were major factors discriminating between faster and slower skiers. For all techniques, the faster skiers used different skiing strategies when approaching V(max) when compared with the slower skiers. General strength and power per se seem not to be major determinants of performance in elite skiers, whereas coordination of these capacities within the different and complex skiing movements seems to be the discriminating factor.

  14. A systematic video analysis of 69 injury cases in World Cup alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, T; Flørenes, T W; Krosshaug, T; Haugen, P; Svandal, I; Nordsletten, L; Bahr, R

    2014-08-01

    We have limited insight into how injuries occur in professional ski racing. The aim of this study was to describe the injury situations in World Cup alpine skiing. Injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for three consecutive World Cup seasons (2006-2009) were obtained on video. In total, 69 injuries and 124 runs of matched controls were analysed by five experts to evaluate the skiing situation, skier behavior, as well as piste-related factors. A chi-square test (95% CI, P ≤ 0.05) was used to examine whether there was a difference between course sections regarding where the injury situation occurred. The skier was most frequently turning (n = 55) or landing from a jump (n = 13) at the time of injury. Most of the injuries to the head and upper body (96%) resulted from crashes, while the majority of knee injuries (83%) occurred while the skier was still skiing. Gate contact contributed to 30% of the injuries, while 9% occurred at contact with safety nets/material. Almost half of the injuries (46%) occurred in the final fourth of the course. A particular concern was the high contribution of inappropriate gate contact and the high-energy impacts to the body when crashing.

  15. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  16. Optimizing tumor targeting of the lipophilic EGFR-binding radiotracer SKI 243 using a liposomal nanoparticle delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Oula Penate; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Glekas, Athanasios; Punzalan, Blesida; Longo, Valerie; Gönen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat; Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M

    2011-02-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase-specific radiolabeled tracers could provide a means for non-invasively characterizing EGFR expression and signaling activity in patients' tumors before, during, and after therapy with EGFR inhibitors. Towards this goal, our group has developed PET tracers which irreversibly bind to EGFR. However, tumor uptake is relatively low because of both the lipophilicity of such tracers (e.g. the morpholino-[124I]-IPQA [SKI 212243]), with octanol-to-water partition coefficients of up to 4, and a short dwell time in the blood and significant hepatobiliary clearance and intestinal reuptake. Liposomal nanoparticle delivery systems may favorably alter the pharmacokinetic profile and improve tumor targeting of highly lipophilic but otherwise promising cancer imaging tracers, such as the EGFR inhibitor SKI 243. SKI 243 is therefore an interesting model molecule for incorporation into lipid-based nanoparticles, as it would not only improve their solubility but also increase the circulation time, availability and, potentially, targeting of tumors. In the current study, we compared the pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting of the bare EGFR kinase-targeting radiotracer SKI 212243 (SKI 243) with that of the same tracer embedded in liposomes. SKI 243 and liposomal SKI 243 are both taken up by tumor xenografts but liposomal SKI 243 remained in the blood longer and consequently exhibited a 3- to 6-fold increase in uptake in the tumor among several other organs.

  17. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  18. The multicomponent phytopharmaceutical SKI306X inhibits in vitro cartilage degradation and the production of inflammatory mediators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, A.; Hougee, S.; Faber, J.; Sanders, A.; Zuurman, C.; Smit, H.F.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Hoijer, M.A.; Garssen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that SKI306X, a purified preparation of three medicinal plants, relieves joint pain and improves functionality in osteoarthritis patients. To study the biological action of SKI306X, bovine cartilage explants and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ski7 Is a GTP-Binding Protein Adopting the Characteristic Conformation of Active Translational GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalinski, Eva; Schuller, Anthony; Green, Rachel; Conti, Elena

    2015-07-07

    Ski7 is a cofactor of the cytoplasmic exosome in budding yeast, functioning in both mRNA turnover and non-stop decay (NSD), a surveillance pathway that degrades faulty mRNAs lacking a stop codon. The C-terminal region of Ski7 (Ski7C) shares overall sequence similarity with the translational GTPase (trGTPase) Hbs1, but whether Ski7 has retained the properties of a trGTPase is unclear. Here, we report the high-resolution structures of Ski7C bound to either intact guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or guanosine diphosphate-Pi. The individual domains of Ski7C adopt the conformation characteristic of active trGTPases. Furthermore, the nucleotide-binding site of Ski7C shares similar features compared with active trGTPases, notably the presence of a characteristic monovalent cation. However, a suboptimal polar residue at the putative catalytic site and an unusual polar residue that interacts with the γ-phosphate of GTP distinguish Ski7 from other trGTPases, suggesting it might function rather as a GTP-binding protein than as a GTP-hydrolyzing enzyme.

  20. His Excellency Mr Lech Kaczyński President Republic of Poland Monday 15th June 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The President of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, and the First Lady visited the CMS experiment followed by a gaggle of Polish reporters. Back on the surface Kaczyński met some of the Polish staff working at CERN.

  1. POIANA BRAŞOV RESORT POSITIONING ON THE ROMANIAN MOUNTAIN TOURISM MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA-ADINA BĂLTESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within a tourism industry characterized mainly by massive competition and similar offers, choosing a certain product significantly depends on the comfort degree and the existing facilities, on the quality and range of proposed services, on the time and distance to be covered, on safety, cleanliness, quietness and loyalty offers, all these representing principles of product performances assessment. In choosing the differentiation axis one will take into account also the tourists expectations, competence positioning and the potential strengths of the product, elements that compose the "golden triangle" where stands the positioning. This article aims to position Poiana Braşov resort within the Romanian mountain tourism, using in this respect the McKinsey matrix, the statistical information related to the tourist activities carried out within the resort, as well as the related national studies.

  2. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reyasudin Basir Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015 [1].

  3. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1].

  4. The European central bank and the us federal reserve as lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a lender of last resort financial stability is not possible and systemic financial crises get out of control. During and after the Great Recession the US Federal Reserve System (Fed and the European Central Bank (ECB took on the role of lender of last resort in a comprehensive way. The Fed stabilised the financial system, including the shadow banking system. However, the chance to fundamentally restructure the financial system was not used. The ECB was confronted with sovereign debt crises and an incomplete integration of the European Monetary Union (EMU. It followed a kind of “muddling through” to keep the Euro area together. In the EMU not only a fundamental restructuring of the financial system is needed but also a deeper economic and political integration. The Fed and the ECB both were the most important institutions to avoid repetition of the 1930s.

  5. Hydrogen as energy carrier for eco-resorts on Dalmatian Islands: pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujcic, R.; Kovacevic, I. [Split-Dalmatian County, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Economic Management; Hrastnik, B. [Energy Inst. Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia); Barbir, F. [Proton Energy Systems, Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Agriculture, tourism, fishing, stone excavation and processing, and the production of wine and wine distillate are the major economic levers of Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. A proposal was discussed in this paper for the establishment of eco-resorts on Dalmatian Islands. This project would involve combining renewable energy and organic farming as a stepping stone toward sustainable development. It could also be used to showcase achievements. Indigenous energy sources such as solar and wind energy, combined with hydrogen technologies for energy storage and the use of hydrogen as fuel would be used to power these eco-resorts. The technical and economic feasibility of this proposed energy system and organic farming were discussed by the authors in this paper. The proposed establishment of a pilot project on one of the islands was also discussed. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Grandes projetos turísticos na savana brasileira: O Modelo Disney no Rio Quente Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ycarim Melgaço Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la implantación de un gran proyecto turístico en la sabana brasileña, el Río Quente Resorts, basado en las estrategias del Modelo Disney. En ese sentido, el artículo narra acerca de la Disneyficación, resaltando la temática, la teatralización en el mundo de los negocios, el consumo colectivo y los nolugares. El Río Quente Resorts introduce los más sofisticados equipos de diversión y entretenimiento en una región donde se encuentra el manantial hidrotermal más importante del país, pero desprecia la sostenibilidad ambiental. Así, toda esa mega-estructura podrá acarrear daños irreversibles al ecosistema.

  7. Grandes projetos turísticos na savana brasileira: O Modelo Disney no Rio Quente Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgaço Barbosa Ycarim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a implantação de um Grande Projeto Turístico na Savana brasileira, o Rio Quente Resorts, baseado nas estratégias do Modelo Disney. Nesse sentido, o artigo discorre sobre a Disneyficação, ressaltando a tematização, a teatralização no mundo dos negócios o consumo coletivo e os não lugares. O Rio Quente Resorts introduz o que há de mais sofisticado em equipamentos de lazer e entretenimento numa região onde se encontra o mais importante manancial hidrotermal do país, mas relega a sustentabilidade ambiental. Assim, toda essa megaestrutura poderá acarretar danos irreversíveis ao ecossistema.

  8. Description sémantique de dans un premier temps : de la composition syntagmatique au discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Schnedecker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l’expression adverbiale réputée sérielle dans un premier temps. Y est d’abord décrit le comportement sémantique de la locution dont le sens reste, pour une bonne partie, compositionnel, étant donné l’importance de la dimension temporelle et les contraintes qu’elle fait peser sur la nature des constituants de la configuration. Ensuite, nous montrons que l’expression dans un premier temps n’est « sérielle » que dans une partie de ses emplois. Dans les autres, non signalés dans la littérature, dans un premier temps marque une relation d’altérité qui peut être « faible » (i. e. encore teintée de temporalité ou « forte » (i. e. nettement contradictoire.The aim of this paper is to describe the semantic behavior of the French expression dans un premier temps, known as a serial marker. We show how its meaning is partly compositional, given the importance of the temporal dimension and the constraints which this places on the nature of the constituents. We then show that dans un premier temps is “serial” in only some of its uses. In others, not reported in the literature, dans un premier temps expresses a relation of “otherness” which can be either “weak” (i.e. keeping a temporal value, or “strong” (i.e. sharply contradictory.

  9. Structural Development of Health Resort Staff in the Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yuryevna Tsekhla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the laws and mechanisms of development of employment in various sectors of the labor market of the Republic of Crimea. The article investigates the regional staffing structure in the development of economic activities of the Republic of Crimea, in particular, the health resort institution to identify priorities for the implementation of employment policies in the region. The main hypothesis of the study: a mismatch of basic parameters of transformation of the labor market in the Republic of Crimea and the educational system produces dysfunctionality of their interaction, causes conflict between the needs and requirements of the labor market and the training level, particularly in the health resort institution, as well as dysfunctionality of formal qualifications of graduates. The methodological basis of the research is a systematic approach to the study of the labor market in the Republic of Crimea and the utilization of statistical methods for analyzing the labor market. In the study, the dynamics of socio-economic development of the Crimean region was analyzed. The labor market conditions in the Crimean region were investigated, which revealed the main causes of imbalances in the labor market development. The analysis of the training of medical students in institutions of higher education was held. Groups of factors affecting the staffing structure in the region were determined. Analysis of the causes of the labor market imbalances in Crimea showed that the existing imbalance was caused by both objective and subjective reasons. Priority lines in employment policy in the health resort institution have been proposed. Their implementation will help to stabilize the situation with the medical staff, including the health resort institution; to improve human resources personnel, capable to provide a high level of service to recreants; to promote problem solving in the development of the Republic of Crimea in the

  10. Applicability of SERVQUAL in restaurants: an exploratory study in a Portuguese resort

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    SERVQUAL is the most popular instrument to ascertain service quality. However, some debate exists about its ability to characterize different service environments. Furthermore, there is not a consensus about the inclusion of customer expectations in the model. The research presented in this paper intends to discuss the applicability of SERVQUAL to restaurant services and to analyze the inclusion of customer expectations in such environment. The research was developed in a Portuguese resort an...

  11. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN CLIMAX WITH KINETOTHERAPY AND NATURAL FACTORS IN VATRA DORNEI RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRACIUN Maria Daniela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Menopause is a physiological period of a woman's life accompanied by multiple symptoms that affect quality of life. Functional disorders caused by menopause may benefit from prophylactic treatment in Vatra Dornei resort to rebalance the body. Material and Methods The study was conducted between July10, 2014 – September 15, 2014 on a group of 15 women, who received specific kinetic and resort treatment for 18 days, being individualized based on personal history. Evaluation of patients was done at beginning of the treatment the day 10th of July, and the last day of treatment the day 15th of September, recording pain score on VAS scale, the score for quality of life WHQ, and 10 parameters characteristic of menopause. The treatment with natural factors applied in Vatra Dornei resort consisted of the following procedures: mountain landscaped climbing paths, massage, kinetotherapy, general warm baths with peat mud, plants, carbonated mineral spring waters, electrotherapy, crenotherapy. Results: Age patients monitored ranged between 40 and 63 years with an average 50.67 (± 8.07. At the onset of this treatment pain average value was 3.93 (± 1.48 and at the final the average value of only 1.13 (± 0.74. After applying balneo-physio-kinetic treatment it was observed an improvement of the average of the 10 tested parameters. At the beginning of the treatment WHQ index shows an impairment of quality of life on average 56%, after 10 days 31% and by the end of treatment only 14%. Conclusions: After the application of the treatment with natural balneo-kineto-therapeutical factors of Vatra-Dornei resort, there is a significant improvement in specific climax disorders.

  12. DEVELOPING EXPERIENCE-BASED LUXURY BRAND EQUITY IN THE LUXURY RESORTS HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Ying Hung; Feng-Li Lin; Wen-Goang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Businesses constantly strive to provide added value and brand equity to gain a competitive advantage, particularly in the contemporary hospitality industry. It is widely accepted that a luxury experience brand enhances the value of a luxury resort hotels industry. Since the 1980s, the concept of brand equity has focused mainly on tangible products, as opposed to services or experiences. This study found that experience-based luxury brand equity is perceived through extensive implicit equity r...

  13. SKI-Ⅱ促胃癌SGC7901细胞凋亡的实验研究%SKI-II promoting apoptosis of SGC7901 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祖安; 费素娟; 刘磊; 孙旻; 张秋月; 刘莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect and mechanism of sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI- Ⅱ on the apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell SGC7901. Methods:SGC7901 cells were cultured and treated with SKI-Ⅱ alone or in combination with cisplatin(DDP).The apoptosis of the tumor cells was analyzed by flow cytometry; the morphological changes were observed by electron microscopy; the expression of Sphkl ,NF-KB,Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunocytechemistry and Western blot. Pearson analysis was used to detect the correlations between Sphkl and NF-kB,NF-KB and Bcl-2. Results:After treated for 48 h,the apoptosis rates in SGC7901 treated with SKI-I 5,10 μmol/L,DDP 2.5 mg/L,DDP 2.5 mg/L+SKI-Ⅱ 5 μmoL/L and DDP 2.5 mg/L+SKI-Ⅱ 10 μ mol/L were (40.39+1.06)%, (45.58±-0.75)%, (47.27±1.13)%, (53.64+1.11)% and (66.98+2.32)%,respectively,compared with the control group [(18.46+l.64)%],the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Apoptotic bodies were found in SC, C7901 cells by electron microscopy. The expression of Bax was increased,but the expression of Sphkl ,NF-kkB and Bcl-2 was decreased. And the con-elations between Sphkl and NF-kB,NF-kB and Bcl-2 were positive. Conclusion:SKI-Ⅱ could induce the apoptosis of SGC7901 cells through down-regulating the expression of Spbkl and NF-KB,and increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2.%目的:研究鞘氨醇激酶(sphingosine kinase,SphK)抑制剂SKI-Ⅱ对人胃癌SGC7901细胞凋亡的影响,并探讨其具体作用机制.方法:常规培养人胃癌SGC7901细胞,SKI-Ⅱ单用或联合顺铂(DDP)干预,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡率;电镜下观察用药后细胞超微结构的改变;免疫细胞化学、Western blot检测药物作用后细胞中Sphk1、NF-κB、Bcl-2、Bax的表达.Pearson相关分析检测Sphk1与NF-κB、NF-κB与Bcl-2表达的相关性.结果:SKI-Ⅱ单用或联合DDP干预48 h后,SKI-Ⅱ 5μmol/L组、SKI-Ⅱ 10 μmol/L组、DDP 2.5mg/L组、DDP 2.5 mg/L+SKI-Ⅱ 5 μmol/L组和DDP 2.5 mg/L+SKI

  14. Comparative evaluation of the wound-healing potency of recombinant bFGF and ski gene therapy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Li, Ping; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Chen, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Yang, Nan; Ye, Jian; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that cellular Sloan-Kettering Institute (c-Ski) played a dual role, both promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation. However, its mechanism and therapeutic effects are not clear, especially compared with widely used treatments, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) administration. However, Ski treatment led to an even shorter healing time and a more significant reduction in scar area than bFGF treatment. The mechanism underlying this difference was related to a reduced inflammatory response, more rapid re-epithelialization, less collagen after healing and a greater reduction in the proportion of alpha-smooth muscle actin and SMemb-positive cells after Ski treatment. These results not only confirm that Ski plays a dual role in promoting healing and reducing scarring but also suggest that Ski yields better treatment effects than bFGF, indicating better potential therapeutic effects in wound repair.

  15. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde;

    2015-01-01

    and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet....... Racing time in Vasaloppet correlated negatively with average work output (W/kg) at the pre ski-ergometer test (Figure 3A) (n = 24; r = -0.79; P ski performance was positively associated with ergometer performance. Likewise, a similar correlation was obtained after the 16 week training...... period between average post-test work output in the ski-ergometer and performance in Vasaloppet (n = 24; r = -0.76; P ski-ergometer tests. Pre-field-test time performance on rollerskies as measured...

  16. Les premiers textes de René Thom sur la morphogenèse et la linguistique : 1966-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Petitot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Au milieu des années 1960, René Thom commença à rédiger ses premiers textes sur les applications à la morphogenèse en biologie et à la syntaxe actantielle en linguistique de la théorie des déploiements universels de singularités de fonctions differentiables et de la stabilité structurelle. Cette note présente et commente ses cinq premiers articles dans ces domaines.

  17. Sur la loi de répartition du k-ième facteur premier d'un entier

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koninck, J.-M.; Tenenbaum, G.

    2002-09-01

    Soit {pk(n)}w(n)k=1 la suite croissante des facteurs premiers distincts d'un entier n. Nous donnons, lorsque k [rightward arrow] [infty infinity], une approximation uniforme de la loi de répartition limite de la fonction arithmétique n [mapsto A:] pk(n), précisant ainsi un résultat classique d'Erdos. Deux applications en sont déduites, relatives à la médiane de cette loi et à celle de la fonction « nombre de facteurs premiers ».

  18. Two Phase Analysis of Ski Schools Customer Satisfaction: Multivariate Ranking and Cub Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arboretti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tourists' opinions is an important issue also for companies providing sport services. The aim of this paper was to apply CUB models and nonparametric permutation methods to a large customer satisfaction survey performed in 2011 in the ski schools of Alto Adige (Italy. The two-phase data processing was mainly aimed to: establish a global ranking of a sample of five ski schools, on the basis of satisfaction scores for several specific service aspects; to estimate specific components of the respondents’ evaluation process (feeling and uncertainty and to detect if customers’ characteristics affected these two components. With the application of NPC-Global ranking we obtained a ranking of the evaluated ski schools simultaneously considering satisfaction scores of several service’s aspects. CUB models showed which aspects and subgroups were less satisfied giving tips on how to improve services and customer satisfaction.

  19. One-dimensional V-Scope analysis of habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candler, P D; Li, J C; Tipler, B J

    1995-07-01

    Responses to simulated cross-country skiing were measured using the V-Scope, a new telemetric ultrasound motion monitor. Ten young male adults performed a total of 45 minutes of distributed practice on a Nordic-Track ski simulator. Over a period of three 15-minute sessions cadence and velocity were unchanged. Step and stride lengths decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the first 15-minute session and then remained unchanged. There were no left-right limb differences across all sessions indicating a normal gait. Response variability in velocity, step lengths and stride length was dramatically reduced after the first exposure period. This study demonstrates that the V-Scope system is a useful motion analysing device and, on the basis of the data presented in this preliminary investigation, at least two 15-minute habituation sessions are required for initial habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

  20. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pski skating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution.

  1. The role of eccentric regime of leg muscle work in alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is characterized by a great number of leg movements with muscle contractions in eccentric regime. The role of these movements is to absorb gravitation and inertial forces, manage skis more precisely and maintain balance. Recent studies have determined the volume, duration and intenisty of eccentric contractions as well as the basic characteristics of movement amplitudes and velocities. Based on the previous findings the experiments involving eccentric training using a bicycle ergometer confirmed a positive impact that this kind of training has on increasing maximum power, strength, endurance, coordination, injury prevention, metabolic work efficiency, more efficient work with longer muscle length and its role in miming skiers' movements. This paper is an review of the studies so far in the field of kinematics, skiing dynamics and the effect of eccentric training on the development of athletes' performances.

  2. The effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping--fairness assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha

    2012-09-01

    The special wind compensation system recently adopted by Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS; International Ski Federation) to consider the effects of changing wind conditions has caused some controversy. Here, the effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping was studied by means of computer simulation and compared with the wind compensation factors used by FIS during the World Cup season 2009/2010. The results showed clearly that the effect of increasing head/tail wind on jumping distance is not linear: +17.4 m/-29.1 m, respectively, for a wind speed of 3 m/s. The linear formula used in the trial period of the wind compensation system was found to be appropriate only for a limited range of jumping distances as the gradient of the landing slope slows down the rate of distance change in long jumps.

  3. The Impact of Resort Landscapes: A histyoric Study of a Small Arizona Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Crewe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1900s in the United States of America, many new towns and settlements in Florida and the Southwest used tourism to attract wealthy visitors, causing conflict between the needs of local residents and the resort economy. This paper looks at the role of the elite San Marcos Hotel in the small farming town of Chandler, 25 miles south of Phoenix, Arizona, during the first three decades of the town's life. The study traces evolving responses among the town's white farming community, noting a shift over 30 years from an enthusiastic identification with the hotel and associated luxuries, to a simpler farm ethic. The study contributes to growing research about resort architecture and themed environments, both in the context of US history and as a growing concern in today's world of accelerating global tourism. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s in the United States, many new towns in Florida and the Southwest used tourism to attract wealthy visitors for investment and potential settlement. Common resort elements included ambitiously designed luxurious hotels, themes of luxurious living, and a focus on wealthy clients, often creating sharp contrasts with ordinary residents (Moehring, 1989; Dodrill, 1993; Nicolaides, 1998.

  4. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  5. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Martin; Wolf, Mirjam; Ruedl, Gerhard; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex) were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V) comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2) = 41.5, p Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions "thrill- and adventure-seeking" and "experience-seeking" than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in "disinhibition" related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and "boredom susceptibility" compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group. Key pointsIt is the very first research trying to identify differences between different types of winter sport slope usersObtained results show higher sensation seeking scores in snowboardersThese results might stimulate new approaches in educational campaigns to reduce accident rates in winter sports.

  6. ′Fire of Life′ analysis of heart rate variability during alpine skiing in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Skiing is a very popular sport in Austria. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of bio-signals during alpine skiing in the mountains. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims : The goal of this study was to demonstrate the new ′Fire of Life′ heart rate variability analysis for the first time during alpine skiing. Volunteers and Methods : Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 12 hours was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy volunteers (female, 20 years, and male, 51 years, both hobby skiers, were monitored simultaneously and continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during alpine skiing. Altogether each participant covered 9,084 meters altitude difference within a time period of 6:14 hours. Total length of the downhill skiing was 45 kilometers. Results : Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in the young female. The same effects, however markedly reduced, are obvious in the older volunteer. Conclusions : The present investigations during alpine skiing highlight the potential value of the ′Fire of Life′ heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult environmental conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  7. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  8. ‘Fire of Life’ analysis of heart rate variability during alpine skiing in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skiing is a very popular sport in Austria. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of bio-signals during alpine skiing in the mountains. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims: The goal of this study was to demonstrate the new ‘Fire of Life’ heart rate variability analysis for the first time during alpine skiing. Volunteers and Methods: Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 12 hours was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy volunteers (female, 20 years, and male, 51 years, both hobby skiers, were monitored simultaneously and continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during alpine skiing. Altogether each participant covered 9,084 meters altitude difference within a time period of 6:14 hours. Total length of the downhill skiing was 45 kilometers. Results: Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in the young female. The same effects, however markedly reduced, are obvious in the older volunteer. Conclusions: The present investigations during alpine skiing highlight the potential value of the ‘Fire of Life’ heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult environmental conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  9. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majuntongrensh1@126.com; Zhuang, Wen-Fang, E-mail: wenfangzhuangmd@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  10. Effects of speed on temporal patterns in classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny; Tveit, Per; Eikrehagen, Olav

    2004-01-01

    The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross-country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross-country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while skiing on a flat cross-country ski track. The skiers performed three classical style techniques the diagonal stride, kick double poling and the double poling technique and four freestyle techniques paddle dance (gear 2), double dance (gear 3), single dance (gear 4) and combiskate (gear 5) at four different self-selected speed levels slow, medium, fast and their maximum. Cycle duration, cycle rate, cycle length, and relative and absolute cycle phase duration of the different techniques at the different speed levels were analysed by means of a video analysis system. The cycle rate in all tested classical and freestyle techniques was found to increase significantly (p skiing techniques. A minor, not significant, change in cycle length, and the significant increase in cycle rate with speed showed that the classical and freestyle cross-country skiing styles are dependent, to a large extent, on an increase in cycle rate for speed adaptation. A striking finding was the constant relative phase duration with speed, which indicates a simplified neural control of the speed adaptation in both cross-country skiing styles. For the practitioner, the knowledge about the importance of increasing cycle frequency rather than cycle length in the speed adaptation can be used to optimise a rapid increase in speed. The knowledge about the decrease in absolute phase duration, especially the thrust phase duration, points to the need for strength and technique training to enable force production at a high cycle rate and skiing speed. The knowledge that the relative phase duration stays constant with speed may be

  11. Vers une mélancolie des premiers romans ?

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Johan Faerber :Je vais peut-être tout d’abord présenter brièvement ton premier roman, Le Black Note afin de t’interroger sur les questions rétrospectives qu’il suscite en toi et chercher ainsi à apercevoir ta propre lecture de ce moment inaugural de ton œuvre. Il s’agit, on le sait, du récit d’un groupe de jazz amateur taraudé par un modèle écrasant, celui de John Coltrane. Ce groupe sombre progressivement dans la drogue et disparaît à la mort de son leader, Paul, brûlé vif dans l’incendie de...

  12. Berlo Janet C. et Ruth B. Phillips, Amérique du Nord. Arts premiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mauzé, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Avec Amérique du Nord. Arts premiers signé de deux historiennes de l’art, Janet Berlo et Ruth Phillips, nous avons là un ouvrage qui fait partie d’une nouvelle génération de travaux sur les arts nord-amérindiens, à l’instar du livre de David W. Penney, North American Indian Art, publié en 2004. Connues pour l’excellence de leurs recherches, Berlo et Phillips proposent une étude exhaustive sur l’ensemble des arts visuels nord-amérindiens considérés dans leur contexte culturel et historique. Da...

  13. Un premier apprentissage mathématique, la construction du nombre

    OpenAIRE

    Incerti, Estelle; Migy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de mémoire professionnel se penche sur la question d’un premier apprentissage mathématique fondamental, celui de la construction du nombre. Cette recherche tend à comprendre le rôle que porte l’enseignant au niveau de cet apprentissage dans les premières années de la scolarité d’un élève. Elle met en lumière les éléments théoriques nécessaires à l’acquisition du concept de nombre et les paramètres auxquels il faut prêter tout particulièrement attention en tant qu’enseignant. Au tra...

  14. Geological conditions of formation of beaches and natural medical assessment of their use in the resort and recreational purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storchak O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In assessing the territory waters and coast, their possible use in resort and recreational purposes, apply the criteria of terapeutic beaches subject to simultaneous patients stayin the bich,as well as geomorphological, hydrological and geological conditions.

  15. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use.

  16. Application of SKI - 400 Type Xylol Isomerization Catalyst%SKI-400型二甲苯异构化催化剂的工业应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨纪

    2004-01-01

    介绍了镇海炼化芳烃PX装置异构化单元所采用的SKI-400型催化剂的技术指标、反应性能、首次装填、预处理、投料试车及六个月来的运行情况,并对该催化剂的应用进行特性分析,指出了SKI-400型催化剂完全适用于缺少歧化的芳烃联合装置,具有高活性、高乙苯转化率的特点.

  17. 2 -Distance Coloring of Sierpi(n)ski Gasket Graphs%Sierpi(n)ski Gasket图的2-距离着色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫明忠; 潘玉美

    2012-01-01

    运用群论中置换的思想,通过置换顶点的着色法,研究Sierpi(n)ski gasket图Sn的2-距离着色,且给出了Sierpi(n)ski gasket图Sn的2-距离色数的精确值为x2d(Sn)=6,其中n≥2.%In this paper, the authors study 2 - distance coloring of Sierpinski gasket Graphs Sn by applying vertex color permutation based on the idea of permutation in group theory. Meanwhile, the authors give the exact 2 - distance chromatic number of Sierpinski gasket graphs Sn, χ2d(Sn) = 6, where n≥2.

  18. Service quality as a determinant of customer satisfaction and resulting behavioural intentions: A SEM approach towards Malaysian resort hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faizan

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research on service quality and its consequences, there is still a lack of empirical research examining these variables in the context of resort hotels. In filling the gap, this study aims to assess service quality as determinant of customer satisfaction and resulting behavioural intentions in the context of Malaysian resort hotels. Based on the literature review, this study validates a new operationalization of service quality and hypothesises its significant effects on cus...

  19. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  20. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  1. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  2. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possessio...

  3. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  4. Elite cross-country skiers do not reach their running VO2max during roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, T; Hallén, J

    2014-08-01

    Cross-country skiers' VO2max is often measured during treadmill running. However, VO2max during treadmill skiing with the diagonal stride technique is higher, whereas it is lower during double poling, another classical style technique. How these values compare to VO2max during ski skating in elite cross country skiers is not known. Therefore, this study compared VO2max during treadmill uphill running and treadmill roller ski skating. Twenty-two males (21±2 years, 182±6 cm, 77±7 kg, VO2max running; 72.4±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) elite cross-country skiers and biathlon athletes underwent testing in both running and roller ski skating before (May) and at the end (October) of the preseason training. From May to October VO2max increased during running (3.1±4.5%, P=0.003, Effect size; ES=0.44, small) but not during roller ski skating (1.8±5.6%, P=0.13, ES=0.24, small). In May the subjects' VO2max during running was 1.7±4.7% higher compared to during roller ski skating (P=0.08, ES=0.24, small) while in October this difference was 3.0±5.0 % (PVO2max during roller ski skating than during running and this relationship does not change during the pre-season training period.

  5. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (PS7 (PS8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (PS3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (PS1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  6. The use of multimedia tools for improving movement notion and increasing the efficiency of motor learning in skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzicka Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is focused on the problem of improving movement notion and increasing the efficiency of motor learning in skiing using multimedia tools. The text approaches the system providing a targeted feedback in the process of the acquisition of skiing skills. The platform influencing the movement notion introduces innovative means of the acquisition of essential skiing skills in ski courses organized by the Department of PE and Sport of the Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové. The paper presents the selected results of the survey realized by an enquiring method, which was aimed to find out opinions on a monitored platform among students specializing in physical education and sport, who took part in this form of education. The research results indicate that the use of multimedia tools in providing visual feedback can effectively influence the process and the final effect of the acquisition of skiing skills. Positive opinions of the overwhelming majority of respondents illustrate that the use of video analysis in combination with verbal mistake correction is an effective support in skiing practice and it is an efficient platform that accelerates results in learning skiing technique, especially in the context of educational courses. Conclusions also point to some of the negative aspects related to the use of multimedia tools within the platform.

  7. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Human Movement Science Program, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%–4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: skiing, power balance, metabolic rate, work rate, air drag, friction coefficient

  8. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN MODERN SPORT PROCEDURE AT EXAMPLE OF SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of this project is marketing in modern sport procedure. The main focus will be directional to skiing and specific marketing in the area where it participated. The questions of sport marketing will be tested at Ski club “Mogren” from Budva. The main goal refers the requirement that sport in modern world should be presented as less simpler, cheaper and more attractive way. During last 30 years, sports, including the skiing, alike one of the Olympic sports, became much more active in the filed of selling the irproducts. The main tasks of this project are presenting and arranging the concept of marketing, strategic marketing, specific marketing in sport, marketing and sponsorship and importance of marketing in the modern sport at example of skiing. During the making of this project the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author’s experience in this field was so useful. More over, the authors used the analytic method and parallel method which is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance.

  9. Skill Acquisition in Ski Instruction and the Skill Model's Application to Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesund, Liv; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2004-01-01

    The Dreyfus skill model has a wide range of applications to various domains, including sport, nursing, engineering, flying, and so forth. In this article, the authors discuss the skill model in connection with two different research projects concerning ski instruction and treating anorexia nervosa. The latter project has been published but not in…

  10. A Planning Guide for Short Backpacking and Ski Touring Courses with Colorado Outward Bound School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ricki

    Outward Bound (OB) backpacking and Nordic ski programs aim to integrate humanistic goals (i.e., personal awareness and understanding and compassion for others) with the school's curriculum. Program goals fall in three areas--personal, group, and academic. In designing a successful course which will achieve the goals, there are several phases, all…

  11. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment.

  12. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  13. Physical training of 30–40 years old tourists skiers to ski sports hiking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toporkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare the test results obtained at different stages of physical training of tourists skiers, immediately after passing of the ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity and 14 days after hiking. Determine the effectiveness of the designed program to improve the physical readiness of 30–40 years old tourists skiers. Material and Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received at different stages of preparation and preparatory period and the results after passing ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity are processed. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: it was found that the developed training program can effectively influence the physical readiness of tourists skiers, as well as all functions and systems that contribute to the successful passage of ski sports categorized hike.

  14. EMG activities and plantar pressures during ski jumping take-off on three different sized hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.

  15. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): muscular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, F; Kösters, A; Wiesinger, H-P; Dorn, U; Hofstaedter, T; Fink, C; Seynnes, O R; Müller, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of recreational skiing as an intervention to improve quadriceps muscle architecture, strength, and antagonistic co-activation in patients with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Hence, patients with TKA were assigned to either an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The IG completed a 12-week guided skiing program whereas the CG was instructed not to change their daily routines for the same period and was not allowed to ski. Before, after the intervention/after an 8-week retention period m. rectus femoris (RF) cross-sectional area (CSA), m. vastus lateralis muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle were measured with ultrasonography, while isometric (90° knee angle) knee extension, flexion torque and m. biceps femoris co-activation were assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer in 26 patients. There were significant and stable increases in RF CSA for the operated (10%; P  0.05). There were no significant effects for other parameters (all P > 0.05). Overall, the skiing intervention was successful in increasing muscle mass in TKA older patients.

  16. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Sakurai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions.

  17. Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running.

  18. Toonart Rääski ja Aivar Riisalu firma ostab Rocca al Mare Suurhalli / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. okt. lk. 7. Rocca al Mare Suurhalli aktsionärid otsustasid müüa suurhalli hotelliärimehe Toonart Rääski ja meelelahutusettevõtja Aivar Riisaluga seotud firmale Neckman Group. Diagramm: Lemminkäinen Eesti, Neckman Groupi, Eesti riigi ja Tallinna linna osalused Rocca al Mare Suurhallis

  19. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-04-02

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier's subtechniques in course conditions.

  20. Biomechanical and energetic determinants of technique selection in classical cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Classical cross-country skiing can be performed using three main techniques: diagonal stride (DS), double poling (DP), and double poling with kick (DK). Similar to other forms of human and animal gait, it is currently unclear whether technique selection occurs to minimize metabolic cost or to keep some mechanical factors below a given threshold. The aim of this study was to find the determinants of technique selection. Ten male athletes roller skied on a treadmill at different slopes (from 0° to 7° at 10km/h) and speeds (from 6 to 18km/h at 2°). The technique preferred by skiers was gathered for every proposed condition. Biomechanical parameters and metabolic cost were then measured for each condition and technique. Skiers preferred DP for skiing on the flat and they transitioned to DK and then to DS with increasing slope steepness, when increasing speed all skiers preferred DP. Data suggested that selections mainly occur to remain below a threshold of poling force. Second, critically low values of leg thrust time may limit the use of leg-based techniques at high speeds. A small role has been identified for the metabolic cost of locomotion, which determined the selection of DP for flat skiing.

  1. Comparisons of Two Commercial and Two Low-cost Interfaces for Virtual Skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present two comparisons of two novel physical interface for interacting with a virtual environment in the form of a skiing game. The interfaces were compared through two separate within-subjects studies. In the first study we compared a wobble board augmented with a low-cost 3D...

  2. Analysis of a simulated sprint competition in classical cross country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Lindinger, S; Müller, E

    2007-08-01

    The objectives of this project were first to analyze the physiological response of a classical cross country (XC) skiing sprint competition, second, to examine the relationships of kinematic and physiological variables with sprint performance and third, to test the hypothesis that maximal speed in double poling (DP) and diagonal stride (DIAG) predicts sprint performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a treadmill-based simulation of a sprint competition that included two maximal speed tests (DP, DIAG), a test and three sprint heats over a 3.5-h period. VO(2), lactate, heart rate (HR) and kinematic variables were measured. Maximal DP and DIAG speed, the level of repeatedly produced lactate values and skiing technical aspects positively correlated with sprint performance. Fastest skiers produced longer cycle lengths in all techniques at equal poling frequency. VO(2) variables showed no correlation to sprint performance. VO(2), tidal volume (VT), and lactate decreased over the heats. XC-sprint performance in classical style depends on speed abilities, technique use, fatigue resistance, and anaerobic capacity. The relationship of maximal speed with sprint performance suggests (a) integrating maximal speed tests in XC sprint diagnostics and (b) emphasizing training models for XC skiing-specific speed abilities to improve performance in XC skiing sprint.

  3. Keeping an Uphill Edge: Managing Cleaning Behaviors at a Ski Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Jessica; Livesey, Josh; McHaffie, Elizabeth; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Several behaviors in a ski shop were identified as being deficient using Austin's Performance Diagnostic Checklist (2000) and Daniels and Daniels' PIC/NIC Analysis (2004). During a 4-week baseline, 7 cleaning behaviors were monitored and 5 were subsequently targeted in an intervention package using an ABC design. The intervention included: a task…

  4. MARKETING POLICIES THROUGH THE INTERNET: THE CASE OF SKIING CENTERS IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis LEFAKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lately, Internet constitutes a major tool for transactions in every aspect and supports innovative marketing policies. Broadband Internet has become “the key to success” for businesses, as it offers various advantages and benefits through Internet marketing (e-marketing policies. In Greece, mountainous areas are usually covered with snow during winter months; so, skiing centers have become an important asset for winter tourism. The Internet evolution and the development of network infrastructure enhance marketing policies for winter tourism activities. This paper studies the use of marketing policies in Greek skiing centers through the Internet, such as promotional activities, website interactivity, accommodation & entertainment information, online weather forecast, guest book, etc Therefore, the paper aims to optimize and evaluate skiing centers in Greece, qualitatively and quantitatively according to e-marketing policies used as criteria, based on the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II and further to classify them in groups. Finally we identify and describe the optimum group of skiing centers to be used as a model with enhanced customer communication services.

  5. Adjustments of muscle capillarity but not mitochondrial protein with skiing in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ginkel, S; Amami, M; Dela, F

    2015-01-01

    Downhill skiing in the elderly increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and carbohydrate handling, and produces muscle hypertrophy. We hypothesized that adjustments of the cellular components of aerobic glucose combustion in knee extensor muscle, and cardiovascular adjustments, would increase in ...

  6. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  7. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Jordan,1 Per Aagaard,2 Walter Herzog1 1Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster (SMRC, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark Abstract: The purpose of the present review was to: 1 provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury in alpine ski racing; and 2 provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness. While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both

  9. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  10. De novo exon 1 missense mutations of SKI and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome: two new cases and a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, P Y Billie; Racher, Hilary E; Graham, John M; Kramer, Nancy; Lowry, R Brian; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Innes, A Micheil

    2014-03-01

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (OMIM #182212) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, marfanoid body habitus, aortic dilatation, and intellectual disability. Mutations in exon 1 of SKI have recently been identified as being responsible for approximately 90% of reported individuals diagnosed clinically with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. SKI is a known regulator of TGFβ signaling. Therefore, like Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is likely caused by deregulated TGFβ signals, explaining the considerable phenotypic overlap between these three disorders. We describe two additional patients with exon 1 SKI mutations and review the clinical features and literature of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

  11. Forming technique of ski sport of students of the first course of sporting institute of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova T.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Is certain the most rational method of the speed-up teaching of students of the first course of discipline «Ski sport». Positions are taken into account to credit-module departmental teaching. The individual differentiated technology of the accelerated training to ways of movement on a ski is proved. Technology includes three methods of teaching. Application of methods is varied depending on sporting specialization of students and development of their physical qualities. The rational parity of employment on training to technics of classical and skating styles of movement on a ski is determined.

  12. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Carlsson,1,2 Hannes Assarsson,1 Tomas Carlsson1,2 1School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, 2Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8 were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042, S3 (P=0.0049, S4 (P=0.010, and S1–S4 (P<0.001, whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001, S7 (P<0.001, S8 (P=0.0088, and S5–S8 (P<0.001. For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years in S3 (P=0.0029, and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions skied faster in S1 (P<0.001 and S1–S4 (P=0.0054; inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063. In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. Keywords: pacing strategy, cross-country skiing, endurance performance, sex difference

  13. Physical rehabilitation in complex therapy of the ureter stones patients in the Truskavets health resort area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shologon R.P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of rehabilitation measures is considered in complex therapy with the use of differentiated methods of medical physical education for patients with stones of ureter. Under a supervision there was 143 patients. 93 patients were made basic group, 50 patients - control. From them 51 (56 % are men and 42 (54% are women. Age of patients made from 20 to 60 years. A sanatorium-resort rehabilitation is recommended with the use of the differentiated methods of medical gymnastics. Application of method improved the indexes of the functional state of buds and overhead urinary ways. Frequency of advancement and output of concrements is also megascopic.

  14. Cálculo de resortes helicoidales de compresión

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez López, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    En el diseño de la mayoría de los elementos mecánicos es deseable, que la deformación inducida por el estado de cargas actuante sea lo más baja posible. Sin embargo, los resortes mecánicos cumplen en las máquinas la misión de elementos flexibles, pudiendo sufrir grandes deformaciones por efecto de cargas externas volviendo a recuperar su forma inicial cuando cesa la acción de las mismas, es decir, presentan una gran elasticidad. Para su fabricación se emplean aceros de gran ...

  15. The influence of guides on alcohol consumption among young tourists at a nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Jæger, Mads Meier; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how participation in party activities with guides affects alcohol consumption among young tourists at an international nightlife resort. Methods: Prospective survey of 112 Danish tourists in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, who were asked about their drinking...... and activities with guides on three separate nights out. Results: Participation in party activities with guides such as drinking games and Pub Crawls, were associated with heavily increased drinking compared with nights out without guides, but not in a dose-response type relationship. Conclusion: Participating...

  16. Physiological Demands of Competitive Sprint and Distance Performance in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Wedholm, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2016-08-01

    Carlsson, M, Carlsson, T, Wedholm, L, Nilsson, M, Malm, C, and Tonkonogi, M. Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2138-2144, 2016-The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  17. Serum ferritin and serum iron changes after cross-country and roller ski endurance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattini, A; Schena, F; Guidi, G C

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the variations induced in iron status parameters by four endurance races of different lengths. A comprehensive group of 48 healthy, non-iron deficient, endurance athletes were evaluated before and after four different cross-country and roller ski races: I = Skirollonga, roller ski race for individuals (n = 10), mean duration (MD) = 1 h 48 min; II = Marcialonga, cross-country ski race for individuals (n = 9) MD = 3 h 10 min; III = 12-h of Caldonazzo (Trento-Italy) roller ski relay race (n = 13) MD = 12 h; IV = 24-h of Pinzolo (Trento-Italy) cross-country ski relay race (n = 16) MD = 24 h. In the relays the MD includes both exercise and recovery times. Blood samples were taken before and after every race for the determination of the following haematological parameters: red blood count, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume, serum iron concentration [SI], serum ferritin concentration [FERR] and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). The results showed a constant significant increase of [FERR] after the races (+44.9% in I, +50.5% in II, +51.2% in III and +36.5% in IV, P less than 0.01) while [SI] increased only in the first two races (+28.2% in I and +19.7% in II, P less than 0.01) and showed a remarkable decrease in the longer races (-46.1% in III and -39% in IV, P less than 0.01). The TIBC increased in all the races (except II) to the same extent (range 10%-12%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. SKI-2053R对胃癌细胞作用的体外研究%Study of Effects of SKI-2053R Inhibiting Proliferation of Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛兴奎; 陈晓萍; 左文述; 宋恕平; 宋现让; 王兴武

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究SKI-2053R对胃癌细胞株SGC-7901的作用及其机制.方法:MTT法检测SKI-2053R对SGC-7901的增殖抑制作用,流式细胞术检测药物作用前后细胞周期的变化及增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)的表达改变.结果:SKI-2053R可明显抑制SGC-7901的增殖活性,改变SGC-7901的细胞周期分布,降低PCNA的表达.结论:SKI-2053R对SGC-7901有明显的杀伤和抑制增殖的作用,其机制可能与下调PCNA的表达有关.

  19. Business and Commerce, Ski Bnd 24 -Ski boundary - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'Ski...

  20. Comparing the characteristics of snowboarders injured in a terrain park who present to the ski patrol, the emergency department or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Meeuwisse, Willem; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A; Wishart, Jillian; Romanow, Nicole T R; Rowe, Brian H; Goulet, Claude; Hagel, Brent E

    2014-01-01

    Ski patrol report forms are a common data source in ski/snowboard research, but it is unclear if those who only present to the emergency department (ED) are systematically different from those who see the ski patrol. To determine the proportion and characteristics of injured snowboarders who bypass the ski patrol before presenting to the ED, three groups of injured snowboarders were compared: presented to the ED only, ski patrol only and ski patrol and ED. Data were collected from ski patrol Accident Report Forms (ARFs), ED medical records and telephone interviews. There were 333 injured snowboarders (ED only: 34, ski patrol only: 107, both: 192). Ability, time of day, snow conditions or drugs/alcohol predicted ED only presentation. Concussions (RRR: 4.66; 95% CI: 1.83, 11.90), sprains/strains (RRR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.87, 9.49), head/neck (RRR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.48, 5.78), trunk (RRR: 4.17; 95% CI: 1.92, 9.09) or lower extremity (RRR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.32, 10.07) injuries were significantly more likely to present to ski patrol only versus ski patrol and ED. In conclusion, snowboarders who presented to the ED only had similar injuries as those who presented to both.

  1. A study on the disaster medical response during the Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeong-il; Kim, Gi Woon; Kim, Chu Hyun; Choa, Minhong; Choi, Dai Hai; Kim, Inbyung; Wang, Soon Joo; Yoo, In Sool; Yoon, Han Deok; Lee, Kang Hyun; Cho, Suck Ju; Heo, Tag; Hong, Eun Seog

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and document the disaster medical response during the Gyeongju Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium collapse on February 17, 2014. Methods Official records of each institution were verified to select the study population. All the medical records and emergency medical service run sheets were reviewed by an emergency physician. Personal or telephonic interviews were conducted, without a separate questionnaire, if the institutions or agencies crucial to disaster response did not have official records or if information from different institutions was inconsistent. Results One hundred fifty-five accident victims treated at 12 hospitals, mostly for minor wounds, were included in this study. The collapse killed 10 people. Although the news of collapse was disseminated in 4 minutes, dispatch of 4 disaster medical assistance teams took at least 69 minutes to take the decision of dispatch. Four point five percent were treated at the accident site, 56.7% were transferred to 2 hospitals that were nearest to the collapse site, and 42.6% were transferred to hospitals that were poorly prepared to handle disaster victims. Conclusion In the Gyeongju Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium collapse, the initial triage and distribution of patients was inefficient and medical assistance arrived late. These problems had also been noted in prior mass casualty incidents. PMID:27752635

  2. Screening of Swiss hot spring resorts for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Christian; Schild, Marc; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Wüthrich, Fritz; Nüesch, Irina; Ryter, Regula; Schürch, Nadia; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) belonging to Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia pedata are known to cause infections in humans and animals leading to severe brain pathologies. Worldwide, warm aquatic environments have been found to be suitable habitats for pathogenic FLA. The present study reports on screening for potentially pathogenic FLA in four hot spring resorts in Switzerland. Water samples were taken from water filtration units and from the pools, respectively. Amoebae isolated from samples taken during, or before, the filtration process were demonstrated to be morphologically and phylogenetically related to Stenoamoeba sp., Hartmannella vermiformis, Echinamoeba exundans, and Acanthamoeba healyi. With regard to the swimming pools, FLA were isolated only in one resort, and the isolate was identified as non-pathogenic and as related to E. exundans. Further investigations showed that the isolates morphologically and phylogenetically related to A. healyi displayed a pronounced thermotolerance, and exhibited a marked in vitro cytotoxicity upon 5-day exposure to murine L929 fibroblasts. Experimental intranasal infection of Rag2-immunodeficient mice with these isolates led to severe brain pathologies, and viable trophozoites were isolated from the nasal mucosa, brain tissue, and lungs post mortem. In summary, isolates related to A. healyi were suggestive of being potentially pathogenic to immunocompromised persons. However, the presence of these isolates was limited to the filtration units, and an effective threat for health can therefore be excluded.

  3. PARTICULAR ASPECTS ABOUT THE ROMANIEN BALNEOLOGY’S PRIVATISATION. CASE STUDY: SOVATA RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROTARIU ILIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania balneology has face the transition towards the free market, which meant important loses in turn over, services and quality. The privatization of establishments, ether by restitution or by transfer in private property use to be regarded as the common cause of today regression. We argue that the lack of a real and professional national politics for balneology might be the main cause. There are also some exceptions: Sovata resort is one of them, as the local manager of the former state company has well handled the privatization process, and has early involved an international capital: the Danubius hotel chain. It has taken long to modernize the facilities and some more time is still necessary to add new services, as spa or meetings, offered at a global standard. The paper highlight the whole process and some of the actions in progress. The paper highlight some proposal for a quickly issue from the actual state of facts. The main one reply on local forces, highlighting the resources and the tools which can be used by local actors in order to turn their resorts into a balneal destinations.

  4. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts : hospitality, tradition, environmental stewardship and energy savings go hand in hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, K. [Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Toronto, ON (Canada). Design and Construction

    2003-06-01

    Headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc. operates 81 world-class luxury hotels and resorts in Canada, United States, Mexico, Bermuda, Barbados and the United Arab Emirates. In 1990, Fairmont Hotels launched a green program for all its Canadian hotels as part of its commitment to become a world leader in establishing environmental practices for the hotel industry. Fairmont's policies for energy efficiency, water conservation, purchasing and waste minimization have won international awards. The energy efficiency measures benefit both the company and society through savings in operating costs and reducing carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping Canada meets its international obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Electricity makes up the greatest part of the hotel chain's huge energy bills, costing more than $29 million annually. The remainder of the energy bill consists of natural gas, propane, water, steam and kitchen fuel costs. Many of Fairmont's hotels are historic properties whose physical layout present greater challenges than retrofitting new construction. The retrofits so far have included improvements in lighting fixtures, laundry facilities, HVAC systems, parking garages and boiler rooms. Since 1998, energy retrofits at Fairmont hotels across Canada have resulted in substantial energy savings. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. The Organizational Improvements of Catering in the Case of the Radisson Blu Resort Restaurant in Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bogdanović

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the catering industry is providing food and beverages services. The food and beverages department provides the food and beverages in the hotel industry, with its restaurant being the most visible part where the food and beverages supply and demand takes place. The researching of this organizational segment is important because it contributes to the understanding and improvement of the organizational efficacy of the food and beverage department, in particular the restaurant units of the catering organizations. The aim of this paper is to explore the organization of work within the food and beverage department in the Hotel Radisson Blu Resort in Split. The proposed research evolves around the problems of the organization of work of a specific restaurant Fig & Leaf located in the Radisson Blue Resort Split Hotel. The research was conducted by means of questionnaire that included all the employees of the restaurant (N=20. Certain problem areas have been identified in the restaurant’s organization of work: a a sub-optimal number of employees; b multiple chain of commands; c problems of sub-optimal organizational structures in the work of the restaurant; d problems regarding certain aspects of the organizational culture of the restaurant relating to team work, participatory decision-making, inter-personal trust. For the diagnosed problems in the organization of the restaurant organizational solutions were offered aimed at improving management. This way of solving the organizational sub-optimality can be generally applied within the restaurant business.

  6. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  7. Anthropocene and bioclimatic potential of mountain resorts in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of anthropocene (A) on natural curative resources (NCR) of the mountain resorts in the North Caucasus (MRNC) according to long-term monitoring (M) of NCR condition which is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol M of IFA RAS, landscape M of SNP, and also references on the state of the environment (E). The healthcare effects of NCR were estimated from the position of the methods[1] accepted in balneology. Typification of anthropogenous factors of the surface atmosphere for MRNC is constructed on the basis of semirational analysis of rehabilitation properties of climate and landscape studied in the course of recovery treatment and health-improving rest of profile patients in clinics of PRIC FMBA taking into account the factors of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere by the technique[2]. In the development of A in the MRNC it is possible to allocate three conditional periods: - 1803 - 1880 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is almost not changed (10-20%), there were the first signs of influence A on E; - 1881-1970 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is slightly changed (21-70%), the formation of new forms of the resort landscape and town-planning, the development of mountain-sanitary control zone to decrease anthropogenic pollution of E. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2,35-2,75 points; 78-92%); - 1971-2015 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is moderately transformed (71-85%), there is a consolidation of building of city and resort zones, signs of global climate change (the increase in the annual amount of precipitation by 10% (since 2002), episodes of excessive heat (Tmax >30°C) for 12.4%, thermal balance of the person is higher than +600 W/m2 for 11%. There have been revealed some new specific rehabilitation properties of NCR and there have been denoted some criteria of their protection. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2

  8. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  9. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  10. Strategies for injury prevention in Brazilian football: Perceptions of physiotherapists and practices of premier league teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Maurício Couto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-07-25

    To describe the physiotherapists perceptions and the current practices for injury prevention in elite football (soccer) clubs in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Group of Science in Sports & Exercise, Federal University of Healthy Sciences of Porto Alegre (Brazil). 16 of the 20 football clubs involved in the Brazilian premier league 2015. Physiotherapists answered a structured questionnaire. Most physiotherapists (∼88%) were active in design, testing and application of prevention programs. Previous injury, muscle imbalance, fatigue, hydration, fitness, diet, sleep/rest and age were considered "very important" or "important" injury risk factors by all respondents. The methods most commonly used to detect athletes' injury risk were: monitoring of biochemical markers (100% of teams), isokinetic dynamometry (81%), questionnaires (75%), functional movement screen (56%), fleximetry (56%) and horizontal jump tests (50%). All clubs used strength training, functional training, core exercises and balance/proprioception exercises in their injury prevention program; and Nordic hamstring exercise and other eccentric exercises were used by 94% of clubs. "FIFA 11+" prevention program was adapted by 88% of clubs. Physiotherapists perceptions and current practices of injury prevention within Brazilian elite football clubs were similar to those employed in developed countries. There remains a gap between clinical practice and scientific evidence in high performance football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  12. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  13. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkov A.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  14. Natural hazards in the Alps triggered by ski slope engineering and artificial snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Alps there is increasing concern of man-made triggering of natural hazards in association with ski slope engineering and pressures from climate change. However literature on the topic is rare. Ski run development has been intensified in the past decade to accommodate a higher density of skiers. In order to absorb the increased flux of skiers promoted by continually increasing lift capacity, ski runs are subject to more and more enlargement, straightening and leveling. This has required large-scale re-leveling of slopes with the removal of soil and protective vegetation using heavy machinery during the summer season. Slope-ward incision on steep slopes, creation of artificial embankments by leeward deposition and development of straight ski runs perpendicular to steep slopes have resulted in both shallow and deep erosion, gullying, triggering of small landslides and even bedload transport in marginal channels. Other natural hazards have been triggered directly or indirectly due to intensification of artificial snow production. This has increased exponentially in the last decade in order to secure the skiing season under increasingly warm temperatures and erratic snowfall and decreasing snow depth and snow duration in association with climate change. The consequences are multiple. Firstly, in order to economize both costs and quantity of artificial snow production, ski runs are leveled as far as possible in order to avoid topographical irregularities, protruding vegetation or rocks. The combination of topsoil removal and prolonged duration of artificial snow cover results in a decreased vegetation cover and period as well as species alteration. Together with greatly decreased permeability of the underground, snowmelt and intensive summer precipitation trigger surface runoff, erosion and even small landslides. After more than a decade of intensive cover by artificial snow, most such steep ski runs at altitudes above 1400 m are reduced into highly erosive

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE--A Case Study of Putuo Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zhong; LU Lin; ZHANG Guang-sheng; LU Song; XUAN Guo-fu

    2004-01-01

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents'positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

  16. Understanding the Morphology in the Form of Business Expansion: Perspective of Small Tourism Firm in Coastal Resort Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Hussain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resort morphology literature can be traced back since 1930s and most cases referring to the coast of Europe and United State. In 1970s, it begins to give emphasis on aspects such as land use pattern, infrastructure, Central Business District, Recreational Business District and impact studies. The literature expands to the aspects of socioeconomic, hotel development and resort lifecycle in the 1980s. Later in 1990s, it was extended to politic and investment, tourist behavior, transportation, Tourism Business District and environmental management. Following 2000s, the discussion move into change in land use intensity and restructuring resort strategies. All these aspects are still relevant in the existing literature today. However, it was argued that existing issue  from these literatures cannot escape from too much emphasis on the physical aspects. Limited study given to the aspect of non-physical than theoretical components of space management for physical and strategic planning purposes. For example, the aspects of business expansion and entrepreneur growth, and as to how this is able to influence resort morphology. The Small tourism firm manages to sustain their present from generation to generation with increasing skills relevant to financial, personal attitude, business resources and networking, and abilities in terms of operational, managerial and strategic. Therefore, the characteristic of resort morphology should be seen in a different context in which the competitiveness and survivability of these small tourism firms is vital to explore.

  17. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (Pskied faster in S6 (Pskied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (Pski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  18. Peat moss fuels R and D: Premier Tech is using sphagnum peat moss to develop all kinds of sophisticated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiront, A.

    2004-10-01

    Development by Premier Tech, a Quebec multinational company, of a unique system for recycling construction waste using peat moss as the starting material, is reported. Premier Tech enjoys a high profile in sectors such as the life sciences, wastewater treatment systems, industrial packaging and a variety of other fields not readily associated with peat moss. The best known products of the company, the Allegro line of growth media designed to promote greenhouse growing, Biomax compost and the Promix plant growth media, all based on research on mycorrhizal association, and the development strategy guiding the company's operations, are described briefly. The company's Ecoflo and Ecoprocess filters for treating domestic and municipal wastewater, both of which played significant roles in recovering evidence from the rubble of the World Trade Center after September 11, 2001, are highlighted.

  19. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  20. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  1. The SKI proto-oncogene enhances the in vivo repopulation of hematopoietic stem cells and causes myeloproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbrant, Sofie; Wall, Meaghan; Moody, Jennifer; Karlsson, Göran; Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian; Russell, Megan R; Walkley, Carl R; Karlsson, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced a gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation, as well as hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to what has generally been assumed, the significant impact of SKI on hematopoiesis is independent of its ability to inhibit TGF-beta signaling. Instead, myeloid progenitors expressing SKI are partially dependent on functional hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Collectively our results demonstrate that SKI is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity and its overexpression leads to myeloproliferative disease.

  2. The SMAD-binding domain of SKI: a hotspot for de novo mutations causing Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Dorien; Doyle, Alexander J; Oswald, Gretchen; Sparks, Elizabeth; Myers, Loretha; Willems, Patrick J; Mansour, Sahar; Simpson, Michael A; Frysira, Helena; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; Van Minkelen, Rick; Hoogeboom, Jeanette M; Mortier, Geert R; Titheradge, Hannah; Brueton, Louise; Starr, Lois; Stark, Zornitza; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Blair, Ed; Hobson, Emma; Hurst, Jane; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Girisha, Katta M; Miller, Michelle; Dietz, Harry C; Loeys, Bart; Van Laer, Lut

    2015-02-01

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is a rare, systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiovascular manifestations that show a significant overlap with the features observed in the Marfan (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). A distinguishing observation in SGS patients is the presence of intellectual disability, although not all patients in this series present this finding. Recently, SGS was shown to be due to mutations in the SKI gene, encoding the oncoprotein SKI, a repressor of TGFβ activity. Here, we report eight recurrent and three novel SKI mutations in eleven SGS patients. All were heterozygous missense mutations located in the R-SMAD binding domain, except for one novel in-frame deletion affecting the DHD domain. Adding our new findings to the existing data clearly reveals a mutational hotspot, with 73% (24 out of 33) of the hitherto described unrelated patients having mutations in a stretch of five SKI residues (from p.(Ser31) to p.(Pro35)). This implicates that the initial molecular testing could be focused on mutation analysis of the first half of exon 1 of SKI. As the majority of the known mutations are located in the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI, our study further emphasizes the importance of TGFβ signaling in the pathogenesis of SGS.

  3. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%-4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.

  4. Three-Dimensional Lower Extremity Joint Loading in a Carved Ski and Snowboard Turn: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Klous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of injuries to the lower extremity occur in skiing and snowboarding. Due to the difficulty of collecting 3D kinematic and kinetic data with high accuracy, a possible relationship between injury statistic and joint loading has not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare ankle and knee joint loading at the steering leg between carved ski and snowboard turns. Kinetic data were collected using mobile force plates mounted under the toe and heel part of the binding on skies or snowboard (KISTLER. Kinematic data were collected with five synchronized, panning, tilting, and zooming cameras. An extended version of the Yeadon model was applied to calculate inertial properties of the segments. Ankle and knee joint forces and moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. Results showed higher forces along the longitudinal axis in skiing and similar forces for skiing and snowboarding in anterior-posterior and mediolateral direction. Joint moments were consistently greater during a snowboard turn, but more fluctuations were observed in skiing. Hence, when comparing joint loading between carved ski and snowboard turns, one should differentiate between forces and moments, including the direction of forces and moments and the turn phase.

  5. Three-dimensional lower extremity joint loading in a carved ski and snowboard turn: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    A large number of injuries to the lower extremity occur in skiing and snowboarding. Due to the difficulty of collecting 3D kinematic and kinetic data with high accuracy, a possible relationship between injury statistic and joint loading has not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare ankle and knee joint loading at the steering leg between carved ski and snowboard turns. Kinetic data were collected using mobile force plates mounted under the toe and heel part of the binding on skies or snowboard (KISTLER). Kinematic data were collected with five synchronized, panning, tilting, and zooming cameras. An extended version of the Yeadon model was applied to calculate inertial properties of the segments. Ankle and knee joint forces and moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. Results showed higher forces along the longitudinal axis in skiing and similar forces for skiing and snowboarding in anterior-posterior and mediolateral direction. Joint moments were consistently greater during a snowboard turn, but more fluctuations were observed in skiing. Hence, when comparing joint loading between carved ski and snowboard turns, one should differentiate between forces and moments, including the direction of forces and moments and the turn phase.

  6. Roof wave for an eco-shopping center. G3 Shopping Resort Gerasdorf at Vienna. Europe's greatest wooden building sites; Dachwelle fuer Oeko-Einkaufszentrum. G3 Shopping Resort Gerasdorf bei Wien. Europas groesste Holzbaustelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Heinz; Trefil, Gustav; Gloeggler, Jens [ATP Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    In Austria, the G3 shopping resort Gerasdorf is the first shopping center which has undergone an environmental impact assessment and is built in an environmentally conscious design. The operation of this shopping center is based on biomass. The shopping center was certificated in June 2011 at the klima:aktiv mobile network conference in Vienna (Austria). Within the course of planning, the building owner has decided for a certification of the shopping resort according to the building certification system BREEAM. A sustainability certificate as an award is aspired to the final completion.

  7. Philibert Delorme’s Divine Proportions and the Composition of the Premier Tome de l’Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Galletti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 'Premier tome de l’architecture' (1567 — the first original, comprehensive architectural treatise written by a French author — Philibert Delorme (c. 1514–1570 claims to be the first to formulate a theory of divine proportions, which he describes as a set of rules recorded in the Old Testament as directly dictated by God to men for the construction of the Ark of Noah, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Temple and House of Solomon. Yet the author does not develop the theory of divine proportions in the 'Premier tome' and postpones it instead to the second volume of his treatise. As a second volume was never published (and likely never written, Delorme readers are left with a handful of less-than-coherent references and illustrations of a theory that remains largely obscure. Yet the elements of theory of divine proportions contained in the 'Premier tome' provide historians with an understanding of the genesis of the treatise itself, thus ultimately helping to raise broader questions about the book and its author. This paper shows how Delorme’s divine proportions offer a key to understanding the conception and composition of his treatise as well as to the process of intellectual development of the author and the changes in the nature and scope of his written work.

  8. [Differentiated methods of treating atherosclerotic patients at the Kislovodsk health resort at early periods after transient cerebral circulatory disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareikin, K F; Velikanov, I I; Sidorovskaia, M D; Lunev, D K; Babenkova, S V

    1979-01-01

    A dynamic examination of 135 patients with transient disorders of cerebral circulation (TDCC) was conducted in conditions of a sanatorium-resort treatment in Kislovodsk in early stages following the last attack (from 2-3 months). The method of a phasic examination and treatment was accomplished according to the following principle: polyclinic -- hospital -- resort -- polyclinic. Apart from the clinical dynamic examinations such methods as EEG, REG studies of blood coagulation and basic metabolism, and if necessary angio- and dopplerosonography were used. During their stay at the resort diadynamic currents werer used according to the method of a weak effect on the projection of spinal arteries, sinusoidal modulated currents on the cervical sympathetic nodes and plexus, carbon dioxide Narzan baths, and terrain cure. A significant improvement was seen in 10, improvement in 115, insignificant improvement in 9 patients. One patient showed no changes.

  9. Transforming Mature Tourism Resorts into Sustainable Tourism Destinations through Participatory Integrated Approaches: The Case of Puerto de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transforming mature tourism resorts has evolved toward a greater involvement of public authorities and away from the mere renovation of public spaces. Authorities today are required to lead the reorganization of tourism activities through the development of co-operative networks between all stakeholders involved. In this paper, a participatory integrated approach has been designed and implemented in collaboration with Spanish authorities and the tourism sector to propose a strategy to achieve the renovation of tourism resorts. This methodology was applied to Puerto de la Cruz, the oldest tourism destination in the Canary Islands and a clear paradigm of a consolidated resort. The objective is to define and implement policies to transform Puerto de la Cruz into a more sustainable tourism destination.

  10. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (Pextension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds.

  11. Ski prevents TGF-β-induced EMT and cell invasion by repressing SMAD-dependent signaling in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiping; Zhan, Lei; Yang, Tianjie; Wang, Longqiang; Li, Chang; Zhao, Jun; Lei, Zhe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in cancer metastasis, which confers cancer cells with increased motility and invasiveness, and EMT is characterized by loss of epithelial marker E-cadherin and gain of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial inducer of EMT in various types of cancer. Ski is an important negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, which interacts with SMADs to repress TGF-β signaling activity. Although there is accumulating evidence that Ski functions as a promoter or suppressor in human types of cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which Ski affects TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are not largely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanistic role of Ski in NSCLC metastasis. Ski was significantly reduced in metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues when compared with non-metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues. Moreover, following TGF-β stimulation Ski-silenced A549 cells had more significant features of EMT and a higher invasive activity when compared with A549 cells overexpressing Ski. Mechanistically, Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells showed an increase and a reduction in the SMAD3 phosphorylation level, respectively. This was supported by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter activity obtained in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. However, after treatment of SIS3 (inhibitor of SMAD3 phosphorylation) followed by TGF-β1 stimulation, we did not observe any effect of Ski on TGF-β-induced EMT, and invasion in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Ski represses TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion by inhibiting SMAD-dependent signaling in NSCLC.

  12. Marketingový mix lyžařské školy Classic Ski School v Rokytnici nad Jizerou

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvídková, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of Classic Ski School in Rokytnice nad Jizerou Objectives: The aim of the diploma thesis is to analyse marketing mix of Classic Ski School in Rokytnice nad Jizerou. The analysis includes comparison of given information with theoretical acknowledgement. The aim of the diploma thesis is to recommend some changes of marketing mix of Classic Ski School in Rokytnice nad Jizerou that could be helpful in following seasons according to the given comparison. Methods: The main meth...

  13. Estudio de viabilidad de un resort inmobiliario en Mérida, Yucatán ( México)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El siguiente proyecto analiza desde un punto de vista teórico y práctico la viabilidad de un resort inmobiliario en Mérida, Yucatán. El mencionado resort tendrá 4 viviendas unifamiliares y 2 edificios de 4 apartamentos cada uno. En total 12 viviendas. También tendrá zonas comunes de piscina, jardín, peluquería, biblioteca y gimnasio. La base de la que partimos para la elaboración del citado estudio es la falta existente de dicho producto en la zona. Así pues, se buscará cubr...

  14. Premier Wen Jiabao Chaired a State Council Executive Meeting to Review and Deploy the Program to Further Implement the Restructuring and Reinvigoration Plan for Key Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to review and deploy the program to further implement the restructuring and reinvigoration plan for key industries on February 24th,2010.

  15. Numerical simulation of ski-jump jet motion using lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the lattice Boltzmann method,a lattice Boltzmann(LB) model of the ski-jump jet two-phase flow is developed first and the corresponding boundary conditions are studied.A simple case study of a droplet horizontal movement calculation is carried out to test and verify the model,where level set method is used to track and reconstruct the moving droplet free surface. Then,we numerically simulate a two dimensional flow field of the ski-jump jet with the LB model,derive the moving surface and velocity vector field of the jet flow.The simulation results are very consistent with the physical mechanisms.The effectiveness and reliability of the model are demonstrated by the numerical examples.

  16. Arhangel'ski\\u{\\i} sheaf amalgamations in topological groups (intermediate report)

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaban, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    The main results in the present version of this paper are: 1. For arbitrary topological groups, Nyikos's property $\\alpha_{1.5}$ is equivalent to Arhangel'ski\\u{\\i}'s $\\alpha_1$. 2. There is a topological space $X$ such that $C_p(X)$ is $\\alpha_1$ but is not countably tight. Item (1) solves a problem of Shakhmatov (2002), and is proved using a new kind of perturbation argument. Item (2), which is proved by quoting known results (of Arhangel'ski\\u{\\i}-Pytkeev, Moore and Todor\\v{c}evi\\'c), gives a new solution, with remarkable properties, to a problem of Averbukh and Smolyanov (1968) concerning topological vector spaces. This problem was first solved by Plichko (2009) using Banach spaces with weaker locally convex topologies.

  17. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2017-01-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance....... The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy...

  18. Time-optimal control problem for the swing and the ski

    CERN Document Server

    Piccoli, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of time-optimal control problems for the swing and the ski. We first consider the motion of a man standing on a swing. For simplicity, we neglect friction and air resistance and assume that the mass of the swinger is concentrated in his baricenter B. For the ski, we use the model considered by Aldo Bressan (1991), with a special approximation of the skier. Our main concern is the existence and the structure of time-optimal controls. As first step, we introduce an auxiliary control system with control entering linearly and show the relationships between this and the original system. We then perform a detailed study of the auxiliary system, using geometric techniques. In turn this provides accurate information on the time-optimal controls for the original system.

  19. Kinematic characteristics of the ski jump inrun: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Elfmark, Milan; Vaverka, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    The athlete's inrun position affects the outcome for take-off in ski jumping. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic parameters between skiers' adjacent body segments during their first straight path of the inrun. Elite ski jumpers participated in the study at the World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, during the years 1992 through 2001. A video image was taken at a right angle to the tracks of the K-110 (meter) jumping hill. Kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities and trunk of the athletes. Findings indicated that jumpers had diminished ankle and knee joint angles and increased trunk and hip angles over the 10 years. In recent years, the best athletes achieved a further length of their jumps, while they experienced slower inrun average velocity. These results are perhaps explained by several possible contributing factors, such as new technique of the jumper's body kinematics, advancements in equipment technology, and somatotype of the jumpers.

  20. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.