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Sample records for premier ppo cigna

  1. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... Advantage Plan (Part C) offered by a private insurance company. In a PPO Plan, you pay less ...

  2. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  3. Kennismiddag veldproeven PPO : strategische oplossingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; PPO Bomen-bollen,

    2009-01-01

    Phytium in hyacint, Rhizoctonia in tulp, aaltjes in krokussen allemaal aandoeningen die aangepakt moeten worden om een kwalitatief goed product af te leveren. PPO onderzoekt veel van die strategiën. Tijdens de Kennismiddag veldproeven in Lisse, komt er een flink aantal aan de orde

  4. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  5. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  6. Muusikamaailm : Sibeliuse nädal Järvenpääl. Enescu festival Bukarestis. Ukraina tagastab käsikirjad. Nello Santi 70. Gina Cigna lahkus kõrges eas / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Järvenpääl toimus Sibeliuse nädal. Bukarestis toimus George Enescu festival. Ukraina valitsuse otsusega tagastatakse Berliini Gesangsakademie'le nende fondides olnud hulk käsikirjalis Nimekas itaalia ooperidirigent Nello Santi sai 70. Itaalia päritolu prantsuse ooperilaulja Gina Cigna suri 101 aastasena

  7. Aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-ph-PPO-PEO and PPO-PEO-ph-PEO-PPO at an air/water interface: experimental study and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Houjian; Xu, Guiying; Liu, Teng; Xu, Long; Zhai, Xueru; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Xin

    2012-09-25

    The block polyethers PEO-PPO-ph-PPO-PEO (BPE) and PPO-PEO-ph-PEO-PPO (BEP) are synthesized by anionic polymerization using bisphenol A as initiator. Compared with Pluronic P123, the aggregation behaviors of BPE and BEP at an air/water interface are investigated by the surface tension and dilational viscoelasticity. The molecular construction can influence the efficiency and effectiveness of block polyethers in decreasing surface tension. BPE has the most efficient ability to decrease surface tension of water among the three block polyethers. The maximum surface excess concentration (Γ(max)) of BPE is larger than that of BEP or P123. Moreover, the dilational modulus of BPE is almost the same as that of P123, but much larger than that of BEP. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the conformational variations of block polyethers at the air/water interface.

  8. Premier Wen on Domestic Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Second Session of the 11th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on March 13. Premier Wen Jiabao answered questions from the Chinese and foreign press. Below are highlights of his answers on domestic policies.

  9. Our Measures Are Effective, Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27, 2009, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government's economic policy orientations for 2010. Here are the highlights of the interview.

  10. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  11. Latent and active polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in red clover (Trifolium pratense) and use of a low PPO mutant to study the role of PPO in proteolysis reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ana L; Minchin, Frank R; Michaelson-Yeates, Terry P T; Lee, Michael R F; Morris, Phillip

    2008-04-23

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in leaf extracts of wild type (WT) red clover and a mutant line expressing greatly reduced levels of PPO (LP red clover) has been characterized. Both latent and active forms of PPO were present, with the latent being the predominant form. PPO enzyme and substrate (phaselic acid) levels fluctuated over a growing season and were not correlated. Protease activation of latent PPO was demonstrated; however, the rate was too low to have an immediate effect following extraction. A novel, more rapid PPO activation mechanism by the enzyme's own substrate was identified. Rates of protein breakdown and amino acid release were significantly higher in LP red clover extracts compared with WT extracts, with 20 versus 6% breakdown of total protein and 1.9 versus 0.4 mg/g FW of free amino acids released over 24 h, respectively. Inclusion of ascorbic acid increased the extent of protein breakdown. Free phenol content decreased during a 24 h incubation of WT red clover extracts, whereas protein-bound phenol increased and high molecular weight protein species were formed. Inhibition of proteolysis occurred during wilting and ensilage of WT compared with LP forage (1.9 vs 5 and 17 vs 21 g/kg of DM free amino acids for 24 h wilted forage and 90 day silage, respectively). This study shows that whereas constitutive red clover PPO occurs predominantly in the latent form, this fraction can contribute to reducing protein breakdown in crude extracts and during ensilage.

  12. Comparing balance and instep angle of premier and non- premier leg in female soccer athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohammadzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare balanceand instep angle in premier and non- premier leg. The number of 30 female futsal athletics of Tehran Province (in the age of years old, in the weight of kg participated in this study. To determine premier and non- premier leg of subjects, they besides questioning requested to shoot 5 times and the leg with less error recorded as premier leg. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS test was used for evaluating static balance. 4 markers were used for evaluating instep angle according to Clark Model. For evaluating dynamic balance of subjects single-leg landing test on 3- axes force board with 1000 hertz frequency was used and the time to stability was computed in line with anteroposterior and internal- external based on sequential estimation technique. Data analyzing was done in two sections, first, instep angle was compared in different status and static and dynamic balance in premier and non- premier leg by paired t- test and then the relationship between instep angle was examined in different status with static balance (total score of balance in the test (BESS with instep angle in standing on two leg and single leg for premier leg and dynamic balance in 3 anteroposterior (AP, mediolateral (ML and vertical (V sides by using from correlation coefficient test (for normal data of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman abnormal data. There is significant difference between dynamic balance in premier and dynamic balance in non- premier leg of futsal athletics and the premier leg has further balance than non- premier leg. There is negative and significant relationship between dynamic balance and instep angle in all statusexcept premier leg of single- leg in vertical side. Futsal athletics in premier leg have further balance than non- premier leg.

  13. ROLE OF RED CLOVER PPO IN PATHOGEN RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher plant polyphenol oxidases (PPO) are copper-containing enzymes which catalyse both hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of o- diphenols to o-quinones. While PPO is widespread in the plant kingdom, its role in plants has not been unequivocally determined; however, evidence ...

  14. PPO/PA6合金改性技术的研究%Study on Modification Technology of PPO/PA6 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘裕红; 王铄

    2013-01-01

    PPO / PA alloy with excellent comprehensive properties was prepared by blending modification for the complementary between PPO and PA6.And the modification technologies of PPO/PA6 were investigated.The results show that the compatibility of PPO/PA6 alloy is improved by SEBS,and the toughen of PPO/PA6 becomes better.%为了使聚酰胺6(PA6)、聚苯醚(PPO)的性能互补,采用共混改性的方法制备综合性能优异的PPO/PA6合金,并对PPO/PA6共混改性技术进行研究.结果表明,苯乙烯系产品(SEBS)不仅可以提高PPO/PA6合金体系的相容性,而且同时还能起到增韧作用.

  15. GAS SORPTION AND TRANSPORT IN POLY (PHENYLENE OXIDE )(PPO)AND ARYL-BROMINATED PPO MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Lianda; F.R.SHEU, R.T. CHERN; H.B. HOPFENBERG

    1989-01-01

    The apparent solubility (S), concentration- average diffusivity (D), and permeability (P), for CO2,CH4 and N2 through PPO and aryl- brominated PPO at 35 ℃ for pressure ranging from 1 to 26 atm are reported. It is found that P,D, and Sof the membranes to all the three gases vary with the extent of bromination. S increases with the increase of the perecnt of bromine in each case, but D to CO2 increases remarkably only at higher degree of bromination, and therefore, P to CO2 is increased by more than 100% over a wide range of pressure in the case .The solubility data are well described by the dual mode sorption model. It is found that the gas molecules sorbed by the Langmuir mode are relatively more immobilized and the contribution of the nonequilibrium character of the polymer to gas permeation increases obviously for CO2 and is hardly changed for CH4 with increasing bromine content. These observations are interpreted in terms of changes in specific free volume (SFV)and the cohesive energy density (CED) of the polymers.

  16. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  17. Effects of PEO-PPO diblock impurities on the cubic structure of aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO pluronics micelles: fcc and bcc ordered structures in F127

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Hvidt, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on structural properties of PEO-PPO-PEO type of triblock block copolymers (Pluronics F127) with special emphasis on the effect of diblock PEO-PPO impurities on the ordered gel phase. Commercial F127 polymers contain as received roughly 20% PEO-PPO diblock and 80% PEO-PPO-PEO triblock...... copolymers. Aqueous solutions of F127 copolymers used as received form fee ordered micellar structure. Copolymers depleted with respect to the diblock impurity, resulting in a pure PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer system, form bcc ordered micelles within the major parts of the gel phase. However, close...

  18. Our Measures Are Effective,Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27,2009,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government’s economic policy orientations for 2010.Here are the highlights of the interview.

  19. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  20. Cool Wool Iaunched at Premiere Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Visitors to Premiere Vision were greeted by the inspired The Woolmark Company image, rapidly becoming iconic, of a welcoming flock of stylish Merino sheep in sunglasses. It raised many a smile and set the scene for a feel- good exhibition, putting Cool Wool firmly at the doorway to the new summer season 2013.

  1. Pakistanis Eager to Welcome Premier Li Keqiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Ali; Nawaz; Gilani

    2013-01-01

    <正>"We the Pakistani Nation,are very much eager to welcome Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on his first visit to Pakistan after taking over the Premiership of the People’s Republic of China whom we are enjoying deep rooted and exemplary friendship for

  2. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  3. PPO actief in onderzoek naar kwaliteitsmodel en rotbestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van A.C.R.; Derkx, M.P.M.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    PPO-fruit neemt actief deel aan het Europese Isa-project. Het project beoogt de fruitconsumptie in Europa te bevorderen door kennisontwikkeling en - verspreiding op het gebied van consumptiebeleving, gezondheid, veredeling, verwerking, duurzame teelt en naoogstbehandeling. Dit artikel beschrijft wel

  4. Le Premier Amendement : un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude‑Jean Bertrand

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier, plein de verve, d’humeur et d’humour, pose, comme sait si bien le faire l’auteur, des questions profondes sous une apparence paradoxale. Il a été présenté lors d’un colloque sur le Premier amendement organisé à l’Université Lumière-Lyon 2 les 17 et 18 janvier 2003. Certaines communications ont été publiées dans le volume XXIV, n°1 (2003, « Le premier amendement : un modèle américain des libertés » (sous la direction de Vincent Michelot de la Revue Tocqueville.

  5. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  6. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  7. Surface grafting thermoresponsive PEO-PPO-PEO chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malal, Ram; Malal, Maya; Cohn, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to engineer surfaces comprising covalently bound polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) chains, able to coil and uncoil in aqueous media, as a function of temperature. Thermoresponsive surfaces can be used in diverse areas, such as tissue engineering and 'on-command' drug delivery. The grafting scheme was exemplified using a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film and started with the exposure of the substrate to plasma of ammonia, whereby amine groups were formed on the film. In the next stage, the amine moieties reacted with the hydroxyterminated thermoresponsive PEO-PPO-PEO triblocks via the hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) coupling agent. XPS analysis of the PET film after being exposed to plasma of ammonia revealed substantial amounts of nitrogen, as revealed by the sizeable N1s peak observed at 400.2 eV. A large increase in the C1s ether peak at 286.5 eV was apparent after binding the PEO-PPO-PEO triblocks to the substrate. These findings were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and supported by water contact angle measurements. PEO-PPO-PEO triblocks were chain extended by reacting them with HDI, whereby longer polyether urethane chains were formed. The long thermoresponsive chains produced (P-F127) were then tethered to the PET surface, following the procedure used to graft the shorter F127 triblocks. The thermoresponsiveness of the surface was demonstrated by measuring the water contact angle of the P-F127-containing surfaces as a function of temperature.

  8. Development of Digitex premier digital angiographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has come to be widely utilized in the field of angiography. This has brought forth a strong demand that digital angiographic systems provide high efficiency in patient examinations and high level of interventional support. This report refers to our newly developed Digitex Premier Series digital angiographic systems, designed to meet the above demands. The new systems utilize a high-speed, wide-range C-arm system, a high-resolution image intensifier, a fluid-lubricant X-ray tube, and a digital image processing system, in order to ensure high patient examination efficiency. Their IVR (interventional radiology)-Master bed-side image controller further enhances the efficiency of patient examinations, and also, their CAT (comfortable angio terminal) and FMC (file management console) improve the patient examination throughput and diagnostic workflow of the systems. (author)

  9. [Spectral analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) treated by pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Ruo-Bing; Chen, Jie; Wang, Li-Ming; Guan, Zhi-Cheng; Jia, Zhi-Dong

    2009-08-01

    Inactivation effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a laboratory PEF system with a coaxial treatment chamber. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence analysis were used to study the conformation change of the protein. The experimental results show that PPO and LOX can be effectively inactivated by the PEF treatment. Inactivation effect of PPO and LOX increases with the increase in the applied electric strength and the treatment time. Activity of PPO and LOX can be reduced by 60.3% and 21.7% at 20 kV x cm(-1) after being treated for 320 micros respectively. The decrease of the negative peaks (208 and 215 nm in PPO spectra, 208 nm and 218 nm in LOX spectra) in CD spectra of PPO and LOX shows that PEF treatment caused a loss of alpha-helix and increase in beta-sheet content, indicating that conformation changes occur in the secondary structure of PPO and LOX enzyme. This effect was strengthened as the applied electric field increased: alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX was 56% and 29% after being treated at 8 kV x cm(-1), however, when the electric field was increased up to 20 kV x cm(-1), alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX decreased to 21% and 16% respectively. The decrease rate of alpha-helix and increase rate of beta-sheet in PPO are higher than LOX, indicating that the second conformation of PPO is less resistant to PEF treatment than LOX. The fluorescence intensity of LOX increases after PEF treatment. At the same time, increasing the applied pulsed electric field increases the fluorescence intensity emitted. Fluorescence measurements confirm that tertiary conformation changes occur in the local structure of LOX. However the possible mechanism of the conformation change induced by the PEF treatment is beyond the scope of the present investigation.

  10. Neutron-scattering studies of a polymer electrolyte, PPO-LiClO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, P.; Mattsson, B.; Swenson, J.

    1998-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of a prototype polymer electrolyte, PPO-LiClO4, have been investigated using neutron diffraction (ND) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). For comparison, corresponding studies of pure PPO have also been performed. The diffraction data reveal large structural ch...

  11. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2012-10-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM.

  12. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  13. Luminescence enhancement of PPO/PVT scintillators by CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahi, Sunil; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Ke

    2015-03-15

    Oleic acid coated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemistry method. The average size of the nanoparticles is 12 nm, and the nanoparticles are dispersible in polyvinyl toluene (PVT) monomer due to the oleic acid coating. Different amounts of as-synthesized CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles are then loaded into PVT matrix with 0.5 wt% 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) by bulk polymerization. The luminescence of PPO/PVT is enhanced by CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles to 3 and 2.5 times under UV and X-ray excitation, respectively. This enhancement is due to the energy transfer from CeF{sub 3} to PPO, the increase of the stopping power by doping CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles into PPO/PVT and the escape of charges from CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Oleic acid coated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemistry method. • The luminescence of PPO/PVT is enhanced by CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles under UV and X-ray excitations. • This enhancement is due to the energy transfer from CeF{sub 3} to PPO in PVT matrix. • The escape of charges from CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles also contribute to the luminescence enhancement. • These nanocomposite materials could be promising for radiation detection.

  14. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  15. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  16. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  17. [Preparation and characterization of irinotecan hydrochloride loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles and its mechanism of decreasing drug intestinal toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Shi-Yan; Li, Fei-Fei; Gan, Yong

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we developed PEO-PPO-PEO micelles loaded with irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitory material PEO20-PPO70-PEO20, and studied its mechanism of decreasing CPT-11 induced delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity. BCRP-overexpressing MDCKII (MDCKII/BCRP) cells were used to evaluate the effect of PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 and PEO-PPO-PEO micelles on transmembrane transport of CPT-11 in vitro. The biliary excretion, delayed diarrhea and intestinal damage of CPT-11 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles of rats were investigated. The results showed that the obtained micelles could decrease the biliary excretion of CPT-11, ameliorate delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity of rats through inhibiting BCRP-mediated CPT-11 efflux. PEO-PPO-PEO micelles were promising carriers to reduce intestinal toxicity of CPTs.

  18. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  19. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em polpa de goiaba (Psidium guajava R. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in guava (Psidium guajava R. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lima Zanatta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidase E.C. 1.11.1.7 (POD e a polifenoloxidase E.C. 1.10.3.1 (PPO foram extraídas da polpa de goiaba. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando-se a polpa da goiaba e solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM com pH variando de 6,0 a 7,0 em intervalos de 0,1. Foi determinada a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e da polifenoloxidase desses extratos, a fim de se observar o melhor pH para a extração de cada enzima. O pH 6,3 foi considerado o melhor para a extração da POD da polpa de goiaba, enquanto que para PPO, o pH foi 6,8. Os extratos brutos de POD e PPO foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C e 80 °C por um período de 0 a 10 min. Os resultados demonstraram um decréscimo da atividade enzimática nos extratos com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo. No entanto, a total inativação não foi atingida o que sugere a presença de isoenzimas termoresistentes.Peroxidase E.C. 1.11.1.7 (POD and polyphenoloxidase E.C.1.10.3.1 (PPO were extracted from guava pulp. The extracts were prepared using guava pulp and a sodium phosphate buffer 100 mM with a pH varying from 6.0 to 7.0 in intervals of 0.1. This was done in order to observe the best pH for the extraction of each enzyme. The pH of 6.3 was considered the best in terms of extracting POD from guava pulp while the pH was 6.8 for the PPO extraction. The POD and PPO extracts of guava pulp were exposed to temperatures of 60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C and 80 °C in a period between 0 to 10 min. The result showed a decrease in the enzymatic activity due to the increase of the temperature and time. However, total inactivation was not achieved which suggests the presence of thermo resistant isoenzymes.

  20. Interaction between PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and a hexapeptide in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lianwei; Guo, Chen; Xiang, Junfeng; Wang, Ning; Yang, Liangrong; Tang, Yalin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-01-24

    Interaction between PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and a hexapeptide, growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), was investigated by NMR to study the potential use of the copolymers in peptide drug delivery. (1)H NMR and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) measurements determined that PO methyl protons interacted with methyl protons of the Ala moiety, aromatic protons of the Trp moiety, and some of the Phe aromatic protons. The Lys moiety and part of the Phe moiety entered the hydrophilic EO environment via hydrogen bonding. PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and the peptide formed a complex in 1:1 stoichiometry. Binding constants between copolymers and GHRP-6 were determined, and it was indicated that the copolymers containing more EO and PO units will lead to greater affinity with the peptide. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements confirmed the results of NMR experiments. This study indicates that PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers have great potential in delivering peptide drugs.

  1. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in grape (Vitis vinifera L. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em uva (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Pieri Troiani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzimatic activity of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO extracted from three grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L., cultivated in Marialva city, state of Paraná, was evaluated in this study. The enzymatic extracts were prepared starting from the Rubi, Borbon and Benitaka grape cultivars pulp and peel. The activity of the peroxidase was 53.00 units/100 g in the extract from the Rubi cultivar peel, and 327.00 units/100 g from the Benitaka cultivar, these values being superior to those observed in the same cultivars pulp extracts, which were 7.67 units/100 g and 44.00 units/100 g respectively. However, the result was opposite in the Borbon cultivar, with values of 141.11 units/100 g in the pulp and 11.50 units/100 g in the peel being found. The results of the polyphenoloxidase in the Borbon cultivar activity were 100.18 units/100 g in the pulp and 102.60 units/100 g in the peel, and in the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were 60.40 units/100 g, 48.62 units/100 g in the pulp and 17.40 units/100 g, and 26.20 units/100 g in the peel, respectively. Protein determination was carried out in each extract, and the results found in the pulp and peel, respectively, were 0.56 and 0.64 mg/100 g for cultivar Benitaka, 1.38 and 6.45 mg/100 g for cultivar Rubi, and 21.38 and 5.68 mg/100 g for Borbon. The extracts were submitted to thermal treatments (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 75°C for a 1 to 10 minutes period to observe the behavior of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity, being verified a continuous decrease of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities as a result of the thermal treatment. The extracts of the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were more heat stable than the extract from the Borbon cultivar for both enzymes. However, the temperatures used were not enough for a total inactivation of the enzymes.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (POD e da polifenoloxidase (PPO extraídas de três cultivares de

  2. Premiere of Film Nine-Mile Fragrance Held in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-HABITAT) in Kenya staged the premiere of the film Nine-Mile Fragrance depicting the Wenchuan earthquake relief efforts. The film, showing the unique culture of the Qiang ethnic group and the great spirit of love of the Chinese people in their earthquake relief work, left a deep impression on the African audience.

  3. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  4. Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance W. Riggins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO has been slow to evolve and, to date, is confirmed for only four weed species. Two of these species are members of the genus Amaranthus L. Previous research has demonstrated that PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus (Moq. Sauer, the first weed to have evolved this type of resistance, involves a unique codon deletion in the PPX2 gene. Our hypothesis is that A. tuberculatus may have been predisposed to evolving this resistance mechanism due to the presence of a repetitive motif at the mutation site and that lack of this motif in other amaranth species is why PPO-inhibitor resistance has not become more common despite strong herbicide selection pressure. Here we investigate inter- and intraspecific variability of the PPX2 gene—specifically exon 9, which includes the mutation site—in ten amaranth species via sequencing and a PCR-RFLP assay. Few polymorphisms were observed in this region of the gene, and intraspecific variation was observed only in A. quitensis. However, sequencing revealed two distinct repeat patterns encompassing the mutation site. Most notably, A. palmeri S. Watson possesses the same repetitive motif found in A. tuberculatus. We thus predict that A. palmeri will evolve resistance to PPO inhibitors via the same PPX2 codon deletion that evolved in A. tuberculatus.

  5. Spuitmachine-wasprogramma's doen wat ze moeten doen : Vergelijking door PPO Vredepeel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderken, J.; Zevenbergen, G.J.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2009-01-01

    De veldspuit moet je elke dag of bij verandering van middel reinigen. Dat kan met de hand, maar halfautomatische en automatische spoelsystemen sparen tijd. Alle wasprogramma¿s krijgen de spuit schoon, maar er zijn verschillen, ondervonden LandbouwMechanisatie, PPO Vredepeel en DLV Plant tijdens een

  6. Three-arm Stereocomplexed PPO-PDLA-PLLA Copolymer with High Molecular Weight%高分子量立构复合结晶的三枝化PPO-PDLA-PLLA 嵌段共聚物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 马艳; 李远翔; 范仲勇

    2014-01-01

    Three-arm poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) was used as a macroinitiator for the ring-opening poly-merization(ROP) of D-lactide to obtain three-arm poly( propylene oxide)-block-poly(D-lactic acid) ( PPO-PDLA). PPO-PDLA copolymer was then reacted with stannous octoate [Sn(Oct) 2 ] to obtain Sn(Oct) end-capped PPO-PDLA[PPO-PDLA-Sn(Oct)]. The PPO-PDLA-Sn(Oct) can be used as an efficient macroinitia-tor for the ROP of L-lactide to synthesize three-arm PPO-PDLA-PLLA at 130 ℃, which reduces the occurrence of hydrolysis and transesterification reaction. PPO-PDLA-PLLA copolymers with high molecular weight were synthesized by this novel and simple method. The results show that the composite of PPO-PDLA-PLLA can be easily tuned by controlling the feed ratio of L-lactide and D-lactide, and the stereoregularity of PPO-PDLA-PLLA is high. Moreover, the stereocomplexes of PPO-PDLA-PLLA can survive melting to reform the stereo-complex crystallites.%以三枝化低不饱和度聚环氧丙烷(PPO)引发 D-丙交酯(D-LA)逐步开环聚合,合成了三枝化聚环氧丙烷-聚右旋乳酸(PPO-PDLA)共聚物。用辛酸亚锡 Sn(Oct)2与 PPO-PDLA 端羟基反应进行 Sn(Oct)封端,制备了三枝化 PPO-PDLA-Sn(Oct)预聚物。再于130℃下,以其作为大分子引发剂与 L-丙交酯(L-LA)开环聚合,合成了分子量>105的三枝化 PPO-PDLA-PLLA 嵌段共聚物。活性端基的引入,降低了聚合反应温度,从而降低了聚合中的酯交换或热降解反应发生的概率。实现了高分子量 PPO-PDLA-PLLA 嵌段共聚物的合成。结构测试结果表明,合成的嵌段共聚物具有分子结构易控及立构规整度高等特点。在结晶-熔融-再结晶重复热处理下,三枝化 PPO-PDLA-PLLA 嵌段共聚物仅发生立构复合聚乳酸结晶,且结晶能力稳定。

  7. Silencing and heterologous expression of ppo-2 indicate a specific function of a single polyphenol oxidase isoform in resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Carolin; Dirks, Mareike E; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Prüfer, Dirk; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2012-02-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) possesses an unusually high degree of disease resistance. As this plant exhibits high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and PPO have been implicated in resistance against pests and pathogens, we analyzed the potential involvement of five PPO isoenzymes in the resistance of dandelion against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only one PPO (ppo-2) was induced during infection, and ppo-2 promoter and β-glucuronidase marker gene fusions revealed strong induction of the gene surrounding lesions induced by B. cinerea. Specific RNAi silencing reduced ppo-2 expression only, and concomitantly increased plant susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato. At 4 days postinoculation, P. syringae pv. tomato populations were strongly increased in the ppo-2 RNAi lines compared with wild-type plants. When the dandelion ppo-2 gene was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant having no PPO gene, active protein was formed and protein extracts of the transgenic plants exhibited substrate-dependent antimicrobial activity against P. syringae pv. tomato. These results clearly indicate a strong contribution of a specific, single PPO isoform to disease resistance. Therefore, we propose that specific PPO isoenzymes be included in a new family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins.

  8. Vice Premier Li Keqiang Meets Chinese and Russian Friendly Personages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The scene: 5 pm on April 26 at the President Hotel in Moscow, and Vice Premier Li Keqiang, having just arrived in Russia for an official visit, cordially meets Chinese and Russian friendly personages from various sectors of society including people-to-people diplomatic, academic, cultural, scientific and educational, and business circles. Among them are experts and scholars in their seventies and eighties, important professionals of their respective workplaces in their prime, as well as students in the bloom of their youth.

  9. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  10. Self-assemblies of γ-CDs with pentablock copolymers PMA-PPO-PEO-PPO-PMA and endcapping via atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentablock copolymers PMA-PPO-PEO-PPO-PMA synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP were self-assembled with varying amounts of γ-CDs to prepare poly(pseudorotaxanes (PPRs. When the concentration of γ-CDs was lower, the central PEO segment served as a shell of the micelles and was preferentially bent to pass through the γ-CD cavity to construct double-chain-stranded tight-fit PPRs characterized by a channel-like crystal structure. With an increase in the amount of γ-CDs added, they began to accommodate the poly(methyl acrylate (PMA segments dissociated from the core of the micelles. When more γ-CDs were threaded and slipped over the segments, the γ-CDs were randomly distributed along the pentablock copolymer chain to generate single-chain-stranded loose-fit PPRs and showed no characteristic channel-like crystal structure. All the self-assembly processes of the pentablock copolymers resulted in the formation of hydrogels. After endcapping via in situ ATRP of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, these single-chain-stranded loose-fit PPRs were transformed into conformational identical polyrotaxanes (PRs. The structures of the PPRs and PRs were characterized by means of 1H NMR, GPC, 13C CP/MAS NMR, 2D 1H NOESY NMR, FTIR, WXRD, TGA and DSC analyses.

  11. Stress Sensitivity of Correlation between POD and PPO Activities in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉMETH, Zsolt István

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the leaf extracts of two plant species (Quercus robur L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.,peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities have been measured by the methods ofShannon et al (1966 and Flurkey and Jen (1978. The oxidative activities regarded as semi-empiricalbiochemical variables have distributions in the plant foliage and between them a linear correlation hasbeen observed. In this work the resultant oxidative activities of POD and PPO isoenzymes of plantfoliages, the measuring uncertainties of their values and their correlation are interpreted. For theeffects of cold shock and lack of illumination, significant alterations in the correlation have beenrevealed that are also reflected by the parameters of the regression. The correlation of POD and PPOhas been established to be stress sensitive by the application of covariance analysis (ANCOVA.

  12. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  13. Effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Chin, Jaemin; Marks, Jeremy D; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2010-08-03

    The effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, mainly Poloxamer 188, on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic gradients were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Fluorescence leakage assays showed two opposing effects of P188 on the structural integrity of GUVs depending on the duration of their incubation time. A two-state transition mechanism of interaction between the triblock copolymers and the phospholipid membrane is proposed: an adsorption (I) and an insertion (II) state. While the triblock copolymer in state I acts to moderately retard the leakage, their insertion in state II perturbs the lipid packing, thus increasing the membrane permeability. Our results suggest that the biomedical application of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, either as cell membrane resealing agents or as accelerators for drug delivery, is directed by the delicate balance between these two states.

  14. PPO Glastuinbouw en LEI helpen biologische ketenprojecten op weg: "vernieuwing moet wel uit de biologische hoek komen"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, van Jan; Poot, E.H.; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Het biologische marktsegment is vanwege de hogere kostprijs van het geteelde product een natuurlijke kraamkamer voor productinnovatie. De zoektocht naar tastbaar onderscheid en aansprekende verkoopconcepten vereist multidisciplinaire samenwerking van teelt- en marktonderzoek. LEI en PPO Glastuinbouw

  15. Interaction of Curcumin with PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Susruta; Roccatano, Danilo

    2013-03-21

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring drug molecule, has been extensively investigated for its various potential usages in medicine. Its water insolubility and high metabolism rate require the use of drug delivery systems to make it effective in the human body. Among various types of nanocarriers, block copolymer based ones are the most effective. These polymers are broadly used as drug-delivery systems, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. In this paper, we propose a molecular dynamics simulation study of the interaction of Curcumin with block copolymer based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO). The study has been conducted considering the smallest PEO and PPO oligomers and multiple chains of the block copolymer Pluronic P85. Our study shows that the more hydrophobic 1,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) molecules and PPO block preferentially coat the Curcumin molecule. In the case of the Pluronic P85, simulation shows formation of a drug-polymer aggregate within 50 ns. This process leaves exposed the PEO part of the polymers, resulting in better solvation and stability of the drug in water.

  16. Tears of a Chinese Premier Hussein Ismail Hussein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    THE day Premier Wen took office he stated.""Leaders should be closer to the masses."" His visit to comfort and talk with everyday workers in Tongchuan City, Shaanxi Province on January 1, 2005, where a few weeks previously a gas blast in the Chenjiashan Coalmine had killed 166 workers, was by no means his first. But it was the first time he publicly shed tears. In one household that had lost its breadwinner, Wen Jiabao embraced the victim's son and shared his grief. He later had a simple lunch of steamed bread and tea in a tunnel 1,300 meters belowg round as he chatted with workers at another mine in the city.

  17. L’abri premier, de Vitruve à Nils-Udo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Huvenne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude se propose de mettre en écho les écrits de Vitruve, livre second, chapitre 1 du De architectura et les créations plastiques de l’artiste contemporain Nils-Udo.Ce vis-à-vis des réflexions de Vitruve avec celles de l’artiste nous permettra de tisser un lien entre ces deux hommes et de voir dans leurs travaux respectifs des points de similitude.Le texte extrait du De architectura II, 1, sous-titré par M. Nisard, De la manière de vivre des premiers hommes, et quels ont été les commenc...

  18. Premier Li Keqiang and Indian Prime Minister Modi Attend Regional Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2015-01-01

    The First Forum of Leaders of the Regions of China and India,cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA),was held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on May 15.Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi gave addresses.Premier Li expressed his congrat-

  19. Combustion behavior of HIPS/PPO alloys%HIPS/PPO合金的燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井蒙蒙; 刘继纯; 陈权; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2011-01-01

    利用HAAKE流变仪将高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)与聚苯醚(PPO)熔融复合,采用水平燃烧、氧指数测试、高温热分解、热重分析等研究了复合材料的燃烧性能.与纯HIPS相比,HIPS/PPO合金的阻燃性能明显改善.随着PPO用量增加,聚合物合金在燃烧时的熔融滴落和发烟逐渐减少,水平燃烧级别逐渐提高,氧指数增大,热分解温度和热分解后的残留率都逐渐增加.在HIPS树脂基体中加入20 phr PPO可使聚合物合金在空气中燃烧时自熄,水平燃烧级别从FH-3级升为FH-2级.加入PPO后,聚合物合金在高温下成炭能力显著增强,形成的炭层覆盖在聚合物材料表面形成保护层,同时聚合物合金在熔融后的黏度显著增大,两者对热量传递、氧气和分解产物迁移的屏蔽、阻隔作用是造成材料阻燃性能增加的主要原因.%A series of high impact polystyrene(HIPS)/polyphenylene oxide(PPO) polymer alloys with different compositions were obtained by melt-compounding HIPS and PPO with a HAAKE rheometer. The combustion behavior of the polymer alloys were studied by means of horizontal burning, oxygen index, hightemperature pyrolysis and thermogravimetry tests. The fire retardancy of the HIPS/PPO alloys improved noticeably in comparison with that of pure HIPS.The melt dripping and smoke release of the polymer alloys decreased gradually, while the horizontal burning rating, oxygen index, decomposition temperature and pyrolytic residue percentage increased with the augmentation of PPO dosage. Adding 20 phr PPO in HIPS matrix could make the polymer alloys self-extinguish in air,thereby raising its horizontal burning rating from FH-3 to FH-2.The introduction of PPO enhanced the charring ability of the polymer alloys at high temperatures greatly and the char residue formed a protection layer on the surface of the polymer material.Meanwhile, the melt viscosity of the polymer alloys increased dramatically.The shielding and obstructing

  20. Combustion behavior of HIPS/PPO alloys%HIPS/PPO合金的燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井蒙蒙; 刘继纯; 陈权; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2012-01-01

    A series of high impact polystyrene(IIIPS)/polyphenylene oxide(PPO) polymer alloys with different compositions were obtained by melt-compounding HIPS and PPO with a HAAKE rheometer. The combustion behavior of the polymer alloys were studied by means of horizontal burning, oxygen index, high?temperature pyrolysis and thermogravimetry tests. The fire retardancy of the HIPS/PPO alloys improved noticeably in comparison with that of pure HIPS. The melt dripping and smoke release of the polymer alloys decreased gradually, while the horizontal burning rating, oxygen index, decomposition temperature and pyrolytic residue percentage increased with the augmentation of PPO dosage. Adding 20 phr PPO in HIPS matrix could make the polymer alloys self-extinguish in air, thereby raising its horizontal burning rating from FH -3 to FH -2. The introduction of PPO enhanced the charring ability of the polymer alloys at high temperatures greatly and the char residue formed a protection layer on the surface of the polymer material. Meanwhile, the melt viscosity of the polymer alloys increased dramatically. The shielding and obstructing effects of the carbon layer and the increased melt viscosity on the transfer of heat and the movement of oxygen and degradation products were the major reasons for the enhancement of fire retardancy of the alloy materials.%利用HAAKE流变仪将高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)与聚苯醚(PPO)熔融复合,采用水平燃烧、氧指数测试、高温热分解、热重分析等研究了复合材料的燃烧性能.与纯HIPS相比,HIPS/PPO合金的阻燃性能明显改善.随着PPO用量增加,聚合物合金在燃烧时的熔融滴落和发烟逐渐减少,水平燃烧级别逐渐提高,氧指数增大,热分解温度和热分解后的残留率都逐渐增加.在HIPS树脂基体中加入20 phr PPO可使聚合物合金在空气中燃烧时自熄,水平燃烧级别从FH-3级升为FH-2级.加入PPO后,聚合物合金在高温下成炭能力显著增强,形成的

  1. Effective Factors on Reducing the Number of Spectators in Iran Football Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khadem Azghadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of reducing the number of spectators of football premier league, this study is seeking for identifying factors put the most impact on this decline. The statistical population consisted of all spectators in Iran football premier league in 2015-16, out of which 395 spectators were randomly selected as the research samples. The data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic information and the second part, at 6 aspects, includes 35 questions analyzing the reasons for reducing the number of spectators in Iran's football Premier League. For analyzing data, it was used from first and second order confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equations through using SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.8 software. The results of first order confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measurement model of factors affecting on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league is an appropriate model and model parameters are significant. All factors are approved as effective variables on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. The results also showed that the second order measurement model of effective factors on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league are also appropriate, and economic, facilitative, administrative, technical, cultural-social, and personal-family respectively put the most effects on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. It is suggested for the sport marketers to analyze identified factors in this research and develop applicable strategies and guidelines for them.

  2. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on paclitaxel loaded PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigao; Jiang, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Self-assembly behavior of the polymer drug loading micelle PEO-PPO-PEO was studied using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation method with various simulation steps. The distributions of drugs in polymer carriers were also investigated with different drug feed ratios. Polymer carriers distributed on the surface of the spherical micelle, and drugs were almost encapsulated in the inner of the micelle. Our simulation work demonstrates that the DPD simulation is effective to study the drug loaded systems and can give useful guidance on the design and preparation of new drug carriers with tailored properties.

  3. Browning inhibition mechanisms by cysteine, ascorbic acid and citric acid, and identifying PPO-catechol-cysteine reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-06-01

    The titled compounds were examined as PPO inhibitors and antibrowning agents; their various mechanisms were investigated and discussed. All compounds reduced significantly both the browning process and PPO activity. Browning index gave strong correlation with PPO activity (r(2) = 0.96, n = 19) indicating that the browning process is mainly enzymatic. Ascorbic acid could reduce the formed quinone instantly to the original substrate (catechol) at high concentration (>1.5 %) while at lower concentrations acted as competitive inhibitor (KI = 0.256 ± 0.067 mM). Cysteine, at higher concentrations (≥1.0 %), reacted with the resulted quinone to give a colorless products while at the low concentrations, cysteine worked as competitive inhibitor (KI = 1.113 ± 0.176 mM). Citric acid acted only as PPO non-competitive inhibitor with KI = 2.074 ± 0.363 mM. The products of PPO-catechole-cysteine reaction could be separation and identification by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicated that the product of the enzymatic oxidation of catechol, quinone, undergoes two successive nucleophilic attacks by cysteine thiol group. Cysteine was condensed with the resulted mono and dithiocatechols to form peptide side chains.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-28

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a plant PPO exhibiting monophenolase activity from J. regia (jrPPO1) in its active form (Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}) are reported. Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Pro{sup 444}) and jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445})] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014 ▶), 101, 5–15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 115.56, b = 91.90, c = 86.87 Å, α = 90, β = 130.186, γ = 90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  5. Polyphosphazene-poly(olefin oxide) mixed polymer electrolytes. II - Characterization of MEEP/PPO-(LiX)n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K. M.; Alamgir, M.; Moulton, R. D.

    1991-04-01

    The preparation, and the conductivity, calorimetric,, and electrochemical studies of MEEP/PPO-(LiX)n mixed polymer electrolytes, where MEEP = poly(bis-methoxyethoxy ethoxide phosphazene) PPO = poly(propylene oxide) and LiX = LiBF4, LiClO4, LiCF3SO3, LiAsF6, and LiAlCl4, are described. The addition of PPO in various proportions to MEEP-(LiX)n electrolytes significantly improved the latter's dimensional stability but caused a slight decrease in its conductivity. The conductivities of these mixed-polymer electrolytes are much higher than that of PPO-(LiX)n. The Li(+) transport number in MEEP/PPO-(LiX)0.13 electrolytes, with LiX = LiBF4 and LiClO4, was determined to be between 0.3 and 0.5. Differential scanning calorimetric data established the predominantly amorphous nature of the mixed polymer complexes. Cyclic voltammetric studies at a stainless steel electrode indicated a stability domain between 1 and 4.5V and established the good Li plating and stripping efficiency in these electrolytes.

  6. Cloning and expression of zebrafish genes encoding the heme synthesis enzymes uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Ryuki; Dawid, Igor B; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2007-02-01

    Heme is synthesized from glycine and succinyl CoA by eight heme synthesis enzymes. Although genetic defects in any of these enzymes are known to cause severe human blood diseases, their developmental expression in mammals is unknown. In this paper, we report two zebrafish heme synthesis enzymes, uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) that are well conserved in comparison to their human counterparts. Both UROS and PPO formed pairs of bilateral stripes in the lateral plate mesoderm at the 15-somite stage. At 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), UROS and PPO were predominantly expressed in the intermediate cell mass (ICM) that is the major site of primitive hematopoiesis. The expression of UROS and PPO was drastically suppressed in the bloodless mutants cloche and vlad tepes/gata 1 from 15-somite to 24hpf stages, indicating that both cloche and vlad tepes/gata 1 are required for the induction and maintenance of UROS and PPO expression in the ICM.

  7. NE TIGER Premieres New Hua Fu At Bird’s Nest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the evening of September 25, China’s leading luxury fashion brand NE TIGER presented its premiere fashion show of Hua Fu(Chinese national dress) at a concert of superstars from China, Japan and South Korea,

  8. Characterization of Plasmid pPO1 from the Hyperacidophile Picrophilus oshimae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Angelov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Picrophilus oshimae and Picrophilus torridus are free-living, moderately thermophilic and acidophilic organisms from the lineage of Euryarchaeota. With a pH optimum of growth at pH 0.7 and the ability to even withstand molar concentrations of sulphuric acid, these organisms represent the most extreme acidophiles known. So far, nothing is known about plasmid biology in these hyperacidophiles. Also, there are no genetic tools available for this genus. We have mobilized the 7.6 Kbp plasmid from P. oshimae in E. coli by introducing origin-containing transposons and described the plasmid in terms of its nucleotide sequence, copy number in the native host, mode of replication, and transcriptional start sites of the encoded ORFs. Plasmid pPO1 may encode a restriction/modification system in addition to its replication functions. The information gained from the pPO1 plasmid may prove useful in developing a cloning system for this group of extreme acidophiles.

  9. EFFECT OF SOLVENT COMPOSITION ON THE SULFONATION DEGREE OF OLY(PHENYLENE OXIDE) (PPO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-wen Xu; Wei-hua Yang; Bing-lin He

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of attaining sulphonated poly(phenylene oxide) (SPPO) with a relatively higher sulfonation degree. To achieve this aim, the approach we adopt is to improve the solubility of the final product in the mixed solvent so that the sulfonation may take place between the bulk solutions and PPO powders even at higher sulfonation degree. It is shown that the addition of a proper amount of dimethyl formide (DMF) to the conventional PPO-chloroform system can actually enhance the sulfonation effect. The solvent composition is then correlated with the sulfonation degree based on the solubility parameters. It is interesting to find that solubility parameters between the mixed solvent and the precipitated products keep an approximately unchanged value at about 4.9, which is just equal to that when pure chloroform is used, though the solubility parameters of both solvents increase with the content of DMF in solution. This may be the main reason why the addition of DMF can reduce the precipitation and improve the ion exchange capacity (IEC) of SPPO polymer.

  10. Alginate/PEO-PPO-PEO composite hydrogels with thermally-active plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph C; Saffer, Erika M; Bhatia, Surita R

    2013-12-09

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels with high strength and toughness have received significant interest in recent years. Here, we report thermally active composite hydrogels comprising alginate and one of two poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers. Temperature-sensitive structural and mechanical changes are probed using calorimetry, neutron scattering, shear rheology, unconfined compression, and fracture. Below the lower gelation temperature, LGT, the mechanical properties are dominated by alginate. As the LGT is reached, the contribution of PEO-PPO-PEO to the mechanical properties is activated, resulting in order-of-magnitude increases in elastic modulus. Under compression, we show the evolution of plasticity for the composite hydrogels as the LGT is approached and surpassed, resulting in dramatic increases in fracture stress compared to neat alginate hydrogels. Plasticity was observed above the LGT and may be attributed to restructuring from the sliding of packed micelles and strain-hardening due to stress concentration on alginate cross-links and junction zones, ultimately leading to fracture.

  11. Pervaporation performance of PPO membranes in dehydration of highly hazardous mmh and udmh liquid propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, Siddhartha; Kumar, K Praveen; Bohra, Subha; Sridhar, Sundergopal

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) membranes synthesized from 2,6-dimethyl phenol monomer were subjected to pervaporation-based dehydration of the highly hazardous and hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) liquid propellants. Membranes were characterized by TGA, DSC and SEM to study the effect of temperature besides morphologies of surface and cross-section of the films, respectively. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the diffusion behavior of solutions within the membrane. CFD method was employed to solve the governing mass transfer equations by considering the flux coupling. The modeling results were highlighted by the experimental data and were in good agreement. High separation factors (35-70) and reasonable water fluxes (0.1-0.2 kg/m(2)h) were observed for separation of the aqueous azeotropes of MMH (35 wt%) and UDMH (20 wt%) and their further enrichment to >90% purity. Effect of feed composition, membrane thickness and permeate pressure on separation performance of PPO membranes were investigated to determine optimum operating conditions.

  12. Effect of drying on the mesoporous structure of sol-gel derived silica with PPO-PEO-PPO template block copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lihua; Kurumada, Ken-Ichi; Tanigaki, Masataka; Hiro, Masahiko; Susa, Kenzo

    2005-04-01

    The effects of drying method on the pore structure of mesoporous silica were studied from the viewpoint of enhancing closed porosity in mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica was prepared via a sol-gel process using polyethyleneoxide-polypropyleneoxide-polyethyleneoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as the structure-directing template. The closed porosity was evaluated from the apparent mass density of the sample measured by a helium pycnometer. These mesoporous silicas were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption. The drying method was shown to be responsible for the finally templated mesoporous structure of the silica. More rapid drying is more preferable for enhancing the closed porosity of the mesoporous silica. The closed pores were formed by immediate immobilization of copolymer molecular assemblies in the silica matrix due to the instant removal of the solvent and solidification at higher temperatures. The drying method, mainly affecting the drying rate, is highly influential on the finally replicated mesoporous structure in silica.

  13. Combustion behavior and flowability of MCA modified PPO/PS composites%三聚氰胺氰尿酸盐改性PPO/PS复合材料的燃烧性能和流动性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继纯; 宋文生; 井蒙蒙; 陆昶; 潘炳力; 杜西刚

    2012-01-01

    MCA-PPO/PS composites were prepared by melt-compounding PPO/PS and melamine cyanurate(MCA) as a halogen-free flame retardant.The structure of the composites was characterized by XRD and SEM,and their combustion behavior and flowability were investigated.It is discovered that the microstructure of MCA in the composites is the same as that of pure MCA after the sample preparation and processing procedure.Thus the flame retardant effect of MCA remains unchanged.MCA is dispersed evenly in the composites,with no obvious agglomeration.In comparison with that of pure PS,the oxygen index(OI) of PPO/PS with mass ratio of 100∶100 increases by 5.4%,the peak heat release rate(PHRR) decreases by 33.1% and the total smoke release(TSR) increases by almost 1.5 times.With rise of MCA loading,the flame retardancy of the MCA-PPO/PS composite gradually improves,while the total smoke release(TSR) decreases remarkably.Meanwhile,the melt viscosity of the composites decreases and the flowability increases with MCA loading.The addition of 5%,25% and 45% mass fraction of MCA to the MCA-PPO/PS composite can decrease the TSR by 43.7%,82.6%,and 91.6%,respectively.The flame retardant mechanism of PPO/PS is condensed phase charring mechanism.The flame-retarding mechanism of the MCA-PPO/PS composite changes from condensed phase charring mechanism to gas phase diluting and cooling effect of polymer matrix with MCA loading.The addition of MCA can enhance flame retardancy,suppress smoke release and improve melt flowability of the MCA-PPO/PS composite simultaneously.%以无卤阻燃剂三聚氰胺氰尿酸盐(MCA)为改性剂,采用熔体共混法制备了改性聚苯醚/聚苯乙烯(PPO/PS)复合材料。通过XRD和SEM对MCA-PPO/PS复合材料的微观结构进行了表征,重点研究了复合材料的燃烧性能和流动性能。研究发现:在复合材料的制备和加工过程中MCA的微观结构并没有发生任何变化,因此复合材料中MCA的阻燃

  14. Phenolic profiles and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a legume forage abundant in phenolic compounds. It tends to brown when cut for hay, due to oxidation of phenolic compounds catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and subsequent binding to proteins. Selecting for a greener hay may provide information about the re...

  15. Wetting of Hydrophilic Electrospun Mats Produced by Blending SEBS with PEO-PPO-PEO Copolymers of Different Molecular Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Rafael S; Demarquette, Nicole R

    2016-02-23

    The interaction of electrospun mats with water is critical for many possible applications, and the water contact angle on the surface is the parameter usually measured to characterize wetting. Although useful for hydrophobic surfaces, this approach is limited for hydrophilic mats, where wicking also has to be considered. In this case, it is still unclear how the fiber surface chemical composition and morphology will affect the wetting behavior of electrospun mats. In this work, wetting was studied with different hydrophilic membranes produced by blending thermoplastic elastomer poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene-butylene)-b-poly(styrene) (SEBS) with amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) molecules. Three different types of PEO-PPO-PEO, with different molar masses, PEO content, and physical form were used. The effect of these differences on the wetting behavior of the electrospun mats was evaluated by contact angle goniometry, wicking measurements, and different imaging techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the surface chemical composition. The smaller molecules quickly saturated the surface at low concentrations, making the mats hydrophilic. The sheath of PEO-PPO-PEO also resulted in fast absorption of water, when comparing the saturated and nonsaturated surfaces. Longer PEO chain-ends seemed to hinder complete segregation and also led to a higher activation time when in contact with water. Liquid PEO-PPO-PEO was easily leached by water.

  16. Boundary Lubrication of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymer Physisorbed on Polypropylene, Polyethylene, and Cellulose Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2012-02-22

    In situ lateral force microscopy (LFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to probe the lubrication behavior of an aqueous solution of poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) (PEO-PPO-PEO) symmetric triblock copolymer on thin films of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), and cellulose. LFM experiments were carried out while the substrates were immersed in water and in solutions of the copolymer. The friction coefficient on PP and PE was reduced after adsorption from the PEO-PPO-PEO aqueous solution while the opposite effect was observed for cellulose surfaces. A critical normal loading force, at which the friction coefficient of the lubricated and unlubricated surfaces is equal, was identified and related to the affinity of the polymer with the substrate. Further experiments were performed to mimic practical operations involving lubricant addition during manufacturing and postprocessing removal. XPS was used to verify the presence of the lubricant on the polymeric substrates and to evaluate its removal by water washing. The lubricant layer was easily removed by water from the PP and cellulose surfaces while a durable layer was found on PE. The XPS results were in agreement with the highest critical normal loading force measured for PE (52 nN for PE in contrast to a minimum of 10 nN for cellulose). While several reports exist on lubrication on hard surfaces, friction behavior on soft surfaces is still not well documented as the substrates usually deform under loading pressure. Therefore, we also propose a simple lubrication model for PP, PE, and cellulose and the use of critical normal loading force as a parameter to predict lubricity and durability of adsorbed nonionic block copolymers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. The effect of a PPO pay-for-performance program on patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy Y; Tian, Haijun; Taira Juarez, Deborah; Hodges, Krista A; Brand, Jennifer C; Chung, Richard S; Legorreta, Antonio P

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a pay-for-performance program (P4P) to increase the receipt of quality care and to decrease hospitalization rates among patients with diabetes mellitus. Longitudinal study of patients with diabetes enrolled in a preferred provider organization (PPO) between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2006. We used multivariate analyses to assess the effect of seeing P4P-participating physicians on the receipt of quality care (ie, glycosylated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol testing) and on hospitalization rates, controlling for patient characteristics. Patients with diabetes who saw P4P-participating physicians were more likely to receive quality care than those who did not (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22; P <.001). Patients with diabetes who received quality care were less likely to be hospitalized than those who did not (incident rate ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.85; P <.001). During 1 year, there was no difference in hospitalization rates between patients with diabetes who saw P4P-participating physicians versus those who did not. However, patients with diabetes who saw P4P-participating physicians in 3 consecutive years were less likely to be hospitalized than those who did not (incident rate ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.93; P <.01). A P4P can significantly increase the receipt of quality care and decrease hospitalization rates among patients with diabetes in a PPO setting. Although it is possible that the differences observed between P4P-participating physicians and non-P4P-participating physicians were due to selection bias, we found no significant difference in the receipt of quality care between patients with diabetes who saw new P4P-participating physicians versus non-P4P-participating physicians during the baseline year. Further research should focus on defining the effect of P4Ps on intermediate outcomes such as glycosylated hemoglobin and low

  18. Study of the interface solid/solutions containing PEO-PPO block copolymers and asphaltenes by FTIR/ATR; Estudo de solucoes de copolimeros em bloco de PEO-PPO contendo asfaltenos por FTIR/DTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Janaina I.S.; Neto, Jessica S.G.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: janaina_333@hotmail.com, kinha_dac_dm@hotmail.com; celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The formation of water/oil emulsions can cause problems in various stages of production, processing and refining of petroleum. In this study, the technique of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using the method of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was applied to study the solid-solutions of block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) interface and its interaction in this interface with asphaltenic fractions of petroleum. The solid is the crystal of the ATR. Initially, we determined the critical micelle concentration values of the copolymers, which were consistent those obtained by a tensiometer. Bottle Test was also performed to correlate the efficiency of PEO-PPO copolymers in the breaking of water/oil emulsions with its adsorption at the interfaces solutions. (author)

  19. The Compatibilization and Toughening Modification of PPO/PA Alloy%聚苯醚/聚酰胺合金的增容及增韧改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付杰辉; 陈晓东; 徐群杰; 王尹杰; 王锡军

    2014-01-01

    研究了马来酸酐接枝聚苯醚(PPO-g-MAH)对PPO/尼龙66 (PA66)合金的增容作用和苯乙烯-乙烯/丁烯-苯乙烯(SEBS)对PPO/PA66合金的增韧作用.扫描电镜的结果表明,PPO-g-MAH可以很好地改善PPO与PA66之间的相容性,通过力学性能的表征也证明PPO-g-MAH对PPO/PA66合金有很好的增韧作用.SEBS对PPO/PA66合金有很好的增韧效果,但会降低材料的刚性.

  20. Supramolecular hydrogels based on self-assembly between PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers and alpha-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiping; Cheng, Alan; Li, Jun

    2009-03-15

    This article reports a detailed study on the hydrogel formation of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) in aqueous solutions. The gelation kinetics and the gel rheological properties were studied using viscometry. The sol-gel phase transitions were studied using phase diagrams, while the gelation mechanism was studied using differential scanning calorimetric analysis. It was concluded that the gelation was induced by the complex formation between the PEO segments of the PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer and alpha-CD, and the further self-assembly of the partially formed inclusion complexes. The addition of alpha-CD largely reduced the concentration of the copolymer needed for gel formation. The gels were thixotropic and reversible, and potentially suitable for use as an injectable drug-delivery system.

  1. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO AND PEROXIDASE (POD EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase(PPO (E.C. number 1.10.3.1 has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD (E.C. number 1.11.1 act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L. as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects of enzyme extract, substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration (only for POD, pH and temperature and antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains were investigated.

  2. End Group Effects on the Hydrogel Formation of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Ryu, Chang Y.; Jung, Gyoo Y.; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2012-02-01

    Pluronic F108, a triblock copolymer consisting of outer polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains and an inner polypropylene oxide (PPO) chains, has been shown to be an effective hydrogel matrix for DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis using single-stranded conformation polymorphism. This presentation will discuss a new pathway to potentially enhance the separation abilities of F108 by altering the chain end groups of the block copolymers. F108 is believed to form a micelle in aqueous solutions with the hydrophobic group in the interior, thus we expect considerable interaction between the DNA sample and the end groups found at the hydrophilic brush layers of the micelle. The rheological properties of end group derivatives of F108, in combination of small angle x-ray scattering, can reveal structural differences in the micelles. In particular, gelation temperature of the end group derivatives can be linked to differences in the micelle structure. Dynamic light scattering can also be used to determine the effects of chain end groups on the hydrodynamic size of the block copolymer micelles in dilute solution.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) covalently coated by PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Guan, Yueping; Yang, Liangrong; Jia, Lianwei; Wei, Xuetuan; Liu, Huizhou; Guo, Chen

    2013-04-01

    A stable drug carrier has been prepared by covalently coating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer Pluronic P85. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, DLS, VSM, FTIR, and TGA. A typical product has a 15 nm magnetite core and a 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter with a narrow size distribution and is superparamagnetic with large saturation magnetization (57.102 emu/g) at room temperature. The covalently-coated Pluronic-MNPs (MagPluronics) were proven to be stable in different conditions, such as aqueous solution, 0.2 M PBS solution, and pH 13.5 solution, which would be significant for biological applications. Furthermore, MagPluronics also possess temperature-responsive property acquired from the Pluronic copolymer layer on their surface, which can cause conformational change of Pluronics and improve load and delivery efficiency of the particles. The temperature-controlled loading and releasing of hydrophobic model drug curcumin were tested with these particles. A loading efficiency of 81.3% and a sustained release of more than 4 days were achieved in simulated human body condition. It indicates that the covalently-coated MagPluronics are stable carriers with good drug-loading capacity and controlled-release property.

  4. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand."

  5. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  6. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacem

  7. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs, CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party. Deutsche Bank AG, a global multipurpose bank

  8. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  9. Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome et sa perception de l'enseignement de l'anatomie. ... Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome ... aux différentes questions des paramètres étudiés.

  10. Premiere of TV Documentary Choe Chi-won Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The premiere of the TV documentary Choe Chi-won was held in Beijing on August 19. The TV documentary,a joint production by the CPAFFC,the Jiangsu Provincial Association for Cultural Exchange with Foreign Countries,the

  11. Effects of argon enriched low-oxygen atmospheres and of high-oxygen atmospheres on the kinetics of polyphenoloxidase (PPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, David; Murphy, Eileen; Ni Eidhin, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    The reported benefits of enrichment of air atmospheres with argon or oxygen for control of enzymatic browning were investigated by determining the effects of these atmospheres on PPO kinetics. Kinetics of purified apple PPO and a commercially available mushroom PPO were studied in an in vitro model system. Enrichment with argon produced greater inhibitory effects than the current industry practice of enrichment with nitrogen. Km(app) values (mM) for apple PPO in 3%O(2)/97%Ar, 3%O(2)/97%N(2), and air, were 133, 87, and 48, respectively. The data indicate that inhibition by both gases is competitive, and also support the hypothesis that the greater inhibitory effect of argon was proportional to the size of the Van der Waals radius of argon against nitrogen (1.91 Å against 1.54 Å). Much smaller inhibitory effects were observed in the presence of 80% O(2) (Km(app) 57 mM), and the nature of this inhibition was less clear. The results suggest that the benefits of argon enrichment may be relatively small, and may require critical enzyme, substrate, and gas levels to be successful. However, these benefits may be exploitable commercially in some fresh-cut products, and may allow less anoxic atmospheres to be used. Practical Application: Control of enzymatic browning without sulfites continues to be a challenge in some fresh-cut products. While sporadic benefits of these atmospheres in control of enzymatic browning have been reported, results have been inconsistent in commercial practice. The results suggest that the benefits of argon enrichment may be relatively small, and may require critical enzyme, substrate, and gas levels to be successful. However, these benefits may be exploitable commercially in some fresh-cut products, and allow less anoxic atmospheres to be used.

  12. Adsorption and association of a symmetric PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer on polypropylene, polyethylene, and cellulose surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hongyi; Song, Junlong; Rojas, Orlando J; Hinestroza, Juan P

    2011-07-01

    The association of a symmetric polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene (PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19)) triblock copolymer adsorbed from aqueous solutions onto polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), and cellulose surfaces was probed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Significant morphological differences between the polyolefin substrates (PP and PE) and the cellulose surfaces were observed after immersion of the films in the PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19) solutions. When the samples were scanned, while immersed in solutions of the triblock copolymer, it was revealed that the structures adsorbed on the polyolefin surfaces were smoothed by the adsorbed PEO(19)-PPO(29)-PEO(19). In contrast, those structures on the hydrophilic cellulose surfaces were sharpened. These observations were related to the roughness of the substrate and the energy of interaction between the surfaces and the PEO and PPO polymer segments. The interaction energy between each of the blocks and the surface was calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. It is speculated that the associative structures amply reported in aqueous solution at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, CMC, are not necessarily preserved upon adsorption; instead, it appears that molecular arrangements of the anchor-buoy type and hemimicelles prevail. The reported data suggests that the roughness of the surface, as well as its degree of hydrophobicity, have a large influence on the nature of the resulting adsorbed layer. The reported observations are valuable in explaining the behavior of finishing additives and lubricants commonly used in textile and fiber processing, as well as the effect of the morphology of the boundary layers on friction and wear, especially in the case of symmetric triblock copolymers, which are commonly used as antifriction, antiwear additives.

  13. How PEO-PPO-PEO triblock polymer micelles control the synthesis of gold nanoparticles: temperature and hydrophobic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Poonam; Mahal, Aabroo; Singh, Vijender; Banipal, Tarlok Singh; Kaur, Gurinder; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh

    2010-07-06

    Aqueous micellar solutions of F68 (PEO(78)-PPO(30)-PEO(78)) and P103 (PEO(17)-PPO(60)-PEO(17)) triblock polymers were used to synthesize gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) at different temperatures. All reactions were monitored with respect to reaction time and temperature by using UV-visible studies to understand the growth kinetics of NPs and the influence of different micellar states on the synthesis of NPs. The shape, size, and locations of NPs in the micellar assemblies were determined with the help of TEM, SEM, and EDS analyses. The results explained that all reactions were carried out with the PEO-PPO-PEO micellar surface cavities present at the micelle-solution interface and were precisely controlled by the micellar assemblies. Marked differences were detected when predominantly hydrophilic F68 and hydrophobic P103 micelles were employed to conduct the reactions. The UV-visible results demonstrated that the reduction of gold ions into nucleating centers was channeled through the ligand-metal charge-transfer complex (LMCT) and carried out by the surface cavities. Excessive hydration of the surface cavities in the case of F68 micelles produced a few small NPs, but their yield and size increased as the micelles were dehydrated under the effect of increasing temperature. The results concluded that the presence of well-defined predominantly hydrophobic micelles with a compact micelle-solution interfacial arrangement of surface cavities ultimately controlled the reaction.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp101-Pro444) and jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445)] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014), 101, 5-15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a=115.56, b=91.90, c=86.87 Å, α=90, β=130.186, γ=90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  15. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  16. Effects of Terpinen-4-ol on Four Metabolic Enzymes and Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) in Mythimna separta Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi-qing; HAN Xiu-ling; FENG Jun-tao; LI Guang-ze; ZHANG Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study insecticidal mechanism of terpinen-4-ol, a main insecticidal composition in the essential oil of Sabina vulgaris, the 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separta, were investigated with terpinen-4-ol by topical application. The activities of phosphatase, glutathione S-transferase (GSTs), cytochrome P450 (P450), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of tested insects were determined in all poisoning stages, including exciting stage, convulsing stage, paralysis stage, and recover stage. The result showed that the activities of both acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in treated insects were induced by terpinen-4-ol, but ACP was inhibited in paralysis stage. The activities of GSTs were inhibited in exciting stage, convulsing stage, and paralysis stage, but gradually recovered in recover stage. O-demethylase activity of cytochrome P450 was inhibited by terpinen-4-ol, and the inhibition rate in all poisoning stages were 26.27, 46.03, 80.24, and 90.22%, respectively. PPO activities were strongly inhibited by terpinen-4-ol both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the activities of P450, GSTs, and PPO could have relation with toxicity of terpinen-4-ol against larvae of the Mythimna separta, but recover stage of the poisoning insects might be related to GSTs induced. As a new insecticide or synergist, terpinen- 4-ol has a potential value in field of insecticide resistance management.

  17. Definition of formulation design space, in vitro bioactivity and in vivo biodistribution for hydrophilic drug loaded PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles using OFAT experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoska Crcarevska, M; Geskovski, N; Calis, S; Dimchevska, S; Kuzmanovska, S; Petruševski, G; Kajdžanoska, M; Ugarkovic, S; Goracinova, K

    2013-04-11

    Modified nanoprecipitation method was used for improved incorporation of hydrophilic drug (irinotecan hydrochloride) into the PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO blended and blended/adsorbed nanoparticles. One factor at a time (OFAT) variation experiments were conducted in order to determine key formulation factors (concentration and volume of drug solution, evaporation rate and PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio) influencing nanoparticle properties (particle size and size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, drug content, zeta potential, drug dissolution rate, as well as protein binding capacity). The insight into in vivo behavior of prepared nanoparticles and their potential for effective anticancer treatment was gained by performing biodistribution and cell culture studies as part of OFAT experiments. The mean particle size, mainly dependent upon PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio, was in the range of 112-125 nm, with narrow unimodal distribution (PDI∼0.1). Encapsulation efficiency (32-63%) was impacted by evaporation rate and PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio. Drug content (0.2-1.51%) and controlled release properties were related to the influence of all tested formulation factors. Structural information for the studied nanoparticles was obtained using DSC and FT-IR spectroscopy. Zeta potential values indicated that presence of PEO-PPO-PEO in the formulations shielded the high surface negative charge of PLGA. PEO-PPO-PEO surface coverage of PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO blended as well as blended/adsorbed nanoparticles depended upon amount of used PEO-PPO-PEO during preparation procedure and was related to the protein resistant characteristics of nanoparticles. Results from in vivo studies evidenced prolonged blood circulation time of the prepared nanoparticles, while cell culture studies indicated higher in vitro bioefficacy compared to free drug. Performed experiments defined possible design space and justified further optimization of formulation using experimental design studies.

  18. PpoR is a conserved unpaired LuxR solo of Pseudomonas putida which binds N-acyl homoserine lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Vittorio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a small number of Pseudomonas putida strains possess the typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing system (AHL QS that consists of a modular LuxR family protein and its cognate LuxI homolog that produces the AHL signal. Moreover, AHL QS systems in P. putida strains are diverse in the type of AHLs they produce and the phenotypes that they regulate. Results We identified an unpaired LuxR solo (QS luxR homolog that occurs without the corresponding luxI homolog, which is highly conserved in both the AHL producing and non-AHL producing P. putida strains that we analyzed. In this study we report the cloning and functional characterization of this unpaired LuxR homolog designated PpoR. An AHL binding assay showed that PpoR protein binds to 3-oxo-C6-HSL. Studies using a ppoR promoter-lacZ reporter fusion revealed that it exhibits stringent growth phase dependent expression. Functional interaction of PpoR with the endogenous complete AHL QS systems of P. putida WCS358 (PpuI/R system and PpoR was also investigated. Microarray analysis of P. putida WCS358 wild type and a PpoR over-expressing strain revealed several putative target genes that may be directly or indirectly regulated by PpoR. Conclusion Our results indicate that PpoR in P. putida strains may have a conserved role in detecting an AHL signal, either self or foreign, and regulating specific target genes.

  19. A new PDMS-b-PPO block copolymer membrane with novel non-perforated structure towards high flux for alcohol permselective pervaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effective permselective pervaporation of alcohol is one of key technology for bio-alcohol industrial production. In this work, a new polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyphenylene oxide (PDMS-b-PPO copolymer was first synthesized by a bridge reagent technique. Based on the copolymer structure confirmation, the asymmetric PDMS-b-PPO membrane was subsequently prepared by phase-inversion method in order to improve the anti-swelling capacity of PDMS. SEM observation indicated that the morphology of as-prepared membrane exhibited a ‘non-perforated’ structure, resulting from the phase-inversion and micro-phase separation of the PDMS-b-PPO copolymer in the membrane forming process. Furthermore, the structure changes of the membranes with different ratio of PDMS to PPO were investigated. This non-perforated structure in the membrane favored to reduce the diffusion resistance, together with the affinity of PDMS segment to alcohol during pervaporation process. Thus, the prepared PDMS-b-PPO membrane showed dramatically increased flux, in pervaporation separation of alcohol/water mixture. The flux of the PDMS-b-PPO membrane (PDMS content of 42.4% can reach 3816.8 g/(m2h, along with 8.53 of separation factor in pervaporation of 5 wt% alcohol/water mixture (60°C. This work may provide a new strategy to design and fabricate new copolymer membranes for improving alcohol permselective pervaporation.

  20. PS/PPO合金的燃烧行为研究%Study on Combustion Behavior of PS/PPO Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继纯; 陈权; 井蒙蒙; 陆昶; 张玉清

    2011-01-01

    A series of PS/PPO alloys with different compositions were obtained by melt-compounding PS and PPO in a HAAKE rheometer.The thermal stability and combustion performance of the alloy were studied by means of thermogravimetry, high-temperature pyrolysis, oxygen index and cone calorimetry.It is indicated that both degradation temperature and char residue amount of the PS/PPO alloy increase and the thermal stability of the alloy enhances noticeably in comparison with virgin PS.With increase of PPO loading, the oxygen index value of the alloy increases, and heat release rate (HRR) and mass loss rate (MLR) decrease.The addition of 20 phr PPO can increase the oxygen index value of the alloy by 3.4% and decrease HRR by 16.4%.It is found that the introduction of PPO greatly enhances the charring ability of the alloy.The char residue covers on the surface of the polymer material and forms a protection layer.The shielding and obstructing effects of the carbon layer to heat transfer and move of oxygen and fuel molecules are responsible for the increase of fire retardancy.%利用HAAKE流变仪将聚苯乙烯(PS)与聚苯醚(PPO)进行熔融复合,得到一系列不同组成的聚合物合金.采用热量分析、高温热分解、氧指数、锥形量热分析等方法研究了合金的热稳定性和燃烧性能.结果表明:与纯PS相比,PS/PPO合金的热分解温度提高,成炭量增加,热稳定性显著增强;随着PPO用量的增加,合金的氧指数增大,热释放速率和质量损失速率逐渐减小;在PS树脂基体中加入20phr PPO可使合金的氧指数提高3.4%,热释放速率降低16.4%.研究发现,加入PPO后,聚合物合金在高温下的成炭能力显著增强,生成的炭层覆盖在聚合物材料表面形成保护层,对热量传递,氧气和燃料分子的迁移产生屏蔽和阻隔作用,从而提高了聚合物合金的阻燃性能.

  1. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were.......01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P game, high-intensity running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P ....01) and without ball possession (229 m, s=85 vs. 278 m, s=97, P game. Mean recovery time between very high-intensity running bouts was 72 s (s=28), with a 28% longer recovery time during the last 15 min than the first 15 min of the game (83 s, s=26 vs...

  2. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE A ATIVIDADE DE PEROXIDASE (POD E POLIFENOLOXIDASE (PPO EM MAÇÃ (Mallus comunis EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON PEROXIDASE (POD AND POLYPHENOLOXIDASE (PPO ACTIVITIES OF APPLE (Mallus comunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia VALDERRAMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O extrato enzimático foi preparado a partir da polpa e casca da maçã de cultivares Fuji e Gala utilizando tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM, pH 5,0 como solução extratora. Dentre as análises determinou-se a concentração de proteína nos extratos enzimáticos concentrados de polpa e casca, sendo que o cultivar Fuji apresentou teores mais elevados em comparação ao cultivar Gala. Os tratamentos térmicos foram realizados nas temperaturas de 60, 65, 70 e 75°C por períodos que variaram de 1 a 10 minutos, sendo observado diminuição da atividade de POD e PPO com o aumento da temperatura e tempo; no entanto a POD não chegou a ser inativada em nenhum dos tratamentos realizados. A PPO foi inativada totalmente após 10 minutos de tratamento a 75°C. A eletroforese mostrou uma composição diferente de isoenzimas aniônicas e catiônicas da peroxidase.The enzymatic extract was prepared using the pulp and the peel of the apples from Fuji and Gala cultivar using sodium phosphate buffer 100 mM, pH 5.0 as the extraction solution. The protein concentration was determined and the Fuji cultivar showed higher amounts of protein than the Gala cultivar. The thermal treatments were carried out in the temperatures of 60, 65, 70 and 75°C for periods that varied from 1 to 10 minutes. A decrease in the activities of POD and PPO with the increase of the temperature and time was observed; however POD was not inactived following any of the treatments used. PPO was totally inativated after 10 minutes of treatment for 75°C. The electrophoresis showed a different pattern for the anionic and cationic peroxidase isoenzymes.

  3. Synthesis of PEO-PPO-PEO coated multi-functional CoFeAu nanoparticles by polyol process%Polyol法制备 PEO-PPO-PEO包裹的多功能CoFeAu纳米粒子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵红琴; 张晓燕; 侯澎; 吴君华; 刘红玲

    2013-01-01

      采用Polyol合成法,以三嵌段共聚物PEO-PPO-PEO为表面活性剂,以1,2-十六烷二醇为还原剂,乙酰丙酮钴(Ⅱ)、乙酰丙酮铁(Ⅱ)和醋酸金为前驱体,成功合成了CoFeAu纳米粒子.傅立叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)分析证实了共聚物PEO-PPO-PEO包裹在CoFeAu纳米颗粒表面,X射线衍射仪(XRD)测试得出该纳米粒子是面心立方晶体结构、晶格参数为0.406 nm、结晶性能好.紫外可见近红外分光光度计吸收光谱仪和振动样品磁强计(VSM )测试证明了该纳米粒子兼具良好的光学和磁学特性.该多功能CoFeAu纳米粒子有望在催化材料、磁材料、光电和生物医药等方面发挥有益作用.%CoFeAu nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by polyol process with the use of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the sur-factant ,C14 H29CH(OH)CH2OH as the reducing agent ,cobalt acetylacetonate ,iron acetylacet-onate and gold acetate as precursors .The FT-IR study confirmed the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the CoFeAu nanoparticles .The X-ray diffraction identified the crystallograph-ic parameter 0 .406 nm of the face-centered cubic structure and showed the nanoparticles have good crystallinity .Whereas a UV-Vis near IR spectrophotometer and a vibrating sample mag-netometer were respectively applied to prove the good optical and magnetic properties of the CoFeAu nanoparticles .Such multi-functional CoFeAu nanoparticles show promising applica-tions in the catalytic ,magnetic ,photoelectric and biomedical fields .

  4. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; Bevan-Dye, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  5. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  6. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-01-01

    Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies it...

  7. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  8. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO micelles with added methylparaben determined by differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andre Lamont; Love, Brian James

    2013-05-15

    DSC experiments were performed on aqueous solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO (P105) amphiphiles in the low concentration regime (0-1%) to resolve the critical micelle concentration (cmc) both neat and co-formulated with methylparaben (MP). Further work was done at 10% amphiphilic copolymer concentrations and co-formulated with MP to resolve the variations in enthalpy. The compensation temperature, T(compensation), was determined from the analyses for neat P105 as 293.9 K; adding MP raises this to 328.43 K.

  9. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs,CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party.

  10. Changes of Polyphenol Content, PPO Activity and POD Activity in Banana Fruits during Fruit Development%蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及PPO.POD活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 杨昌鹏; 黄虹心

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the changes of polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity in banana fruits during fruit development, lay reference for selection of raw material and improvement of technology of banana fruits, and development and utilization of banana polyphenol. [Result] The samples of banana fruits were picked in-60, 75, 90,105, and 120 d after bearing fruit, then determined the weight, polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity. [ Result] The results showed that polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity of Williams jiao(Musa cavendishii L. , AAA genome grgup), Da jiao(M. Sapientum L. , ABB genome group), Ji jiao(M. Paradisiaca L. , AAB genome group) and Fen jiao( M, paradisiaca L. , ABB genome group), were relatively high during initial stage of fruit development, while gradually decreased with fruit development, tended to a stable level or decreased a little. And the PPO activity of each banana fruit was obvious higher than POD activity. [Conclusion] The deserted young banana fruits when fruit thinning during banana production has more polyphenols. So if we want to utilize polyphenoles in banana fruits, we should choose its young fruits. Using mature banana fruits as raw materials is in favour of controling enzymatic browning.%[目的]研究蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性的变化,为蕉类果实加工原料的选择和工艺技术的改进及香蕉多酚的开发利用提供参考.[方法]于坐果后60、75、90、105、120d取样,测定果实的重量、多酚含量及PPO、POD活性.[结果]威廉斯蕉(Musa cavendishiiL.,AAA基因型)、大蕉(M.sapientum L.,ABB基因型)、鸡蕉(M.paradisiacaL.,AAB基因型)和粉蕉(M.paradisiaca L.,ABB基因型)果实发育过程中,多酚含量及PPO、POD活性在果实发育初期都相对较高,而随着果实的发育逐渐下降,最后趋于稳定或稍有下降,且同一品种中PPO活性均明显高于POD活性.[

  11. Effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and air treatments on total phenol and tannin content of cocoa nibs Efeito dos tratamentos com polifenol oxidase (PPO e ar sobre o teor de fenóis totais e taninos em nibs de cacau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Sousa de Brito

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa flavour is greatly influenced by polyphenols. These compounds undergo a series of transformations during cocoa processing leading to the characteristic cocoa flavour. The use of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO proved to be useful to reduce polyphenol content in cocoa nibs. The effect of a PPO associated or not with air over total phenol and tannin content was evaluated. Cocoa nibs were autoclaved and treated with a PPO or water in the absence or presence of an air flow for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours. Total phenol content was reduced in PPO or water treatments, but when associated with air there was an increase in phenol content. Tannin content was reduced only by the treatment with water and air.O sabor do cacau é fortemente influenciado pelos polifenóis. Esses compostos sofrem uma série de transformações durante o processamento do cacau dando origem ao sabor característico do cacau. O uso de polifenol oxidase (PPO exógena mostrou ser útil na redução do teor de polifenóis em nibs de cacau. O efeito de uma PPO associada ou não com ar sobre o teor de fenóis totais e taninos foi avaliado. Nibs de cacau foram autoclavados e tratados com PPO ou água na presença ou não de um fluxo de ar por 0,5; 1; 2 e 3 horas. O teor de fenóis totais foi reduzido nos tratamentos com PPO ou água, mas quando associados com ar houve um aumento desses teores. O teor de taninos foi reduzido apenas pelo tratamento com água e ar.

  12. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and Russia look to move beyond resources and light manufacturing to hi-tech trade Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12, Putin’s first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.

  13. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU YAN

    2011-01-01

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12,Putin's first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.The visit strengthened diversified practical cooperation and promoted the SinoRussian strategic cooperative partnership in an all-around way,said Chinese analysts.

  14. Development of biosensor for phenolic compounds containing PPO in β-cyclodextrin modified support and iridium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano P; Franzoi, Ana C; Fernandes, Suellen C; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda C

    2013-04-10

    A biosensor based on the iridium nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Ir-BMI·PF6) and a celery (Apium graveolens) extract as a source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was constructed. A modified support based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CDEP) was used for enzyme immobilization. The behavior of phenolic compounds was investigated by square-wave voltammetry and rutin was selected by presenting the greatest signal. The best performance was obtained with a composition of 70:10:10:10% (w/w/w/w) of the graphite powder:β-CDEP:Nujol:Ir-BMI·PF6 composition, a PPO concentration of 500unitsmL(-1), in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) with frequency, pulse amplitude and scan increment at 100Hz, 60mV, and 3.0mV, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the cathodic currents increased linearly for the rutin concentration range of 1.3×10(-7)-2.0×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 7.9×10(-8)M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and the results for the rutin recovery ranged from 92.8 to 103.4%. A relative error of 0.7% was obtained in the rutin determination in simulated samples.

  15. Modeling the Phase Behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO Surfactants in Carbon Dioxide Using the PC-SAFT Equation of State: Application to Dry Decontamination of Solid Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiner, M.; Sadowski, G. [Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Biochem and Chem Engn, Lab Thermodynam, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Stoychev, I.; Galy, J. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, LFSM, 30 (France); Fournel, B. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, DIR, 30 (France); Lacroix-Desmazes, P. [ENSCM, UM2, UM1, CNRS, Inst Charles Gerhardt, UMR IAM 5253, F-34296 Montpellier 5 (France)

    2009-05-15

    The phase behavior of several commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO or Pluronics L) in compressed carbon dioxide has been investigated within the framework of dry nuclear decontamination. For this purpose, cloud points have been measured in the pressure and temperature range from P = (10 to 40) MPa and from T = (293 to 338) K, respectively. To find a reliable method for surfactant selection, the perturbed-chain statistical association fluid theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) has been applied to model the experimental data. The pure-component and the respective homopolymer + CO{sub 2} binary interaction parameters have been fitted to liquid densities and to homopolymer + CO{sub 2} binary equilibrium data. The phase behavior of Pluronics L copolymers as a function of concentration, molar mass, and copolymer composition has been predicted very accurately using a constant PEO-PPO binary interaction parameter k(PEO-PPO) = 0.007. The P and SAFT model was also successfully applied to Pluronics R copolymers (PPO-PEO-PPO), although a different k(PEO-PPO) = -0.018 was required to match the experimental data. The model predictions have shown that Pluronics L copolymers with molar mass M {<=} 2750 g.mol{sup -1} and a PEO mass fraction in the copolymer of less than 30 % have sufficiently low cloud-point pressures and are therefore the most suitable for the decontamination process. (authors)

  16. C60 and Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO derivatives as constituents of singlet oxygen generating, thiol-ene polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashli R. Toles

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous functionalization methods have been employed to increase the solubility, and therefore, the processability of fullerenes in composite structures, and of these radical addition reactions continue to be an important methodology. C60 and Sc3N@C80 derivatives were prepared via radical addition of the photodecomposition products from the commercial photoinitiator TMB-PPO, yielding C60(TMB-PPO5 and Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO3 as preferred soluble derivatives obtained in high yields. Characterization of the mixture of isomers using standard techniques suggests an overall 1PPO:6TMB ratio of addends, reflecting the increased reactivity of the carbon radical. Although, a higher percentage of PPO is observed in the Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO3 population, perhaps due to reverse electronic requirements of the substrate. Visually dispersed thiol-ene nanocomposites with low extractables were prepared using two monomer compositions (PETMP:TTT and TMPMP:TMPDE with increasing fullerene derivative loading to probe network structure-property relationships. Thermal stability of the derivatives and the resulting networks decreased with increased functionality and at high fullerene loadings, respectively. TMPMP:TMPDE composite networks show well-dispersed derivatives via TEM imaging, and increasing Tg’s with fullerene loading, as expected for the incorporation of a more rigid network component. PETMP:TTT composites show phase separation in TEM, which is supported by the observed Tg’s. Singlet oxygen generation of the derivatives decreases with increased functionality; however, this is compensated for by the tremendous increase in solubility in organic solvents and miscibility with monomers. Most importantly, singlet oxygen generation from the composites increased with fullerene derivative loading, with good photostability of the networks.

  17. Hubs and Authorities of the English Premier League for 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Leznik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this work author applies well known web search algorithm Hyperlink - Induced Topic Search (HITS) to problem of ranking football teams in English Premier League (EPL). The algorithm allows the ranking of the teams using the notions of hubs and authorities well known for ranking pages in the World Wide Web. Results of the games introduced as a graph where losing team 'gives a link' to a winning team and, if draw registered both team give links to each other. In case of a win link is weighted...

  18. Phase separation in polymer solutions. I. Liquid-liquid phase separation of PPO poly (2, 6-dimethyl 1, 4-phenylene oxide) in binary mixtures with toluene and ternary mixtures with toluene and ethyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, van P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the system poly(2, 6-dimethy1-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-toluene three phase separation lines can be detected: the melting point curve, the cloud point curve, and the spinodial. Because crystallization of PPO occurs very slowly, a phase transition will always be initiated by liquid-liquid phase

  19. Phase separation in polymer solutions. I. Liquid-liquid phase separation of PPO poly (2, 6-dimethyl 1, 4-phenylene oxide) in binary mixtures with toluene and ternary mixtures with toluene and ethyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the system poly(2, 6-dimethy1-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-toluene three phase separation lines can be detected: the melting point curve, the cloud point curve, and the spinodial. Because crystallization of PPO occurs very slowly, a phase transition will always be initiated by liquid-liquid phase

  20. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  1. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Coaches in Premier Under-20 Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among coaches in premier Under-20 football league. The research method was descriptive-correlative, the performance method was survey, and data collection was done through field study. Research population consisted of 56 coaching staff in 14 teams participating in premier Under-20 football league. Finally, there were 48 questionnaires useable in data analysis. Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Syber Yashring and JDI (Wysocki & Kromm were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to describe data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to know whether the distribution of data was normal, and Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were applied to investigate the significance of hypotheses. Results showed that there was significant association between emotional intelligence, subscale self-awareness, subscale empathy, and subscale social skills with job satisfaction (p≤0.05. However, there was not significant association between subscale self-motivation and subscale self-control with job satisfaction. Self-awareness, empathy, and social skills (predictors predicted job satisfaction (criterion significantly. Predicted value of self-awareness, empathy, and social skills was 0.4, 0.29, and 0.26 respectively. Training and aging increase emotional intelligence so it is predicted more job satisfaction over the time. From other side, clubs and football federation as the head can create scientific atmosphere and instruct psychological coaching principles. It will lead to enjoy creative, willing players as output.

  2. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  3. Interaction between reduced glutathione and PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers in aqueous solutions: studied by 1H NMR and spin-lattice relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lianwei; Guo, Chen; Yang, Liangrong; Xiang, Junfeng; Tang, Yalin; Liu, Huizhou

    2011-03-17

    In order to investigate the effect of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers on the glutathione (GSH)/glutathione-S-transferase (GST) detoxification system, interaction between the copolymers and GSH is studied by NMR measurements. Selective rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect (ROE) experiment confirms that glutamyl (Glu) α-H of GSH has spatial contact with EO methylene protons. Spin-lattice relaxation times of GSH Glu α-H show a decrease when PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers are added, and the decrease is greater with copolymers possessing more EO units. Other protons of GSH show little change in the presence of the copolymers. The addition of GSH promotes the dehydration of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers. This results from the breaking of hydrogen bonds between water and the polymers and the forming of hydrogen bonds between Glu α-carboxylate protons and oxygen atoms of EO units. The dissociation constant between GSH and P85 copolymer is determined by spin-lattice relaxation measurements, which shows the binding is of low affinity and the two molecules are in fast dissociation kinetics. This study suggests that GSH transporting or utilizing systems may be affected by treatment of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers.

  4. Adsorption of a PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer on metal oxide surfaces with a view to reducing protein adsorption and further biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Poleunis, C; Románszki, L; Telegdi, J; Dupont-Gillain, C C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomolecule adsorption is the first stage of biofouling. The aim of this work was to reduce the adsorption of proteins on stainless steel (SS) and titanium surfaces by modifying them with a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO)-PEO triblock copolymer. Anchoring of the central PPO block of the copolymer is known to be favoured by hydrophobic interaction with the substratum. Therefore, the surfaces of metal oxides were first modified by self-assembly of octadecylphosphonic acid. PEO-PPO-PEO preadsorbed on the hydrophobized surfaces of titanium or SS was shown to prevent the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen and cytochrome C, as monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surfaces of the SS and titanium after competitive adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO and BSA. The results show that the adsorption of BSA is well prevented on hydrophobized surfaces, in contrast to the surfaces of native metal oxides.

  5. pH-responsive, dynamically restructuring hydrogels formed by reversible crosslinking of PVA with phenylboronic acid functionalised PPO–PEO–PPO spacers (Jeffamines®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piest, Martin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Trinidad, Jeffrey; Engbersen, Johan F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamically restructuring (“self-healing”) hydrogels were prepared by reversible formation of boronic-ester crosslinks between α,ω-phenylboronic acid terminated PPO–PEO–PPO spacers and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For this purpose two different bis-(phenylboronic acid) functionalised crosslinkers with

  6. Hydrogen Bonding-Mediated Microphase Separation during the Formation of Mesoporous Novolac-Type Phenolic Resin Templated by the Triblock Copolymer, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Chu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After blending the triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO with novolac-type phenolic resin, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the ether groups of the PEO block were stronger hydrogen bond acceptors for the OH groups of phenolic resin than were the ether groups of the PPO block. Thermal curing with hexamethylenetetramine as the curing agent resulted in the triblock copolymer being incorporated into the phenolic resin, forming a nanostructure through a mechanism involving reaction-induced microphase separation. Mild pyrolysis conditions led to the removal of the PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO triblock copolymer and formation of mesoporous phenolic resin. This approach provided a variety of composition-dependent nanostructures, including disordered wormlike, body-centered-cubic spherical and disorder micelles. The regular mesoporous novolac-type phenolic resin was formed only at a phenolic content of 40–60 wt %, the result of an intriguing balance of hydrogen bonding interactions among the phenolic resin and the PEO and PPO segments of the triblock copolymer.

  7. Description sémantique de dans un premier temps : de la composition syntagmatique au discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Schnedecker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l’expression adverbiale réputée sérielle dans un premier temps. Y est d’abord décrit le comportement sémantique de la locution dont le sens reste, pour une bonne partie, compositionnel, étant donné l’importance de la dimension temporelle et les contraintes qu’elle fait peser sur la nature des constituants de la configuration. Ensuite, nous montrons que l’expression dans un premier temps n’est « sérielle » que dans une partie de ses emplois. Dans les autres, non signalés dans la littérature, dans un premier temps marque une relation d’altérité qui peut être « faible » (i. e. encore teintée de temporalité ou « forte » (i. e. nettement contradictoire.The aim of this paper is to describe the semantic behavior of the French expression dans un premier temps, known as a serial marker. We show how its meaning is partly compositional, given the importance of the temporal dimension and the constraints which this places on the nature of the constituents. We then show that dans un premier temps is “serial” in only some of its uses. In others, not reported in the literature, dans un premier temps expresses a relation of “otherness” which can be either “weak” (i.e. keeping a temporal value, or “strong” (i.e. sharply contradictory.

  8. Les premiers textes de René Thom sur la morphogenèse et la linguistique : 1966-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Petitot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Au milieu des années 1960, René Thom commença à rédiger ses premiers textes sur les applications à la morphogenèse en biologie et à la syntaxe actantielle en linguistique de la théorie des déploiements universels de singularités de fonctions differentiables et de la stabilité structurelle. Cette note présente et commente ses cinq premiers articles dans ces domaines.

  9. Sur la loi de répartition du k-ième facteur premier d'un entier

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koninck, J.-M.; Tenenbaum, G.

    2002-09-01

    Soit {pk(n)}w(n)k=1 la suite croissante des facteurs premiers distincts d'un entier n. Nous donnons, lorsque k [rightward arrow] [infty infinity], une approximation uniforme de la loi de répartition limite de la fonction arithmétique n [mapsto A:] pk(n), précisant ainsi un résultat classique d'Erdos. Deux applications en sont déduites, relatives à la médiane de cette loi et à celle de la fonction « nombre de facteurs premiers ».

  10. Vers une mélancolie des premiers romans ?

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Johan Faerber :Je vais peut-être tout d’abord présenter brièvement ton premier roman, Le Black Note afin de t’interroger sur les questions rétrospectives qu’il suscite en toi et chercher ainsi à apercevoir ta propre lecture de ce moment inaugural de ton œuvre. Il s’agit, on le sait, du récit d’un groupe de jazz amateur taraudé par un modèle écrasant, celui de John Coltrane. Ce groupe sombre progressivement dans la drogue et disparaît à la mort de son leader, Paul, brûlé vif dans l’incendie de...

  11. Berlo Janet C. et Ruth B. Phillips, Amérique du Nord. Arts premiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mauzé, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Avec Amérique du Nord. Arts premiers signé de deux historiennes de l’art, Janet Berlo et Ruth Phillips, nous avons là un ouvrage qui fait partie d’une nouvelle génération de travaux sur les arts nord-amérindiens, à l’instar du livre de David W. Penney, North American Indian Art, publié en 2004. Connues pour l’excellence de leurs recherches, Berlo et Phillips proposent une étude exhaustive sur l’ensemble des arts visuels nord-amérindiens considérés dans leur contexte culturel et historique. Da...

  12. Un premier apprentissage mathématique, la construction du nombre

    OpenAIRE

    Incerti, Estelle; Migy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de mémoire professionnel se penche sur la question d’un premier apprentissage mathématique fondamental, celui de la construction du nombre. Cette recherche tend à comprendre le rôle que porte l’enseignant au niveau de cet apprentissage dans les premières années de la scolarité d’un élève. Elle met en lumière les éléments théoriques nécessaires à l’acquisition du concept de nombre et les paramètres auxquels il faut prêter tout particulièrement attention en tant qu’enseignant. Au tra...

  13. Purificação de lacases PPO-I de Botryosphaeria rhodina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1317 Purification of laccases PPO-I of fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1317

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Tomoe Miyagui

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lacases são glicoproteínas polifenol oxidases envolvidas na patogenicidade de alguns fungos e úteis em processos biotecnológicos. O ascomiceto ligninolítico Botryosphaeria rhodina tem sido estudado como produtor de exopolissacarídeos e de lacases PPO-I e PPO-II induzidas pelo álcool veratrílico. Como as lacases produzidas ainda não foram isoladas, o objetivo deste trabalho foi purificar lacases PPO-I e identificar os carboidratos constituintes da porção glicosídica. O fungo foi cultivado em meio mínimo de Vogel contendo 1% de glicose e 30,4 mM de álcool veratrílico, a 28C e agitação de 180 rpm durante 4,5 dias. O extrato livre de células apresentou elevada concentração de carboidratos e de PPO-I estáveis a 4ºC e -18ºC durante 40 dias. Técnicas de ultrafiltração, cromatografia em gel Sephadex G-100 e em resina DEAE-Celulose purificaram lacases PPO-I com peso molecular de 113 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-SDS, contendo 40% de proteínas e 60% carboidratos identificados por HPAEC-PAD como fucose, galactose, manose, glucose e glucosaminaLaccases are glycoprotein polyphenol oxidases which are involved in fungal pathogenicity and they are also useful for biotechnological applications. The ligninolytic ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina, has been studied as producer of exopolysaccharide and PPO-I and PPO-II laccases induced by veratryl alcohol. However, as the induced laccases have not been isolated, the aim of this study was to purify the enzyme and to identify the carbohydrates constituents of the glycosidic moiety. The fungus was cultivated on broth Vogel, 1% glucose and 30.4mM veratryl alcohol during 4.5 days at 28°C/180 rpm. The extracellular fluid showed high carbohydrate concentration and the stability of PPO-I laccase under conditions of refrigeration and freezing at 4ºC-18ºC over 40 days. The purification was developed by ultrafiltration using a NMWL 100 and 30 kDa membrane, gelfiltration on Sephadex G-100, and ion

  14. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  15. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  16. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  17. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possessio...

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, PO Box 750 561, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  19. Phase transitions in polymer monolayers: Application of the Clapeyron equation to PEO in PPO-PEO Langmuir films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Louise; Lyklema, Johannes; Danis, Claude; Saint-Germain, François

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of the two-dimensional Clapeyron law to polymer monolayers. This is a largely unexplored area of research. The main problems are (1) establishing if equilibrium is reached and (2) if so, identifying and defining phases as functions of the temperature. Once this is validated, the Clapeyron law allows us to obtain the entropy and enthalpy differences between two coexisting phases. In turn, this information can be used to obtain insight into the conformational properties of the films and changes therein. This approach has a wide potential for obtaining additional information on polymer adsorption at interfaces and the structure of their monolayer films. The 2D Clapeyron law was applied emphasizing polyethylene oxide (PEO) in polypropylene oxide (PPO)-PEO block copolymers, based on new well-defined data for their Langmuir films. Values for enthalpy per monomer of 0.12 and 0.23 kT were obtained for the phase transition of two different PEO chains (Neo of 2295 and 409, respectively). This enthalpy was estimated to correspond to 1.2±0.4 kT per EO monomer present in train conformation at the air/water interface.

  20. Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions containing poly(acrylic acid) and PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Akira; Xu, Hui; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio

    2012-05-01

    Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and triblock copolymer (PEO(101)-PPO(56)-PEO(101), Pluronic F127) was investigated as a function of PAA concentration (0.4-1.2 mass%) for ceramic solid free forming. The copolymer species assemble into micelles at temperatures above 15°C, yielding aqueous physical gel. In this study, the concentrated alumina aqueous suspensions (φ=35 vol%) were first prepared using the anionic dispersant of PAA, and then the copolymer species (10 mass%) were dissolved at a cooled temperature at 10°C. The addition of the copolymer species had a negligible influence on the adsorption state of PAA onto the alumina surfaces. The PAA concentration needed for the saturation adsorption on the alumina surfaces was ~0.6 mass%. When the PAA concentration was this value or slightly less, the suspension became gel state at 30°C from low viscous state at 10°C. The thermally induced alumina gel had excellent viscoelastic properties, and thereby the three dimensional periodic ceramic structures were successfully fabricated by a direct colloidal printing method that using the gels as "solid" inks at the room temperature. On the other hand, when it exceeded the saturation adsorption limit, the gelling behavior was not observed, indicating that the non-adsorbing PAA species may partly suppress the micellization of the copolymer on the heating.

  1. PEO-PPO-PEO Carriers for rAAV-Mediated Transduction of Human Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro and in a Human Osteochondral Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Frisch, Janina; Venkatesan, Jagadesh Kumar; Schmitt, Gertrud; Rial-Hermida, Isabel; Taboada, Pablo; Concheiro, Angel; Madry, Henning; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-08-17

    Gene therapy is an attractive strategy for the durable treatment of human osteoarthritis (OA), a gradual, irreversible joint disease. Gene carriers based on the small human adeno-associated virus (AAV) exhibit major efficacy in modifying damaged human articular cartilage in situ over extended periods of time. Yet, clinical application of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors remains complicated by the presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral capsid elements in a majority of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering rAAV vectors to human OA chondrocytes in vitro and in an experimental model of osteochondral defect via polymeric micelles to protect gene transfer from experimental neutralization. Interaction of rAAV with micelles of linear (poloxamer PF68) or X-shaped (poloxamine T908) poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO micelles) was characterized by means of isothermal titration calorimetry. Micelle encapsulation allowed an increase in both the stability and bioactivity of rAAV vectors and promoted higher levels of safe transgene (lacZ) expression both in vitro and in experimental osteochondral defects compared with that of free vector treatment without detrimental effects on the biological activity of the cells or their phenotype. Remarkably, protection against antibody neutralization was also afforded when delivering rAAV via PEO-PPO-PEO micelles in all systems evaluated, especially when using T908. Altogether, these findings show the potential of PEO-PPO-PEO micelles as effective tools to improve current gene-based treatments for human OA.

  2. Real-time evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in lychee pericarp based on weighted combination of spectral data and image features as determined by fuzzy neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chao; Sun, Da-Wen; Wang, Nan-Nan; Xie, Anguo

    2015-07-01

    A novel method of using hyperspectral imaging technique with the weighted combination of spectral data and image features by fuzzy neural network (FNN) was proposed for real-time prediction of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in lychee pericarp. Lychee images were obtained by a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system operating in the range of 400-1000nm. A support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) algorithm was applied to eliminating variables with no or little information for the prediction from all bands, resulting in a reduced set of optimal wavelengths. Spectral information at the optimal wavelengths and image color features were then used respectively to develop calibration models for the prediction of PPO in pericarp during storage, and the results of two models were compared. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, a decision strategy was developed based on weighted combination of spectral data and image features, in which the weights were determined by FNN for a better estimation of PPO activity. The results showed that the combined decision model was the best among all of the calibration models, with high R(2) values of 0.9117 and 0.9072 and low RMSEs of 0.45% and 0.459% for calibration and prediction, respectively. These results demonstrate that the proposed weighted combined decision method has great potential for improving model performance. The proposed technique could be used for a better prediction of other internal and external quality attributes of fruits.

  3. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  4. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  5. Strategies for injury prevention in Brazilian football: Perceptions of physiotherapists and practices of premier league teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Maurício Couto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-07-25

    To describe the physiotherapists perceptions and the current practices for injury prevention in elite football (soccer) clubs in Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Group of Science in Sports & Exercise, Federal University of Healthy Sciences of Porto Alegre (Brazil). 16 of the 20 football clubs involved in the Brazilian premier league 2015. Physiotherapists answered a structured questionnaire. Most physiotherapists (∼88%) were active in design, testing and application of prevention programs. Previous injury, muscle imbalance, fatigue, hydration, fitness, diet, sleep/rest and age were considered "very important" or "important" injury risk factors by all respondents. The methods most commonly used to detect athletes' injury risk were: monitoring of biochemical markers (100% of teams), isokinetic dynamometry (81%), questionnaires (75%), functional movement screen (56%), fleximetry (56%) and horizontal jump tests (50%). All clubs used strength training, functional training, core exercises and balance/proprioception exercises in their injury prevention program; and Nordic hamstring exercise and other eccentric exercises were used by 94% of clubs. "FIFA 11+" prevention program was adapted by 88% of clubs. Physiotherapists perceptions and current practices of injury prevention within Brazilian elite football clubs were similar to those employed in developed countries. There remains a gap between clinical practice and scientific evidence in high performance football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  7. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  8. Study on PPO characteristics of M.angusticepes%黑脉羊肚菌多酚氧化酶特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 吴素蕊; 樊建; 赵天瑞; 张丽

    2013-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the characterization of M.Angusticepes polyphenol oxidase(PPO)by spectrophotometer method 420nm.The fresh-cut M.Angusticepes was cleaned and cut,smashed and centrifuged at 4℃,12000r/min.The obtain crude PPO in the supernatant was used to measure the optimal pH,temperature and Kinetic property and inhibition of various chemicals to the enzyme.The results showed that the optimum PPO temperature was 30℃,the optimum pH of PPO was 7.5.The reaction kinetic of enzymatic browning was accordant with Michaelis equation,the Km and Vmax were 0.4769mol/L and 1.901mol/L respectively.Ascorbic acid showed the most effective inhibitory activity,followed by sodium hydrogensulfite,and then citric acid.%采用分光光度法420nm下分析黑脉羊肚菌多酚氧化酶(polyphenol oxidase,PPO)特性.以黑脉羊肚菌为原料,经清洗切分后,匀浆、过滤,于4℃,12000r/min条件下离心分离,得到黑脉羊肚菌PPO粗酶液,应用于催化反应,并研究温度、底物浓度和抑制剂等对其活性的影响.结果表明:黑脉羊肚菌PPO的最适温度为30℃,最适pH7.5;其多酚氧化酶酶促褐变反应动力学符合米氏方程,相应动力学参数为Km=0.4769mol/L,Vmax=1.901mol/L;其中,抗坏血酸对黑脉羊肚菌PPO的抑制效果最好,亚硫酸氢钠次之,柠檬酸最弱.

  9. Peat moss fuels R and D: Premier Tech is using sphagnum peat moss to develop all kinds of sophisticated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiront, A.

    2004-10-01

    Development by Premier Tech, a Quebec multinational company, of a unique system for recycling construction waste using peat moss as the starting material, is reported. Premier Tech enjoys a high profile in sectors such as the life sciences, wastewater treatment systems, industrial packaging and a variety of other fields not readily associated with peat moss. The best known products of the company, the Allegro line of growth media designed to promote greenhouse growing, Biomax compost and the Promix plant growth media, all based on research on mycorrhizal association, and the development strategy guiding the company's operations, are described briefly. The company's Ecoflo and Ecoprocess filters for treating domestic and municipal wastewater, both of which played significant roles in recovering evidence from the rubble of the World Trade Center after September 11, 2001, are highlighted.

  10. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  11. Philibert Delorme’s Divine Proportions and the Composition of the Premier Tome de l’Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Galletti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 'Premier tome de l’architecture' (1567 — the first original, comprehensive architectural treatise written by a French author — Philibert Delorme (c. 1514–1570 claims to be the first to formulate a theory of divine proportions, which he describes as a set of rules recorded in the Old Testament as directly dictated by God to men for the construction of the Ark of Noah, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Temple and House of Solomon. Yet the author does not develop the theory of divine proportions in the 'Premier tome' and postpones it instead to the second volume of his treatise. As a second volume was never published (and likely never written, Delorme readers are left with a handful of less-than-coherent references and illustrations of a theory that remains largely obscure. Yet the elements of theory of divine proportions contained in the 'Premier tome' provide historians with an understanding of the genesis of the treatise itself, thus ultimately helping to raise broader questions about the book and its author. This paper shows how Delorme’s divine proportions offer a key to understanding the conception and composition of his treatise as well as to the process of intellectual development of the author and the changes in the nature and scope of his written work.

  12. Premier Wen Jiabao Chaired a State Council Executive Meeting to Review and Deploy the Program to Further Implement the Restructuring and Reinvigoration Plan for Key Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to review and deploy the program to further implement the restructuring and reinvigoration plan for key industries on February 24th,2010.

  13. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachina RJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Júlio de Freitas Guina Fachina,1,2 Marília dos Santos Andrade,3 Fernando Roberto Silva,4 Silas Waszczuk-Junior,4 Paulo César Montagner,1 João Paulo Borin,1 Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira5 1Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Confederação Brasileira de Basketball (CBB, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Grêmio Barueri Futebol LTDA, Barueri, Brazil; 5Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, Brazil Abstract: Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2% were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8% during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. Keywords: injuries, epidemiology, soccer players

  15. Hospital arrival time and functional outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: results from the PREMIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Jiménez, C; Ruiz-Sandoval, J L; Chiquete, E; Vega-Arroyo, M; Arauz, A; Murillo-Bonilla, L M; Ochoa-Guzmán, A; Carrillo-Loza, K; Ramos-Moreno, A; Barinagarrementeria, F; Cantú-Brito, C

    2014-05-01

    Information regarding hospital arrival times after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has mainly been gathered from countries with specialised stroke units. Little data from emerging nations is available. We aim to identify factors associated with achieving hospital arrival times of less than 1, 3, and 6 hours, and analyse how arrival times are related to functional outcomes after AIS. We analysed data from patients with AIS included in the PREMIER study (Primer Registro Mexicano de Isquemia Cerebral) which defined time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. The functional prognosis at 30 days and at 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale. Among 1096 patients with AIS, 61 (6%) arrived in <1 hour, 250 (23%) in <3 hours, and 464 (42%) in <6 hours. The factors associated with very early (<1 hour) arrival were family history of ischemic heart disease and personal history of migraines; in <3 hours: age 40-69 years, family history of hypertension, personal history of dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease, and care in a private hospital; in <6 hours: migraine, previous stroke, ischaemic heart disease, care in a private hospital, and family history of hypertension. Delayed hospital arrival was associated with lacunar stroke and alcoholism. Only 2.4% of patients underwent thrombolysis. Regardless of whether or not thrombolysis was performed, arrival time in <3 hours was associated with lower mortality at 3 and 6 months, and with fewer in-hospital complications. A high percentage of patients had short hospital arrival times; however, less than 3% underwent thrombolysis. Although many factors were associated with early hospital arrival, it is a priority to identify in-hospital barriers to performing thrombolysis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. PREMIERS RESULTATS SUR LES COMPORTEMENTS DE SUBSISTANCE SOLUTREENS A LA GROTTE ROCHEFORT (MAYENNE, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bemilli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Le site de la grotte Rochefort (Mayenne, France a livré depuis 2005 plusieurs centaines de restes fauniques issus des couches Solutréennes. Le Renne et le Cheval en sont les principales composantes et reflètent le fond commun du régime alimentaire des Solutréens. Nous présenterons ici les premiers résultats de l’analyse archéozoologique concernant l’exploitation de ces deux principaux taxons. Plusieurs recollages ont été réalisés. L’exceptionnelle conservation des restes permet, outre une excellente lecture des traces de découpe, une première reconstitution des modalités d’acquisition et d’exploitation des animaux, ainsi que leur saison d’abattage. La rareté des ensembles fauniques solutréens fouillés et étudiés récemment donne à celui de la grotte Rochefort un impact particulier et inédit.Several hundreds faunal remains were discovered since 2005 in the Solutrean‘s level at Rochefort cave (Mayenne, France. Reindeer and Horse are the main taxa identified and are the baseline of the Solutrean diet. We present here the preliminary results of the faunal analysis and discuss the exploitation of these two main taxa. A number of refits were possible. At the same time, the exceptional preservation of the artefacts together with well-defined cut marks allows to reconstruct procurement and use patterns of these animals as well as the season they were killed. Recently excavated and analysed Solutrean faunal assemblages are rare which make the yet unreported Rochefort cave faunal assemblage even more important and unprecedented.

  17. Effects of Bile Salt Sodium Glycodeoxycholate on the Self-Assembly of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymer P123 in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Solmaz; Galantini, Luciano; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Schillén, Karin

    2015-12-22

    A comprehensive experimental study on the interaction between the PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer P123 (EO20PO68EO20) and the anionic bile salt sodium glycodeoxycholate (NaGDC) in water has been performed. The work was aimed at investigating the suitability of using P123 as bile salt sequestrant beside the fundamental aspects of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer-bile salt interactions. Various experimental techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed in combination with electrophoretic mobility measurements. The system was investigated at a constant P123 concentration of 1.74 mM and with varying bile salt concentrations up to approximately 250 mM NaGDC (or a molar ratio n(NaGDC)/n(P123) = 144). In the mixed P123-NaGDC solutions, the endothermic process related to the self-assembly of P123 was observed to gradually decrease in enthalpy and shift to higher temperatures upon progressive addition of NaGDC. To explain this effect, the formation of NaGDC micelles carrying partly dehydrated P123 unimers was proposed and translated into a stoichiometric model, which was able to fit the experimental DSC data. In the mixtures at low molar ratios, NaGDC monomers associated with the P123 micelle forming a charged "P123 micelle-NaGDC" complex with a dehydrated PPO core. These complexes disintegrated upon increasing NaGDC concentration to form small "NaGDC-P123" complexes visualized as bile salt micelles including one or a few P123 copolymer chains.

  18. PPO/PEO modified hollow fiber membranes improved sensitivity of 3D cultured hepatocytes to drug toxicity via suppressing drug adsorption on membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; He, Wenjuan; Wang, Qichen; Zhang, Guoliang

    2014-11-01

    The three dimensional (3D) cell culture in polymer-based micro system has become a useful tool for in vitro drug discovery. Among those polymers, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane (PSf HFM) is commonly used to create a microenvironment for cells. However, the target drug may adsorb on the polymeric surface, and this elicits negative impacts on cell exposure due to the reduced effective drug concentration in culture medium. In order to reduce the drug adsorption, PSf membrane were modified with hydrophilic Pluronic (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO) copolymers, L121, P123 and F127 (PEO contents increase from 10%, 30% to 70%), by physical adsorption. As a result, the hydrophilicity of HFMs increased at an order of PSfF127>P123>L121 HFMs. The three modified membrane all showed significant resistance to adsorption of acid/neutral drugs. More importantly, the adsorption of base drugs were largely reduced to an average value of 11% on the L121 HFM. The improved resistance to drug adsorption could be attributed to the synergy of hydrophobic/neutrally charged PPO and hydrophilic PEO. The L121 HFM was further assessed by evaluating the drug hepatotoxicity in 3D culture of hepatocytes. The base drugs, clozapine and doxorubicin, showed more sensitive hepatotoxicity on hepatocytes in L121 HFM than in PSf HFM, while the acid drug, salicylic acid, showed the similar hepatotoxicity to hepatocytes in both HFMs. Our finding suggests that PSf HFM modified by PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO copolymers can efficiently resist the drug adsorption onto polymer membrane, and consequently improve the accuracy and sensitivity of in vitro hepatotoxic drug screening.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a Polyphenol Oxidase Gene (HbPPO1)from the Hevea brasiliensis Laticifer%橡胶树乳管表达多酚氧化酶基因 HbPPO1的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 谢贵水; 莫业勇; 王丹华; 杨礼富

    2015-01-01

    Based on the EST sequence,a 2 102 bp cDNA was isolated from the rubber tree (Hevea brasilien-sis)latex (representing the laticicfer cytoplasm)with specific primers via RACE and RT -PCR.The sequence designated as HbPPO1 contains a 1 803 bp long open reading frame (ORF),81 bp 5′UTR and 218 bp 3′UTR. Sequence analysis indicated that HbPPO1 putatively encodes 600 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight (Mw)of 67.88 kDa and isolectric point (pI)of 8.56,which was predicted to be localized to the plastid.The pro-tein contains the conserved Tyrosinase,PPO1 _DWL and PPO1 _KFDV domains specific to polyphenol oxidases, and shares the similarity of 85.2%,82.0%,79.8% and 78.2% with its homologs in Manihot esculenta,Ricinus communis,Jatropha curcas and Populus euphratica.Expression analysis showed that,among the examined tissues such as laticifer,bark and leaf,HbPPO1 expressed relatively more in the laticifer and the expression level was sig-nificantly inhibited by ethylene.%根据 EST 序列设计引物,应用 RACE 和 RT -PCR 技术从橡胶树的胶乳(乳管细胞的胞质成分)中分离到1条长2102 bp 的 cDNA,该序列包含1个1803 bp 的开放读码框(ORF),81 bp 的5’ UTR 和218 bp 的3’UTR;ORF 预测编码600个氨基酸,其理论分子量为67.88 kDa,等电点为8.56,质体定位;蛋白含有多酚氧化酶特有的 Tyrosinase、PPO1_DWL 和 PPO1_KFDV 结构域;蛋白与木薯、蓖麻、麻疯树和胡杨中同源蛋白的相似性分别为85.2%、82.0%、79.8%和78.2%,将基因命名为 HbPPO1。结果表明,在所分析的胶乳、树皮和叶片组织中,基因在胶乳中的表达丰度最高,且其表达水平受乙烯利显著抑制。

  20. "黑美人"马铃薯多酚氧化酶的特性研究%Study on characteristics of polyphenoloxidase(PPO)in Heimeiren potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向军; 高义霞; 袁毅君; 郑芳; 张继继

    2011-01-01

    以邻苯二酚为底物,在413nm处测定黑美人马铃薯多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性,研究了温度、pH、底物浓度对其活性的影响,并建立了酶促褐变反应动力学方程,探讨了L-半胱氨酸、抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、EDTA及亚硫酸氢钠五种抑制剂对酶促褐变的抑制效果.结果表明:黑美人马铃薯多酚氧化酶最适反应pH为6.3;最适反应温度为35℃;酶促褐变反应动力学符合米氏方程描述的单底物酶促反应动力学,以邻苯二酚为底物,Km:0.0011mol/L,Vmax=142.23U/min·g;动力学方程为V=142.23[S]/(0.001)+[S]);五种抑制荆均对PPO酶促褐变具有抑制作用,其强弱依次为亚硫酸氢钠>L-半胱氨酸>抗坏血酸>EDTA>柠檬酸.%The activity of Heimeiren potato polyphenoloxidase (PPO)was determined by spectrophotometer at 413nm using catechol as substrate.The effects of the temperature, pH, substrate concentration and inhibitors on PPO were studied and the reaction kinetics equation was also established.The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH were 35℃ and pH6.3, respectively.The reaction kinetics of enzymatic browning accorded with Michaelis Equation model.The Km, Vmax and kinetics equation were 0.001 1mol/L, 142.23U/min · g and V = 142.23 [S]/(0.0011 + [S])using catechol as substrate,respectively.Five different inhibitors demonstrated different effects on enzymatic browning of PPO and the inhibiting order was as follows: sodium bisulfite > L-cysteine > ascorbic acid > EDTA > citric acid.

  1. Atividades das enzimas peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO nas uvas das cultivares benitaka e rubi e em seus sucos e geléias Effect of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase enzymes (PPO on Benitaka and Rubi grape cultivars and on products processed in the form of juice and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Andrade de Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidase e a polifenoloxidase estão relacionadas com o escurecimento de frutas, por isso o controle das atividades destas enzimas é de grande importância para a tecnologia de alimentos. Neste trabalho estudaram-se as atividades dessas enzimas nas uvas frescas das cultivares Benitaka e Rubi, bem como as suas termoestabilidades e as suas atividades enzimáticas residuais no suco e nas geléias (extra e light. Foi também avaliada a qualidade microbiológica dos produtos elaborados. As atividades da enzima POD, tanto da fração solúvel quanto da ionicamente ligada, foram semelhantes nas uvas das duas variedades, Benitaka e Rubi. A atividade da enzima polifenoloxidase foi maior na variedade Rubi. As operações de cocção e pasteurização foram mais eficientes para baixar as atividades enzimáticas residuais da POD e PPO quando aplicadas às geléias de uva, em comparação com o suco. Embora não foram suficientes para a total inativação enzimática, essas operações reduziram-nas consideravelmente, e foram eficientes para garantir seguridade microbiológica dos produtos, geléias e suco.Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO are oxidative enzymes related to the darkening process suffered by fruits. Thus, the control of the effects of these enzymes, in the preservation of fruit, in order to minimize the darkening process is considered of great importance for food processing technology. The present study investigated the effects of POD and PPO on fresh grapes from Benitaka and Rubi cultivars, as well as the thermal stability and the residual enzymatic activities in the processing of juice and jelly (extra and light. Moreover, the microbiological quality of the processed products was evaluated. It was observed that, the effect of the POD enzyme, from the soluble fraction, as well as from the ionically bound fraction, was similar in both varieties of grapes, Benitaka and Rubi. But the effect of the PPO enzyme was higher in the Rubi

  2. 仙人掌多酚氧化酶的特性及抑制研究%Studies on Characteristics and Inhibition of Polyphenoloxidase(PPO) in Opuntia dillenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦卫东; 钱寿凤; 周瑞

    2004-01-01

    本文研究了仙人掌中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的特性以及一些抑制剂对其活性的影响.结果表明:仙人掌中PPO的最适温度为50℃,最适pH有两个,分别为pH4.0和pH7.0,因而在仙人掌中的PPO存在同工酶.柠檬酸、抗坏血酸及EDTA对仙人掌PPO均有一定的抑制效果,抑制能力顺序为:柠檬酸>抗坏血酸>EDTA.对各种抑制剂的作用机理进行了探讨.EDTA主要是通过螯合PPO中的辅酶因子Cu2+而起作用,抗坏血酸螯合Cu2+的能力比EDTA弱,但抗坏血酸的还原能力较强,而柠檬酸则是通过降低pH和螯合作用抑制PPO.

  3. Langmuir monolayers of non-ionic polymers: equilibrium or metastability? Case study of PEO and its PPO-PEO diblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Louise; Saint-Germain, François; Lyklema, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Stability and reorganization in Langmuir films of PEO in PEO homopolymers and PPO-PEO block copolymers were investigated using film balance measurements. The apparent fractional losses of EO segments transferred into the subphase resulting from successive compression-expansion cycles have been estimated. The apparent loss is mainly Γ(max), M(n) and time-dependent. At surface concentrations Γ⩽0.32 mg/m(2), PEO films are in equilibrium. For 0.32⩽Γ⩽0.7 mg/m(2), the losses remain modest. Further compression leads to densification of the monolayer, requiring the interplay of thermodynamics and kinetic factors In the plateau regime, the loss is higher and constant for 1⩽Γ(max)⩽2 mg/m(2) upon maintaining the achieved surface area for 15 min. Similar losses were obtained for PEO homopolymers of high Mn and PPO353-PEO2295. It suggests that the PEO remains anchored in a metastable state at the air-water interface at surface concentration well above the onset of the plateau. Additional losses are incurred for PEO homopolymers for monolayers kept compressed in the plateau for 2 h. For the interpretation of these phenomena a combination of elements from self-consistent field theory and scaling is desirable with as a trend an increasing contribution of the latter with increasing surface concentration.

  4. Mesoscopic Simulations of Adsorption and Association of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers on a Hydrophobic Surface: From Mushroom Hemisphere to Rectangle Brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianyu; Zhao, Shuangliang; Fang, Shenwen; Ma, Yongzhang; Duan, Ming

    2016-11-08

    The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by the adsorption process, film properties, and adsorption morphologies. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and the diffusion coefficient as well as the aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations. The radial distribution function revealed that the ability of self-assembly on hydrophobic surfaces is P123 > P84 > L64 > P105 > F127, which increased with the EO ratio of the Pluronic copolymers. Moreover, the shape parameter and the degree of anisotropy increase with increasing molecular weight and mole ratio of PO of the Pluronic copolymers. Depending on the conformation of different Pluronic copolymers, the morphology transition of three regimes on hydrophobic surfaces is present: mushroom or hemisphere, progressively semiellipsoid, and rectangle brush regimes induced by decreasing molecular weight and mole ratio of EO of Pluronic copolymers.

  5. Preparation of poly(vinyl phosphate-b-styrene) copolymers and its blend with PPO as proton exchange membrane for DMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang Hua; Cho, Chang Gi [Center for Advanced Functional Polymers, Department of Fiber and Polymer Engineering, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Moo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Poly(vinyl phosphate-b-styrene) (poly(VPP-b-St)) block copolymers were prepared via consecutive telomerization of vinyl acetate (VAc), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with styrene, saponification, and phosphorylation with phosphorus oxychloride. The resulting block copolymers were characterized by FT-IR and pH titration. Then, the block copolymers were blended with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) to prepare direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) membrane. The performance of poly(VPP-b-St)/PPO blend membranes was measured in terms of proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal and hydrolytic stability. The proton conductivities were in the range of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} S/cm (60C, RH=95%); the methanol permeabilities were in the range of 4.14x10{sup -8} to 9.62x10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s (25C), and quite lower than that of Nafion(R) 117. Also, the thermal stability of the blend membranes was characterized by TGA, and was stable up to 400C; the blend membranes had better hydrolytic stability. (author)

  6. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Foxtail millet shows variation in positive phenol color reaction (Phr) and negative Phr in grains, but predominant accessions of this crop are negative reaction type, and the molecular genetic basis of the Phr reaction remains unresolved. In this article, we isolated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene responsible for Phr using genome sequence information and investigated molecular genetic basis of negative Phr and crop evolution of foxtail millet. First of all, we searched for PPO gene homologs in a foxtail millet genome database using a rice PPO gene as a query and successfully found three copies of the PPO gene. One of the PPO gene homologs on chromosome 7 showed the highest similarity with PPO genes expressed in hulls (grains) of other cereal species including rice, wheat, and barley and was designated as Si7PPO. Phr phenotypes and Si7PPO genotypes completely co-segregated in a segregating population. We also analyzed the genetic variation conferring negative Phr reaction. Of 480 accessions of the landraces investigated, 87 (18.1 %) showed positive Phr and 393 (81.9 %) showed negative Phr. In the 393 Phr negative accessions, three types of loss-of-function Si7PPO gene were predominant and independently found in various locations. One of them has an SNP in exon 1 resulting in a premature stop codon and was designated as stop codon type, another has an insertion of a transposon (Si7PPO-TE1) in intron 2 and was designated as TE1-insertion type, and the other has a 6-bp duplication in exon 3 resulting in the duplication of 2 amino acids and was designated as 6-bp duplication type. As a rare variant of the stop codon type, one accession additionally has an insertion of a transposon, Si7PPO-TE2, in intron 2 and was designated as "stop codon +TE2 insertion type". The geographical distribution of accessions with positive Phr and those with three major types of negative Phr was also investigated. Accessions with positive Phr were found in subtropical and tropical regions at

  7. Le premier Aurignacien en France méditerranéenne : un bilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bazile

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifié au début des années 1970 (La Laouza puis l'Esquictio-Grapaou dans les Gorges du Gardon, l'Aurignacien initial, au sens d'antérieur à l'Aurignacien I classique (Archaïque? Aurignacien «0»? Protoaurignacien?, est également connu en Provence (Rainaude et dans le Bassin de l'Aude (grotte Tournai et sans doute Traouc de la Fado. Il était vraisemblablement présent à la Balauzière (sous un Aurignacien ancien classique et à la Grotte Nicolas (Gard à l'abri Rothschild et, plus au Nord, dans l'abri du Pécheur (Ardéche. Sa présence dans la moyenne vallée du Rhône à la grotte Mandrin (Drome est également vraisemblable, ouvrant un premier jalon (outre Roclaine nécessairement à revisiter vers des sites plus septentrionaux aux affinités typologiques et technologiques troublantes tels Arcy (Grotte du Renne et le Trou de la Mère Clochette. Ce "technocomplexe», bien situé sur le plan chronologique, témoignent d'une forte unité culturele de la Campante et la Vénétie à la Catalogne, en passant par la Ligurie, sans doute l'un des foyers pricipaux. Il apparaît brutalement à la fin de l'Interstade wûrmien, sus-jacent, avec ou sans lacune de sédimentation et/ou d'érosion, à des dépôts livrant des industries moustériennes de faciès très différents selon la région concernée.Identificado a inicios de 1970 en la garganta de Gardon, primero en La Laouza, después en Esquicho-Grapaou, el Aurihaciense inicial en sentido de anterioridad al Auriñaciense I clásico, (Arcaico, «0», Protoaurihaciense es también conocido en Provence (Rainaude y el en valle del Aude (Tournai y Traouc de la Fado. Esta también presente de manera clara en Balauzière (bajo un Auriñaciense antiguo clásico y en la Grotte Nicolas (Gard en el abri Rothschild y, más al norte, en el abri Pêcheur (Ardéche. Su presencia en el valle medio del Rôdano en la grotte Mandrin en Drome (otro yacimiento séria Roclaine sirve como jalon hacia sitios m

  8. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2017-06-19

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  9. Relationship between Game Location and Match Result with the Amount of Aggression: Iranian Premier League Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Alahvisi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between game location (host advantage, match result (win, lose or tie and the level of aggression in football teams of the Iranian Premier League. The study population consisted of Premier League Football teams (League XIII, and 60 matches (related to 4 teams that were available for the researcher, were selected as the sample. The current study can be regarded as applied and descriptive, in terms of purpose and data collection, respectively. In order to collect data, the match videos of selected teams were studied, then the results of the observations were written and recorded using Roberts et al. (1999 aggression model. The results showed that no significant difference was found between teams' aggression in host and guest matches (p>0.05. Also, a significant difference was observed between aggression and match result and the behaviors were more in lost matches (p< 0.05. In fact, mental stress caused by the loss resulted to more aggression to win. Hence, a match result, physical aggression and players' position led to significant difference in players' aggression. Therefore, the control and management of aggressive behaviors, especially at the time of failure will result in improved performance and efficiency of football teams. Also, these behaviors can be minimized by providing necessary training on anger management and negative emotions control among players.

  10. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective match workload of English Premier League referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.

  11. Les premiers colons de l’ancienne Haïti et leurs attaches en métropole, à l’aube des premiers établissements (1650-1700)

    OpenAIRE

    Hroděj, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Au moment où les premiers établissements durables voient le jour dans ce qui va devenir la partie française de Saint-Domingue, les colons ne sont qu’une poignée. Il est nécessaire d’abord de raisonner sur le nombre, source d’isolement, renforcé par le relief qui compartimente les différents quartiers, par l’éloignement des Petites Antilles, par des liens commerciaux longtemps aléatoires et par le fait dominant que sont les guerres quasi continues, du fait des délais d’application des traités ...

  12. Coarse-graining poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers using the MARTINI force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Selina; Carbone, Paola

    2014-02-13

    The MARTINI coarse-grain (CG) force field is extended for a class of triblock block copolymers known as Pluronics. Existing MARTINI bead types are used to model the non-bonded part of the potential while single chain properties for both homopolymers, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), are used to develop the bonded interactions. The new set of force field parameters reproduces structural and dynamical properties of high molecular weight homo- and copolymers. The CG model is moderately transferable in solvents of different polarity and concentration; however, the PEO homopolymer model presents a reduced thermodynamic transferability especially in water probably due to the lack of hydrogen bonds with the solvent. Our simulations of a monolayer of Pluronic L44 show polymer-brush-like characteristics for the PEO segments which protrude into the aqueous phase. Other membrane properties not easily accessible using experimental techniques such as its membrane thickness are also calculated.

  13. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  16. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  17. “You are back home!”——On Premier Wen Jiabao’s Meeting with Japanese Orphans Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Beijing,November 11,2009 The sky was exceptionally blue after the first snow.The temperature was low,but people could feel the bright sunshine’s warmth.For the members of the Japanese orphans delegation, they felt especially so because they would soon meet Premier Wen Jiabao whom they had been longing to see.

  18. Study on Enzymatic Characteristics of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) in Litchi Pulp%荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春丽; 杨跃寰; 陈欲云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为研究荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶(PPO)的作用机制,控制荔枝果肉在贮藏和加工过程中的酶促褐变提供理论依据.[方法]从荔枝果肉中提取多酚氧化酶,并对其酶学性质进行研究.[结果]荔枝果肉PPO的最适反应温度为55 ℃,对热稳定性较强,90 ℃水浴保温30 min后剩余相对酶活为22.6%;pH值为7.0时该酶的活力最强,在pH值6.5~8.0范围内酶活力较稳定;邻苯二酚与该酶的结合能力最强,其次为4-甲基儿茶酚;谷胱甘肽为该酶的最好抑制剂,其次为半胱氨酸、抗坏血酸、NaF和亚硫酸钠;SnCl2和FeSO4对该酶活性有抑制作用,而CuSO4、MgCl2和CaCl2对其活性有促进作用.[结论]该研究确定了荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶的最适作用条件.%[ Objective ] The aim was to provide the theoretical basis for studying the action mechanism of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in litchi pulp and controlling the enzymatic browning of litchi pulp during storage and processing. [ Method] Polyphenol oxicdase was extracted from litchi pulp and its enzymatic characteristics were studied. [ Result ] The optimum temperature of PPO in litchi pulp was 55 ℃ and its thermostability was good. After 30 min of water bathing at 90 ℃ ,the remaining relative enzyme activity was 22.6%. The enzyme activity was the strongest when pH value was 7.0. And the enzyme activity was stable when pH value was 6.5 - 8.0. The binding ability of catechol with the enzyme was the strongest, followed by 4-methyl catechol. Glutathione was the best inhibitor of the enzyme, followed by cysteine,ascorbic acid, NaF and sodium sulfite.SnCI2 and FeSO4 could inhibit the enzyme activity. But CuSO4, MgCI2 and CaCI2 could increase the enzyme activity. [ Conclusion ] This study identiffed the optimum conditiorns of polyphenol oxidase in litchi pulp.

  19. Les marqueurs d'aspect de dicto : 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenepveu Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On se propose d’étudier les locutions adverbiales "à première vue", "au premier abord", "de prime abord", trois locutions qui comportent une forme numérale ordinale et qui entretiennent des relations de proximité sémantique. Nous nous intéressons précisément au fonctionnement sémantique et pragmatique de ces locutions à valeur paradigmatisante (Nølke 1983, quand elles introduisent un point de vue (Anscombre & Ducrot 1983, Ducrot 1984, Nølke 1994. Dans cette perspective, nous faisons l’hypothèse d’un procès énonciatif, qui consiste à prendre en considération une situation, et qui vise à constituer un jugement stabilisé. Nous admettons alors que les locutions adverbiales 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord', servent à sélectionner la phase initiale de ce procès énonciatif, ce qu’attestent les mises en corrélation possibles des trois marqueurs de point de vue avec des expressions qui signalent une évolution dans le temps du jugement du locuteur concernant une situation ('à mieux regarder', 'à y regarder de plus près', 'tout compte fait', 'tout bien considéré', .... L’étude de ces enchaînements, qui vont parfois au-delà du paragraphe, fait apparaître la capacité des trois locutions à initier un cadre (Charolles 1997, et à appeler un autre cadre dans lequel le jugement va être réévalué. En présentant le point de vue qu’elle introduit comme provisoire et en attente de confirmation, chacune de ces locutions anticipe ainsi sur la suite du texte, et s’inscrit dans une structure aspectuelle de dicto qui est celle d’un procès énonciatif de constitution d’un jugement stabilisé. Nous nous appuyons sur des énoncés attestés au XXème, sélectionnés sur "Frantext intégral", ou bien choisis dans Le Monde sur cederom (1995-96, 1999-2002.

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  1. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  2. Give me refuge : transforming the most contaminated square mile on earth into a premier urban wildlife refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.

  3. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

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    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  4. Incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries to referees in a premier football (soccer) league: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-09-01

    Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.

  5. Hydration of cations: a key to understanding of specific cation effects on aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Jacob C; Wu, Tsung-yu; Zhang, Yanjie

    2013-09-05

    This work reports results from the interactions of a series of monovalent and divalent cations with a triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Phase transition temperatures of the polymer in the presence of chloride salts with six monovalent and eight divalent cations were measured using an automated melting point apparatus. The polymer undergoes a two-step phase transition, consisting of micellization of the polymer followed by aggregation of the micelles, in the presence of all the salts studied herein. The results suggest that hydration of cations plays a key role in determining the interactions between the cations and the polymer. The modulation of the phase transition temperature of the polymer by cations can be explained as a balance between three interactions: direct binding of cations to the oxygen in the polymer chains, cations sharing one water molecule with the polymer in their hydration layer, and cations interacting with the polymer via two water molecules. Monovalent cations Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) do not bind to the polymer, while Li(+) and NH4(+) and all the divalent cations investigated including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) bind to the polymer. The effects of the cations correlate well with their hydration thermodynamic properties. Mechanisms for cation-polymer interactions are discussed.

  6. PEO-PPO-PEO/Poly(DL-lactide-co-caprolactone) Nanoparticles as Carriers for SN-38: Design, Optimization and Nano-Bio Interface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Dimchevska, Simona; Geskovski, Nikola; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chacorovska, Marina; Pejova, Biljana; Hristov, Delyan R; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of extremely hydrophobic substances such as SN-38 into nanoparticles, is a promising approach to solve the solubility issue and enable drug administration. Moreover, nanocarriers' tumor homing behavior, targeted and controlled release at the site of action will optimize therapeutic potency and decrease toxicity of the incorporated drug substance. However, the enormous drug hydrophobicity might limit the capacity for encapsulation as the premature drug precipitation will contribute to fast free drug crystal growth, low drug incorporation and huge waste of the active material. In this article we defined the optimal region for manufacturing of SN-38 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO/P(DL)LCL nanoparticles (NPs) with high efficacy of encapsulation, suitable particle size and different surface properties, using D-optimal design and nanoprecipitation as production method. Further we made an approach to investigate the interactions with macromolecules at the nano-bio interface which are predetermined by the physico-chemical and surface properties of the NPs, and are important determinants for the biological identity of the nanoparticles, the potential for evasion of the physiological barriers and the efficacy of localization at the site of action. Here we present in depth analysis of the behavior of two types of nanoparticles with different surface properties through structured protein interaction and bioreactivity experiments in order to presuppose NP performance and toxicological profile in biological environment.

  7. Nature of interactions between PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers and lipid membranes: (I) effect of polymer hydrophobicity on its ability to protect liposomes from peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2012-09-10

    PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers have opposing effects on lipid membrane integrity: they can behave either as membrane sealants or as membrane permeabilizers. To gain insights into their biomembrane activities, the fundamental interactions between a series of PEO-based polymers and phospholipid vesicles were investigated. Specifically, the effect of copolymer hydrophobicity on its ability to prevent liposomes from peroxidation was evaluated, and partitioning free energy and coefficient involved in the interactions were derived. Our results show that the high degree of hydrophilicity is a key feature of the copolymers that can effectively protect liposomes from peroxidation and the protective effect of the copolymers stems from their adsorption at the membrane surface without penetrating into the bilayer core. The origin of this protective effect induced by polymer absorption is attributed to the retardation of membrane hydration dynamics, which is further illustrated in the accompanying study on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-derived hydration dynamics (Cheng, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-Y.; Kausik, R.; Lee, K. Y. C.; Han S. Biomacromolecules, 2012, DOI: 10.1021/bm300848c).

  8. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  9. Evidence-based hamstring injury prevention is not adopted by the majority of Champions League or Norwegian Premier League football teams: The Nordic Hamstring survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Roald; Thorborg, Kristian; Ekstrand, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise programme was introduced in 2001 and has been shown to reduce the risk of acute hamstring injuries in football by at least 50%. Despite this, the rate of hamstring injuries has not decreased over the past decade in male elite football. Aim: To examine the implementation of the NH exercise programme at the highest level of male football in Europe, the UEFA Champions League (UCL), and to compare this to the Norwegian Premier League, Tippeligaen...

  10. 聚苯醚改性高固含量热塑性PF的制备与性能研究%Study on preparation and properties of thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    理莎莎; 齐暑华; 刘乃亮; 曹鹏

    2011-01-01

    A thermoplastic PF(phenol formaldehyde resin) with high solid content(>85%) and thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO(polyphenylene oxide) were synthesized. The structure,curing reaction and thermal degradation process of thermoplastic PF unmodified and modified by PPO were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry(TGA). And both mechanics properties of composites reinforced by glass fiber were investigated. The results showed that the PPO's introduction,not only increases the curing reaction activity of PF,but also improves the heat resistance of PF. The PPO modified thermoplastic PF-based composite reinforced by glass fiber could effectively improve mechanics properties because its tensile strength,shear strength and bend strength were increased by 17.8% , 73.0% and 21.4%,respectively.%合成了高固含量(>85%)的线性PF(酚醛树脂)和聚苯醚(PPO)改性高固含量线性PF.采用红外光谱(FT-IR)法、差示扫描量热(DSC)法和热重分析(TGA)法等,分析了PPO改性前后线性PF的结构、固化反应和热降解过程,并对两者的玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能进行了研究.结果表明:PPO的引入,既增强了PF的固化反应活性,又提高了PF的耐热性能;PPO改性线性PF基玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能得到了有效提升,其拉伸强度、剪切强度和弯曲强度分别提高了17.8%、73.0%和21.4%.

  11. Case study: Muscle atrophy and hypertrophy in a premier league soccer player during rehabilitation from ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Jordan; Barreira, Paulo; Burgess, Darren J; Iqbal, Zafar; Morton, James P

    2014-10-01

    The onset of injury and subsequent period of immobilization and disuse present major challenges to maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although the characteristics of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy are well documented in laboratory studies, comparable data from elite athletes in free-living conditions are not readily available. We present a 6-month case-study account from a professional soccer player of the English Premier League characterizing rates of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy (as assessed by DXA) during immobilization and rehabilitation after ACL injury. During 8 weeks of inactivity and immobilization, where the athlete adhered to a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, total body mass decreased by 5 kg attributable to 5.8 kg loss and 0.8 kg gain in lean and fat mass, respectively. Changes in whole-body lean mass was attributable to comparable relative decreases in the trunk (12%, 3.8 kg) and immobilized limb (13%, 1.4 kg) whereas the nonimmobilized limb exhibited smaller declines (7%, 0.8 kg). In Weeks 8 to 24, the athlete adhered to a moderate carbohydrate-high protein diet combined with structured resistance and field based training for both the lower and upper-body that resulted in whole-body muscle hypertrophy (varying from 0.5 to 1 kg per week). Regional hypertrophy was particularly pronounced in the trunk and nonimmobilized limb during weeks 8 to 12 (2.6 kg) and 13 to 16 (1.3 kg), respectively, whereas the previously immobilized limb exhibited slower but progressive increases in lean mass from Week 12 to 24 (1.2 kg). The athlete presented after the totality of the injured period with an improved anthropometrical and physical profile.

  12. Continuations intra- et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux

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    Bartkova Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuations intra et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux Cet article rend compte d’un certain nombre d’observations pour l’étude des continuations mineures et majeures en français. Ces observations ont été obtenues dans le cadre d’un projet en cours sur les patrons prosodiques non-conclusifs en français et en anglais. Ici, Nous discutons plus particulièrement les variations de pente concernant deux types de configurations continuatives : (i le segment final d’un SN sujet dans une phrase simple déclarative, suivie ou non d’une autre phrase, (ii le segment final de X dans une suite complexe de type XY où X et Y sont des phrases simples reliées par une relation de discours, marquée ou non par une conjonction. A l’issu d’un protocole expérimental contrastant huit configurations proposées à trente deux sujets, nous avons relevé les valeurs de F0 toutes les 10 ms sur les segments finaux du SN et de X. En calculant le coefficient de la droite de régression correspondant à ce segment, nous avons contrasté les différentes configurations. Les résultats vont dans le sens de l’existence deux types de continuation, conformément à une intuition répandue dans la littérature, mais montrent aussi que leur différence doit se décrire à l’aide paramètres plus complexes que ce qui est généralement proposé.

  13. Adalimumab reduces hand bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis independent of clinical response: Subanalysis of the PREMIER study

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    Elden Aake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-TNF therapy has been shown to reduce radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA independent of clinical response. This has previously not been examined for periarticular bone loss, the other characteristic feature of bone involvement in RA. The objective of this study was to examine if treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab also could reduce periarticular bone loss in RA patients independent of disease activity. Methods RA patients were recruited from the PREMIER study and included 214 patients treated with methotrexate (MTX plus adalimumab and 188 patients treated with MTX monotherapy. Periarticular bone loss was assessed by digital X-ray radiogrammetry metacarpal cortical index (DXR-MCI. Change in DXR-MCI was evaluated in patients with different levels of clinical response, as assessed by changes in DAS28 score at 52 weeks and in mean C-reactive protein (CRP levels during follow-up. Results In the MTX group, there was a greater median DXR-MCI loss among patients with moderate and high disease activity compared to those in remission or with low disease activity (-3.3% vs. -2.2%, p = 0.01. In contrast, periarticular bone loss was independent of disease activity (-1.9% vs. -2.4%, p = 0.99 in the combination group. In the MTX group patients with a mean CRP of ≥ 10 mg/l lost significantly more DXR-MCI than patients with low CRP (-3.1% vs. -1.9%, p Conclusion Adalimumab in combination with MTX reduces periarticular bone loss independently of clinical response. These results support the hypothesis that TNF-α stimulates the osteoclast not only by the inflammatory pathway but do also have a direct effect on the osteoclast. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT001195663

  14. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  15. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshiet, Unyime I; Yusuff, Kazeem B

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. To assess the current utilization pattern of antihypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79%) were females (237) with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%). The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine) significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago) to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3), while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111) of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75) of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%), ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%). Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared more cognizant of the long term cardio- and renovascular benefits inherent in using ACEIs in a high cardiovascular risk group such as black hypertensive.

  16. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  17. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshiet UI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. Objective: To assess the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Results: Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79% were females (237 with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%. The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. The use of thiazide diuretic and methyldopa declined significantly from 39.4% and 23.3% (Ten years ago to 16.12% and 9.7% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. Adverse drug reactions due to ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3, while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111 of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75 of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%, ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%. Conclusions: Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared

  18. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  19. Reevaluation of the Premier Clostridium difficile toxin A and B immunoassay with comparison to glutamate dehydrogenase common antigen testing evaluating Bartels cytotoxin and Prodesse ProGastro Cd polymerase chain reaction as confirmatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doing, Kirk M; Hintz, Marilyn S; Keefe, Calvin; Horne, Sarah; LeVasseur, Shelby; Kulikowski, Martha L

    2010-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are currently the most common tests used in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins; however, significant problems with their performance have recently been described. We prospectively reevaluated the Meridian Premier C. difficile toxin A/B assay with direct comparison to a 2-step algorithm that screened for C. difficile common antigen and compared cytotoxin and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory procedures. The Premier assay lacked sufficient sensitivity, missing 25% of true-positive samples. PCR was the most sensitive method and the only procedure that allowed same day testing and reporting.

  20. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  1. 用Premiere软件为MTV视频添加卡拉OK字幕的方法%Methods to add Karaoke caption for MTV video using software Premiere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如

    2012-01-01

    提出了在Premiere中为MTV视频添加卡拉OK字幕的两种制作途径。一是直接在Premiere中制作卡拉OK字幕,在Premiere中制作又可分为重叠字幕做法、轨道蒙版键做法、彩色蒙版做法三种方法。二是结合制作卡拉OK字幕的第三方插件来制作。%There are two approaches in adding Karaoke caption for MTV video using software Premiere. One is directly to do karaoke caption in the software, withal which includes superposition caption, typewriting by keyboard on the orbital masks, and color masks; another one is that Karaoke caption is added by third party plug-in which has an ability to do Karaoke caption.

  2. Données récentes sur les habitats ruraux du premier âge du Fer en Centre-Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Maitay, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cette contribution propose de faire le point sur les modalités d’occupation des campagnes du centre-ouest de la France entre le IXe et le IVe s. av. J.‑C. Le développement de l’archéologie préventive permet depuis quelques années de préciser la question de l’occupation des campagnes au cours de la première moitié du premier millénaire avant notre ère. La multiplication des opérations et l’opportunité d’intervenir sur de grandes surfaces favorisent aujourd’hui les possibilités de saisir non se...

  3. Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2016-01-01

    Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.

  4. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  5. Modified PPO anion exchange membrane for vanadium redox battery application%聚苯醚阴离子膜的改性及在钒电池中的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁丹; 黄可龙; 刘素琴; 汪南方

    2012-01-01

    Anion exchange membranes have the low vanadium ions permeability for its application in vanadium redox system (VRB), but its low chemical stability and poor cell performance of the membrane is a crucial obstacle. In this study, a low cost commercially available polyphenylene oxide (PPO) anion exchange membrane was selected to modify with different methods. The anion exchange membrane introduced strong cation-exchange groups after modification. The performance tests with different membranes indicate that the basic characteristics and electrochemical properties with modified membrane are improved. The perfluorinated sulfonic acid solution (PFSA) is higher. Due to low vanadium ions permeability, the columbic efficiency and energy efficiency of the VRB employing modified membrane with the perfluorinated sulfonic acid solution (PFSA) is increased by 6.7 % and 3.2 %, respectively.%阴离子交换膜具有优异的阻钒性能,但是其电化学性能和化学稳定性低于阳离子交换膜,阻碍了其在全钒氧化还原电池中的应用.选用国内商业化聚苯醚(PPO)阴离子膜作为基膜,采用了两种不同的方法在阴离子交换基膜中引入阳离子交换基团成为两性离子交换膜.结果表明,二种改性方法均能提高膜的IEC、电导率等基本性能和电化学性能.由于全氟磺酸溶液( PFSA)改性后隔膜的阻钒离子能力显著提高,该膜组装的电池的能量效率和电流效率分别提高3.2%和6.7%.

  6. Les premiers romans noirs français : simples exercices de style ou trahisons littéraires complexes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cadin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers romans noirs français, imités des hard-boiled novels, ont été écrits sous pseudonyme : Malet devient Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara et Arcouët, Stewart. Quelle part de trahison anime ces auteurs ? Sert-elle à faire vendre ou à dénoncer l’invasion de la culture américaine et le goût du scandale ? Si stratégie publicitaire et séduction du lecteur entrent en jeu, le processus de trahison est néanmoins volontairement miné par ces romanciers : il devient source de réflexion sur la lecture et l’écriture.The first French romans noirs, modeled on the so-called “hard-boiled” novels, were written under pseudonyms : Malet becomes Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara, and Arcouët, Stewart. To what degree are these authors motivated by betrayal ? Is it employed merely for marketing purposes, or to denounce the invasion of American culture and a certain taste for scandal ? If advertising tactics and the seduction of the reader are undeniable elements of such novels, these writers nevertheless consciously sabotage the process of betrayal, transforming it into a source of reflection about reading and writing.

  7. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aux sources de l’herméneutique occidentale :les premiers commentaires dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rico

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article nuance, à propos de l’Antiquité, la distinction établie par Michel Charles entre rhétorique, entendue au sens de « production littéraire », et commentaire : dans le premier cas une œuvre littéraire constitue un modèle d’écriture que l’on peut imiter et parfaire ; dans le second, elle est transmise comme un monument intouchable que l’on peut citer et commenter, mais non pas imiter.Dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne, le commentaire, en effet, doit plutôt être considéré comme une œuvre littéraire au second degré dans la mesure où il se fonde sur un texte commenté qui l’engendre et le suscite. L’article évoque dans cette perspective l’herméneutique du mot dans l’école d’Alexandrie, l’herméneutique de l’énoncé dans les écoles de philosophie antiques, les commentaires juifs anciens et médiévaux, l’herméneutique chrétienne ancienne, et leurs variations autour du sens littéral et du sens spirituel.

  9. The Effect of Autonomy-Supportive Behaviors of Coaches on Need Satisfaction and Sport Commitment of Elite Female Players in Handball Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES, satisfaction of the psychological needs in sports and sports Commitment Scale (SCMS questionnaires. We applied multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM to analyze the data. Results showed there was a positive correlation between autonomy-supportive behaviors with the psychological needs of competence and commitment of athletes. On the other hand, the players `commitment correlated positively with psychological needs. Results of multivariate regression showed that the autonomy-supportive behaviors were predictor of psychological needs and commitment of players. The path analysis, also, established mediator role of psychological needs between autonomy-supportive behavior of the coach and players` commitment. Thus, the self-determination Theory among the elite players and sports teams was confirmed.

  10. Effects of different bulk curing technologies on polyphenol content and PPO activity in tobacco leaves%密集烘烤工艺对烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松峰; 王爱华; 王先伟; 管恩森; 徐秀红; 王传义; 任杰; 孙福山

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes of polyphenol substance contents and PPO activity during 3 different curing processes were studied using electric-heated flue-curing barn. Results showed that content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, implicit chlorogenic acid, and Rutin increased during all curing processes. After curing, K2 treatment resulted in the highest content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, and implicit chlorogenic acid, while K3 treatment resulted in the highest content of rutin and scopoletin. K2 treatment showed the lowest PPO activity during the sensitive period (45℃-47℃) of the brown reaction while K3 treatment showed the highest. Those indicated that K2 treatment can effectively inhibit enzymatic browning reaction and regulate polyphenol content during bulk curing, and produced higher level of polyphenol substances after curing.%为密集烘烤有针对性地调控多酚含量和优化完善烘烤工艺,采用电热式温湿自控密集烤烟箱,研究了3个密集烘烤工艺烘烤过程中烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的变化。各密集烘烤工艺处理烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷含量随着烘烤进程总体呈升高趋势。烤后烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸和隐绿原酸含量以K2工艺处理较高,芸香苷和莨菪亭含量以K3工艺处理较高。棕色化反应的敏感时期(45℃-47℃)的PPO活性以K2工艺处理最低,K3工艺处理最高。研究表明K2工艺处理能很好地抑制酶促棕色化反应的发生,调控密集烘烤过程中多酚类物质的变化,烤后烟叶多酚类物质含量高。

  11. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Nicholls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.

  12. L’Islam des pierres : l’expression de la foi dans les graffiti arabes des premiers siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Imbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les graffiti arabes coufiques des premiers siècles de l’islam, en Arabie comme au Proche-Orient, représentent une source d’information inépuisable sur la société musulmane des origines. Toutefois, la datation des textes du ier/viie siècle, antérieurs aux Umayyades, reste problématique et doit se fonder sur des analyses paléographiques rigoureuses. L’étude du contenu des graffiti relatifs à la foi peut aider à dater ces textes du fait qu’ils connurent des phases progressives de développement. Les plus anciens graffiti datés de 23/643 et 24/644 ne contiennent pas de référence au religieux ; les auteurs, comme leurs contemporains, semblèrent plus intéressés de pérenniser leurs noms sur la pierre, s’inscrivant dans la tradition safaïtique. La question des premières professions de foi montre qu’il a existé des formulations archaïques antérieures à la shahâda traditionnelle, reflet d’un monothéisme tribal très matérialiste. Quant aux demandes de pardon récurrentes dans les graffiti, elles relèveraient d’une stratégie d’écriture. Enfin, la constatation de l’absence de citation du prophète Muḥammad dans les graffiti les plus anciens montre, à elle seule, les enjeux historiques et religieux de cette recherche épigraphique.

  13. Autour d'un mystère de l'histoire du livre. Les trois versions du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de Choiseul-Gouffier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koubourlis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, il est question d'un grand mystère de l'histoire du livre, celui de l'existence de trois versions différentes du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782 de Choiseul-Gouffier, c'est-à-dire d'un ouvrage majeur pour la floraison des idées philhellènes dans l'Europe des XVIIIe-XIXe siècles. On sait, grâce à la correspondance de l'auteur, qu'il avait pris la décision de réviser son texte dès 1783, en raison de sa candidature pour le poste d'Ambassadeur de France à Constantinople. Par contre, on n'en sait pas davantage sur le lieu et le temps exacts où il a travaillé les deux nouvelles versions, portant également la date 1782, ni d'ailleurs sur les circonstances de leur édition. Sur la base d'une étude comparative des trois versions du texte, qui met l'accent sur l'argumentation avancée chaque fois par l'auteur, nous formulons ici une série d'hypothèses pour l'interprétation de ce mystère, que nous allons examiner dans leurs détails à partir d'une étude de bibliologie qui suivra le présent article.

  14. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  15. 鸭梨多酚氧化酶基因cDNA全长的克隆和生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Full Length cDNA Sequence of PPO Gene in Yali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂琴; 齐靖; 闫洪波; 高志华

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular structures of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Yali, the author designed series of primers based on the known cDNA fragment of PPO gene in Yali to clone the unknown 3' and 5' cDNA terminal sequence for this gene by using RACE method. With the total RNA extracted from fruit of Yali as the template, the author finally obtained the full length cDNA sequence of PPO gene in Yali, which was 2126 bp in length, and has a open reading frame between 136-1917 bp, in which 276 predicted amino acid residues were encoded. Research the deduce amino acids of PPO gene from Yali by bioinformatics analysis, it showed that the PPO in Yali was a typical hydrophilic soluble protein which belonged to tyrosinase super family, and it did not contain distinct transmembrane domain in tertiary structure, so the Yali PPO should located in thylakoid lume of plastid. That information laid a good foundation for regulating the enzyme activity of PPO in Yali by biological technology and breeding a new cultivar of pear with browning resistance in the future.%为了从分子水平深入了解鸭梨多酚氧化酶结构特点,基于已知的鸭梨多酚氧化酶基因cDNA片段序列设计引物,以鸭梨果实总mRNA为模板,对该基因cDNA 5’端和3’端未知序列进行了RACE扩增,最终获得鸭梨多酚氧化酶基因cDNA全长序列.该序列长度为2126 bp,开放性读码框位于136~1917 bp之间,可编码593个氨基酸残基.对该基因所翻译的氨基酸序列进行生物信息学分析,结果表明基因编码的多酚氧化酶属酪氨酸酶超级家族成员,三级空间结构为可溶性球状蛋白,不具备跨膜结构,在细胞中的定位应该位于类囊体腔中.这些生物信息的获得将为今后应用生物技术开展鸭梨多酚氧化酶的调控,从而抑制鸭梨果实褐变提供十分重要的参考资料.

  16. Archéologie des monastères du premier millénaire dans le Centre-Est de la France. Conditions d’implantation et de diffusion, topographie historique et organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bully

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’en 1997 le Conseil national de la recherche archéologique publiait le bilan 1990-1994 de la recherche en France et sa nouvelle programmation, figurait parmi les thèmes prioritaires : « Les origines et les fonctions des premiers bâtiments monastiques : églises et organisation des bâtiments communautaires, relations entre architecture et règle monastique » . Il était alors rappelé que l’on ne savait rien des fondations colombaniennes et très peu des abbayes carolingiennes. Depuis lors, d...

  17. Évolution nycthémérale des composantes biochimiques du phytoplancton de la retenue du barrage Idriss premier (Fès, Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahhou, J.; Alaoui Mhamdi, M.

    1999-03-01

    The diel changes of the biochemical composition of the phytoplankton were studied in the Idriss first reservoir (located on the Inaouen river at thirty Km from the city of Fes, Morrocco) during September 1994. Several biomass and metabolic indicators (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, chlorophyll a and primary production) were assessed every fourth hour over tow days (7, 8 and 9 September). Since the Protein/Carbohydrates ratio (P/C) is largely recognised as a good integrator of the metabolic functions of the cells, we examined its distribution pattern concomitantly with aforementioned parameters. The results demonstrated enhanced P/C ratios clearly indicating that nutrients were sufficiently available for growth. In addition, this index showed a diel significant variation with levels higher in the night than in the day. Moreover, these results suggest that phytoplankton species during the night used the day-synthesised carbohydrates to insure the cell metabolic functioning. The P/C presents relatively high values in proposition to the ones that have been recorded in temperate regions, and seems to be related to azotic inputs of the Inaouen river. Dans le but de parfaire nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement du sous écosystème phytoplancton, nous nous sommes intéressés à étudier son cycle nycthéméral et son métabolisme cellulaire dans la retenue du barrage Idriss premier. Cette dernière, construite sur l'Oued Inaouène, est située à une trentaine de Km de la ville de Fès. Au cours de ce cycle, les prélèvements ont été effectués selon une séquence temporelle de 4 heures pendant 48 heures, les 7, 8 et 9 septembre 1994. L'étude de l'évolution des composantes biochimiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques à savoir les protéines, les glucides et les lipides a permis de mettre en évidence des variations nycthémérales importantes. Ces variations sont d'autant plus importantes que les variations spatiales observées entre les profondeurs. De plus

  18. Longwood Gardens——A World Premiere Horticultural Display Garden%长木公园——世界杰出的园艺展示园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (美)詹姆斯·哈比奇; 马琳; 常雷刚; 李星

    2011-01-01

    Longwood Gardens is recognized as one of the world premiere horticultural display gardens, inspiring people through excellence in garden design, horticulture, education and the arts. Longwood displays integrate permanent plantings and seasonal floral crops with interpretive exhibits and performing arts events, coordinated into a combined guest experience. Longwood Gardens' Horticulture Display team combines strong design principles with the unique plant pallet of over 9 500 taxa to maximize the visual impact of displays. This team often collaborates with world class designers to develop major new display themes and spaces. The intense seasonal display program is possible because of the, mostly, on-site production of over 120 000 containers of floral crops on 4 acres of dedicated production space. Longwood's team of craftsmen also support display efforts by fabricating the structural and mechanical elements often required for the elaborate design compositions. The culmination of planning, design, production, and execution come together to produce amazing horticultural displays, that are original and unique in the world, and provide wonderful memories of beauty, excitement and solitude to visitors from all over.%长木公园是世界杰出的园艺展示园之一,其精湛的花园设计、园艺、教育以及艺术品鼓舞人心.长木公园的展览将永久性栽植和时令花卉种植结合在一起,加入诠释性展览和表演艺术活动,整体协调成为一种综合性的游览体验.长木公园的园艺展示团队将强大的设计原则与9500多个独特的植物类群相结合,达到展示视觉效果的最大化.团队经常与世界一流的设计师合作来开发新的展览主题和空间.密集的季节性展览,很大程度上得益于公园的1.6万m2专用生产空间,可现场生产12万盆花卉.长木的技师团队也通过制造结构和机械元件来支持展览.顶尖的策划、设计、生产和执行结合在一起,创造出

  19. Franchisees boost growth of Hispanic PPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J

    1991-10-07

    What began as a local marketing effort by two Chicago hospitals to reach the city's fast-growing Hispanic population has turned into a national program with franchises in San Diego and San Antonio, Texas. Formed in 1989, Hispanocare, a preferred provider organization catering to Hispanics, began attracting attention in other cities with large Hispanic populations, prompting the Chicago hospitals to begin a marketing push.

  20. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  1. Study ing the influence and d imensions of Competitive Intelligence of Coaches on performance of current Soccer teams of The Iranian Premier League According to Component Balanced Scorecard (BSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas BABAKIANPOUR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available T he aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coaches competitive intelligence on the football teams performance in the Iranian Premier League based on the Balanced Scorecard component (BSC.This prac tical research is a descriptive - correlational study in which population consisted of all head coaches and coaches from 16 Iranian Premier F ootball teams be tween 1392 - 1393. Two individual from each team were selected as coach and head coach and t he sample of 32 students were selected by census method. Questionnaire, 12 balls Fehy (2007 was used to measure competitive intelligence Coaches variables and ¬ 20 items of the questionnaire Neon (2003 was used to measure team performance. The results showed that the competitive intelligence team football coache s could affect performance and internal team performance will significantly increase. Also the team awareness c o ndition, technical knowledge, Opponents situation awareness, and awareness strategy of the coac hes had the greatest impact on team performance. In fact, coach es who having high level of competitive intellige nce will use the environmental threats as opportunities for improvement and uses it to enhance team performance.

  2. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  3. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-04-26

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport.

  4. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the 'Top 3' risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and 'inconclusive', respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all 'D'. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded 'C' recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was 'D'. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation 'D'. The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  6. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  7. Édition, diffusion et réception des premiers ouvrages sur le commerce et la comptabilité en Russie au XVIIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Platonova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available À partir du XVIe siècle, des ouvrages destinés à aider les négociants dans leurs pratiques commerciales et en particulier à leur apprendre les techniques de la comptabilité circulent à travers l’Europe. Il faut attendre la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle pour qu’ils apparaissent en Russie. En prenant la mesure du rôle grandissant des marchands dans l’État et la société, la monarchie tenta d’organiser l’enseignement commercial et favorisa la diffusion de cette littérature. Ces premiers écrits, leur contenu, les conditions de leur diffusion, leur impact sur l’instruction et les pratiques des marchands de cette époque font l’objet de la présente étude. Cela donne l’occasion de souligner la parenté des publications russes avec l’ensemble des ouvrages de même nature imprimés en Europe occidentale entre les XVIe et XVIIIe siècles. En effet, leur parution ouvre la voie à la pénétration en Russie des savoirs et des pratiques de la comptabilité moderne. Toutefois, cette littérature n’a pas capté l’intérêt immédiat des milieux marchands russes. Ceux-ci se révèlent majoritairement indifférents à la tenue des livres en partie double et restent attachés aux modes traditionnels de formation professionnelle et de gestion des affaires. En cause, le caractère à la fois novateur et complexe du contenu de ces ouvrages, mais aussi les conditions générales dans lesquelles se déroulait l’exercice du commerce à cette époque et l’identité sociale des marchands. C’est pourquoi l’impact de la littérature commerciale et comptable du XVIIIe siècle sur les pratiques marchandes ne doit pas être surestimé. Cette littérature a surtout marqué la pensée comptable dont le développement s’amorce à partir de cette époque en Russie.  Since the sixteenth century, books written for to help the merchants in their practices and in particular to learn how to keep accounts spread across Europe. Such

  8. 大蕉后熟期的褐变相关性及褐变底物鉴定%Correlations between Browning Degree and PPO or POD Activity of Dajiao Banana (Musa paradisiaca ABB cv Dajiao) and Preliminary Identification of Browning Substrates during Postharvest Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永亮; 余铭; 袁根良; 杜冰; 鲁旺旺; 黄守耀; 杨公明

    2012-01-01

    The variation regularity of browning degree (BD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) of Dajiao banana (Musa paradisiaca ABB cv. Dajiao) was observed and compared with other two banana varieties, Fenjiao and Cavendish. Meanwhile, the role of total and free phenol contents in the browning of Dajiao banana was investigated. BD indicated a progressively increasing trend in the three varieties of banana during postharvest ripening, and Fenjiao and Cavendish browned significantly faster than Dajian after the 13^th day of storage, suggesting that Dajiao was more suitable for deep processing. In addition, Dajiao exhibited low PPO and POD activities and low free phenol content but high total phenol content and consequently browned slowly, demonstrating an association between the BD and PPO or POD activities and a negative correlation between the browning rate and free content of The correlation coefficients between BD and PPO POD activities phenol Dajiao. or were 0.8789 and 0.9240, respectively. Thus, there is a close correlation between the browning potential and PPO or POD activities of Dajiao. The main browning substrates in Dajiao were gallic acid and epicatechin as preliminarily identified using UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and HPLC.%以粉蕉和香牙蕉为对照,观察大蕉后熟过程中褐变度、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶的变化规律,同时考察大蕉总酚和游离酚含量分别在大蕉褐变过程中起的作用。结果表明:三种香蕉在后熟过程中,褐变度均呈逐渐增长趋势,在储藏13d后,粉蕉与香牙蕉的褐变速率明显高于大蕉,说明大蕉更适合于作为深加工的原料。在储藏13d后,大蕉的多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶比活力均比较低,游离酚含量也比较低,但总酚含量较高,最终导致褐变速率较慢,说明大蕉的褐变度同多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶有一定的相关性,大蕉的褐变速率与游离酚的含量呈

  9. Mise en œuvre et premiers effets d’un projet d’agrégation céréalier dans la région de Bni Saden (province de Séfrou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Hdidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers projets de développement élaborés dans le cadre du Plan Maroc Vert ont été initiés en 2010. L’étude présente une analyse de la mise en oeuvre et des premiers effets d’un de ces projets. Il s’agit d’un projet d’agrégation, relevant du Pilier I, dans la filière céréalière de la province de Séfrou. Des entretiens ont été effectués auprès de 25 agriculteurs du projet et 25 agriculteurs de zones témoins situées aux alentours de la zone du projet. L’étude des effets a été faite en qualifiant comment les agriculteurs agrégés auraient évolué sans projet. Ceci a été effectué par la méthode d’appariement (matching, en associant à chaque agriculteur du projet les agriculteurs hors projet qui avaient, avant projet, certaines caractéristiques identiques à cet agriculteur. Le projet a consisté en pratique en des formations, une mise à disposition d’intrants et un taux amélioré de subvention pour l’acquisition de matériel agricole. Ces activités ont conjointement permis d’accélérer l’amélioration et l’intensification des pratiques de production des céréales et une amélioration des rendements. Les agriculteurs du projet communiquent plus entre eux sur leurs pratiques agricoles. Cependant, l’association qui regroupe les agriculteurs du projet ne joue encore qu’un rôle limité de coordination et de négociation avec les acteurs extérieurs, et en particulier avec l’agrégateur.

  10. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

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    Michel Polfer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: ◦l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires ◦l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à ◦la répartition géographique des nécropoles ◦les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires ◦l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales ◦les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles ◦les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  11. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à -la répartition géographique des nécropoles -les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires -l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales -les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles -les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  12. Approche dynamique du premier harmonique pour la modélisation de convertisseurs AC-AC à étage intermédiaire continu. Application aux générateurs à induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, S.; Rognon, J. P.; Ferrieux, J. P.; Bendaas, M. L.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modelling technique for power electronics converters with both DC and AC stages. This technique is based on a dynamical approach of the first harmonic method. The approach is first applied to an idealized converter and second is extended to a framework working under discontinuous conduction mode. At the end, comparative simulations are done to validate the continuous built model. Dans cet article, il est présenté une technique de modélisation de convertisseurs présentant à la fois des étages continus et alternatifs. Cette technique est basée sur une approche dynamique de la méthode du premier harmonique. La technique est tout d'abord appliquée à un convertisseur idéalisé pour être ensuite étendue à une structure travaillant en conclusion discontinue. En dernier lieu, des simulations viennent valider le modèle continu mis au point.

  13. The Barclays Premier League game field emergency predicting and early warning mechanism and its inspiration to China%英超赛场突发事件预测预警机制及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚云; 罗恒; 钟丽萍

    2014-01-01

    The authors gave a detailed introduction to the risk assessing, monitoring and early warning mechanism in the Barclays Premier League game field emergency predicting and early warning mechanism as well as gold, sil-ver and bronze levels of emergency handling. The inspiration gotten therefrom is that setting up a dedicated risk management organization, cultivating risk management professionals, strengthening the construction of the predict-ing and early warning system, and establishing a sports game emergency response command mechanism, are effec-tive ways to prevent sports game field emergences and reduce losses caused by such emergencies.%通过对英超赛场突发事件预测预警机制的风险评估、监测预警机制以及“金、银、铜”3级应急处置等进行了详细介绍。从中得到的启示是设置专门的风险管理机构,培养专业风险管理人才;加强预测预警系统的建设;建立体育赛事突发事件应急指挥机制,是预防体育赛场突发事件以及降低突发事件造成损失的有效途径。

  14. Premiers éléments de caractérisation génétique de l'alose du Rhône (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924

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    LE CORRE M.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La systématique des deux espèces du genre Alosa (A. alosa Linné, 1758-grande alose- et A. fallax Lacépède, 1803 -alose feinte- colonisant l'Atlantique-est et la Méditerranée reste encore confuse en l'absence de caractérisation génétique. En particulier, six sous-espèces ont été reconnues chez l'alose feinte uniquement à partir de critères morphométriques et méristiques. Parmi ces sous-espèces, l'une d'entre elles (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924 -alose du Rhône- est inféodée au bassin méditerranéen français et notamment au fleuve Rhône. Les critères morphométriques et méristiques de ce taxon le rattachent sans équivoque à A. fallax. Cependant, son gabarit moyen et certaines de ses caractéristiques écologiques le rapprochent fortement d'A. alosa. Ainsi, pour connaître la véritable identité de l'alose du Rhône, une première caractérisation génétique a été entreprise à l'aide d'une analyse électrophorétique des protéines du foie (gel d'amidon et du sang (isoélectrofocalisation prélevées sur des échantillons d'adultes. Dans un premier temps, deux des loci les plus performants pour différencier les deux aloses atlantiques (MPI, Mannose Phosphate Isomérase et HBA, chaîne α de l'Hémoglobine ont été utilisés. L'observation des fréquences allèliques montre que l'alose du Rhône semble appartenir à l'espèce A. fallax. Dans un deuxième temps, un troisième locus (ADH, Alcool Déshydrogénase a été utilisé car il a été reconnu comme permettant de discriminer les populations d'alose feinte du Portugal. L'expression de sa fréquence allèlique montre que la population du Rhône resterait proche de celle des fleuves du nord du Portugal. Ces premiers résultats sont discutés en fonction des récentes études génétiques réalisées sur les aloses de l'Atlantique. Elles montrent que, compte tenu du caractère particulier de ce taxon, sa caractérisation génétique doit être compl

  15. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

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    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  16. 使用i-gel(R)与La Premiere(R)一次性喉罩后咽喉与颈部并发症的比较:一项双盲随机对照试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiaan Keijzer; 刘素平; Dirk R. Buitelaar; Katina M. Efthymiou; Michael (S)rámek; Julia ten Cate; May Ronday; Tino Stoppa; Johannes M. Huitink; Peter F. Schutte

    2011-01-01

    背景 很多声门上的气道装置都可用于气道管理.由于i-gel(R)不使用可充气的套囊,我们推测,相对于标准的喉罩(LM),使用i-gel(R)应该能减少手术后喉部与颈部的不适.方法 218例患者被随机分组,分别使用i-gel(R)或LaPremiere(R)喉罩进行气道管理,并于手术后1、24和48小时随访患者喉部与颈部的不适症状,随访者和患者对所用通气装置均不知情.结果 109例患者应用i-gel,103例患者使用La Premiere喉罩.与LM组比较,i-gel组在手术后1小时(6与32)、24小时(7与48)、48小时(5与25)咽喉疼痛的发生率明显减少;出现吞咽困难的情况两组患者相似;i-gel组在手术后24小时(1与27)、48小时(1与7)颈部疼痛的发生率也较少.结论 通过本随机研究,使用i-gel声门上装置导致的手术后喉部与颈部的不适小于LaPremiere喉罩.

  17. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  18. Archéologie et sociabilité: la délégation du Pérou au Premier Congrès international des Américanistes, Nancy, 1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur tente de montrer comment l'analyse de la composition de la délégation péruvienne au premier Congrès International des Américanistes peut fournir une vision différente du mouvement anthropologique au XIXème siècle, dans la mesure où la plupart des membres de cette délégation étaient peut-être plus préoccupés de représentation que de l'avancement des sciences humaines. D'où l'idée d'un intérêt pour l'archéologie considéré alors comme un acte de sociabilité. El autor intenta demostrar que el análisis de la delegación peruana al primer Congreso Internacional de Americanistas puede dar otra visión del movimiento antropológico en el siglo XIX, en la medida en que la mayoría de los miembros de esta delegación estaban tal vez más preocupados por su imagen pública que por el progreso de las ciencias humanas. En este caso, el interés por la arqueología sería sobre todo un acto de sociabilidad. The author intends to show how the analysis of the social composition of the peruvian delegation at the first International Congress of Americanists, can offer a different view upon the anthropological movement in the XlXth century, as far as most of the delegates were more worried of their public image instead of the advancement of human sciences. In this particular case, their interest on archaeology would be seen as a social act.

  19. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  20. Film Premiere: Arrows of time at exploratorium

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Join award-wimming artist and filmmaker Ken McMullen for a uniqude presentation of films engaging ideas at the forefront of science and culture on Sunday, Apri 29 at 2pm at the Exploratorium." (1/3 page)

  1. Inkscape premiers pas en dessin vectoriel

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Avec Inkscape, s'initier au dessin vectoriel devient un jeu d'enfant ! Paramétrez votre espace de travail pour créer avec aisance et précision. Intégrez des photos et des textes à vos dessins. Maniez les outils de forme ou dessinez à main levée avec les courbes de Bézier. Appliquez couleurs et dégradés aux formes et aux contours. Optimisez votre méthode de travail avec les modèles, les calques et les clones. Convertissez les objets en chemin et retouchez le détail de vos tracés. Transformez vos projets avec les filtres et les effets. Validez vos acquis avec 9 études de cas : création de logo, réalisation d'une invitation, conception d'une affiche...

  2. Sur les premiers peuplements du Pacifique sud

    OpenAIRE

    Semah, Anne-Marie; Detroit, F.

    2006-01-01

    About the first human settlements in South Pacific. South Pacific includes Australia and the Pacific Islands: Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia. Which human populations settled them? When, why and how? Where did they come from? Did environment influence these migrations? An exhaustive discussion of these vast questions could not be undertaken rigorously within the framework of this short article. We thus propose to discuss here very precise points that could bring a new lighting on the first s...

  3. 不同抗性南瓜品种感染Phytophthora capsici病菌后几种酶活性测定%Bioassay of different squash cultivars' the activity of POD,PPO and PAL in interaction with P.capsici

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊华

    2003-01-01

    采用酶活性测定法,对不同抗性南瓜品种感染Phytophthora capsici病菌后几种酶活性测定.结果表明,过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性与品种抗疫病性呈正相关.抗感品种健康植株的多酚氧化酶、过氧化物酶的活性差异不显著,苯丙氨酸解氨酶活性差异显著.抗感品种接种后POD的活性变化分别在36,48,60 h出现3次高峰,PPO的活性变化分别在30 h,42 h出现2次高峰,PAL的活性变化分别在30,48 h出现2次高峰.

  4. Théorie visco-élastique non-extensive IV. Premiers tests expérimentaux de la théorie simplifiée à modes translationnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, F.

    This paper describes the first tests of the non-extensive visco-elastic theory with translational modes developed in (III), using viscosity, self-diffusion, shear elasticity, thermal conductivity and surface tension literature data of several liquids, namely water, organic solvents and a nematics, for which numerous data exist in the literature. As in the rotational case (I, II), a remarkable qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained. The influence of translational-rotational coupling on the flow is examined for the nematics and for water. The obtained results, of equivalent importance as those obtained previouly in (II), are more spectacular in the sense that they concern more common substances. If the proposed description is accepted, important changes in the meaning of some physical concepts are necessarily implied. Cet article décrit les premiers tests de la théorie visco-élastique non-extensive à modes translationnels développée dans l'article (III), à l'aide de données de viscosité, de coefficients d'auto-diffusion, d'élasticité de cisaillement, de conductivité thermique et de tension superficielle, d'un certain nombre de liquides, à savoir l'eau, des solvants organiques usuels et un nématique, pour lesquels de très nombreuses données expérimentales existent dans la littérature. Comme dans le cas rotationnel avec les nématiques (I, II), un accord qualitatif et surtout quantitatif remarquable est obtenu. L'influence du couplage translation-orientation sur les propriétés d'écoulement est examiné dans le cas du nématique, et dans une certaine mesure, de l'eau. Ces résultats, de même importance absolue que ceux obtenus dans (II) avec les aspects rotationnels, sont relativement plus spectaculaires dans la mesure où ils sont relatifs à des substances beaucoup plus communes. Si ce type de description est accepté, ils impliquent inévitablement des changements importants sur la signification de certains concepts physiques.

  5. La stigmatisation particulière du pédéraste passif dans les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la premiere partie du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pastorello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la première partie du xixe siècle sont les premiers travaux envisageant la pratique de l’homosexualité masculine sous l’angle scientifique. Deux figures sont primordiales : le docteur Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 membre des idéologues et qui entendait faire de la médecine la pièce maîtresse d’une science de l’homme et Ambroise Tardieu 1818-1879 professeur de médecine légale à Paris auteur d’un traité vu comme un aboutissement de ces études médico-légales. Il faut signaler l’influence de la phrénologie. Ces médecins définissent des stigmates physiques et moraux propres à la pratique de la pédérastie, surtout passive et à l’occasion définissent un personnage type. Ces discours relèvent d’abord d’une phraséologie morale et ils puisent leurs racines antérieurement. Cependant il faut aussi replacer ces discours stigmatisant la pédérastie passive dans le contexte de la construction de la virilité moderne. Il faut aussi placer la médecine légale dans le contexte de la médecine et de ses évolutions.The particular stigmatization of the passive pederast in the inquiries of forensic medecine in the first part of the XIX centuryForensic medicine in the first part of the 19th century investigations are first work considering the practice of male homosexuality in scientific terms. Two figures are crucial: the Dr. Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 the ideologists member and intended to do medicine the centrepiece of a human science and Ambroise Tardieu 1818 - 1879 Professor of forensic medicine in Paris author of a treaty as a culmination of these forensic studies. It should be noted the influence of the phrenology. These physicians define physical stigma and moral own practice of pederasty, especially passive and during the define a type character. These speeches are firstly a moral phraseology and they draw their roots previously. However we also

  6. Tadmekka. Archéologie d’une ville caravanière des premiers temps du commerce transsaharien Tadmekka: The archaeology of an early cross-Saharan caravan town in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Nixon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les premières fouilles systématiques de Tadmekka, une des villes commerçantes majeures d’Afrique de l’Ouest, qui a participé à la croissance du commerce transsaharien durant les premières années de l’ère islamique (vers 650-1500. En 2005, des fouilles sur les ruines de Tadmekka (Essouk, dans le Nord du Mali, ont fourni une stratigraphie de 6,5 m, depuis le milieu du premier millénaire jusque vers 1400. Les analyses effectuées ensuite ont considérablement amélioré notre compréhension des périodes « préhistoriques » et historiques, et permettent d’ouvrir des perspectives nouvelles. Après une description des prémisses du projet et une présentation complète de ses résultats, nous présentons une histoire du développement de Tadmekka, en plaçant côte à côte les résultats archéologiques et les indices fournis par la documentation historique. Nous nous focalisons ensuite sur des analyses spécifiques, comme par exemple : les modes de construction à Tadmekka, le monnayage en or, le commerce des produits au-delà du Sahara, les céramiques, les industries locales et les pratiques alimentaires.This paper reports the first systematic excavations of Tadmekka, one of the major West African trading towns that enabled the huge growth of cross-Saharan trade during the early Islamic era (c. AD 650-1500. In 2005 excavations at Tadmekka’s contemporary site (‘Essouk’ in northern Mali yielded a 6.5 m excavated sequence, dating from the mid-first millennium AD to c. 1400. Subsequent analysis has significantly improved understanding of the town’s ‘prehistoric’ and historic periods, and shown how the archaeology presents a wealth of evidence of significance for wider debates. Following a background to the project and a full presentation of its results, we build up an improved story of Tadmekka’s development, by placing the archaeology side by side with the evidence provided by early

  7. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  8. Premier`s Task Force on NAFTA wind turbine manufacturing facility and windpower plants : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The proposal for a 700 MW wind farm and associated manufacturing facility at Pincher Creek, Alberta was discussed. York WindPower and ENERCON submitted the joint proposal in the spring of 1996 and requested a financial arrangement to guarantee a sale price of 5.4 cents per kWh (escalated) over 25 years. This was later revised in February, 1997 to 350 MW, 4.9 cents per kWh (escalated) over 15 years. A Task Force was established to assess this proposal and any other prospects for development of renewables in general. The two inseparable elements of the proposed project would be a manufacturing facility which would produce approximately 400 wind turbines a year, and a 700 MW wind farm, phased in over 10 years. The size of the wind farm would be based on a calculation of the minimal annual production required for the manufacturing facility to be viable. Pincher Creek residents are supportive of renewable energy and have been promoting wind energy long before the York/ENERCON proposal. They view this project as a support for regional economic development. The Task Force was pleased that York/ENERCON is pursuing the Alberta Advantage and is considering setting up a manufacturing facility. The Task Force did not seek to make a finding with respect to the business viability of the project, instead, the Task Force concluded that the commercial test for the project should be provided by competition in the marketplace. Nevertheless, the Task Force is supportive of the project, provided it proceeds on a voluntary, market-driven basis, and there are no conflicts with the existing government policy framework. 4 tabs., 2 appendices.

  9. Onderzoek compost in de akkerbouw op PPO-locatie Vredepeel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnholds, K.H.; Meuffels, G.J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In een meerjarige proef wordt een bemesting met compost aangevuld met organische mest vergeleken met twee gangbare toepassingen. Namelijk een bemesting met organische mest, aangevuld met kunstmest en daarnaast een bemesting met compost aangevuld met kunstmest. Het betreft proeven met de gewassen: wa

  10. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension

  11. Study of the influence of PPO in the compatibility of the system PA6/PC/PPO through nuclear magnetic resonance II - Composition changes in the PA6/PC/PPO system; Estudo da afluencia do PPo na compatibilidade do sistema PA6/PC/PPO atraves de espectrometria de resonancia magnetica nuclear. II - Mudanca na composicao do sistema PA6/PC/PPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Dilma Alves; Oliveira, Clara Marize F.; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Menezes, Sonia M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa

    1997-12-31

    This work aims to study the influence in the quantities of poly(propylene oxide) in the miscibility of the system 6-poly-amide/ poly - carbonate / poly (propylene oxide). NMR was used as chemical instrumental technique for the analysis. Results are presented 15 refs.

  12. De David Belasco à Giacomo Puccini : La Fanciulla del West, premier opéra « américain » From David Belasco to Giacomo Puccini:La Fanciulla del West, first “American” opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Zidaric

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La Fanciulla del West is a “horse opera” resulting from the second collaboration between David Belasco and Giacomo Puccini. This work, specially composed for the American stage, which had its world premiere at New York’s Metropolitan Opera in December 1910, paved the way for American composers who increasingly focused on American History in their quest for a “national” opera. For the first time, Puccini resorted to genuine Indian music, a Zuni melody, which he re-elaborated for dramatic purposes and associated with the nostalgic mood of uprooted people, the miners who left their home country for America. The Other – the native American viewed from the vantage point of the white, as well as the foreigner – no longer represented a threat, as had been the case in the operatic repertoire before, but became part and parcel of a multicultural society, like the Italian immigrant to whom Puccini also paid tribute. The Zuni melody, which opens and closes the opera, contributes to giving a genuine twist to a score which is the first one to tackle the foundations of the American nation.

  13. Application of Adaptation Theory in Practice of Interpreting Taking the Interpreting Reports of Premier WEN in 2010 .as an Example%语言顺应论在口译实践中的应用——以2010年温家宝总理答记者问现场口译为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋瑛

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation theory was proposed by Versehueren in 2000, the main idea of which is that language has three properties : variability, negotiability and adaptability. Based on the adaptation theory, how the target language adapts to the context, language structure and the dynamic process of interpreting were explained to demonstrate the important guiding function through studying the interpreting reports of Premier WEN in 2010.%语言顺应论是Verschueren于2000年提出,之后被广泛应用于语言学界,其主要内容包括变异性、商讨性和顺应性。以语言顺应论为理论支撑,以2010年温总理答记者问现场口译稿为语料,分析口译实践过程中语言顺应论如何解释译语顺应语境、语言结构和口译的动态过程,说明语言顺应论在口译实践过程中的重要指导作用。

  14. Critical Appraisal of Information on the Web in Practice: Undergraduate Students’ Knowledge, Reported Use, and Behaviour / Évaluation critique de l’information sur la toile : une vision pratique : les connaissances des étudiants de premier cycle, leur uti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Hogan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates use a wide range of information resources for academic and nonacademic purposes, including web sites that range from credible, peer reviewed, online journal sites, to biased and inaccurate promotional web sites. Students are taught basic critical appraisal skills, but do they apply these skills to make decisions about information in different web sites? In an experimental setting, undergraduate students examined pairs of web sites containing conflicting information based on different aspects of critical appraisal, namely credibility of the author of the information, purpose of the web site, and last update of the site, and answered multiple choice questions about the conflicting information. Results indicated that students failed to use critical appraisal criteria, and that while knowledge of and self-reported use of these criteria were related to each other, they were not related to behaviour. This research demonstrates the need for alternative strategies for critical appraisal instruction and assessment. Les étudiants de premier cycle consultent une vaste gamme de sources d’information à des fins universitaires et non universitaires, y compris des sites Web allant de revues en ligne crédibles et évaluées par des pairs à des sites Web promotionnels partials et inexacts. On enseigne aux étudiants des méthodes de base d’évaluation critique, mais mettent-ils ces méthodes en pratique pour prendre des décisions relativement à l’information tirée de différents sites Web? Dans un cadre expérimental, les étudiants de premier cycle ont étudié des paires de sites Web contenant des informations contradictoires en se fondant sur différents aspects de l’évaluation critique, notamment la crédibilité de l’auteur de l’information, l’intention du site Web et la dernière mise à jour du site, et ont répondu à des questions à choix multiples concernant les informations contradictoires. Les r

  15. Interpreting Skills of Political Terms with Chinese Characteristics Guided by Skopos Theory-a Case Study of Premier Li Keqiang's Press Conference Interpreting%目的论视角下中国特色政治词汇口译策略浅析--以2013年两会期间李克强总理答记者问为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 曾景婷

    2014-01-01

    文章旨在探讨译员是如何运用目的论来口译中国特色政治词汇,实现对外交流的目的。以功能翻译目的论为理论依据,对李克强总理的一场记者招待会现场汉英口译进行了分析。研究结果显示:与其它领域的口译相比,外交口译的特点要求在传译时措辞更严谨,译员会采取不同的口译策略,在目的原则的统领下,遵循目的论的“语内连贯原则”并选择性的违反“语际连贯原则”,即是说为了产出内容能被听众理解,译员需要对口译中目标语作出相应的调整。%This paper aims at analyzing the skills employed to interpret political terms with Chinese Characteristics for foreign ex-change. According to Skopos theory,this paper conducts a case study of a press conference held by Premier Li Keqiang. This re-search demonstrates that even if the nature of diplomatic interpreting calls for a more stringent wording than other kinds of inter-preting,the interpreter always follows the intra-textual coherence rule,adjusting the target text while violating the inter-textual coherence rule to some extent. In other words, in order to realize the purpose of producing an understandable target text, it is necessary to make adjustments to the target text.

  16. The Origin and Development of the Sudanese Ports (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkinin the early Islamic Period Origine et développement des ports soudanais (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkin aux premiers siècles de l’Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Power

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avant que la mobilité et les échanges liés au /hajj et au commerce avec l’Inde ne s’imposent de manière prédominante dans la mer Rouge médiévale à partir du xie siècle, les ports soudanais connurent une première phase d’activité (632-969, largement ignorée des historiens. Etablis dès les premiers temps de l’Islam, les ports de ‘Aydhâb et de Bâ/di‘ eurent pour première fonction d’appuyer la conquête islamique et de contenir la puissance d’Aksûm en Ethiopie. Les échanges marchands ne se développèrent que lentement. Dans la seconde moitié du viiie siècle se mit en place la traite des esclaves africains, avant que la « ruée vers l’or » du ixe siècle n’accélère la croissance des ports soudanais, entraînant notamment l’établissement du port de Sawâkin.The origin and early development of the Sudanese ports [AD 632-969] has been obscured by a fixation with the medieval ‘India trade’ and /hajj traffic. It can alternatively be shown that ‘Aidhâb and Bâ/di‘ were established to further the Muslim conquests and contain Aksumite Ethiopia. Trade was slow to develop. An African slave trade emerged in the mid eighth century. Gold mining thereafter assumed central importance, with Souakin established in a ninth-century ‘gold rush.’

  17. Les conditions d’exercice du travail des cadres de premier niveau : une étude de cas First level managers’ working conditions: a case study Las condiciones de ejercicio del trabajo de los supervisores de primer nivel : un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Baril-Gingras

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le travail des cadres de premier niveau a connu, ces dernières années, de nombreux changements. Dans le réseau de la santé au Québec, on a observé réduction importante de leur nombre de cadre de premier niveau. Or, ceux-ci jouent un rôle important quant à la santé (physique et psychologique et à la sécurité des membres des équipes de travail, puisqu’ils définissent certaines des conditions de réalisation de leur travail et certains aspects de leur environnement psychosocial de travail. L’étude, visant à mieux comprendre le travail de ces cadres et l’influence des conditions dans lesquelles il est réalisé, a procédé par des observations auprès de 12 cadres de premier niveau, sous forme de chroniques de travail et par des entretiens sur la base de ces observations. L’article présente et discute trois types de résultats : des exemples de la manière dont la tâche prescrite est convertie en tâche effective et de sa traduction dans leur activité ; une synthèse de la manière dont ils perçoivent leur rôle ou « tâche effective » ; des constats quant à l’écart entre celle-ci et les conditions de réalisation de leur travail, en particulier du fait d’une surcharge quantitative de travail, d’une autonomie réelle limitée et d’obstacles à la planification et au développement à long terme de leurs services, Ces conditions n’apparaissent donc pas favorables au rôle positif qu’ils souhaitent jouer et qui est attendu d’eux, par rapport à leurs équipes de travail.First-level managers’ work has undergone many changes in recent years. In Québec’s public health network, the number of these managers has decreased significantly. However, they play an important role in the health (physical and mental and safety of work team members, since they define some of their working conditions and some aspects of the psycho-social work environment. The aim of the study was to better understand first

  18. Premier Print Awards%美国印制大奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    大奖简介 由美国印刷工业协会主办的“美国印制大奖”是全球印刷行业最权威、最具影响力的印刷产品质量评比赛事,每年举行一次,至今已举办了59届。其最高荣誉Benny Award金奖是以美国发明家本杰明·富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin,昵称Benny)命名的最高荣誉奖项,被喻为全球印刷界的“奥斯卡”。美国印制大奖设立后的59年中,

  19. Malta's Deputy Premier Promoted Malta to Chinese Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 24,2010,malta Investment Promotion Conference was held in the Building of CCPIT.Hon Tonio Borg,Matar's Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs attended and addressed the conference himself.Dong Songgen,Vice President of CCOPIT,and Karl Xuereb,Ambassador of Malta both participated in the conference.

  20. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  1. The first double superconductor; Le premier supraconducteur double

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roditchev, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Klein, J. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France); Sacks, W. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 (France)

    2003-11-01

    A material easy to manufacture which conduce the electric current without resistance up to a temperature relatively high: there is soon three years, this discovery gives rise to hopes for potential applications. Nowadays, however, the main advance is theoretical: the identification of a new type of superconductivity. (O.M.)

  2. Premier Wen Stresses Building of “Harmonious Society”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    While high-speed economic growth and dramatic social changes continue to distinguish China across the globe, the country's leadership is eyeing a smoother ride on its development path by setting forth a guideline prioritizing harmony.

  3. Les marees vertes: Premier bilan concernant les essais de valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, D.; Briand, X; Golven, P

    1983-01-01

    Seasonal green algal blooms (Ulva lactuca ) are observed along Brittany coasts and estuaries. The example of Lannion Bay during 1982 is exposed, with the causes and the consequences. After treatment, these seaweeds can be used for energy production (methanization and composting) and animal feeding (laying hens).

  4. The first Capel experiment; La premiere experience Capel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Electrostatic periodic perturbations producing a resonance effect with Larmor motion, are applied for trapping 1.8 keV electrons in a magnetic mirrors bottle. This method gives temporary trapping lasting more than 20 transits. Switching off the perturbations results in complete trapping of temporarily trapped particles. Life time of fast electrons with a pressure of 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg has a value of 12 ms which seems to result from non adiabatic effect losses. At the same pressure, ionization of residual gas by fast electrons produces secondary electrons with a lifetime of 1.5 second in agreement with evaluations based on elastic scattering losses assumption. (author) [French] On capture des electrons de 1,8 keV dans une bouteille a miroirs magnetiques en utilisant une methode de perturbations electrostatiques periodiques agissant par un effet de resonance avec le mouvement gyromagnetique. Cette methode donne une capture provisoire correspondant a un nombre de transits superieur a 20. La suppression rapide des perturbations transforme la capture provisoire en capture 'definitive'. Pour une pression d'environ 5.10{sup -9} mm Hg, la duree de vie des electrons rapide semble limitee a 12 ms par les effets de non adiabaticite des trajectoires tandis que les electrons secondaires formes par ionisation du gaz residuel ont une vie de 1,5 s explicable par la valeur des sections efficaces de choc elastique. (auteur)

  5. Premiers résultats en provenance du LEP2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, produced its first pair of fundamental particles known as W+ and W- today, taking particle physics research into new and unexplored territory. This follows a busy winter of upgrades which have transformed LEP into a new accelerator, earning it the name LEP2. Hundreds of physicists from all over the world come to CERN to do their research at LEP2, which will be further upgraded over the coming years, bringing the possibility of new discoveries and extending our understanding of the Universe.

  6. NIKE TIEMPO PREMIER 梦回一九九四

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEXXXXXY

    2010-01-01

    要说对世界杯的最初印象.相信不少球迷会回答是来自一九九四年美国世界杯。在那年的世界杯中,罗马里奥、马尔蒂尼等球星穿着的球鞋侧面有个大大的白钩,让人印象深刻。这双传奇般的NIKE TIEMPO PREMIER也成为NIKE足球鞋大家族中最为著名的始祖之一。这一次NIKE复刻了这双球鞋,在世界杯年中将球迷的视线又拉回到了九四年的美利坚之夏。

  7. L’oppidum arverne de Gondole (Le Cendre, Puy-de-Dôme. Topographie de l’occupation protohistorique (La Tène D2 et fouille du quartier artisanal : un premier bilan The arverne oppidum of Gondole (Le Cendre, Puy-de-Dôme, France. Layout of the Proto-historic occupation and excavation of an artisanal area: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gruel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’oppidum de Gondole est, des trois oppida arvernes localisés dans le sud du grand bassin clermontois, celui qui reste le plus mal connu du grand public mais aussi de la communauté des chercheurs. Identifié assez récemment à un oppidum gaulois à la suite de premiers travaux exploratoires, il n’avait, jusqu’à il y a peu, fait l’objet d’aucune étude approfondie à l’inverse des sites voisins de Corent et de Gergovie.Les découvertes faites dans le cadre de l’archéologie préventive entre 2002-2005, dont de spectaculaires ensevelissements mêlant des hommes et des chevaux, sur les parcelles situées en avant de la fortification, ont marqué la reprise des recherches conduites sur ce site. À leur suite, c’est le secteur sud-est de l’occupation extra muros qui a fait l’objet d’une fouille en aire ouverte. Ces travaux ont permis le dégagement d’une partie de l’ouvrage défensif de l’oppidum (le fossé ainsi que l’étude d’une zone à vocation domestique et artisanale (métallurgie, tabletterie, production céramique immédiatement attenante.Au final, nous disposons aujourd’hui d’une documentation riche et variée qui nous permet de percevoir la topographie de cette occupation protohistorique d’une surface importante (70 ha dont la moitié extra muros, de comprendre le mode d’occupation de certains secteurs (l’habitat notamment et d’en préciser la chronologie (La Tène D2.Of the three arverni oppida situated in the southern part of the Clermont-Ferrand basin, Gondole is the least known to the general public and to the scientific communities. Unlike her sister sites, Corent and Gergovie, detailed surveys of Gondole have only recently begun, mainly because Gondole lay undiscovered until the early 1990’s.The rescue archaeology trial trenching carried out between 2002 and 2005 led to the discovery of the famous horses and human burial, and marked the beginning of the archaeological research around

  8. Pilgrims' Progress: The journey towards a knowledge building community in a university undergraduate class / Le voyage du pèlerin: Le parcours vers la création d’une communauté d’apprentissage dans une classe de premier cycle universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald N. Philip

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of a class of third- and fourth-year undergraduate science students as they attempted to create a knowledge building community in a blended or hybrid science education class. The research sought to examine this process through analyses of the frequency of their note postings and responses, and through a social network analysis of their communication patterns for note reading. These data were automatically harvested by the Knowledge Forum knowledge building environment, and downloaded for later analysis. Contribution levels indicated that the frequency of note postings increased three-fold following the mid-term of the course causing maladaptive student work patterns to reduce information overload. As well, the disparity between high-frequency note posting students and low-frequency note posting students followed a linear curve with the ratio between the highest posting and lowest posting student to be 2.7:1. A similar pattern was found with regard to responses. A disparity was also found among the students in the number of postings read, with the highest note reading student reading six times the number of notes as the lowest note reading student.The social network analyses revealed evidence of community formation in the note reading network. Analysis showed both one-way and reciprocal interactions, indicating that the pathways needed for the transfer of complex information were present. Considering all the data together, while some communication patterns necessary for a knowledge building community were present, contribution patterns suggested that a true knowledge building community did not form, but that there was progress towards it. Cette étude avait pour objet d’étudier la progression d’un groupe d’étudiants en sciences de troisième et de quatrième années du premier cycle universitaire dans leur tentative de créer une communauté d’apprentissage dans une classe hybride d

  9. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  10. Studies on the PEO-PPO-PEO Block Copolymer Release from Alginate Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction Alginate hydrogel is one of the most widely used carriers for the immobilization of micro bial cells. If surfactants are encapsulated with alginate hydrogel, increasing temperature or concentration can make the encapsulated surfactants aggregate and form micelle.

  11. Crystallization of bifonazole and acetaminophen within the matrix of semicrystalline, PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhengsheng; Qian, Feng

    2015-02-02

    The morphology and microstructure of crystalline drug/polymer solid dispersions could influence their physical stability and dissolution performance. In this study, the drug crystallization mechanism within PEG, PPG, and poloxamer matrix was investigated, and the resultant microstructure of various solid dispersions of acetaminophen (ACM) and bifonazole (BFZ) in the aforementioned polymers was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and wide/small-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD/SAXS). With a stronger molecular interaction with the PEG segments, ACM decreased the crystallization onset temperature and crystallinity of PEG and poloxamers much more than BFZ. The stronger molecular interaction and better miscibility between ACM and PEG also induced a more defective lamellar structure in the ACM solid dispersions compared with that in the BFZ systems, as revealed by DSC and SAXS investigation. Observed under polarized optical microscopy, PEG, PPG, and poloxamer could all significantly improve the crystallization rate of ACM and BFZ, because of the largely reduced Tg of the solid dispersions by these low Tg polymers. Moreover, when the drug loading was below 60%, crystallization of BFZ in PEG or poloxamer occurred preferably along the radial direction of PEG spherulite, rather than the perpendicular direction, which was attributed to the geometric restriction of well-ordered polymer lamellar structure in the BFZ solid dispersions. Similar phenomena were not observed in the ACM solid dispersions regardless of the drug loading, presumably because ACM could diffuse freely across the perpendicular direction of the PEG spherulite, through the well-connected interlamellar or interfibrillar spaces produced by the defective PEG lamellar structure. The different drug-polymer interaction also caused a difference in the microstructure of polymer crystal, as well as a difference in drug distribution within the polymer matrix, which then synergistically facilitated a "confined crystallization" process to reduce the drug crystallite size below 100 nm.

  12. A Bayesian Method for Evaluating Passing Scores: The PPoP Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard; Wang, X. A.; Skorupski, William P.; Bradlow, Eric T.

    2005-01-01

    In this note, we demonstrate an interesting use of the posterior distributions (and corresponding posterior samples of proficiency) that are yielded by fitting a fully Bayesian test scoring model to a complex assessment. Specifically, we examine the efficacy of the test in combination with the specific passing score that was chosen through expert…

  13. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  14. On the Translation of Words with Chinese Characteristics Guided by the Skopos Theory---A case study of the Government Work Report (2016)by Premier Li Keqiang%基于目的论的中国特色词汇翻译研究--以李克强总理2016年《政府工作报告》译文为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘改琳; 吴迪

    2016-01-01

    s:The annual Report on the Work of the Government is both a summary of the Chinese government’s work in the previous year and an outlook on its work for the next year.One crucial function of the report is to appeal to overseas readers for their understanding and support for the gov-ernment’s work and help the general public to learn more about the government’s needs and priorities for the sake of their active participation and efforts.Due to its high political significance,each year the report is reposted on multiple well-known media outlets,such as Reuters and the Wall Street Journal. Meanwhile,countless English learners will study the report as a reference model.Therefore,the translation of the report is an extremely demanding task as any inaccurate translation will lead to mis-understanding of the work and development agendas of the Chinese government from foreign coun-tries.Since more words with Chinese characteristics are quoted in the report,it is rather difficult to find English equivalence.This paper intends to analyze the translation of words with Chinese charac-teristics in the Report on the Work of the Government (201 6)by Premier Li Keqiang from the per-spective of the Skopos Theory.Literal translation,literal translation with notes and liberal translation are applied during the process to properly translate such words.%《政府工作报告》具有高度的政治性,每年有如路透社、《华尔街日报》等多家知名媒体报道转载,同时也有不计其数的英语学习爱好者会以此为范本进行英语学习,所以对其译文的要求极高,一旦翻译错误就会让外国对中国政府的工作或是发展目的产生误解。又因其中越来越多的包含了具有中国特色的新词汇,找到与其对等的译文难度较大。该文旨在从目的论的角度出发,通过直译、直译加解释,意译这三种方法对2016年李克强总理《政府工作报告》中的中国特色词汇进行了分

  15. Annexe III. Biographie de Lee Kuan Yew, premier ministre de Singapour

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Harry Lee Kuan Yew (« la lumière qui brille »), fils aîné de Lee Chin Koon (cadre de société pétrolière et bijoutier) et de Chua Jim Neo, est né à Singapour en 1923. Sa famille, d’origine Hakka (Chine méridionale), est implantée à Singapour depuis 1830-40 ; l’arrière grand-mère maternelle et le grand-père paternel ont épousé respectivement un Malais et un Chinois peranakan indonésien, ce qui explique l’esprit multiracial du cercle familial qui a tant marqué le jeune Lee dans ses luttes ultéri...

  16. Actes et passions des martyrs chrétiens des premiers siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Vinel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Vingt-sept œuvres, brèves pour la plupart, sont regroupées dans ce volume et classées chronologiquement selon les différentes périodes de persécution. Dans une abondante littérature hagiographique, P. Maraval a choisi ceux des récits qui sont reconnus pour leur fondement historique. Il retraduit la plupart à nouveaux frais, sur la base des éditions disponibles, les plus récentes (par ex. la nouvelle édition du Martyre de Polycarpe par J. Leemans, Louvain 2007 ou la Passion d’Irénée, évêque de...

  17. Fan Based Brand Equity (FBBE Factor Analysis of Football in Iranian Premier League Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Khodadai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to validate and factor-analyze the Fan Based Brand Equity (FBBE questionnaire of football in Iranian supreme league clubs. The present research is of descriptive-analysis type and has been done by survey method. The statistic population included football clubs fans of the Iran’s 13th supreme football league, and the sample society was 880 people chosen from seven clubs fans present at stadiums by using Cochrane’s formula based on available samples using random category and clustering methods. The research instrument was an author-made questionnaire. The whole content reliability of questionnaire was CVI=0.91 and its validity was calculated through two validity methods of test and retest (ICC was 0.89. The internal reliability was calculated greater than 0.8 for 52 items through Cronbach’s Alpha. Software SPSS 20 was used to perform the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. According to the results of factor analysis of 52 items on FBBE questionnaire, 7 items were deleted in the exploratory analysis and 45 items were placed in 5 factors. Finally, FBBE questionnaire has been confirmed with 12 items brand association attribution, 7 items for brand association benefits, 6 items for brand association attitude, 12 items for brand identity, 6 items for tangible identity, 6 items for intangible identity, 8 items for brand loyalty, 4 items for behavioral loyalty, and 4 items for attitudinal loyalty in confirmatory factor analysis.

  18. Vice Premier Liu Yandong Meets Northern Ireland First Minister and Deputy First Minister

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Chi

    2013-01-01

    <正>"China and the United Kingdom,countries with major influence in the world,have broad common interests and wide areas for cooperation.Their friendly cooperation has great significance for the wellbeing of their

  19. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials; Regards sur 1998. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne`s mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  20. 110th Anniversary of Premier Zhou’s Birthday What qualifications make Zhou Enlai a leader?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Zhou Enlai (1898. 3. 5—1976. 1. 8) was one of the most lasting statesman of the PRC. He survived 60 years of revolutionary turmoil, five civil wars, two World Wars and 12 years of Japanese invasion.

  1. L'accélérateur du CERN bat un premier record

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Des protons lancés les uns contre les autres à une vitesse très proche de celle de la lumière sont entrés en collision avec une énergie de 2,36 TeV, la plus haute jamais atteinte dans un laboratoire. (2 pages)

  2. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    the border beckoned conferees to visit Mexico , enjoy its Logan Cowgill, memo to native foods, and sample a drink called the margarita. 0. Willard...to New Mexico , where Madeline Canova hosted the workshop at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in Albuquerque. There, conferees enjoyed the funicular...housed in the San Diego Princess Hotel on Paul Klinefelter, personal Mission Bay. Entertainment included a Mexican fiesta , with communication, 24 July

  3. Le premier Guide d’analyse des entreprises d’économie sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Tessier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sous le leadership du RISQ, les partenaires de la finance solidaire du Québec se sont regroupés pour élaborer et rédiger le Guide d’analyse des entreprises d’économie sociale.Destiné principalement aux accompagnateurs, analystes et gestionnaires d’entreprises collectives, ce guide offre une large série d’outils et de grilles facilitant autant l’analyse, l’évaluation et l’élaboration du plan d’affaires que le suivi de l’entreprise d’économie sociale. Il aborde également de façon très détaillée les particularités comptables des OBNL et des coopératives.

  4. Fundulus as the Premier Teleost Model in Environmental Biology: Opportunities for New Insights Using Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strong foundation of basic and applied research documents that the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus and related species are unique laboratory and field models for understanding how individuals and populations interact with their environment. In this paper we summarize an ex...

  5. Nutritional awareness and habits of Premier league sportsmen in the Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection of optimal nutrition for physical activity of sportsmen depends on several factors, and includes the type and duration of exercises, total energy consumption, time needed for recovery, andnutritional preferences. Proper nutrition of sportsmen relies on adequate combination and participation of all the macronutrients. The aim of this research was to analyse and determine the nutritional awareness andhabits of sportsmen depending on their age and type of sports they indulge.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study undertaken from May to July 2011 on the sample of 100 examinees/sportsmen of the Football Club “Željezničar“ and Basketball Club “Bosna“.Results: General awareness of sportsmen on basic principles of proper nutrition is unsatisfactory. Statisticalsignificance per type of sport and age of sportsmen is proved through representation of macronutrients in their nutrition. For 49.1% footballers and 52% sportsmen over 19 years of age the most important combinationof macronutrients resembles the model of carbohydrates-proteins-fats, while 48.9% of basketballers and sportsmen under 18 prefer proteins-carbohydrates-fats. The study had shown a statistically significantdifference (p=0.01 between the footballers and basketballers with regard to the type of meal they consume before the trainings.Conclusion: Insufficient knowledge on the subject reflects in bad nutritional habits, especially those related to the number and arrangement of daily meals in comparison to respective sports activities.

  6. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28; Energies matieres premieres. Lettre n. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials; Rapport annuel 1997. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  9. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials; Les chiffres cles des matieres premieres minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Directeur General de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres, France (France)]|[Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.).

  10. Alexandre Theotokis la notion de l'évolution et le premier texte de zoologie grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas B. Krimbas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Theotokis, membre de l'illustre famille de Corfou, ayant fait des études de zoologie et paléontologie au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle à Paris, publie en 1848 les Tableaux zoologiques généraux ou Prodrome à la zoologie hellénique, un livre dans lequel pour la première fois est présenté en langue grecque la notion d'évolution, onze ans avant la publication de l'Origine des espèces de Darwin. Theotokis est anti-évolutionniste et suit fidèlement les opinions de son maître Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. Theotokis exerça une forte influence sur son neveu Constantin, auteur bien connu de la littérature grecque moderne.

  11. Nutritional awareness and habits of Premier league sportsmen in the Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection of optimal nutrition for physical activity of sportsmen depends on several factors, and includes the type and duration of exercises, total energy consumption, time needed for recovery, andnutritional preferences. Proper nutrition of sportsmen relies on adequate combination and participation of all the macronutrients. The aim of this research was to analyse and determine the nutritional awareness andhabits of sportsmen depending on their age and type of sports they indulge.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study undertaken from May to July 2011 on the sample of 100 examinees/sportsmen of the Football Club “Željezničar“ and Basketball Club “Bosna“.Results: General awareness of sportsmen on basic principles of proper nutrition is unsatisfactory. Statisticalsignificance per type of sport and age of sportsmen is proved through representation of macronutrients in their nutrition. For 49.1% footballers and 52% sportsmen over 19 years of age the most important combinationof macronutrients resembles the model of carbohydrates-proteins-fats, while 48.9% of basketballers and sportsmen under 18 prefer proteins-carbohydrates-fats. The study had shown a statistically significantdifference (p=0.01 between the footballers and basketballers with regard to the type of meal they consume before the trainings.Conclusion: Insufficient knowledge on the subject reflects in bad nutritional habits, especially those related to the number and arrangement of daily meals in comparison to respective sports activities.

  12. Qui révélera le premier la particule de Dieu

    CERN Multimedia

    Dessibourg, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    L'accélérateur LHC reprend du service le 20 février. Dés les découvertes, dont celle peut-être du fameux "boson de Higgs", la tentation sera grande pour les chercheurs de les annoncer, sur des blogs, afin de se faire connaître. Au risque de se faire exclure. (1 page)

  13. PECVD de composes de silicium sur polymeres: Etude de la premiere phase du depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennler, Gilles

    Since their first introduction in the early 90's, transparent barriers against oxygen and/or water vapor permeation through polymers, such as SiO 2, are the object of increasing interest in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries, and more recently for the encapsulation of organic-based displays. It is now well known that these thin layers possess barrier properties only if they are thicker than a certain critical thickness, dc. For example, dc is around 12 nm in the case of SiO2 on KaptonRTM PI; below this value, the measured "Oxygen Transmission Rate" (OTR, in standard cm3/m2/day/bar) is roughly the same as that of the uncoated polymer. Until now, no detailed research has been carried out to explain this observation, but a hypothesis was proposed in the literature, based on island-like growth structure of the coating for d ≤ dc. According to this hypothesis, the surface energy of the polymeric substrates is so low that the Volmer-Weber (island-coalescence) growth mode occurs. We have aimed to verify this explanation, that is, to study the initial phase of silicon-compound (SiO2 and SiN) growth on four different polymeric substrates, namely polyimide (KaptonRTM PI), polycarbonate (LexanRTM PC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethyleneterephthalate (MylarRTM PET). Three different deposition methods were used, namely reactive evaporation of SiO, radio-frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD), and Distributed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (DECR) PECVD. In this latter case, the substrates were placed in three different positions: (i) in the active glow zone, (ii) downstream, and (iii) downstream, but shielded from photon emission (e.g. VUV) from the plasma. Angle-Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the latter performed after Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) by oxygen plasma, revealed that growth indeed occurs in a Volmer-Weber mode in the case of evaporated films. The island coalescence was observed to occur at d = 1.2 nm, at which point the sticking coefficient of precursor species changes drastically. Finally, we have investigated the presence of an "interphase" between deposited coatings and the polymeric substrate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Les Campaniformes Pyreneo-Languedociens Premiers Résultats au C 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean GUILAINE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La civilisation des gobelets campaniformes a posé aux préhistoriens, dès son individualisation même, des problèmes de géographie et de diffusion ainsi que des questions de caractère chronologique. C'est essentiellement le mérite des auteurs ibériques d'avoir montré que cette culture s'était fractionnée en ensembles géographiques relativement distincts (P. Bosch-Gimpera, A. del Castillo. Les auteurs anglo-saxons, pour leur part, ont surtout mis l'accent sur les variantes typologiques, en essayant de décortiquer la famille campaniforme en horizons stylistiquement et chronologiquement bien différenciés. Au terme d'une longue tradition (marquée par les travaux de A. Goetze, P. Reinecke, J. Abercromby, V. G. Childe, H. N. Savory, etc., se trouve une série de belles synthèses dont les plus remarquables sont celles de E. Sangmeister (1951, J. D. Van der Waals et W. Glasbergen (1955, D. L. Clarke (1970. De nombreux préhistoriens se sont par ailleurs penchés sur les problèmes de diffusion et diverses thèses ont été émises: théorie de l'origine sud-ibérique (Schmidt, Bosch- Gimpera, Del Castillo; théorie de la genèse centro-européenne (J. et E. Neustupny; thèse, plus complexe, de Sangmeister mettant en jeu divers relais à partir de Liberie et un important phénomène de reflux depuis l'Europe moyenne en direction de la Péninsule (théorie fortement discutée par la suite par son auteur même; enfin, tout récemment, hypothèse de D. L. Clarke sur la formation de cette civilisation dans le Midi de la France, plus particulièrement dans la région bordant le Golfe du Lion.

  15. Un premier bilan de l’introduction du CECRL. Le cas du Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Le Cadre européen commun de référence (CECRL) a été introduit dans le contexte d’une réforme du système éducatif dans les années quatre-vingt-dix au Portugal, afin de rénover les programmes des langues vivantes et d’en élaborer d’autres pour de nouvelles filières. Chaque équipe d’auteurs, issue généralement des associations professionnelles, a travaillé de façon autonome et a interprété différemment des options présentées par le CECRL. Les textes officiels produits présentent ainsi un grand n...

  16. Results of the preparatory study “PREMIER Analysis of Campaign Data”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Castelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere region and the impact of limb emissionmeasurements at millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelengths for investigation of chemical, dynamical andradiative processes occurring at these altitudes constitute a major focus of the atmospheric research activitiessupported by the European Space Agency (ESA in the last two decades.[...

  17. Professional football sponsorship in the English Premier League and the German Bundesliga

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, André Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/704 on 10.04.2017 by CS (TIS) This research project looks at professional football sponsorship from three different perspectives: the clubs' perspective (sponsorship as an income stream for professional football clubs), the sponsors' perspective (sponsorship as a marketing tool for companies), and a joint perspective (sponsorship as an inter-organisational relationship between professional football clubs and their sponsors). The English Prem...

  18. Chinese Premier and German Chancellor Attend Concert Marking 35 Years of China-Germany Diplomatic Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Aconcert in celebration of the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Germany jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the German Embassy in China was held in the Forbidden City Concert Hall in Beijing on the evening of August 27.

  19. "Particle Fever": avant-premiere at CERN Main auditorium on 10 December, at 19:30

    CERN Multimedia

    Neal David Hartman

    2013-01-01

    CERN people will have the chance to see a preview of the film "Particle Fever" in CERN's main auditorium on Tuesday 10 December at 19:30. The director, Mark Levinson, will be in attendance to speak with the audience about the film after the screening.   CERN and its experiments have been the focus of innumerable television documentaries, news reports, and other media productions.  However, until now, no film about the search for the Higgs Boson has been made for theatrical release in the classic documentary tradition.  "Particle Fever" has received numerous awards and travelled to festivals around the world, where it has consistently played to sell-out audiences.  The film will begin a commercial theatrical run in the United States in early 2014, but CERN people have the chance to see a preview in the CERN main auditorium on Tuesday, 10 December at 19:30.   The director, Mark Levinson, has wor...

  20. Activities of the control services. First quarter 1997; Activites des services du controle. Premier trimestre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the control activities of the technical service of electric power and big dams: annual examinations, administrative instructions (draining, floods, granting renewal), decennial examinations etc. (J.S.)

  1. Virtual accelerator concept, implementation and preliminary test; Accelerateur virtuel Concept, implementation et premier test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriot, D.; Duperrier, R

    2006-05-15

    A virtual accelerator is the coupling of a simulation code with the control system of a real machine. 3 operating modes are considered. First, the monitoring mode in which any action on the control system has an impact on both real and virtual machines. This mode allows a direct comparison between simulation results and the real behaviour of the accelerator. Secondly, the flight simulation mode, this mode allows the accelerator operators to simulate the effect of any change in the parameters of the control system before transferring them to the real machine. The main advantage of this mode is to allow the assessment of operating procedures before implementing them on the real machine. The third mode is the automatic steering mode in which the simulation code assumes the reins of the control system of the real machine. This mode allows the making of complex and time-consuming adjustment procedures in an automatic way. TraceWin is a simulation code dedicated to the behaviour of charged-particle beams in a linear accelerator. TraceWin is consistent with the EPICS technology on which the control system of most accelerators is based. A virtual accelerator composed of the SILHI injector combined to the TraceWin code via the EPICS environment has showed its efficiency in the automatic steering mode. (A.C.)

  2. Welcome to Los Alamos National Laboratory: A premier national security science laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Terry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    Dr Wallace presents visitors with an overview of LANL's national security science mission: stockpile stewardship, protecting against the nuclear threat, and energy security & emerging threats, which are underpinned by excellence in science/technology/engineering capabilities. He shows visitors a general Lab overview of budget, staff, and facilities before providing a more in-depth look at recent Global Security accomplishments and current programs.

  3. 首演"贝九"%The Premier of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安; 贾伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ 日前,中国交响乐团(原中央乐团)党委书记王安代表党委到家中拜访了乐团的老领导、著名指挥家严良堃先生.严老虽然年逾八旬,但思维敏捷,幽默乐观.王安与严良堃就首演的对话,在新中国成立60年之际听起来颇有意义.

  4. Developments during the first semester 2001; Les developpements au premier semestre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document gives a panorama of the nuclear energy situation at the end of the first 2001 semester. The energy policy concerning the nuclear industry development, is discussed for many countries: USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China, India, Korea, Taiwan, Africa and south America, Russia and east Europe. (A.L.B.)

  5. Marketing to Develop the Premier Medical Brand in the Huaihai Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiying; Meng, Qingchao

    2015-06-01

    Based on the practices at Xuzhou Central Hospital, the authors analyzed the improvements in the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after implementing a brand marketing strategy. Using methods including questionnaires and business controlling means, we summarized that the improvements to the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after strategies were implemented in the areas of network, reputation, academic research, and public welfare. After the implementation of a brand marketing campaign, the medical service quality and brand reputation have been greatly improved. Meanwhile, a central hospital group was formed and gradually became the central healthcare provider in the Huaihai Economic Zone. The new marketing facilitated the drastic increase of medical service and brand reputation.

  6. Synthesis and Demulsification of Cardanol Based Phenol-Amine Resin PPO-PEO Block Polyethers%腰果酚胺树脂接枝PPO-PEO嵌段聚醚的合成与破乳性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 宁萌萌; 李翠勤; 李云; 张怀志

    2011-01-01

    Two phenol-amine resin were synthesized using cardanol as raw materials, and then four amphiphilic cardanol - based phenol-amine resin block polyethers(CPAE) of different molecular weight were further synthesized using phenol - amine resin as initiator through addition reaction with epoxyethane and epoxypropane respectively. Four CPAE were characterizad by FT-IR. The surface tension and interfacial tension were measured, and demulsification performance were studied using bottle test. The results show that the cmc and γcmc of CPAE increased with the increasing of EO content. The interfacial tension of CPAE aqueous decreased and dewatering rate increased as the concentration increased. Under the conditions of 80 mg/L, 35 "C and 100 min, the dewatering rates of four CPAE are all above 70%, far superior to that of commercial demulsifiers SP169, BP169 and TA1031.%以腰果酚、甲醛和多乙烯多胺为原料合成腰果酚胺树脂起始剂,再与环氧乙烷(EO)和环氧丙烷(PO)聚合,合成了分子质量各异的4种腰果酚胺树脂型嵌段聚醚(CPAE)表面活性剂.采用FT- IR对其结构进行了表征,采用表面张力法和瓶试法分别研究了系列CPAE的表面性能和破乳性能.结果表明,随着EO含量的增加,CPAE的临界胶束质量浓度(cmc)及此时的表面张力(γcmc)增加;随着相对分子质量的增加,cmc及γcmc降低.随着CPAE浓度的增加,CPAE水溶液的界面张力降低,脱水率增大.在80 mg/L,35℃,100 min的条件下,CPAE的脱水率即可达到70%以上,破乳效果远优于商用破乳剂SP169,BP169及TA1031.

  7. Micellar solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers for in situ phenol removal from fermentation broth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerema, L.D.; Cakali, D.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Keurentjes, J.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of aqueous solutions of Pluronics for the removal of the model product phenol was evaluated. Phenol is a chemical that can be produced by a recombinant strain of the solvent tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12. However, the growth of the micro-organisms and the phenol

  8. Rheological Properties and Reverse Micelles Conditions of PEO-PPO-PEO Pluronic F68: Effects of Temperature and Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Henda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of Pluronic F68 were dissolved in various water/organic liquid mixtures over a wide range of temperatures, all at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. We have considered the following binary mixtures: Pluronic F68/water, F68/p-xylene, and F68/phenol. Various conformational transitions were detected and interpreted. We have also shown that these mixtures retain a Newtonian behavior independently of temperature and conformational changes. For ternary F68/p-xylene/water, F68/phenol/water, and F68/water/phenol mixtures, the behaviour of the solution is intimately related to the temperature and the amount of water and organic solvent added.

  9. Micellar solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers for in situ phenol removal from fermentation broth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerema, L.D.; Cakali, D.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Keurentjes, J.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of aqueous solutions of Pluronics for the removal of the model product phenol was evaluated. Phenol is a chemical that can be produced by a recombinant strain of the solvent tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12. However, the growth of the micro-organisms and the phenol product

  10. Nano- and macroscale structural and mechanical properties of in situ synthesized bacterial cellulose/PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Domeneguetti, Rafael R; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2015-02-25

    Highly transparent biocomposite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) mat modified with poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer (EPE) were fabricated in situ during biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in a static culture from Gluconacetobacter xylinum. The effect of the addition to the culture medium of water-soluble EPE block copolymer on structure, morphology, crystallinity, and final properties of the novel biocomposites was investigated at nano- and macroscale. High compatibility between components was confirmed by ATR-FTIR indicating hydrogen bond formation between the OH group of BC and the PEO block of EPE block copolymer. Structural properties of EPE/BC biocomposites showed a strong effect of EPE block copolymer on the morphology of the BC mats. Thus, the increase of the EPE block copolymer content lead to the generation of spherulites of PEO block, clearly visualized using AFM and MO technique, changing crystallinity of the final EPE/BC biocomposites investigated by XRD. Generally, EPE/BC biocomposites maintain thermal stability and mechanical properties of the BC mat being 1 wt % EPE/BC biocomposite material with the best properties. Biosynthesis of EPE/BC composites open new strategy to the utilization of water-soluble block copolymers in the preparation of BC mat based biocomposites with tunable properties.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] · 22H2O as a co-crystallization agent.

  12. State-of-the-Art project : grote energiebesparing bij bewaring van bollen : onderzoeker Jeroen Wildschut (PPO) boekt opmerkelijke resultaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, W.; Wildschut, J.

    2009-01-01

    Het is een investering van niks, maar met een plank en een paar houten balkjes is het elektraverbruik bij de bewaring van bollen met vijftig procent terug te dringen. Een verbeterde luchtverdeling ligt hieraan ten,grondslag, ofwel inzicht in de aerodynamica. Deze opmerkelijke onderzoeksresultaten wa

  13. Le site de “ Champ Chalatras ” aux Martres-d'Artière (Puy-de-Dôme et les premiers témoins archéologiques de la viticulture gallo-romaine dans le bassin de Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne The “Champ Chalatras” site of Martres-d'Artière (Puy-de-Dôme and the first archaeological evidence of Gallo-Roman wine-growing in the Clermont-Ferrand basin (Auvergne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Cabanis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Une campagne de fouille préventive a été réalisée près de Clermont-Ferrand, aux Martres-d’Artière, sur le site de “ Champ Chalatras " (Auvergne, Puy-de-Dôme en 2008, sur près de sept hectares (responsable P. Vallat. Cette opération archéologique, effectuée à l’emplacement d’une grande villa gallo-romaine, a permis notamment de mettre en évidence, pour la première fois en Auvergne, un bâtiment vinicole et des fosses de plantations datés du dernier quart du IIe s. ap. J.-C. au début du siècle suivant, qui témoignent de la présence de vignes à proximité d’Augustonemetum (Clermont-Ferrand, chef-lieu de la cité arverne. Dès lors, il semblait opportun de proposer un premier bilan documentaire concernant la viticulture antique en Limagne qui soit fondé sur les données archéologiques récemment collectées en 2008 et sur l’ensemble des autres indices recensés à l’occasion de cet essai de synthèse (sources littéraires, données archéologiques, iconographiques, et archéobotaniques. Cet état des connaissances pluridisciplinaires est encore limité à la région de Clermont-Ferrand, seul secteur auvergnat désormais un peu documenté. La carte de la viticulture en Gaule est très évolutive depuis quelques années. Les récentes découvertes du bassin clermontois ouvrent ainsi une nouvelle fenêtre pour la partie nord-orientale de la province d’Aquitaine.A rescue excavation was carried out near Clermont-Ferrand at Martres-d’Artière, on the site of “Champ Chalatras” (Auvergne, Puy-de-Dôme in 2008, on nearly seven hectares (P. Vallat the archaeologist in charge. This archaeological work, conducted on the site of a large Gallo-Roman villa, brought to light (for the first time in Auvergne a building associated with wine-growing and plantation ditches dating from the last quarter of the 2nd century AD to the beginning of the following century, which proved the presence of vines in the region of

  14. Metal concentrations in Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau 1861) populations from a premier conservation area: Relationships with environmental concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; van Vuren, Johan H J; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Metals are known to have deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, so monitoring the bioaccumulation of these pollutants is important for the assessment of potential impacts. The aim of the study was therefore to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to metals entering from the catchments outside the KNP and to determine how these metal levels reflect what is occurring within the environment. Many of these rivers have never previously been assessed and those which have, have not been assessed within the past two decades. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) is an economically important apex predator and was selected as the bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants Rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2009 to 2011. The analysis of various metals from the aforementioned systems revealed spatial and temporal related variation in metal level patterns of the chosen bioindicator, with concentrations in fish from the Olifants River>Letaba River>Luvuvhu River and 2009>2010>2011. Although there were differences between rivers, metal concentrations were comparable and indicate that all of the studied KNP rivers, even those considered to be in a natural state are affected to some degree by anthropogenic activities. However, concentrations found during this study were much lower than previous studies in the area, as well as contaminated sites across the world, but were higher than concentrations in fish from contaminated sites in the Vaal River, South Africa. Bioaccumulated metals showed no correlation to metals in the water column, but some were correlated to sediment metal concentrations and the contamination and bioavailability of these metals within the sediments. This is of concern when managing the water resources of the conservation area since the contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP.

  15. Promoting fan engagement: An exploration of the fundamental motives for sport consumption amongst premier league football spectators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stander, Frederick W.; van Zyl, Llewellyn E.; Motaung, Kemiso

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether fan engagement could be predicted by the motivational dimensions of sport consumption. A sample of 806 football sport fans (African = 85%, male = 67.4%, part of an organised supporters club = 57.6%) were participants. They completed the Fan Engagement

  16. Sur le monnayage du premier Hūdide Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadri, Mohamed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The coinages of the Taifas still constitute an invaluable source of historical information, extremely useful for the study of the political and ideological evolution of al-Andalus after the fall of the Caliphate. The coins of the Hūdides of Saragossa, and particularly those struck by the founder of this dynasty Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn are a good example of what the different inscriptions on coins can tell us concerning the political situation in the first years of this dynasty. This article deals with a particular and rare type of silver coins attributed to the first Hūdide, Sulaymān, that holds a very problematic Shiite slogan (related to the Wilāya of ‘Alī, and tries to discuss its ideological significance and the different political circumstances that might have justified its appearance on this type of issues.

    Las monedas de las Taifas siguen constituyendo una valiosa fuente de información histórica, de gran utilidad para el estudio de la evolución política e ideológica de al-Andalus después de la caída del califato. Las monedas de los hūdíes de Zaragoza y, en especial, las acuñadas por el fundador de la dinastía, Sulaymān al-Musta‘īn son un buen ejemplo de lo que pueden decirnos las distintas inscripciones de las monedas acerca de la situación política durante los primeros años de la dinastía. Este artículo se centra en un singular tipo de monedas de plata atribuidas al primer hūdí, Sulaymān, que muestra un lema šī‘í, relacionado con la wilāya de ‘Alī, problemático en extremo, ofreciéndose un estudio sobre su significación ideológica y las diferentes circunstancias políticas que pudieron haber justificado su aparición en esta emisión.

  17. The Balanced Scorecard: A Management System for Wilford Hall Medical Center - The Premier Air Force Medical Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The Balanced Scorecard Management System (BSMS) at Wilford Hall Medical Center (WHMC) is a strategic management and measurement system that...prompted the study to a look at the statement of the problem, the author explores the history and use of the balanced scorecard concept in civilian...was an Intranet-based, database automated, Balanced Scorecard Management System.

  18. L’Asie mystérieuse : premier numéro du Bulletin du Club Verne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Chiron

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2007 l’Association des Amis du Roman populaire a son siège et son centre de documentation à Vignacourt près d’Amiens. Si la revue Le Rocambole qu’elle produit perdure, cette association a souhaité replacer dans des objectifs de vulgarisation l’œuvre de Jules Verne dans le contexte de production de romans populaires pour la période allant des débuts du XIXe siècle à la Grande Guerre. D’où la création du nouveau périodique le Bulletin du Club Verne. Il est nécessaire de distinguer ce der...

  19. The international documents of Petrole and Techniques. Algeria 2002; Les dossiers internationaux de petrole et techniques. Algerie 2002 premiere partie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    In the first part of the document Chakib Khelil presents the current reforms and the upstream sector groups take stock on 15 years of market deregulation. The hydrocarbons sector, motor of the Algerian economy, opens more and more leading the country to the modernity. The upstream market deregulation allowed to restore the petroleum and gas reserves level and to modernize the concerned societies. Facing the new petroleum deposits in Algeria, opportunities are given to french and foreign societies which will accept risks and strategical partnership. (A.L.B.)

  20. Research on Karaoke Subtitles Creating in Premiere%Premiere的卡拉OK字幕创建问题探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞

    2015-01-01

    Premiere是Adobe公司推出的一款非常优秀的视频编辑软件,它凭借其友好的工作界面、强大的编辑功能、简便的操作方法及多格式的素材支持而受到广大视频编辑工作者和爱好者的青睐,然而却存在无法创建随歌曲的演唱进度而逐字变色的卡拉OK字幕的缺憾.本文结合第三方插件KBuilder Tools,探讨在Premiere中快速创建卡拉OK字幕的方法和技巧,并指出在实际应用过程中的常见问题及解决办法.

  1. Proceedings of the first international congress on environmental geotechnics; Comptes-rendus de la premiere congres internationale de geotechnique environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrier, W.D. III [ed.

    1994-11-01

    A conference was held on environmental geotechnics. Papers were presented on dredging, industrial, mining, municipal, nuclear, and general geotechnics. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 33 papers from the conference.

  2. Coupling of neutron transport equations. First results; Couplage d`equations en transport neutronique. premiere approche 1D monocinetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, G.

    1995-07-01

    To achieve whole core calculations of the neutron transport equation, we have to follow this 2 step method: space and energy homogenization of the assemblies; resolution of the homogenized equation on the whole core. However, this is no more valid when accidents occur (for instance depressurization causing locally strong heterogeneous media). One solution consists then in coupling two kinds of resolutions: a fine computation on the damaged cell (fine mesh, high number of energy groups) coupled with a coarse one everywhere else. We only deal here with steady state solutions (which already live in 6D spaces). We present here two such methods: The coupling by transmission of homogenized sections and the coupling by transmission of boundary conditions. To understand what this coupling is, we first restrict ourselves to 1D with respect to space in one energy group. The first two chapters deal with a recall of basic properties of the neutron transport equation. We give at chapter 3 some indications of the behaviour of the flux with respect to the cross sections. We present at chapter 4 some couplings and give some properties. Chapter 5 is devoted to a presentation of some numerical applications. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  4. Crimes, faits divers, cinématographe et premiers interdits français en 1899 et 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Montagne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Les crimes et criminels dans le cinéma de fiction furent abordés, en 1990, à Perpignan, au XIe Colloque Cinéma et Histoire, Histoire du cinéma, Les grandes affaires criminelles : faits historiques - cinéma et télévision, de l’Institut Jean Vigo, en collaboration avec l’I.N.A. et la Cinémathèque de Toulouse. Les présentes pages, écrites dans la continuité du numéro inhérent des Cahiers de la Cinémathèque de 1993, Les Grandes affaires criminelles françaises, complètent un article personnel, De ...

  5. Particle image velocimetry - Principles and first results; La velocimetrie par images de particules. Principes et premiers resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, A.; Marechal, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique elaborated towards the end of the 1970`s, but which has developed considerably in recent years. The general principle of PIV is very simple and enables access to instantaneous velocity fields. It consists in recording images of tracer-particles injected into the flow and determining the distance covered by these particles. Since we know the time lapse between successive images of the same particle, we can derive the local fluid velocity. Among the many existing image acquisition and processing methods, the image inter-correlation analysis techniques, used with a pulsed laser source, is the most effective. Since we know the influence of different parameters (number of particles, beam power, time lapse between two successive images, size of query zones, etc.) on the quality of the final result, we can optimize practical adjustment of the PIV measurement scheme. The PIV was tested on the LAVITA hydraulic mockup (simulating the operation of a tangential fan). First results are, all in all, highly satisfactory. These have enabled the rapid drafting of instantaneous mean velocity field maps (20 images acquired in less than 90 seconds, with a post-processing time of about 10 minutes). Observation of the instantaneous fields has evidenced the presence of low frequency non-stationary phenomena which are not revealed by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Quantitative comparison between LDV and PIV, concerning average fields, showed close results, with, however, local divergences which could be relatively marked. It must nevertheless be noted that the PIV measurements performed on LAVITA have not been optimized with a view to obtaining a consistently good accuracy level. Priority in the present case was given to the scope of the field explored, with a view to observing the large non-stationary structures within a flow. The PIV measurement technique is thus operational for prompt flow characterization. However, concerning conclusions on the accuracy of the measurements, further comparisons will be required. (author). 11 refs.

  6. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  7. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  8. Des organisations de recherche européennes de premier plan unissent leurs efforts dans le cadre du groupe EIROFORUM

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, a number of powerful research infrastructures and laboratories which are used by an extensive network of scientists have been developed and deployed within Europe by European Intergovernmental Research Organisations (EIRO). Together, they represent European spearheads in some of the most crucial basic and applied research fields.

  9. Chandra's Cosmos: Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wallace H.

    2017-03-01

    On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.

  10. 周恩来智慧荐《梁祝》%Premier Recommends Chinese Romeo and Juliet in Geneva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾育豹

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1954年4月20日,周恩来率领中国代表团参加日内瓦会议.在大会期间,中国代表团为外国官员、记者举行电影招待会.在出国之前,周总理特意点名让工作人员带上国内刚刚拍出不久的彩色越剧片.

  11. Six fundamental principles that facilitates the transition from junior to professional in football: An example from the Danish Premier League

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    The transition from talented youth level to professional level is considered to be the most difficult and complex transition in sports. Literature in career transitions highlights that a match between an athlete’s resources and the demands of a transition will allow an athlete to enjoy a successful...... should acknowledge that the athlete is embedded in an environment. Second, the intervention should be built on a thorough assessment of the environment from a holistic perspective. Third, the practitioner should not only work with the individual athletes but also aim to optimize the entire environment...... around the athlete or team. Fourth, an intervention should take into consideration that an environment is always situated in a larger cultural setting of e.g. a national culture and a sport specific culture, and plan accordingly. Fifth and sixth, the intervention should aim to create and maintain...

  12. Strengthening the admissions process in health care professional education: focus on a premier Pacific Island medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chinyere Ezeala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relying solely on measures of intellectual aptitude and academic performance in university admissions can be disadvantageous to underprivileged students. The Fiji School of Medicine primarily uses such measures to evaluate and select student applicants, and the introduction of supplementary assessments could provide better access for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study examined the need for supplementary assessments in the admission process, types of additional assessments needed, and stakeholders??views on a multi-entry multi-exit strategy currently in use at the Fiji School of Medicine. A survey of the key stakeholders was conducted in February and March 2012 using closed and open ended questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two validated questionnaires were self-administered by key stakeholders from the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences (CMNHS and Fiji Ministries of Education and Health, with a response rate of 61%. Returned questionnaires were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Sixty-five percent of respondents supported the introduction of supplementary assessments, 49% favoured admissions test, and 16% preferred assessing non-academic factors. Many respondents supported the School?占퐏 multi-entry multi-exit strategy as a ?占퐂ood policy??that provided ?占퐀lexibility??and opportunity for students, but should be better regulated. These findings demonstrate the need for supplementary assessments in the selection process and for continued support for the use of multi-entry multi-exit strategy at the school.

  13. Dolce Vita meetings with gas professionals: first meeting; les rendez-vous Dolce Vita avec la filiere: premiere rencontre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this very first conference about the Dolce Vita products and services offer, created by Gaz de France for the residential sector with the aim to promote the use of natural gas for a better comfort and lower energy consumptions. This first meeting presents: the strategy stakes and ambitions of Dolce Vita, the characteristics of the different offers and their content, the quality and comfort criteria, and some testimonies concerning some Dolce Vita projects and realizations. (J.S.)

  14. Progressions arithmétiques dans les nombres premiers, d'après B. Green et T. Tao

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Notes pour l'exposé No 944 (2004-2005) au Séminaire Bourbaki; B. Green and T. Tao have recently proved that 'the set of primes contains arbitrary long arithmetic progressions', answering to an old question with a remarkably simple formulation. The proof does not use any "transcendental" method and any of the deep theorems of analytic number theory. It is written in a 'spirit' close to ergodic theory and in particular of Furstenberg's proof of Szemerédi's Theorem, but it does not use any resul...

  15. Premiers résultats des plongées du Nautile sur le banc de Gorringe (Ouest Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau, Jacques; Cornen, Guy; Agrimer, Pierre; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Dubuisson, Gilles; LeGall, Bernard; Monnier, Christophe; Pinheiro, Luis; Ribeiro, Antonio; Whitechurch, Hubert

    1998-02-01

    The oceanic crust exposed on the Gorringe Bank (SW Portugal) presents a laccolith-like body of gabbros, 500 m thick by 50 km long, within mantle peridotites. It also shows rare tholeiitic dikes and pillow-lavas resting locally directly over the peridotites. Gabbros, that crystallized in a closed system, subsequently underwent strong deformation in highto low-temperature conditions, in a west to east extensional flat shear zone system. This massif would likely be formed during the early stages of oceanic spreading, at the end of continental rifting. This is in agreement with kinematic reconstructions for the North Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Promoting fan engagement: An exploration of the fundamental motives for sport consumption amongst premier league football spectators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stander, Frederick W.; Zyl, van Llewellyn E.; Motaung, Kemiso

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether fan engagement could be predicted by the motivational dimensions of sport consumption. A sample of 806 football sport fans (African = 85%, male = 67.4%, part of an organised supporters club = 57.6%) were participants. They completed the Fan Engagement Sca

  17. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  18. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  19. Programme d'education de Maternelle--Francais Langue Premiere (Kindergarten Education Program--French as a First Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    The materials in this document discuss the Alberta (Canada) public school curriculum for French native language instruction for 5-year olds in preschool, intended for implementation in September 2000. The first part outlines the rationale and organization of the curriculum model and its five guiding principles. The second part describes the seven…

  20. Les Premieres Acquisitions De La Notion De Fonction Lineaire Chez L'Enfant De 7 A 11 Ans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Graciela

    1982-01-01

    This study, written in French, presents the hierarchy of strategies used by children in solving multiplication and division problems, as they acquire the linear function concept. It is based on analysis of the different classes of problems, of specific tasks, and of strategies actually used in solutions. (MP)

  1. For an ecological construction Green Building Challenge (part 1); Pour une construction ecologique Green Building Challenge (premiere partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, M. [Vienna Univ. Technique (Austria)

    2001-10-01

    In the scope of the worldwide project Green Building Challenge, a system for building assessment was developed with the aim to establish the ecological, economic and user related advantages and disadvantages of a building. The GBC handbook of the brick industry proves that brick buildings in particular meet high total quality requirements. (author)

  2. STUDY OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN PATIENTS OF ANAEMIA USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC IN RIMS (A PREMIER INSTITUTE OF JHARKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, although major cause of anaemia is said to be nutritional deficiencies which can be treated by medications, haemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited red cell disorders causing anaemia world-wide. Most clinically significant haemoglobinopathies are inherited defects of the globin chain of adult haemoglobin. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and for prevention of thalassaemias, sickle cell anaemia and other clinically severe haemoglobinopathies. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thalassaemias, sickle cell and other haemoglobinopathies in patients of a tertiary care hospital of Jharkhand. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was undertaken in which 1048 cases were included over a period of 3 years {From October 2012 to Sept 2015} for patient referred from outpatient and inpatient department of tertiary medical care hospital for anaemia. Clinical history and family history were obtained from each patient. The venous blood samples were analysed for complete blood count and HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was performed on the samples with Bio-Rad Variant II. RESULTS Normal haemoglobin (Hb pattern was observed in 444 (42.5% cases and abnormalities were detected in 600 (57.5% patients. β (beta thalassaemia trait was the most common abnormality found in 156 (14.9% patients. Sickle cell disease in 128 (12.2% patients, HbSβ in 128 (12.26% patients, β thalassaemia major/intermedia in 112 (10.7% cases, Sickle cell trait in 55 (5.2% cases. Other variants detected included HbE, HbD-Punjab, HbD-Punjab trait, double heterozygous state of HbE and β-thalassaemia HbE, double heterozygous state of HbS and HbD-Punjab and HbJ-Meerut. CONCLUSION Premarital and antenatal screenings are important measures to prevent birth of children with severe Hb disorders. HPLC is a rapid and reliable technique for identification of various Hb fractions.

  3. Lay the foundation stone of the Creteil NGV station; Pose de la premiere pierre de la station GNV de Creteil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This talk gives the advantages of the NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicles) and the policy in favour this automotive fuel. For the environment and the economy the NGV this fuel is the choice of the future. The author gives also the financial incentives for this channel development. (A.L.B.)

  4. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  5. Power exchanges in the German market: an initial assessment; Bourses d'electricite sur le marche Allemand - premieres evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinko, Raytchev [Universite de Montesquieu Bordeaux-4, Lab. d' Analyse et de Recherche en Economie-Economie et Finance Internationales LAREefi, 33 (France)

    2002-11-01

    The emergence of power exchanges is one of the key phenomena accompanying the liberation of the electricity industry. Apart from the Nordic countries, this is a recent event, especially for the countries of continental Europe. In this study, we will be focusing on the German electricity market for several reasons. Firstly, Germany has the largest market for electrical power in Europe. As the electricity sector is in the process of opening up to competition, this country is one of the 'good pupils' in the field of electrical deregulation. Next, it is a good idea to draw up an initial overview of the German experience following the launch on 27.11.2001 of an organised market in France (the PowerNext exchange). Currently, there are three exchanges able to negotiate contracts in the German hub: the Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX), the European Energy (EEX) and the Leipzig Power Exchange (LPX). The exchanges were created between May 1999 (APX) and August 2000 (EEX). They are in a situation of direct competition in the German market. This competition is particularly keen since the three players are well aware of the challenge at stake: becoming the leading exchange for the German market and (possibly) in a future integrated European market. The announcement of a merger between LPX and EEX in 2002 (published on 26.10.2001 on the sites of both exchanges) underlines the importance of these strategic issues. The purpose of this work is to carry out an assessment of the three exchanges during their first months in existence. Using an econometric analysis, we offer conclusions concerning the capacity of these exchanges to supply a reference price. The opportunities for arbitration are also examined. Despite the difficulties of the market launches, the exchanges have successfully maintained a certain degree of coherence in their prices and may now sit back a little and plan their expansion. It is difficult at this stage to see who the eventual 'winner' will be. The discussion which concludes this work nevertheless gives certain indications on this point. (author)

  6. Langmuir monolayers of non-ionic polymers: Equilibrium of metastability? Case study of PEO and its PPO-PEO diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschenes, L.; Saint-Germain, F.; Lyklema, J.

    2015-01-01

    Stability and reorganization in Langmuir films of PEO in PEO homopolymers and PPO–PEO block copolymers were investigated using film balance measurements. The apparent fractional losses of EO segments transferred into the subphase resulting from successive compression–expansion cycles have been estim

  7. Immobilizing PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces and its effect on protein and platelet: a combined study using QCM-D and DPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Huang, Fujian; Hu, Yu; Jiang, Wei; Ji, Xiangling; Liang, Haojun; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-11-01

    Dual polarization interferometry was used to monitor the immobilization dynamics of four Pluronics on hydrophobic surfaces and to elucidate the effect of Pluronic conformation on protein adsorption. The proportion of hydrophobic chain segments and not the length of the hydrophobic chain can influence the chain densities of the Pluronics. The immobilized densities of the Pluronics resulted from competition between the hydration of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in the aqueous solution and the hydrophobic interaction of polypropylene oxide on the substrate. P-123 obtained the largest graft mass (2.89±0.25 ng/mm2) because of the dominant effect of hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic segments of P-123 were anchored slowly and step-wise on the C18 substrate. P-123 exhibited the largest hydrophobic chain segment proportion (propylene oxide/ethylene oxide=3.63) and formed a brush chain conformation, indicating excellent protein and platelet resistance. The result of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation further confirmed that the PEO conformation in P-123 on the substrate exhibited a relatively extended brush chain, and that L-35 showed relatively loose and pancake-like structures. The PEO in P-123 regulated the conformation to maintain the native conformation and resist the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Thus, the hemocompatibilities of the immobilized Pluronics were influenced by the proportion of hydrophobic chain segments and their PEO conformations.

  8. Evaluation of an integrated extraction process for in-situ phenol removal with micellar solutions of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerema, L.D.; Cakali, D.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Keurentjes, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of aqueous solutions of Pluronics for the removal of phenol in a separation and regeneration process. Experimental results show that Pluronic P103 micelles allow extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions at 30°C. The phenol can be released due to the transiti

  9. Adhesion and growth of electrically-active cortical neurons on polyethyleimine patterns microprinted on PEO-PPO-PEO triblockcopolymer-coated hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardij, T.G.; Boogaart, van den M.A.F.; Rutten, W.L.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the adhesion and growth of dissociated cortical neurons on chemically patterned surfaces over a time period of 30 days. The presence of neurons was demonstrated by measurement of spontaneous bioelectrical activity on a micropatterned multielectrode array. Chemical patterns were

  10. Onderzoek in het kader van het ‘Actieplan Minder Virus in Tulp’, uitgevoerd door PPO- Bloembollen, Lisse en Proeftuin Zwaagdijk in 2013 en 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.; Verbeek, M.; Stijger, I.; Kreuk, F.

    2015-01-01

    Doelstellingen van het Actieplan “Minder virus in Tulp” zijn: Dit project organiseert de opstart en de uitvoering van een actieplan dat leidt tot minder virus in tulp in een economisch rendabele teelt. De aandacht ligt met name bij TBV, TVX, Augustaziek, ArMV en LSV. Uitvoering van het actieplan moe

  11. Nonmigrating Equivalent Substitutes for PVC/DOP Formulations as Shown by a TG Study of PVC with Covalently Bound PEO-PPO Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rodrigo; Gacal, Tülin; Ocakoglu, Melike; García, Carolina; Elvira, Carlos; Gallardo, Alberto; Reinecke, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Monoamino functionalized ethylenoxide (EO)/propylenoxide oligomers (Jeffamine) are linked chemically to poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) using trichlorotriazine chemistry in order to prepare nonmigrating internally plasticized materials. The dependence of the plasticizer efficiency on both the number of anchoring points to the chains and the PVC/plasticizer compatibility is investigated using oligomers of different molecular weight and hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. Hydrophilic oligomers (containing predominantly EO) of molecular weights between 2000 and 5000 g mol(-1) exhibit excellent plasticizer efficiency, nearly identical to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DOP) in conventional PVC/DOP mixtures and may therefore be used as nonmigrating equivalents for DOP.

  12. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of new battery materials. (author)

  13. Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in an apex aquatic predator from a premier conservation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; Van Vuren, Johan H J; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Wepener, Victor

    2016-04-15

    With the second highest gross domestic product in Africa, South Africa is known to have a high pesticide usage, including the highly persistent and banned group of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). South Africa is also one of few countries to still actively spray DDT as malaria vector control. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to by use of OCPs in the catchments outside the KNP and how this exposure relates to human health. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) are economically important apex predators and was selected as bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2010 to 2011 within the KNP and 19 OCPs were determined in muscle tissue using GC-ECD techniques. Significant flow related and spatial OCP bioaccumulation was observed. Tigerfish from the Luvuvhu River displayed the highest OCP bioaccumulation. Concentrations of the majority of the OCPs including the DDTs were the highest levels ever recorded from South African freshwater systems and in many cases the concentrations were higher than most contaminated areas from around the world. The concentrations found in H. vittatus muscle also exceeded maximum residue levels in edible fat as set by the European Union. The health risk assessment also demonstrated that the levels of OCPs pose very high cancer risks to the local populations consuming tigerfish, as high as 2 in 10 increased risk factor. This is of concern not only when managing the water resources of the conservation area but also for surrounding communities consuming freshwater fish. Contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP.

  14. From the first modern men to the apparition of art; Des premiers hommes modernes a l`apparition de l`art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1997-12-31

    The great stages of mankind evolution have been identified with the help of dating techniques such as thermoluminescence and carbon 14; the question of the Neanderthal man being the ancestor of modern man is discussed, together with its geographical origin and time of appearance. Prehistoric art, which appeared at the upper Paleolithic age, can be now dated using their pigments; examples of the Cosquer and Chauvet-Pont-d`Arc caves in France illustrate the evolution of prehistoric art

  15. Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Vieira, Frederico

    2001-07-01

    Orogenic, gold deposits are hosted by rocks of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the major gold provinces in the world. The gold deposits occur at the base of the mafic-ultramafic succession, with the most important orebodies controlled by E-W-striking, strike-slip faults. The main mineralization styles are (1) structurally controlled, sulfide replacement zones in banded iron formation (BIF); (2) disseminated sulfide minerals and gold in hydrothermally altered rocks along shear zones; and (3) auriferous quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins and veinlets in mafic, ultramafic, and felsic volcanic rocks, and also in clastic sedimentary rocks. The most common host rocks for ore are metamorphosed oxide- and carbonate-facies banded iron (± iron-rich metachert) formations (e.g., the Cuiabá, São Bento and Raposos deposits) and the lapa seca unit, which is a local term for intensely carbonatized rock (e.g., the giant Morro Velho mine with >450 t of contained gold). Metabasalts host most of the remaining gold deposits. Mineralogical characteristics and fluid inclusion studies suggest variations in the H2O/CO2 ratio of a low-salinity, near-neutral, reducing, sulfur-bearing, ore fluid. The presence of abundant CH4-rich inclusions is related to reduction of the original H2O-CO2 fluid via interaction with carbonaceous matter in the wallrocks. Oxygen fugacity was close to that of graphite saturation, with variations likely to have been influenced by reaction with the carbonaceous matter. Carbon-rich phyllites and schists, which commonly bound ore-bearing horizons, seem to have played both a physical and chemical role in localizing hydrothermal mineral deposition. Microtextural studies indicate that gold deposition was mainly related to desulfidation reactions, and was paragenetically coeval with precipitation of arsenic-rich iron sulfide minerals. Carbon isotope data are compatible with dissolution of CO2 from pre-existing mantle-derived carbonation zones, and indicate fluids of metamorphic origin. A major episode of hydrothermal fluid introduction into different rock types caused epigenetic gold formation and wallrock alteration at about 300 to 400 °C during the late stages of regional deformation and metamorphism of the greenstone belt. The age of gold mineralization is constrained to be younger than 2,698 and perhaps closer to 2,670 Ma.

  16. Brazil's premier gold province. Part I: The tectonic, magmatic, and structural setting of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Zucchetti, Márcia; Noce, Carlos; Baltazar, Orivaldo; da Silva, Luiz; Pinto, Claiton

    2001-07-01

    Rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup comprise one of the most significant Archean greenstone-belt successions in Brazil, in both their appreciable mineral productivity and extensive mineral potential. A large part of this greenstone belt is contained within the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle) region, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, which occupies the southernmost portion of the São Francisco craton. The Nova Lima Group rocks, at the base of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, host important orogenic gold deposits. The group contains lithological associations from bottom to top as follows: (1) mafic-ultramafic volcanic, (2) volcanic-chemical, (3) clastic-chemical, (4) volcaniclastic, and (5) resedimented rocks. Rocks of the resedimented, volcanic-chemical, and mafic-ultramafic volcanic associations mainly host the most important gold deposits. An early compressional deformation occurs in the rocks of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and basement gneisses, with tangential thrusting from the north to the south or southwest. Structures generated during a second, compressional deformation, encompass NW-striking thrust faults and SW-vergent, tight to isoclinal folds, inferring a general southwest transport direction. In the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, the Paciência lineament, which strikes northwest and dips to the northeast in the south, or strikes northeast and dips to the southeast in the north, is a thrust-related, oblique ramp fault that hosts important gold deposits. The convergence of these two trends in the Nova Lima region is accommodated by roughly E-W-striking transcurrent faults, which are the most favored sites for large gold concentrations. Intracratonic extension in Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic times and NW-vergent, Trans-Amazonian compressional deformation post-date gold deposition. Late extension during the Paleoproterozoic led to basin formation and the prominent dome-and-keel architecture of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region. Deformation related to the west-vergent thrust-and-fold belts of the Brasiliano orogeny is recognized at the eastern margin of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region. Defining structures as Archean, Trans-Amazonian, and Brasiliano in age is still difficult, although it is accepted that the gold-related Archean structures are best preserved in the central and western parts of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The principal source for the Rio das Velhas sedimentary rocks was probably the trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite crust that formed in multiple episodes after ~3,500 Ma, and was widely metamorphosed and intruded at 2,880-2,850 Ma. Felsic volcanism at 2,772±6 Ma formed the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The volcanic succession was a source for some overlying sedimentary rock units, as indicated by the presence of detrital zircons dated at 2,777-2,771 Ma. Strongly foliated granitic plutons range between 2,712+5/-4 and 2,698±18 Ma. The age of gold mineralization is inferred between 2,698 and 2,670 Ma. A metamorphic overprint during the Trans-Amazonian orogeny is estimated at ~2,050 Ma. There is evidence of local isotopic disturbances because of post-Trans-Amazonian tectonic events, at ~1.8-1.7 and 0.6 Ga.

  17. Premiers résultats de sex-ratio, puberté et dimorphisme sexuel chez le Paraha peue (Platax orbicularis) en élevage.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasset, Eric; Joufoques, Vaiana; David, Rarahu; Maamaatuaiahutapu, Moana; Teissier, Alexandre; Tamata, Thierry; Dupieux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Cette première étude du sex-ratio menée chez Platax orbicularis en élevage donne d’importantes indications dans l’optique d’optimiser la gestion des productions (1) de lots de futurs géniteurs issus d’un plan de croisement et (2) des lots d’alevins destinés à la production en cages. La poursuite du suivi des lots en cours et des nouvelles familles produites (sans tri des alevins et avec marquage magnétique individuel des poissons) permettra de confirmer sans doute ces indications et d’oriente...

  18. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  19. Les vestiges du premier groupe cathédral de Grenoble et leur présentation muséographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Montjoye

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Quand fut envisagée, vers la fin des années 1980, la réalisation à Grenoble d’une nouvelle ligne de tramway empruntant la place Notre-Dame et passant au pied de la cathédrale, il n’a pu être ignoré le fort impact archéologique qu’aurait cet aménagement. On savait, en effet, qu’on y rencontrerait l’enceinte urbaine du Bas-Empire (fig. 1 et les substructions de l’une des deux portes monumentales qui s’y ouvraient : la porte Viennoise qui, jusqu’en 1802, avait fermé la place du côté nord. Ce so...

  20. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J.L

    1998-12-31

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  2. Cities and adaptation to climate change. Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament; Villes et adaptation au changement climatique. Rapport au Premier ministre et au Parlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this report sets the general problematic framework: positive and negative impacts of climate change on cities, city vulnerability factors, and adaptation ways to reduce urban vulnerability. The second part addresses adaptation strategies. It is based on an analysis of the implementation of adaptation actions by several French and foreign cities. It highlights levers and obstacles for adaptation, and identifies other policies which could support the adaptation effort. It also highlights the recent multidisciplinary dynamics of research on the sustainable city, and the implementation of projects for the reduction of city vulnerability and the adaptation of cities to climate change. Some programs are presented in appendix

  3. The radon, synthesis of knowledge and results of first investigations in mining environment; Le radon, synthese des connaissances et resultats des premieres investigations en environnement minier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    After presenting the properties of radon and health effects it can induce, the document discusses the various techniques available for measuring radon. The dosimetry and regulatory aspects are then presented. The document then deals specifically radon in mining environment, especially with the various possible sources of exposure.The relevant section is illustrated by concrete cases from the literature and studies conducted by INERIS in some large French mines. The last section presents the mechanisms of radon entry in buildings and associated remediation techniques. (N.C.)

  4. Areva. Nine-month 2007 sales revenue and data; Areva. Informations et chiffre d'affaires relatifs au neuf premiers mois de l'exercice 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The main information concerning the nine-month 2007 financial data of the Areva group is a steady growth of 9-month sales revenue, at euro 8.066 billion (+6.8% like-for-like), including euro 2.692 billion in the 3. quarter, i.e. +7.6% like-for-like. The group confirms its strong sales revenue growth objective for 2007.

  5. PREPARATION OF POZZOLAN WITH A RAW CLAY MATERIAL FROM BURKINA FASO / PREPARATION D’UNE POUZZOLANE A BASE D’UNE MATIERE PREMIERE ARGILEUSE DU BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Ganon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A raw clay material from Burkina Faso has been characterized for pozzolan elaboration. The analysis showed that SiO2 (45.91 wt. %, Al2O3 (28.29 wt. % and Fe2O3 (9.75 wt. % are the main oxides and kaolinite (71 wt. % is the principle mineral. The sample has been activated at 680 °C during 2 or 5 hours. The pozzolanic activity has been accessed by coupling several methods. The chemical methods showed the good lime fixing ability by the activated sample. At the first 24 hours, more than 50 wt. % of the lime is fixed and at 28 days around 90 wt. % of lime are fixed. Mineralogical analyses showed the disappearing of portlandite (CH and the formation of new C-S-H hydrates. The pozzolanic index (81 % calculated from mechanical strength of mortars made with 25 wt. % substitution of cement by the pozzolan confirm it suitability for portland cement replacement in the field of building materials.

  6. PREPARATION OF POZZOLAN WITH A RAW CLAY MATERIAL FROM BURKINA FASO / PREPARATION D’UNE POUZZOLANE A BASE D’UNE MATIERE PREMIERE ARGILEUSE DU BURKINA FASO

    OpenAIRE

    François Ganon; Adama Yameogo; Brahima Sorgho; Lamine Zerbo; Mohamed Seynou; Younoussa Millogo; Raguilnaba Ouedraogo

    2016-01-01

    A raw clay material from Burkina Faso has been characterized for pozzolan elaboration. The analysis showed that SiO2 (45.91 wt. %), Al2O3 (28.29 wt. %) and Fe2O3 (9.75 wt. %) are the main oxides and kaolinite (71 wt. %) is the principle mineral. The sample has been activated at 680 °C during 2 or 5 hours. The pozzolanic activity has been accessed by coupling several methods. The chemical methods showed the good lime fixing ability by the activated sample. At the first 24 hours, more t...

  7. Le gisement de Crayssac (Tithonien inférieur, Quercy, Lot, France) : découverte de pistes de dinosaures en place et premier bilan ichnologique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Jean-Michel; Hantzpergue, Pierre; Bassoullet, Jean-Paul; Lafaurie, Gérard; Vignaud, Patrick

    1997-11-01

    The Tithonian limestones of Crayssac (Lot, Quercy, Southwestern France) correspond to a large littoral mud-flat with sedimentation in the inter- to supratidal area where continental and marine influences alternate. Vertebrate and invertebrate ichnites are abundant, among which pterosaurian and dinosaurian prints are the most common.

  8. Introducing Backchannel Technology into a Large Undergraduate Course | Introduction d’une technologie d’arrière-plan dans un vaste cours de premier cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Neustifter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Backchannel technology can be used to allow students in large lecture courses to communicate with each other and the instructor during the delivery of lecture content and class discussions. It can also be utilized by instructors to capture, summarize, and integrate student questions, ideas, and needs into course content both immediately and throughout the course. The authors integrated backchannel software in one of two sections of a course, leaving the other section as a control; combined, the two sections contained a total number of 871 students. Data was gathered comparing both groups using online surveys and semester grades; results showed that the section using backchannel software had higher class satisfaction and perception of engagement, used their mobile devices more for accessing class content, felt more comfortable participating in class discussions, and had a higher grade average than the section that did not. The authors also explore their own experiences of finding, integrating, and maintaining backchannel technology. La technologie d’arrière-plan peut permettre aux étudiants de grands cours magistraux de communiquer les uns avec les autres et avec l’instructeur durant le cours et les discussions en classe. Les instructeurs peuvent aussi l’utiliser pour saisir, résumer et intégrer les questions, idées et besoins des étudiants dans le contenu du cours, et ce, immédiatement et pendant toute la durée du cours. Les auteurs ont intégré un logiciel d’arrière-plan dans l’une des deux sections d’un cours, faisant de l’autre section son groupe témoin. Ensemble, les deux sections comprenaient 871 étudiants. Des données ont été recueillies pour comparer les deux groupes à l’aide de sondages en ligne et des notes du trimestre. Les résultats ont démontré que la section utilisant le logiciel d’arrière-plan avait une plus grande satisfaction et une meilleure perception de l’engagement, que ses étudiants se servaient de leurs appareils mobiles pour accéder à davantage de contenus, se sentaient plus à l’aise de prendre part aux discussions en classe et avaient une moyenne plus élevée que ceux du groupe qui n’avait pas accès au logiciel. Les auteurs explorent également leurs propres expériences pour trouver, intégrer et entretenir la technologie d’arrière-plan.

  9. First reports of nuclear safety assessment given to ASN; Les premiers rapports de l'audit nucleaire remis a l'ASN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    In the framework of the complementary safety assessment (ECS) demanded by the French government and specified by the ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority), the impact of the breaking of the embankments of the Alsace waterway, of the Donzere waterway and of the Provence waterway has to be taken into account for the ECS of respectively: Fessenheim plant, Tricastin site and Cadarache nuclear center. A preliminary study led by Areva, shows that the 'La Hague' site has a good resistance to earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 6.4 to 7.3. The facility was designed to withstand earthquakes up to a 5.8 magnitude while the highest observed magnitude was 5.3. EDF, AREVA and CEA that are operators of nuclear facilities propose new answers to natural disasters: -) supplementary means in terms of electrical power and cooling water supplies, -) a second heat sink for reactors, -) a quick action force to intervene before situation worsens, and -) measures to frame and limit subcontracting. (A.C.)

  10. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Le Resolution de problemes--defi des mathematiques--secondaire--premier cycle (Problem Solving Challenge for Mathematics. Junior High School Curriculum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document is designed to assist teachers in helping students in further development of problem-solving skills. It consists of: a statement of purpose; an introduction (noting the place of problem-solving in junior high school mathematics curricula); a definition of problem-solving; a four-stage general framework for solving problems (which…

  12. « L'esthétique du chant dans la piété calviniste aux premiers temps de la Réforme (1536-1545) »

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Contrairement aux idées reçues, l'esthétique assume bien une fonction dans les formes rituelles adoptées par les Eglises issues de la Réforme calviniste. Mais il revient moins à l'image, considérée avant tout comme une source de distraction, qu'à la musique de porter cette dimension dans la piété réformée. Retraçant la formation de la pensée calvinienne sur la question des rapports entre culte et musique entre 1536 et 1543, cette étude montre comment le théologien en vient durant ces années à...

  13. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  14. Mise en service du calorimetre electromagnetique d'Atlas et determination du potentiel de decouverte d'un Z' --> e+e- dans les premieres donnees LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangeard, Pierre-Simon

    2009-01-01

    After about fifteen years of development, the ATLAS detector is ready to operate and recorded, in 2008, several millions of cosmic events as well as first LHC data. This achievement is based on the long experience of beam tests and on the large effort towards the detector in situ commissioning undertaken by the ATLAS collaboration. This promises fast ability to perform searches for evidence of Higgs boson and new physics. I heavily contributed to the in situ commissioning of the EM calorimeter. To verify its performance, I studied the first cosmic data taken in 2006 which allowed the first in situ analysis of dead channels, energy reconstruction and detector response uniformity. This participation to the commissioning has continued with the study of the single beam data recorded during the first week of LHC operation (Sept. 2008). Expanding on my expertise of the EM calorimeter, I focused my physics analysis, prepared with simulation, on the promising discovery potential of new physics at LHC via the di-elect...

  15. Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, a preliminary compared approach of their sanitary consequences; Accidents de Fukushima et Tchernobyl, une premiere approche comparee de leurs consequences sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Academie des technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    It is too early to draw a definitive account of the sanitary impacts of the Fukushima accident but the author tries to assess them by comparing with Chernobyl accident. It appears that the sanitary consequences will be far less dramatic because of lower radiation doses and efficient counter-measures taken quickly after the accident such as evacuation of contaminated areas and restriction about the consumption of food produced locally. (A.C.)

  16. Premiers resultats experimentaux sur le comportement de Tabebuia heterophylla (DC) Britton et de Hymenaea courbaril L. vis-a vis de la secheresse

    OpenAIRE

    Huc, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Deux espèces de la forêt de basse altitude d’Amérique tropicale (Antilles), Tabebebuia heterophylla (poirier-pays) et Hymenaea courbaril (courbaril), se révèlent intéressantes pour le reboisement des régions les moins arrosées. Le comportement de ces espèces vis-à-vis de la sécheresse est étudié grâce à un traitement sous forme d’arrosage différencié appliqué à des jeunes plants âgés de 1 an, en pépinière. L'évolution de l’état hydrique des plants est suivie au cours de 6 mois d’expéri...

  17. Volume-effect in radiation therapy part one: volume-effect and tumour; L'effet volume en radiotherapie premiere partie: effet volume et tumeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Wu, J. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou (AP-HP), Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Dahan, O.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Volume is an important parameter of radiation therapy. Local control is inversely related to tumor size and the complication rate increases with the importance of the irradiated volume. Although the effect of irradiated volume has been widely reported since the beginning of radiotherapy, it has been less studied than other radiation parameters such as dose, fractionation, or treatment duration. One of the first organ system in which the adverse effect of increased volume was well defined is the skin. Over the last twenty years, numerous mathematical models have been developed for different organs. In this report we will discuss the relation between irradiated volume and tumor control. In a second article we will study the impact of irradiated volume on radiation adverse effects. (authors)

  18. The Handbook of Historically Black Colleges & Universities. Premiere Edition 1992-94. Comprehensive Profiles and Photos of Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Wright, Toni, Comp.

    This book contains vital statistics and other profile information concerning 106 historically black colleges and universities located in the United States and the Virgin Islands. Information includes: school selection and admissions processes; special programs; the minimum grade point average required for freshmen and when majors must be declared;…

  19. The Infantry Brigade Combat Team: The U.S. Army’s Premier Phase IV and Irregular Warfare Force for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    technology. They look at computer games and the internet as essential for a solid quality of life. This contrasts with how their parents look at the...difficult task and requires a special type of leader. However chock -full of great leaders the Army may be, few possess the intellectual background and

  20. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  1. Search for the first generation scalar leptoquarks with D0; Recherche de leptoquarks scalaires de premiere generation aupres de D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothenet, A

    2004-05-15

    This work was dedicated to the search for pairs of first generation scalar leptoquarks one decaying into ej and the other into {nu}j. The experimental data used (175,6 pb{sup -1}) is that collected during the run-II of the D0 experiment at Tevatron. The production cross-sections of scalar leptoquark pairs has been assessed at a 95% confidence level for different values of the mass. The comparison of these values with theoretical values has led us to state that for a branching ratio {beta} = 0.5 the existence of scalar leptoquarks with a mass lower than 194 GeV is not possible. For a branching ratio {beta} = 1, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 238 GeV may be excluded while for {beta} = 0.5, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 213 GeV are excluded.

  2. La GIZC à l’épreuve du terrain : premier enseignements d’une expérience française.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Meur-Ferec

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Le fondement de la Gestion Intégrée des Zones Côtières (GIZC peut se résumer à l'application sur le littoral des principes du développement durable. La GIZC est aujourd'hui d'une grande actualité puisque la recommandation européenne du 30 mai 2002, demandant à chaque État membre d'établir sa stratégie nationale, est arrivée à échéance en 2006. La France a rendu son rapport, mais au-delà de la stratégie, la GIZC soulève de nombreuses interrogations sur l'incidence réelle de cette nouvelle approche du littoral. Les réponse à un appel à projet national "¨Pour un développement équilibré des territoires littoraux par une GIZC", lancé en 2005 par l'État vers les acteurs du littoral, offre l'opportunité d'étudier la GIZC "en action". Ainsi, l'analyse de 49 dossiers déposés permet de dessiner provisoirement des freins et des pistes d'avancées du processus de mise en place de la GIZC par des "acteurs praticiens" du littoral aujourd'hui en France.Foundation of Integrated Coastal Zones Management (ICZM can be summed up to the application on the coast of the principles of sustainable development. The European recommendation of May 30th, 2002, asking every Member state to establish its national strategy, fell due in 2006. So ICZM is of a strong current events today. Beyond the official strategy, ICZM raises numerous questions on the real incidence of this new approach of the coast. Answers to a national call " for a well-balanced development of the littoral territories by a ICZM ", launched in 2005 by the State towards the stakeholders of the coast, offer the opportunity to study the GIZC " in action ". The analysis of the 49 projects allows to draw temporarily the characteristics, the brakes and the tracks dealing with the process of implementation of ICZM today in France.

  3. Les affleurements d’obsidiennes du Nemrut (Anatolie orientale) : mise en évidence d’une source exploitable, premiers résultats

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Anne-Kyria; Mouralis, Damase; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Akköprü, Ebru; Gratuze, Bernard; Doğu, Ali Fuat; ERTURAÇ, Korhan; Cétoute, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Dans de nombreux sites du Proche-Orient, des artefacts archéologiques en obsidienne ont été retrouvés et attribués aux sources géologiques du Nemrut. Les publications sur la géologie du Nemrut montrent que des affleurements d’obsidienne sont présents sur les flancs sud, est, ouest et nord du volcan. Lors de deux missions de terrain (2013, 2014), nous avons prospecté une large partie du volcan et repéré les affleurements décrits dans la littérature ; notre prospection n’a cependant pas été exh...

  4. Simulation des dynamiques spatiales d'un territoire agro-viticole : premier pas vers le modèle VitiTerroir

    OpenAIRE

    Lammoglia, Adrien; Delay, Etienne; Leturcq, Samuel; Rouvellac, Éric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Loin d'être figés, les territoires viticoles, espaces vivants, évoluent au rythme des pulsations de la société. Les communautés humaines créent, exploitent, entretiennent, adaptent à leurs besoins les vignobles sous l'influence des considérations culturelles (évolution des goûts, sentiment d'attachement identitaire à la vigne), sociales (exigences nouvelles des consommateurs en matière de santé publique et de bien-être), économiques (évolution de la demande, pression d...

  5. Document d'accompagnement du programme d'education de maternelle: Francais langue premiere (Manual in Support of the French as a First Language Kindergarten Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This document is designed for use by teachers of French-as-a-first-language kindergarten programs in Alberta. It outlines the vision, elements, and goals of the program, explains the context of the francophone environment in Alberta, and provides practical tools for the implementation of the program in consideration of the specific needs of the…

  6. Cyclope 2003: the world markets: raw materials, currencies, services, agriculture, energy, finance, industry; Cyclope 2003: les marches mondiaux: matieres premieres, monnaies, services, agriculture, energie, finance, industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, Ph.

    2003-07-01

    The Cyclope book is a collective annual publication made by an international team of economists, journalists and specialists of geopolitics. The 2003 issue analyzes the consequences of the war in Iraq on the energy markets and on the international negotiations of the world trade organization (WTO) which took place at Cancun in September 2003. It analyses also the growth of the Chinese markets, the sustainable development concept in vogue, the Johannesburg conference and the reform of the common agricultural policy. (J.S.)

  7. Fostering future organization of French Electric Power. A report to Prime Minister; Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise. Rapport au Premier Ministre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Jean Louis [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1998-07-02

    This report addressed to the prime minister deals with the main four issues relating to the problem of revamping the French electricity sector. These are featured as: 1. The public electricity supply; 2. The future development of 'Electricite de France'; 3. The social renovation of the electricity sector; 4. Management and the role of policy. In turn these four chapters are detailed. Thus the first one addresses the problems: 1. Customizing the general interest supply; 2. Electricity general supply and the state policy; 3. Sustaining innovation, environmental protection and energy management; 4. The transport and distribution grid, the resistance structure of the public supply. Also, this chapter describes the role of the operators in the public electricity supply and tackles the problem of financing the commitments of the public supply. The second chapter sketches the tasks and management of EDF, considers establishing an agency to ensure accounting transparency, discusses the major significance of local collectivities and personnel. The third chapter addresses the following issues: 1. The range of application of the statute of electric and gas industries; 2. Adaptation of the statute; 3. Development of the statute; 4. Pensioners. The forth chapter deals with the definition of regulation, i.e. the management of the network authority and makes proposals for constituting relating commissions. In conclusion, the author pleads for maintaining and developing a major national operator ensuring public supply requirements as well as promotion of French electricity industry. The proposals made by the report's author concerning the operational ways of renewing the nuclear sector, the management of grid of electric transport, the role of local collectivities, creation of a professional trade, the founding regulation commissions and others are thought to prepare France to cope efficiently to the international competition in the years to come. The report is completed by two appendices containing the proposals of the author and a list of the persons interviewed during the mission.

  8. Deregulation of the electricity industry in Latin America. An initial appraisal; La dereglementation de l`industrie electrique en amerique latine. Un premier bilan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, F. [Departement Energie a la CEPAL, Nations unies - Mexico (Mexico)

    1996-10-01

    Confronted with great financial and administrative problems, the majority of Latin American countries have undertaken reforms of their electricity supply systems. A number of countries have opted for radical reforms, others for more moderate reform, and yet others have adopted a waiting policy. The choice of reforms depends to a great extent on the size of the networks (small and large scale network co-exist here). At present results can not be reported conclusively, and many constitutional obstacles still remain. Reform is a particularly thorny subject as far as transport is concerned. (author)

  9. Mian is...?——,Mian is..“Yearly Campaign Officially Debuts and Trailer of Mian Series of Videos Premieres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April 25, 2012 - Brand new yearly campaign “Mian is...” officially debuted with a fresh concept and the one and only Mian series of videos unveiled. Three principals of Mian series of videos, Greeny Wu, lead singer of famous Taiwanese band Sodagreen, Tong Liya, Chinese uprising beautiful actress, Sam Lee, Chinese fashion and lifestyle media mavon, attended the ceremony and shared their answers to “Mian is..” and their own Mian fashion and lifestyle.

  10. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues: étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such as the issue of the presence or absence of evidence of early specialization in children at the babbling stage, the continuity between babbling and first words, and the emergence and development of...

  11. Fiches pratiques: La premiere seance; Dix difficultes a la carte; Commissions de reincarnation; Lipogrammaville (Practical Ideas: The First Meeting; Ten Difficulties "In the Cards"; Messages of Reincarnation; Lipogramville).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondavio, Anna; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four classroom activities are described: (1) one for stimulating beginning students' interest in finding evidence of French language and culture in their own environment; (2) a card game for learning grammar; (3) a letter-writing exercise; and (4) a game using lipograms in the creation of a fictional community. (MSE)

  12. Leçons de choses. L’invention du savoir économique par ses premiers professeurs : Antonio Genovesi et Cesare Beccaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Audegean

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available C’est en territoire italien, à l’université de Naples, qu’est créée la toute première chaire d’économie, inaugurée en 1754 par Antonio Genovesi. La seconde chaire italienne est inaugurée en 1769 à Milan par Cesare Beccaria. Ces professeurs doivent répondre à une exigence de justification et de définition : pourquoi un nouveau savoir, et quelle est sa compétence ? Le savoir économique apparaît alors comme la première des « sciences humaines » qui n’ait pas vocation à interpréter des textes, puisqu’elle se donne pour tâche d’analyser des choses. À l’ère de l’herméneutique succède celle de l’anthropologie. En ce sens, l’économie prolonge un geste déjà tenté par le droit naturel moderne, qui avait voulu soustraire la science du droit au règne des textes. Mais en prolongeant ce geste, elle veut aussi dépasser cette discipline, comme une jeune science qui non seulement pallie les imperfections de son aînée, mais prend définitivement sa relève.

  13. Le tamoxifene comme premier traitement du cancer du sein chez la femme âgée: un recul de 10 ans

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Claude; Lifrange, Eric; Genicot, F.; Castronovo, Vincenzo; Lambotte, René

    1990-01-01

    Cinquante-six patientes, âgées de plus de 70 ans, ont été traitées par tamoxifène pour cancer mammaire T1 à T4. Un délai de 3 à 6 mois est nécessaire pour obtenir une régression de l'opacité tumorale dans 46,4% des cas, une stabilisation dans 30,4% et une augmentation dans 23,2%. Le type de réponse semble indépendant du stade initial de la tumeur. La survie globale à 10 ans n'est pas différente de cette des patientes de même âge qui avaient préféré recourir au traitement loco-régional class...

  14. Impediments to Enhancing Availability of Mental Health Services in Schools: Fragmentation, Overspecialization, Counterproductive Competition, and Marginalization. ERIC/CASS-NASP Premier Partnership Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    Concerns about enhancing availability and access to mental health services in schools range from sparse resources to the proliferation of piecemeal and overspecialized interventions arising from categorical funding. This paper discusses such concerns and stresses that they must be addressed from a perspective that fully appreciates the degree to…

  15. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Thong [IS Services - Institut de Soudure - ZI Paris-Nord II - 90 rue des Vanesses 93420 Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  17. Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase inhibited by apigenin: Multi-spectroscopic analyses and computational docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Zou, Liqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-15

    It has been revealed that some polyphenols can prevent enzymatic browning caused by polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Apigenin, widely distributed in many fruits and vegetables, is an important bioactive flavonoid compound. In this study, apigenin exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against PPO, and some reagents had synergistic effect with apigenin on inhibiting PPO. Apigenin inhibited PPO activity reversibly in a mixed-type manner. The fact that inactivation rate constant (k) of PPO increased while activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) decreased indicated that the thermosensitivity and stability of PPO decreased. The conformational changes of PPO were revealed by fluorescence emission spectra and circular dichroism. Atomic force microscopy observation suggested that the dimension of PPO molecules was larger after interacting with apigenin. Moreover, computational docking simulation indicated that apigenin bound to PPO and inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of PPO to interact with some amino acid residues.

  18. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of duplicated polyphenol oxidase genes reveal their functional differentiations in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Song; Li, Sujuan; Zhai, Guowei; Lu, Ping; Deng, Hui; Zhu, Shan; Huang, Renliang; Shao, Jianfeng; Tao, Yuezhi; Zou, Guihua

    2017-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not. Subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments showed that Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2 functioned diversely, Sb06PPO1 was mainly expressed in young panicles before flowering. Sb06PPO2 was strongly expressed in flowering panicles, especially in hulls and branches at filling stage. Moreover, the expression of Sb06PPO1 was found to be significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA and salt, whereas Sb06PPO2 was not changed significantly, further demonstrating functional differentiation between the two genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover using a large insert BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover, a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3. Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate

  1. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Heshof, R.; Schayck, van, J.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Graaff, de, R.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesize...

  2. First remarks on the initiative of conception and evaluation of the safety of the reactors of the fourth generation; Premieres reflexions sur la demarche de conception et d'evaluation de la surete des reacteurs de quatrieme generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Ch.; Maliverney, B.; Mulet-Marquis, D.; Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guesdon, B. [Technical Secretary (France); Carluec, B.; Ehster, S. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Anzieu, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rozenholc, M.; Vitton, F.; Rouyer, J.L

    2007-09-15

    The objectives of the nuclear systems of the fourth generation impose ambitious requirements which concern the sustainable development, the competitiveness, the safety, the reliability, the resistance to proliferation and the physical protection. The examination of the policies of safety applicable to these systems is led at the same moment to the national and international levels. In France, thoughts on the safety is organized within the French consultative group of safety (G.C.F.S.) which collects the industrial actors and of research and development involved in the development of the new systems. Within the framework of the initiatives of international harmonization, the G.C.F.S. suggests defining recommendations common to all the concepts of the fourth generation reactors then on the basis of this neutral frame towards the technologies, establishing specific recommendations for each of the systems. (N.C.)

  3. AREVA revenue and data for the first nine months of 2008; AREVA informations et chiffre d'affaires relatifs aux neuf premiers mois de l'exercice 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This public information sheet presents financing data of the group AREVA for the first nine months of 2008. It shows a high increase of the revenue (12,9%). The data are detailed for each activity sector, front end, reactors and services, back end, transmission and distribution. Consolidated revenue for the years 2007 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Scintigraphy to antimyosin antibodies labelled with Indium 111 in the diagnosis of acute myocarditis: first results; La scintigraphie aux anticcorps antimyosine marques a l`Indium 111 dans le diagnostique des myocardites aigues: premiers resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Medecine Nucleaire CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Millaire, Alain; De Groote, Pascal [Cardiologie C CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Marchandise, Xavier [Medecine Nucleaire CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille Cedex (France)

    1997-12-31

    The utility of antimyosin antibody scintigraphy is rather well established in severe myocarditis in which the certainty of diagnosis is based on endo-myocardial biopsies. However, only a few studies concern the moderated forms of myocarditis in which the biopsy was generally not realised. In our study the myocarditis diagnosis is based on a bunch of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic arguments. Eighteen patients were explored (13 males, 5 females of 37 {+-} 17 years old). The scintigraphy was achieved 48 hours after injecting 2 mCi of Myoscint and compared with a thallium scintigraphy at rest. Zones of interest were established in order to calculate a heart/lung index. An ischemic cardiopathy was excluded either by coronary-graphy or thallium scintigraphy. In 11 patients diagnosis of myocarditis or myo-pericarditis was thought as certain when the the rate of CPK mb increased significantly. The other 7 patients presented either isolated pericarditis or another heart pathology. ROC curves were established in order to determine the best threshold to pose a myocarditis diagnosis. An index of 1.55 represents the best compromise between sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%). When the scintigraphy was positive the positioning was more often localised (80% of cases) than smeared out. In conclusion, our results indicate that the antimyosin antibody heart scintigraphy is a precise and reliable investigation in myocarditis diagnosis

  5. Détection précoce du cancer de la prostate chez des apparentés de premier degré au Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fall

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Dans cette étude l’association de la race noire et d’un facteur de risque familial ne semblait pas augmenter la fréquence du cancer de la prostate dans notre pays. Cependant d’autres études sur cette question sont nécessaires.

  6. INIS: international nuclear information system. World first international database on pacific uses of nuclear sciences and technologies; INIS: International Nuclear Information System. Premiere base de donnees internationale sur les applications pacifiques des sciences et technologies nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmont, J.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J

    2007-07-01

    This poster, prepared for the 2007 CEA meetings on scientific and technical information, presents the INIS information system, the document-types content and subject coverage of the database, the French contribution to this system thanks to the INIS team of the CEA-Saclay, the input preparation process, and an example of valorization of a scientific and historical patrimony with the CEA/IAEA joint project of digitization of about 2760 CEA reports published between 1948 and 1969. All these reports have been digitized by the IAEA and analyzed by CEA, and entered in the INIS database with a link to the full text. (J.S.)

  7. Le premier écrit philosophique de Paul Ricœur: Méthode réflexive appliquée au problème de Dieu chez Lachelier et Lagneau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Antoine Vallée

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation and an analysis of the first philosophical writing of Paul Ricœur, on the problem of God in the reflexive philosophies of Lachelier and Lagneau. His principal aim is to situate this first writing in the context of Ricœur’s philosophical work, by underlining his belonging to the french reflexive tradition and his refusing of the absolute idealism of Lachelier and Lagneau. The author insists more precisely on the realistic and personalist thesis of the young Ricœur and on the appearance of the problem of evil in his work.  

  8. Toutes les oeuvres de M.lle Antoinette Bourignon : contenues en dix-neuf volumes. 3. L´appel de Dieu et le Refus des Hommes : premiere & seconde partie

    OpenAIRE

    Bourignon, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Layoutgetreues Digitalisat der Ausg.: A Amsterdam : Wetstein, 1682/84 Standort: Universität Marburg, Bibliothek Religionswissenschaft Signatur: 299, Bd. 3 Bemerkungen: Enth. außerdem: La derniere misericorde de Dieu (Bibliothek Wittgenstein)

  9. The Design and Implementation of Video Production Curriculum Based on Work Flow%基于工作过程的《Premiere 视频制作》课程设计与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志伟; 孙新领; 魏勇

    2014-01-01

    为了实现学生就业与企业要求的零距离对接,以《Premiere视频制作》课程的教学设计为例,分别从课程目标确定、课程内容选择、课程教学实施、课程实施条件、课程评价五个方面阐述了基于行业一线制作流程的课程设计方法与要点。%In order to achieve the zero distance and seamless connection between employment of students and industry's needs ,this paper describes the methods and technical requirements of curriculum design based on the work flow through five aspects :the definition of curriculum object ,the choice of curriculum content ,the implementation of curriculum teaching ,the implementation condition of curricu-lum ,and the evaluation of curriculum .The design and implementation of the course is based on the case of the video production .By the practice ,the curriculum design have achieved good effects ,and formed some feathers .

  10. Powernext Day-Ahead. Powernext Futures. Powernext Carbon. Powernext Weather. Activity assessment first-half 2006; Powernext Day-Ahead. Powernext Futures. Powernext Carbon. Powernext Weather. Bilan d'activite premier semestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility which organizes and warrants the transactions on the European power exchange and CO{sub 2} exchange markets. This activity report presents the highlights of the market and of Powernext in the first half of 2006: market conditions, prices and traded volumes on Powernext (Powernext Day-Ahead{sup TM} in the case of day-ahead contracts, Powernext Futures{sup TM} in the case of medium-term contracts, and Powernext Carbon in the case of CO{sub 2}), new active members, and liquidity on the power market. (J.S.)

  11. Koanga de Frederick Delius : cherche premier opéra afro-américain désespérément Frederick Delius’s Koanga: desperately seeking first african-american opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Depardieu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Gershwin’s Porgy & Bess (1935 is still regarded by most critics as the first African-American opera, Louis Gruenberg’s The Emperor Jones (1933 and Scott Joplin’s Treemonisha (1910 have recently challenged this sacrosanct position. Today, according to some researchers, Frederick Delius’s Koanga, based upon the central episode of the story of “Bras coupé” in George Cable’s The Grandissimes, composed in 1897 but whose première took place in 1904, could claim to be “actually the first”. This statement obviously raises the question of the definition of an “African–American” and the attendant criteria. Through an analysis of the libretto as well as the reviews of the various performances from the late 1890’s to the early 1970’s, this article aims to assess the African-American criteria of Koanga.

  12. Early Childhood Family Education: Implementing the Minnesota Model = Education de la premiere enfance: Mise en oeuvre de modele Minnesota = La educacion de la familia y la ninez: Poner en practica el modelo de Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Helen L.

    Over a decade ago, the Minnesota state legislature funded the Council on Quality Education to create nine exemplary and experimental pilot programs to support young children and their families. One of the early models was a family-oriented, structured preschool activity that featured weekly 2-hour sessions during which parents of 4-year-olds…

  13. Executive report. From the preliminary phase to the first results of the pilot study; Rapport executif. De la phase preparatoire aux premiers resultats de l'etude pilote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report presents a status of the actions carried out since the end of 1999 to the account of the observatory of indoor air quality in the framework of the contracts and conventions signed between the scientific and technical centre of building engineering (CSTB), the French ministries of accommodation, research, health and environment, and the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). The actions concern: the production of data about the indoor environment (preliminary phase, pilot-campaign on 90 residential buildings and 9 schools of 3 different regions, preparation of the operational campaign on 800 sites (720 residential buildings and 80 schools), sampling strategy, optimization/development of investigation tools), the collection of available data in France, the management and exploitation of data, the development of information and communication tools, and the quality assurance of the observatory. (J.S.)

  14. Relations de phases et cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séliniées TRMo_{6Se8} (TR = Terre rare) : premiers résultats sur monocristal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maho, F.; Le Berre, F.; Penã, O.; Horyń, R.; Wojakowski, A.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to grow single crystals of chosen RE-Mo-Se Chevrel phase materials from a liquid phase was done. To reduce the effects of compositional shifts due to incongruent melting (at 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C), off-stoichiometric selenium-rich compositions were used. Prior to this, a detailed study of phase relations at 1 200 ^{circ}C was done and extended to 1 700 ^{circ}C. First preliminary magnetic and superconducting measurements were done on crystals containing RE = Gd, Ho, Er and Yb. La cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séléniés à base de terres rares (TRMo{6}Se{8}) a été réalisée avec succès pour TR = Gd, Ho, Er et Yb. La technique consiste en la fusion (non congruente) des compositions riches en terres rares et en sélénium, dans des nacelles hermétiques, à 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C. Une étude des relations de phases à 1 200 ^{circ}C et son extension à 1 700 ^{circ}C ont dû être préalablement effectuées. Les mesures préliminaires de propriétés magnétiques et supraconductrices de ces cristaux ont été effectuées.

  15. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak; Thermographie proche infrarouge par cameras CCD et application aux composants de premiere paroi du tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-06-07

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m{sup 2}). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. 87 refs.

  16. Oil and natural gas in the Mediterranean sea. Egypt and Libya in the first rank; Petrole et gaz en Mediterranee. L`Egypte et la Libye au premier plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscato, G. [Chairman de l`ENI (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1997-06-01

    The energy balance of the Mediterranean surrounding countries is dominated by petroleum and natural gas. These energy sources represent 60% of the northern coast demand and 93% of the southern coast demand. During the 3 rd edition of the Offshore Mediterranean Conference (OMC97) which took place in Ravenne (Italy) on March 1997, experts took stocks of the offshore hydrocarbon potentialities of the Mediterranean Sea. This paper summarizes the oil and gas potentialities of the Mediterranean surrounding countries with reserves estimated to 400 Mt of oil and 1000 billions of m{sup 3} of gas with some additional reserves located in the eastern deep offshore part of the sea. The natural gas trade should reach 66 Gm{sup 3} in the year 2000 and 86 Gm{sup 3} in 2010 with respect to the 30 Gm{sup 3} of 1996. The offshore oil and gas activities of Croatia, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Libya and Tunisia are briefly summarized. (J.S.)

  17. Study of the initial stages of oxidation of stainless steels in high temperature water; Etude des premiers stades d'oxydation d'alliages inoxydables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A

    2004-06-15

    Steam Generator tubes (alloys 600, 690 and 800) are protected against corrosion by an oxide layer. The release of corrosion products into the primary water of the Pressurised Water Reactor is limited by this layer. Activation of these products increases the radioactivity. Breakdown of the passive film can lead to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The aim of this study is to understand the early stages of passivation of these alloys, in high temperature and high pressure water. A new micro-autoclave was developed to achieve short time exposures (from several seconds to 10 minutes). The surfaces were characterised by XPS, NRA, STM and SEM and a kinetic model is proposed for the alloy 600. Longer oxidation times were studied (up to 400 hours). The kinetics obtained for short time oxidations were used to fit the long oxidation time behaviour. This reveals that the initial stages of oxidation are essential in the passive films growth in such conditions. (author)

  18. The Rape of Lucretia, premier « opéra anglais » de Britten ?  The Rape of Lucretia, Britten’s first “English opera”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Couderc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rape of Lucretia is Britten’s second opera, composed in the wake of the popular success of Peter Grimes and amidst the composer’s difficulties in sustaining his ambitious project to restore English opera and to set up his own opera company despite the dire post-war economic context. As Britten’s first chamber opera and the only one that retells a story from Roman Antiquity it stands apart in the Britten canon. But the collaboration of designer John Piper for the scenery and of Ronald Duncan for the libretto, the resort to dramatic verse, the borrowings from Blake, Donne and Shakespeare, as well as the musical references to English oratorio and Purcell and to Britten’s own personal questioning contribute to making it Britten’s first “English opera”.

  19. First Modelling Results of the EM Response of a CO{sub 2} Storage in the Paris Basin; Premieres modelisations de la reponse EM d'un stockage de CO{sub 2} dans le bassin Parisien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, B.; Girard, J.F. [BRGM, Service Amenagement et Risques Naturels, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2010-07-15

    We study the feasibility of using electrical/EM methods for monitoring the injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} at a depth of 1700 m in a saline aquifer of the Paris Basin (Dogger carbonates). We first establish the theoretical interest of resistivity methods for CO{sub 2} monitoring through the basic laws of electrical physics in porous sedimentary rocks, assuming that supercritical CO{sub 2} is a perfect insulator. Various combinations of EM sources and sensors are discussed and it is shown that the best type of array consists of a galvanic source (i.e. injection of current via a pair of electrodes A and B) and of a grid of electric (and possibly magnetic) sensors at the ground surface. Given the usual depth and thinness of CO{sub 2} storage layers, current injection at depth was investigated in order to increase the current density in the reservoir and thus enhance the CO{sub 2} response. Point injection at the reservoir depth in the so-called 'Mise a la Masse' (MAM) configuration is generally impossible in deep wells due to the presence of metallic casings. Therefore, the possibility of using a deep metallic casing as a long electrode distributing the current all along a borehole is studied. This kind of source is named 'LEMAM' (Long Electrode Mise a la Masse) in order to differentiate it from the conventional MAM. Numerical simulations are presented for the LEMAM array and for the gradient or rectangle array (RECT), for which the current is injected by a pair of point electrodes at the ground surface. The geo-electric model used is based on an area close to the Saint-Martin-de-Bossenay (SMB) oil-field, in the south-east of the Paris Basin. The storage reservoir considered in this study is the 75-m-thick 'Oolithe Blanche' formation (Mid Jurassic or Dogger, Bathonian age), located at a depth of about 1700 m below ground surface. In the models presented, the CO{sub 2} plume is simplified to a square horizontal slab of 2 km side, 70 m thick, floating at the top of the oolitic aquifer. A uniform CO{sub 2} saturation of 80% is assumed, yielding a resistivity contrast of 25 with the initial reservoir. Two variants of the model with different reservoir resistivities are compared. The first model is calculated with a realistic reservoir resistivity of 20 ohm.m, reflecting the low salinity of the aquifer in this part of the Basin ({approx} 5 g/L of NaCl). With this model, the time-lapse electric response of the CO{sub 2} plume is less than 0.5% of the initial electric field, which is below the estimated 'repetition noise'. This poor result can be explained by the fact that the reservoir, in this case, is far from being the most conductive layer of the model. As a consequence, only a minor part of the injected current is used for energizing the CO{sub 2} plume: a rough calculation shows that only about 2% of the injected current crosses the reservoir, hence the poor response of the plume. A second model is calculated with an idealistic reservoir resistivity of 1 ohm.m, corresponding to about 50-70 g/L of NaCl in the aquifer (though such salinity is not observed anywhere in the Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin, it is common in many storage aquifers). With this favourable model, it is estimated that about 30% of the injected current crosses the reservoir and energizes the plume, resulting in a time-lapse electric response as high as 6% of the initial field, which is quite measurable. For comparison, the time-lapse electric response obtained with the same model for a surface current injection (RECT array) is only 2% of the initial field. With this same model, the time-lapse magnetic response obtained for the LEMAM injection is about 3% of the initial magnetic field. We conclude that the LEMAM array is very promising for the resistivity monitoring of a CO{sub 2} injection in a deep aquifer, provided that the water salinity is high enough for the reservoir to channel a significant fraction of the injected current (say {>=} 10%). (authors)

  20. The accelerator tube of ions of the generator Van de Graaff of the CEA. Survey of development. First results; Le tube accelerateur d'ions du generateur van de graapp du commissariat. Etude de developpement. Premiers resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, H.; Prevot, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    Rare are the Van de Graaff supplies whose tube doesn't collapse electrically to tensions and currents very lower to those that the generator can provide. We chose the general measurements: length and diameter, and put the accent on the survey of the individual element, so much to the mechanical viewpoint (installation, solidity, tightness and degassing), that to the electric viewpoint (to increase the electric rigidity of it). After modification the breakdown voltage as well as the performances of the tube have been improved greatly. (M.B.) [French] Rares sont les machines de Van de Graaff dont le tube ne s'effondre pas electriquement a des tensions et des courants bien inferieurs a ceux que le generateur peut fournir. Nous avons choisi les dimensions generales: longueur et diametre, et mis l'accent sur l'etude de l'element individuel, tant au point de vue mecanique (montage, solidite, etancheite et degazage), qu'au point de vue electrique (pour en augmenter la rigidite electrique). Apres modification la tension de claquage ainsi que les performances du tube ont ete grandement ameliorees. (M.B.)

  1. Bota et Pépi : deux systèmes laitiers herbagers de montagne pilotes. : Premiers résultats zootechniques après deux années d'essai

    OpenAIRE

    Pomies, Dominique; Fournier, Florence; Farruggia, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Avec la fin des quotas laitiers en 2015, les zones de montagne seront confrontées à une concurrence plus rude des zones de plaine (coûts des intrants, productivité). Elles vont donc devoir maximiser l’utilisation de l’herbe, miser sur leurs atouts (image, typicité des produits AOP) et faire reconnaitre leurs services environnementaux. Dans le cadre d’un programme transversal d’unité, l’UMR Herbivores a mis en place une expérimentation pilote sur des systèmes de production innov...

  2. Electric power trading. The first study on stakes and consequences of power trading; Le trading d'electricite. La premiere etude sur les enjeux et consequences du negoce de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Power trading (purchase/sale of electricity on a stock exchange) is an emerging activity in continental Europe while it already came to maturity in the US, in the UK and in Scandinavia. Several stock exchanges have opened since 1988, in particular in Germany, Spain and in The Netherlands. New projects of creation are under study, except in France where public authorities remain reticent with respect to this evolution. Power trade is deeply overturning the organization of power markets with offering an alternative to the direct supply from producers and distributors. This study presents the functioning modes of the main stock exchanges in operation today. It analyzes the stakes of power trade for all intervening parties of the market (historical actors, newcomers and consumers). The situation and the strategic behaviour of 12 key-actors of the power sector are also examined. (J.S.)

  3. Un établissement du début du premier âge du Fer en Eure-et-Loir : Sours, Les Ouches A settlement from the first Iron Age in Eure-et-Loir: Sours, Les Ouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fouille du site des Ouches à Sours (28 a permis la mise au jour d’une importante occupation du Néolithique ancien et la découverte, dans la partie nord de l’emprise, de plusieurs structures datables du début de l’âge du Fer (Hallstatt C. Elles correspondent à des structures domestiques (un bâtiment et des fosses et à une entité “ cultuelle ”: un double enclos en “ U ”.L’habitation et ses annexes sont représentées par un bâtiment de plan quadrangulaire sur poteaux et une grande fosse riche en mobilier (céramiques, ossements et silex taillés. Cette structure peut être associée au fonctionnement d’un four de type “ polynésien ” et avoir servi de fosse de rejet.Le double enclos, ouvert vers le nord, est localisé au nord-est du site.Même si trois céramiques entières ont été trouvées dans son fossé externe, l’essentiel du mobilier céramique (177 individus sur 192 est issu de la grande fosse. Il s’agit principalement de coupes, de jattes parfois incisées, de petits gobelets à panse globulaire typiques du Hallstatt C ou de vases servant au stockage. Ils sont dotés de manière régulière de cordons digités.Ce petit établissement du début de l’âge du Fer a livré un bon échantillon des céramiques en usage en Eure-et-Loir à cette époque ainsi que des vestiges archéozoologiques et lithiques en quantité intéressante. Ces découvertes donnent de nouvelles informations sur les affinités culturelles à la transition entre l’âge du Bronze et l’âge du Fer, période peu documentée dans le Nord de la région Centre.The excavation of the site of Ouches at Sours (28 has enabled the updating of an important settlement from the early Neolithic and the discovery, in the northern part of the site, of several structures datable to the beginning of the Iron Age (Hallstatt C. They correspond to domestic structures (a building and some ditches and a “worship” entity: a double enclosure in a “U” shape.The dwelling and its annexes are represented by a quadrangular building on posts and a large ditch which is rich in furnishings (ceramic, bone and worked flint. This structure may be associated to the working of a “Polynesian” type kiln and serve as a reject pit. The double enclosure, open towards the north is situated to the north-east of the site.Even though three entire ceramic vessels have been found in the outer ditch, the majority of the ceramic furnishings (177 out of 192 have come from the large ditch, principally cups, bowls which are sometimes inscribed, small goblets with a globular middle typical of Hallstatt C or vessels used for storing. They regularly have finger made cords.This small dwelling from the beginning of the Iron Age has provided a good sample of ceramics in use in Eure-et-Loir in this period as well as some archaeozoological remains and lithics in interesting quantities. These discoveries provided new information on the cultural affinities to the transition between the Bronze and Iron ages, a period which is little researched in the north of the Centre region.

  4. 波音的梦想世界的杰作亲历波音787"梦想飞机"下线仪式有感%Boeing 787 Dreamliner premiere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2007-01-01

    @@ 进入新千年之后,空客迅猛的上升势头,极大地撼动了波音在业界保持良久的龙头老大地位.今天,凭借着波音787空前的市场成功,波音似乎又找回它昨日的感觉.借助于为波音787下线精心策划的庆典活动,波音向全世界传达了一个重要的信息,它正在重返世界商用喷气飞机领导者之位.

  5. Reconstruction du ligament croisé antérieur assistée par ordinateur : étude prospective non randomisée avec résultats à 12 mois des 30 premiers cas

    OpenAIRE

    Messerli, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Le succès d'une reconstruction du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA) dépend du placement des tunnels fémoral et tibial. L'assistance par ordinateur (CAS) devrait améliorer la précision et la reproductibilité de ce placement. Trente patients (30 genoux) ont bénéficié d'une reconstruction du LCA assistée par ordinateur. Tous les patients ont été évalués cliniquement à 6 semaines, 3, 6 et 12 mois post opératoires en utilisant: le scor IKDC 2000; la laxité antérieure par mesure arthrométrique; l'emp...

  6. Reconstruction du ligament croisé antérieur assistée par ordinateur: étude prospective non randomisée avec résultats à 12 mois des 30 premiers cas

    OpenAIRE

    Messerli, Guy; Ménétrey, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Le succès d'une reconstruction du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA) dépend du placement des tunnels fémoral et tibial. L'assistance par ordinateur (CAS) devrait améliorer la précision et la reproductibilité de ce placement. Trente patients (30 genoux) ont bénéficié d'une reconstruction du LCA assistée par ordinateur. Tous les patients ont été évalués cliniquement à 6 semaines, 3, 6 et 12 mois post opératoires en utilisant: le scor IKDC 2000; la laxité antérieure par mesure arthrométrique; l'emp...

  7. Pre-event quality of life and its influence on the post-event quality of life among patients with ST elevation and non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions of a premier province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P K B; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Arnold, S M; Haniffa, R; De Silva, A P

    2017-08-01

    Pre-event Quality of Life (QOL) reflects the true social circumstances in which people live prior to the onset of myocardial infarctions. It is believed to be a predictor of the post-event QOL. The aim of this study was to describe the pre-event QOL and its influence on the post-event Quality of Life among patients with ST elevation (STEMI) and Non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMI) using Short Form-36 (SF-36), a generic QOL tool with 8 domains. Documented literature is rare in this regard in Sri Lanka, which is a lower-middle-income country. A cross-sectional study with a 28-day post-discharge follow-up was carried out in 13 hospitals. Three hundred and forty-four patients who were diagnosed with STEMI or NSTEMI were recruited during the hospital stay. The pre-event QOL was measured using an interviewer-administered questionnaire which included the SF-36 QOL tool and medical details. Follow-up QOL was gathered using a questionnaire that was filled and posted back by participants. Of the recruited sample, 235 responded for the follow-up component. Analysis was conducted for associations between pre- and post-discharge QOL. Furthermore, comparisons were made between the STEMI and NSTEMI groups. Mann Whiney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and chi square test were used in the analysis. The post-event QOL was lower in seven out of eight domains than the pre-event QOL (p event QOL for seven domains (p  0.05) between the STEMI and NSTEMI groups. Post-discharge general-health QOL domain score was higher than the pre-MI score (p = 0.028) and was higher in the STEMI group compared to the NSTEMI group (p = 0.042). Regression analysis showed a significant beta coefficient between pre- and post-QOL for five domains in STEMI and for all domains in NSTEMI groups when adjusted for the disease severity. The R square values ranged from 12.3 to 62.3% for STEMI and 7.3 to 64.8% for NSTEMI. Pre-event QOL is lower in the NSTEMI group compared to the STEMI group. Patients do not regain the previous QOL within one month post-discharge. Post-discharge QOL can be predicted by the pre-event QOL for most domains.

  8. A comparison of postoperative throat and neck complaints after the use of the i-gel and the La Premiere disposable laryngeal mask: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.; Buitelaar, D.; Efthymiou, K.M.; Sramek, M.; Cate, J. ten; Ronday, M.; Stoppa, T.; Huitink, J.M.; Schutte, P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many supralaryngeal airway devices are available. Because of the absence of an inflatable cuff, we hypothesized that use of the i-gel should produce fewer postoperative throat and neck complaints compared with a standard disposable laryngeal mask (LM). METHODS: Two hundred eighteen

  9. La prise de décision d’urgence chez les pompiers premiers répondants : Une illustration de la pertinence d’une approche empirique en éthique professionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Denis, Karine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During an emergency, response has to be immediate. Deliberation time is limited, even nonexistent. But professionals are responsible for their decisions and their actions. The complexity of decision-making during an emergency is an under-researched topic in bioethics. To contribute to this topic, this article focuses on decision- making by firefighter first responders. It presents empirical data from focus groups with firefighters who are first responders for the Service de Sécurité Incendie de la Ville de Montréal. First, this article describes the way that firefighters understand decision-making during an emergency. Second, an empirical approach is shown to be necessary for bioethics researchers who venture to do research in fire departments: this empirical approach reveals firefighter’s ethical challenges and how they can be neutralised.

  10. Presentation of the first report of the observatory of indoor air quality; Presentation du premier rapport de l'Observatoire de la Qualite de l'Air Interieur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The mission of the French observatory of indoor air quality is to contribute to the evaluation of the sanitary risks linked with the presence of pollutants inside closed environments, to identify the substances, agents and situations that deteriorate the air quality and represent a risk for the public health. Finally, the role of the observatory is to provide useful recommendations for the design and use of buildings. This document presents and reprints the first report of Mrs A. Buchmann, head of the observatory, about the implementation of the laboratory and of its scientific programs and the progress of its works (preliminary conclusions of the pilot study carried out on 90 residential buildings and 9 schools, implementation of communication and information tools, perspectives of future works and guidance). (J.S.)

  11. Premiers résultats de l'élevage intensif de la perche européenne (Perca fluviatilis en bassin : effet de la température et du tri sur la croissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉLARD C.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Malgré un marché potentiel important, peu d'études ont examiné les possibilités de développement de l'élevage intensif de la perche (Perca fluviatilis en bassins ou en cages. L'objectif de cette étude initiale était d'évaluer l'effet de la température et du tri en fonction du poids corporel sur la croissance de perches élevées en conditions intensives. Les essais ont été réalisés avec des alevins de perche sevrés (1,9 g sur une alimentation artificielle, placés en bassins alimentés par de l'eau du système de refroidissement d'une centrale nucléaire. La croissance est légèrement supérieure (+ 14,5 % à une température de 26,5 °C par rapport à celle enregistrée à 22,9 °C. Cette différence est non significative (p>0,05, probablement parce que ces 2 températures se situent dans la gamme des températures optimales pour la croissance de la perche. Une infestation (taux de contamination : 24,5 % par le cilié Heteropolaria sp est apparue à une température de 26,5 °C. Les perches, triées et séparées en 3 groupes distincts en fonction du poids corporel au début de l'expérience, ont présenté, après 234 jours d'élevage, une augmentation du polymorphisme de la croissance dans chaque groupe se traduisant par une superposition partielle des distributions des poids corporels. Une analyse de covariance indique que les 3 groupes ont présenté des vitesses de croissance comparables (F = 1,2. En élevage intensif, il apparaît que la perche présente une grande variabilité de croissance, ce qui renforce la nécessité de trier fréquemment les poissons.

  12. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment; Modelisation et simulation de parametres critiques de la premiere station du spectrometre dimuons d'ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guez, D

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/{psi} and {upsilon} families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB{sup 2} that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  13. Affirming Francophone Education: Foundations and Directions. A Framework for French First Language Education in Alberta = Affirmer l'education en francais langue premiere: fondements et orientations. Le cadre de l'education francophone en Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This booklet presents a clear and succinct description of the educational needs of francophone students, families, and communities, and how this all fits into the constitutional requirements of Canada as directed by the 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and all subsequent amendments and Canadian Supreme Court rulings. It identifies the…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Premier annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 1.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Declaration from the prime minister, Dominique de Villepin, about the energy policy on May 15, 2006; Declaration du premier ministre, Dominique de Villepin sur la politique energetique, le 15 mai 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    While the oil barrel has exceeded the historical price of 70$, the French government has put forward two exigencies: reducing the weight of the oil bill and reinforcing France's energy independence through the development of nuclear and renewable energies and with the implementation of an energy saving policy, and sharing in an equitable way the petroleum 'weight' taking into account the situation of oil-dependent professionals. In this communication, the prime minister develops the different point of this policy, in particular the financial incentives for the development of renewable energy sources, biofuels, and public transportation systems, and the measures allowing to protect the spending power of French people. (J.S.)

  18. A comparison of postoperative throat and neck complaints after the use of the i-gel and the La Premiere disposable laryngeal mask: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.; Buitelaar, D.; Efthymiou, K.M.; Sramek, M.; Cate, J. ten; Ronday, M.; Stoppa, T.; Huitink, J.M.; Schutte, P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many supralaryngeal airway devices are available. Because of the absence of an inflatable cuff, we hypothesized that use of the i-gel should produce fewer postoperative throat and neck complaints compared with a standard disposable laryngeal mask (LM). METHODS: Two hundred eighteen patie

  19. Fiche pratique: La vie en rose; Scenes de menage; Comptines en memoire; Premier emploi (Practical Ideas: Life through Rose-Colored Glasses; Home Life; Singsongs from the Past; First Job).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, Martine; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four ideas for French language classroom activities include creation of a parody horoscope, reenactment of household scenes from a comic strip, an exercise in memorizing grammatical rules through children's chants, and analysis of a videotape's content, aural, and visual components. (MSE)

  20. Perspectives on the Use of “Anonymous” Discussion Forums in Undergraduate Education Courses / Perspectives sur l’usage des forums de discussion « partiellement anonymes » dans le cadre de cours universitaires de premier cycle en éducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Michael Bowen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper theorizes issues involved with conflicts between participation in on-line settings and real-world social commitments, such as has recently happened in schools with students using public discussion forums. We problematize how real-world social commitments negatively affect participation in online learning environments frequently used in classrooms. Drawing on interviews with, observations by, and written submissions from our students who participated in “hybrid” courses using an approach where identity was concealed in online discussions from other class participants, we discuss implications of this issue for evaluating forum submissions by students. Our analysis uses a cultural-historical activity theory framework to conceptualize implications from this anonymous forum approach and the resultant changes in participation in the learning environment. Cet article élabore une théorie des enjeux associés aux conflits entre la participation dans un environnement en ligne et les engagements sociaux réels, comme ce qui se produit actuellement dans les écoles, les étudiants se servant de forums publics de discussion pour leurs cours. Nous schématisons la façon dont les engagements sociaux réels ont des effets négatifs sur la participation aux environnements d’apprentissage en ligne fréquemment utilisés dans les salles de classe. À partir d’entrevues, d’observations et de communications écrites par les étudiants qui ont participé à nos cours « hybrides » en adoptant une approche par laquelle l’identité était gardée cachée des autres étudiants (mais non des instructeurs dans les discussions en ligne, nous discutons des implications de cet enjeu dans l’évaluation des soumissions des étudiants dans les forums. Notre analyse se sert d’un cadre théorique de l’activité historico-culturelle pour conceptualiser les implications de cette approche de forum « partiellement anonyme » et les changements de participation qui en résultent dans l’environnement d’apprentissage.

  1. De l’héritier au répondant. La transmission en question dans les deux premiers romans de Sylvie Germain, Le livre des nuits et Nuit-d’Ambre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Traisnel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La saga des Péniel met en scène des personnages prisonniers d’un passé douloureux hérité de leurs ancêtres : c’est que la malignité du mal consiste à parasiter la transmission. Seule la révélation de la porosité humaine permet aux personnages d’échapper à cette logique infernale pour convertir leur passivité de légataire en responsabilité de répondant due à autrui et à un Dieu qui s’est dépouillé de ses forces et de son Verbe pour créer le monde. C’est le sens du silence de Dieu – vestige de ce geste de retrait divin – que Sylvie Germain cherche à nous transmettre. The saga of the Péniel family stages characters imprisoned by a distressful past inherited from their ancestors. Transmission, or what fails to be transmitted, is central to understanding the curse of the bloodline. Only the revelation of the porousness of human interaction makes it possible for the characters to escape from this infernal logic and to convert their passivity as legatees into the responsibility of guarantors responding to others as well as to God. It is the significance of the silence of God–vestige of the gesture of divine withdrawal–that Sylvie Germain seeks to transmit to her reader.

  2. Évaluation de l’impact de la culture de colza sur la biodiversité aviaire en France : enjeux, méthodes, premiers résultats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sausse Christophe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indices based on common birds are suitable to represent biodiversity, and are now commonly used. Farmland birds’ indices in France and Europe show worrying trends. A diagnosis of the impact of oilseed crops raises methodological issues. Ecological studies usually establish statistical links between common birds and agriculture described by great types of farming systems. The specific case of landscapes with cereals cropping systems requires more precise descriptions. We carried out a study using national databases to assess the impact of land use at the scale of small agricultural regions. The importance of oilseed rape area was not a major determinant of birds’ indices, and the statistical models explained little of the observed variability. This suggests the diagnosis should take other factors into account, like management of the cropping systems and the landscape configuration. This exploratory study based on statistical correlations is complementary to analytical and accurate field studies more suitable to highlight causality effects.

  3. First industrial application of the auto-adaptative MAG STT welding technique with laser joint tracking; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto-adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Th. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2007-05-15

    The Welding Institute has participated to the plan of construction of the Large Hadron Collider. The hoops of the dipolar magnets are composed of two half cylinders 15 m in length in 10 mm 316LN austenitic stainless steel and are assembled around the magnet in a horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software for carrying out the auto-adaptative welding technique with laser joint tracking, in using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modelling of the welding laws and the strategy of filling the joints in multi-paths absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root..) in dynamic welding condition too. (O.M.)

  4. Gel electrophoresis of polyphenol oxidase with instant identification by in situ blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Huang, Pei-Chen; Pan, Ju-Pin; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Mao, Simon J T

    2007-04-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) or tyrosinase is an important and ubiquitous enzyme responsible for browning in plants and melanization in animals. The molecular size of the plant PPO is varied among the species and its activity can be enhanced by a variety of anionic detergents. In the present study, we developed a simple method for the first-step identification of PPO in fruit and vegetable extracts. First, 3mm chromatographic paper was immersed in 0.5% (w/v) catechol solution as an immobilized PPO substrate. After running the extract with 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), one side of the glass plate was removed. The plate was immediately laid on top of the dried catechol-paper. A dark-brown band corresponding to PPO was visualized within 1 min and was further confirmed by a conventional Western blot using an antibody prepared against mushroom PPO. It also reveals that some vegetation (such as tomato, radish, and oriental melon) with low or no detectable activity in a conventional enzyme assay actually possessed marked levels of PPO activity when assessed by PAGE-blot. We propose that an inhibitor is associated with PPO in some plants; the inhibitor, however, is dissociated during the electrophoresis. Therefore, in addition to identify the molecular form of PPO, the present technique may explore the existence of PPO inhibitor(s) in plants. The detail of the method with respect to its relevance for searching a natural PPO inhibitor is described and discussed.

  5. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    While a long shelf life for fruit products is highly desired, enzymatic browning is the main cause of quality loss in fruits and is therefore a main problem for the food industry. In this study polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the main enzyme responsible for browning was isolated from mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) and characterized biochemically. Two isoenzymes (PPO 1 and PPO 2) were obtained upon ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic and ion exchange chromatography; PPO 1 was purified up to 6.6-fold with 0.28% yield, while PPO 2 could not be characterized as enzyme activity was completely lost after 24 h of storage. PPO 1 molecular weight was estimated to be 16.1 and 18 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the native state of the PPO 1 is a monomer. The optimum pH for PPO 1 activity was 7. The PPO 1 was determined to be maximum thermally stable up to 35°C. Kinetic constants for PPO 1 were K(m)=44 mM and K(m)=1.3 mM using catechol and pyrogallol as substrate, respectively. The best substrates for PPO 1 were pyrogallol, 4-methylcatechol and catechol, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite were the most effective inhibitors.

  6. Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anrui eLu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, βGRP and C-type lectins, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins. Due to their complexity, PPO activation mechanisms vary among insect species. Activated phenoloxidase (PO oxidizes phenolic molecules to produce melanin around invading pathogens and wounds. The crystal structure of Manduca sexta PPO shows that a conserved amino acid, phenylalanine (F, can block the active site pocket. During activation, this blocker must be dislodged or even cleaved at the N-terminal sequence to expose the active site pockets and allow substrates to enter. Thanks to the crystal structure of M. sexta PPO, some domains and specific amino acids that affect PPO activities have been identified. Further studies of the relationship between PPO structure and enzyme activities will provide an opportunity to examine other type-3 copper proteins, and trace when and why their various physiological functions evolved. Recent researches show that insect PPO has a relationship with neuron activity, longevity, feces melanization (phytophagous insects and development, which suggests that it is time for us to look back on insect PPO beyond the view of immunity in this review.

  7. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Stable Anion Exchange Membranes: The Addition of Electron-withdrawing Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen ALBAYRAK ARI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membranes (AEM based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide (PPO were used as polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell applications. The membranes were prepared via bromination, quaternization and nitration reactions and their fuel cell-related properties (water uptake, ion exchange capacity, ionic conductivity were determined. Also, the structures and thermal properties were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Size exclusion chromatography (SEC and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Nitration of quaternized PPO (Q-PPO leaded to a decrease in water uptake and ion exchange capacity of the AEM. However, Q-PPO membrane treated with nitration reaction (NO2-Q-PPO exhibited a significant alkaline stability compared to quaternized PPO (Q-PPO.   The results indicated that the addition of electron-withdrawing group, such as nitro, into the structure in order to improve in alkaline stability is a promising new route for preparation alkaline stable AEM membranes.

  9. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms.

  10. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  11. Inhibition Mechanism of Novel Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4(5H)-one Derivatives Against Proliferation of A549 and H322 Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-hui Shao; Gui-hua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the inhibition mechanism and safety of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4(5H)-one derivatives against proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, H322 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). Methods Cells were treated with 40μmol/L of the ppo3a, ppo3b, ppo3i, and 0.1% DMSO (control) for 48 hours, respectively. Apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining assay in H322 and A549 cells. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis in A549 cell. LC3-II, p53, and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 protein levels were detected by Western blotting in A549 cells treated with ppo3b for 48 hours. The morphology and viability of HUVEC were observed by inverted microscope and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Results Ppo3a, ppo3b, and ppo3i significantly induced apoptosis in H322 and A549 cells. A strong G1-phase arrest was concomitant with the growth inhibitory effect on A549 cells. Ppo3b effectively elevated the p53 protein level, but significantly reduced the HSP70 protein level. There were no significantly inhibitory effect on the morphology and viability of HUVEC when treated with ppo3a, ppo3b, and ppo3i. Conclusions ppo3a, ppo3b, and ppo3i could inhibit H322 proliferation through apoptosis and inhibit A549 through apoptosis and G1-phase arrest. The protein p53 and HSP70 might involve in the inhibition effects. These derivatives might be a clue to find effective and safe drug for lung cancers.

  12. DM-style program caters to behavioral needs of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Modeled after traditional employee assistance programs, a new program offered by CIGNA Behavioural Health is designed to meet the needs of college students, many of whom are vulnerable to emotional disorders as they grapple with independence and the rigors of campus life for the first time. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse are on the rise in college-age individuals, and developers of the new approach suggest that early intervention can get such problems under control before they reach the crisis stage.

  13. Functional Analysis of Polyphenol Oxidases by Antisense/Sense Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutharat Attajarusit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, the secondary reactions of which lead to oxidative browning and postharvest losses of many fruits and vegetables. PPOs are ubiquitous in angiosperms, are inducible by both biotic and abiotic stresses, and have been implicated in several physiological processes including plant defense against pathogens and insects, the Mehler reaction, photoreduction of molecular oxygen by PSI, regulation of plastidic oxygen levels, aurone biosynthesis and the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here we review experiments in which the roles of PPO in disease and insect resistance as well as in the Mehler reaction were investigated using transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum plants with modified PPO expression levels (suppressed PPO and overexpressing PPO. These transgenic plants showed normal growth, development and reproduction under laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Antisense PPO expression dramatically increased susceptibility while PPO overexpression increased resistance of tomato plants to Pseudomonas syringae. Similarly, PPO-overexpressing transgenic plants showed an increase in resistance to various insects, including common cutworm (Spodoptera litura (F., cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner and beet army worm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, whereas larvae feeding on plants with suppressed PPO activity had higher larval growth rates and consumed more foliage. Similar increases in weight gain, foliage consumption, and survival were also observed with Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say feeding on antisense PPO transgenic tomatoes. The putative defensive mechanisms conferred by PPO and its interaction with other defense proteins are discussed. In addition, transgenic plants with suppressed PPO exhibited more favorable water relations and decreased photoinhibition compared to nontransformed controls and transgenic plants

  14. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  16. Characterization of a tomato polyphenol oxidase and its role in browning and lycopene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Chisari, Marco; Branca, Ferdinando

    2005-03-23

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from five Sicilian varieties of tomato fruit [Pizzutello, Naomi (Hazera), F1 PS212 (Peto seed), Rosa Maletto, and PO228] and assayed with a method using 3-methylbenzothyazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) as chromophore coupling agent. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was chosen for tomato PPO activity determination. The tomato PPO had maximum activity at pH 4.8. The pH of juice in ripe fruits is between 4.1 and 4.4, a range in which PPO relative activity is between 74 and 87%. The optimum temperature of activity for tomato PPO was 40 degrees C; the enzyme showed a good relative activity (55% of the maximum) at cold-storage temperature (4 degrees C). PPO retained 82% relative activity at an NaCl concentration of 0.1 M; at higher concentrations the PPO became gradually inactivated. The commercial variety Naomi is more susceptible to enzymatic browning than the local varieties Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto and PO228, due to higher PPO activity levels. This result confirms the suitability of these local tomato varieties to national markets. Results from storage tests seem to relate PPO activity with color changes associated with browning and lycopene degradation, because lycopene is an antioxidant agent that reconstitutes the polyphenols oxidized by the action of PPO.

  17. Novel roles for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in secondary metabolism and the regulation of cell death in walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araji, Soha; Grammer, Theresa A; Gertzen, Ross; Anderson, Stephen D; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Phu, My L; Solar, Anita; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Escobar, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into highly reactive quinones. Polymerization of PPO-derived quinones causes the postharvest browning of cut or bruised fruit, but the native physiological functions of PPOs in undamaged, intact plant cells are not well understood. Walnut (Juglans regia) produces a rich array of phenolic compounds and possesses a single PPO enzyme, rendering it an ideal model to study PPO. We generated a series of PPO-silenced transgenic walnut lines that display less than 5% of wild-type PPO activity. Strikingly, the PPO-silenced plants developed spontaneous necrotic lesions on their leaves in the absence of pathogen challenge (i.e. a lesion mimic phenotype). To gain a clearer perspective on the potential functions of PPO and its possible connection to cell death, we compared the leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of wild-type and PPO-silenced plants. Silencing of PPO caused major alterations in the metabolism of phenolic compounds and their derivatives (e.g. coumaric acid and catechin) and in the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Several observed metabolic changes point to a direct role for PPO in the metabolism of tyrosine and in the biosynthesis of the hydroxycoumarin esculetin in vivo. In addition, PPO-silenced plants displayed massive (9-fold) increases in the tyrosine-derived metabolite tyramine, whose exogenous application elicits cell death in walnut and several other plant species. Overall, these results suggest that PPO plays a novel and fundamental role in secondary metabolism and acts as an indirect regulator of cell death in walnut.

  18. Novel Roles for the Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme in Secondary Metabolism and the Regulation of Cell Death in Walnut1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araji, Soha; Grammer, Theresa A.; Gertzen, Ross; Anderson, Stephen D.; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Phu, My L.; Solar, Anita; Leslie, Charles A.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Escobar, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into highly reactive quinones. Polymerization of PPO-derived quinones causes the postharvest browning of cut or bruised fruit, but the native physiological functions of PPOs in undamaged, intact plant cells are not well understood. Walnut (Juglans regia) produces a rich array of phenolic compounds and possesses a single PPO enzyme, rendering it an ideal model to study PPO. We generated a series of PPO-silenced transgenic walnut lines that display less than 5% of wild-type PPO activity. Strikingly, the PPO-silenced plants developed spontaneous necrotic lesions on their leaves in the absence of pathogen challenge (i.e. a lesion mimic phenotype). To gain a clearer perspective on the potential functions of PPO and its possible connection to cell death, we compared the leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of wild-type and PPO-silenced plants. Silencing of PPO caused major alterations in the metabolism of phenolic compounds and their derivatives (e.g. coumaric acid and catechin) and in the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Several observed metabolic changes point to a direct role for PPO in the metabolism of tyrosine and in the biosynthesis of the hydroxycoumarin esculetin in vivo. In addition, PPO-silenced plants displayed massive (9-fold) increases in the tyrosine-derived metabolite tyramine, whose exogenous application elicits cell death in walnut and several other plant species. Overall, these results suggest that PPO plays a novel and fundamental role in secondary metabolism and acts as an indirect regulator of cell death in walnut. PMID:24449710

  19. Partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in raspberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    1999-10-01

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in raspberry fruits is described. Two early cultivars harvested in May/June (Heritage and Autumm Bliss) and two late cultivars harvested in October-November (Ceva and Rubi) were analyzed for PPO activity. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and Triton X-100 in sodium phosphate, pH 7.0 buffer. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of raspberry extracts under nondenaturing conditions resolved in one band (R(f)()(1) = 0.25). Raspberry PPO activity has pH optima of 8.0 and 5.5, both with catechol (0.1 M). Maximum activity was with D-catechin (catecholase activity), followed by p-coumaric acid (cresolase activity). Heritage raspberry also showed PPO activity toward 4-methylcatechol. Ceva and Autumm Bliss raspberries showed the higher PPO activity using catechol as substrate.

  20. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  1. Effects of Different De-astringency Treatments on Soluble Tannin Content and ADH and PPO Activities in Persimmon Fruit%不同脱涩处理对红柿果实可溶性单宁含量及ADH和PPO酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金光; 周平; 廖汝玉; 郭瑞; 杨凌; 沈清标; 吴绍钟

    2010-01-01

    以红柿"早红"为试材,使用不同体积分数的二氧化碳和乙醇对果实进行脱涩处理,结果表明:室温条件下,30%乙醇处理、40%乙醇处理和80%二氧化碳处理可使柿果中可溶性单宁含量在96 h内降到阀值之下,且乙醇处理较二氧化碳处理能更有效地降低果实中的可溶性单宁含量;同时,在此过程中,柿果中的乙醇脱氢酶ADH酶活性先上升后下降,而多酚氧化酶PPO活性则始终保持上升的趋势.

  2. 磁场处理小白菜种子对其种子活力及叶片中PPO、SOD酶活性的影响%Effect of the Treatment of Magnetic Field on the Seed Vigor and the Enzymatic Activity of PPO and SOD in Leaf of Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋香; 于凌春

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究磁场处理小白菜种子对其种子活力及叶片中PPO、SOD酶活性的影响,为磁生物学的深入研究和探究磁场处理在小白菜生产中的应用及生物机制提供一定的理论依据.[方法]用梯度为0.4、0.8、1.2、1.6、2.0 T的磁场强度处理小白菜种子,处理时间分别为5 、10 、15 、20 min,另设一个非磁场处理作对照(CK).将各处理分成2组,一组用于种子活力的测定,另一组用于酶活的测定.[结果]经过磁场处理后,小白菜种子的发芽率在一定的磁场强度范围内随着磁场强度的加强而提高,其活力指标及小白菜叶片中PPO和SOD酶活性以1.2 T 15 min和1.2 T 10 min为最高.表明通过适度的磁场处理,可以提高小白菜种子的发芽率、活力指数和叶片中的酶活性,进而提高小白菜的抗病性.[结论]适宜的磁场强度和适当时间的磁处理可以提高小白菜种子的发芽率,且显著提高叶片中PPO、SOD酶活性.

  3. Synthesis of Micron-size Functional Polystyrene Fluorescent Micro- spheres and their Adsorbability to Human Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Qiang WANG; He LI; Jie HU; Xian Feng LIAO; Bai Ling LIU

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene microspheres with sulfo- or aldehyde- surface were synthesized through dispersion polymerization. Functional polystyrene fluorescent microspheres were prepared by the way of adding 2, 5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) into the reaction system directly and dying the blank microspheres in the ethanol solution of PPO. The influence of preparing matters on the encapsulating rate of PPO, and the influence of functional groups on the adsorbability to human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated.

  4. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Marrufo-Hernández, Norma A; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2014-10-08

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme widely distributed in the plant kingdom that has been detected in most fruits and vegetables. PPO was extracted and purified from Manila mango (Mangifera indica), and its biochemical properties were studied. PPO was purified 216-fold by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography. PPO was purified to homogeneity, and the estimated PPO molecular weight (MW) by SDS-PAGE was ≈31.5 kDa. However, a MW of 65 kDa was determined by gel filtration, indicating a dimeric structure for the native PPO. The isolated PPO showed the highest affinity to pyrogallol (Km = 2.77 mM) followed by 4-methylcatechol (Km = 3.14 mM) and catechol (Km = 15.14 mM). The optimum pH for activity was 6.0. PPO was stable in the temperature range of 20-70 °C. PPO activity was completely inhibited by tropolone, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, and kojic acid at 0.1 mM.

  5. Biomiddelen remmen wortelrot iets af

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedeveld, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Met antagonisten en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van Natuurlijke Oorsprong (GNO) wortelrot (Phytopthora cinnamomi) in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Stardust' bestrijden: verslag van het onderzoek op het PPO Bomen

  6. Eurasian Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao advocates trust and cooperation during a recent four-nation tour chinese Premier Wen Jiabao stressed during his recent Eurasian tour that China would continue to cooperate with other countries to revive

  7. Beacon of Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao sends crucial signals to the international community at UN headquarters For the first time since he took office five years ago, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the United Nations in New York on September

  8. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier V Alvarez

    Full Text Available Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus.

  9. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Javier V; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus.

  10. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, M.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the

  11. Decrease of the IgE-binding by Mal d 1, the major apple allergen, by means of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Borrego, A.; Wichers, J.H.; Wichers, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Mal d 1, the major apple allergen, is heat labile and easily oxidized. Oxidative reactions catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and/or peroxidase (POD), present in apple, may be involved in decreasing its allergenicity. PPO and POD convert phenolic compounds into o-quinones. In this study the effec

  12. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Schayck, van J.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain jus

  13. Wat te doen na zware hagelschade ; de gevolgen van zomerhagel voor fruitteelt, deel 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.A.H.; Maas, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Na de extreem zware hagel van 22 juni 2008 is op de proeftuin van PPO in Randwijk een aantal proeven gestart, met als doel vervolgschade aan de zwaar beschadigde bomen zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen. In 2009 lijkt de vervolgschade zowel bij PPO in Randwijk als bij andere getroffen telers mee te vallen

  14. De gecombineerde rol van ethyleen en het pelmoment in het ontstaan van zuur in tulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.; Kreuk, F.

    2010-01-01

    Proeftuin Zwaagdijk (de Zuurgroep West Friesland) en PPO-Bloembollen te Lisse deden de laatste jaren beide onderzoek naar zuur in tulp. Bij PPO werd gevonden dat ethyleen al binnen enkele uren tot dagen een belangrijke rol speelt bij toename van zuurgevoeligheid van de bollen. Uit onderzoek van Proe

  15. Crystal structure of Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase provides insights into the mechanism of type 3 copper enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Deng, Junpeng; (OKLU)

    2010-02-22

    Arthropod phenoloxidase (PO) generates quinones and other toxic compounds to sequester and kill pathogens during innate immune responses. It is also involved in wound healing and other physiological processes. Insect PO is activated from its inactive precursor, prophenoloxidase (PPO), by specific proteolysis via a serine protease cascade. Here, we report the crystal structure of PPO from a lepidopteran insect at a resolution of 1.97 {angstrom}, which is the initial structure for a PPO from the type 3 copper protein family. Manduca sexta PPO is a heterodimer consisting of 2 homologous polypeptide chains, PPO1 and PPO2. The active site of each subunit contains a canonical type 3 di-nuclear copper center, with each copper ion coordinated with 3 structurally conserved histidines. The acidic residue Glu-395 located at the active site of PPO2 may serve as a general base for deprotonation of monophenolic substrates, which is key to the ortho-hydroxylase activity of PO. The structure provides unique insights into the mechanism by which type 3 copper proteins differ in their enzymatic activities, albeit sharing a common active center. A drastic change in electrostatic surface induced on cleavage at Arg-51 allows us to propose a model for localized PPO activation in insects.

  16. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) in mixtures of trichloroethylene, 1-octanol, and methanol: Relationship to membrane formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Rutten, H.J.J.; Smolders, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The phase boundaries in the quaternary system consisting of the polymer poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) (PPO[Note ][PPO is a registered trademark of the General Electric Company.]), the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE), and the nonsolvents 1-octanol (OcOH) and methanol (MeOH) are determined. Th

  17. Potato and Mushroom Polyphenol Oxidase Activities Are Differently Modulated by Natural Plant Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Herk, van T.; Vincken, J.P.; Janssen, R.H.; Narh, D.L.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcom

  18. Khảo sát sự tạo mixel của một số Copolyme Pluronic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hùng, Nguyễn Quốc; Hvidt, Søren; Batsberg, Walther;

    2009-01-01

    The micellization of several Pluronics (PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These copolymers were also characterized and purified by liquid chromatography. The PEO/PPO compositions of Pluronics were determined by 1H-NMR. The thermograms from...

  19. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  20. Wat te doen na zware hagelschade ; de gevolgen van zomerhagel voor fruitteelt, deel 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.A.H.; Maas, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Na de extreem zware hagel van 22 juni 2008 is op de proeftuin van PPO in Randwijk een aantal proeven gestart, met als doel vervolgschade aan de zwaar beschadigde bomen zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen. In 2009 lijkt de vervolgschade zowel bij PPO in Randwijk als bij andere getroffen telers mee te vallen

  1. Meest vroege seizoen sinds jaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dieren, van M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    PPO houdt sinds jaren voor diverse gewassen en rassen de bloeitijdstippen en bloerijkdom bij. Dit seizoen begint de gewasontwikkeling wel heel erg vroeg. Daarom geeft PPO een overzicht van bloeigegevens uit Randwijk van de belangrijkste appel- en peerrassen van de afgelopen tien jaren. Tevens zijn n

  2. Post-partum oestrusgedrag bij zeugen gaat niet gepaard met ovulatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souren, N.Y.P.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Sows occasionally show oestrous behaviour within 5 days of farrowing: this is termed post-partum oestrus (PPO). This study investigated the incidence and possible causes of PPO on nine Dutch farms. Lactation records (n = 1374) were used, hack fat thickness was measured (n=25), and ovarian condition

  3. Khảo sát sự tạo mixel của một số Copolyme Pluronic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hùng, Nguyễn Quốc; Hvidt, Søren; Batsberg, Walther

    2009-01-01

    The micellization of several Pluronics (PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These copolymers were also characterized and purified by liquid chromatography. The PEO/PPO compositions of Pluronics were determined by 1H-NMR. The thermograms from...

  4. Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves.

  5. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  6. KARAKTERISASI EKSTRAK KASAR POLIFENOLOKSIDASE DARI UDANG VANAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    medal lintas perceka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polifenoloksidase (PPO merupakan enzim yang bertanggung jawab terhadap proses diskolorasi yang disebut melanosis. Blackspot atau melanosis merupakan proses penurunan mutu yang terjadi pada udang selama penanganan dan penyimpanan postmortem. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi aktivitas enzim PPO udang vaname dan mengkarakterisasi enzim yang meliputi suhu, pH, konsentrasi substrat optimum serta kinetika enzim. Enzim PPO telah berhasil diisolasi dari karapas udang vaname dengan ekstraksi buffer fosfat (1:3. Enzim ini dikarakterisasi menggunakan L-DOPA sebagai substrat spesifiknya. Ekstrak kasar PPO memiliki aktivitas optimum pada suhu 35°C, pH 6 dan konsentrasi L-DOPA sebesar 10 mM. Nilai Km dan Vmaks PPO untuk substrat L-DOPA adalah sebesar 1,17 mM dan 285,71 U.Kata kunci: L-Dihidroksifenilalanin, Litopenaeus vannamei, melanosis, polifenoloksidase

  7. KARAKTERISASI EKSTRAK KASAR POLIFENOLOKSIDASE DARI UDANG VANAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    medal lintas perceka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polifenoloksidase (PPO merupakan enzim yang bertanggung jawab terhadap proses diskolorasi yang disebut melanosis. Blackspot atau melanosis merupakan proses penurunan mutu yang terjadi pada udang selama penanganan dan penyimpanan postmortem. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi aktivitas enzim PPO udang vaname dan mengkarakterisasi enzim yang meliputi suhu, pH, konsentrasi substrat optimum serta kinetika enzim. Enzim PPO telah berhasil diisolasi dari karapas udang vaname dengan ekstraksi buffer fosfat (1:3. Enzim ini dikarakterisasi menggunakan L-DOPA sebagai substrat spesifiknya. Ekstrak kasar PPO memiliki aktivitas optimum pada suhu 35°C, pH 6 dan konsentrasi L-DOPA sebesar 10 mM. Nilai Km dan Vmaks PPO untuk substrat L-DOPA adalah sebesar 1,17 mM dan 285,71 U.Kata kunci: L-Dihidroksifenilalanin, Litopenaeus vannamei, melanosis, polifenoloksidase

  8. Cherenkov and Scintillation Light Separation in Organic Liquid Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaca, J; Land, B J; Yeh, M; Gann, G D Orebi

    2016-01-01

    The CHErenkov / Scintillation Separation experiment (CHESS) has been used to demonstrate the separation of Cherenkov and scintillation light in both linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and LAB with 2g/L of PPO as a fluor (LAB/PPO). This is the first such demonstration for the more challenging LAB/PPO cocktail and improves on previous results for LAB. A time resolution of 338 +/- 12 ps FWHM results in an efficiency for identifying Cherenkov photons in LAB/PPO of 70 +/- 3% and 63 +/- 8% for time- and charge-based separation, respectively, with scintillation contamination of 36 +/- 5% and 38 +/- 4%. LAB/PPO data is consistent with a rise time of 0.75 +/- 0.25 ns.

  9. OXIDATIVE POLYMERIZATION BEHAVIOR OF 2,6-DIMETHYLPHENOL IN AQUEOUS MEDIA WITH POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Gu; Jin-hua Zhu; Bao-qing Shentu; Qun Liu; Zhi-xue Weng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferricyanide, sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, sodium hydroxide and temperature on the molecular weight and the yield of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) synthesized in an aqueous medium were studied. It was found that oxygen in air had little influence on the oxidative polymerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) in the aqueous medium, and potassium ferricyanide was only an oxidant during the oxidative polymerization of DMP. Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate could stabilize polymer particles and facilitate the oxidative polymerization of DMP on the surface of polymer particles, which resulted in the increase of the molecular weight of PPO. The yield and molecular weight of PPO increased significantly with NaOH concentration at first and then decreased with NaOH concentration. The high molecular weight PPO with high yield was obtained at 50℃, but both the yield and molecular weight of PPO decreased with the further increase of temperature.

  10. Extraction and quantitation of coumarin from cinnamon and its effect on enzymatic browning in fresh apple juice: a bioinformatics approach to illuminate its antibrowning activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thada, Rajarajeshwari; Chockalingam, Shivashri; Dhandapani, Ramesh Kumar; Panchamoorthy, Rajasekar

    2013-06-05

    Enzymatic browning by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) affects food quality and taste in fruits and vegetables. Thus, the study was designed to reduce browning in apple juice by coumarin. The ethanolic extract of cinnamon was prepared and its coumarin content was quantitated by HPLC, using authentic coumarin (AC) as standard. The effect of cinnamon extract (CE) and AC on enzymatic browning, its time dependent effects, and the specific activity of PPO and peroxidase (POD) were studied in apple juice. The docking of coumarin with PPO and POD was also performed to elucidate its antibrowning mechanism. The CE (73%) and AC (82%) showed better reduction in browning, maintained its antibrowning effect at all time points, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the specific activity of PPO and POD when compared with controls. Coumarin showed strong interaction with binding pockets of PPO and POD, suggesting its potential use as inhibitor to enzyme mediated browning in apple juice.

  11. Studies on the interactions of 2,5-diphenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2,5-diphenyl 1,3-oxazole with β-cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Interactions of 2,5-diphenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole (PPD) and 2,5-diphenyl 1,3-oxazole (PPO) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) are studied by 1H-NMR and steady-state fluorescence measurements, and the stoichiometries and the association constants are estimated. It is found that the hydrophobic interaction is the main driving force for the formation of inclusion complexes of PPD and PPO with β-CD. In the presence of aliphatic alcohols (from 1-propanol to 1-pentanol), PPD and PPO transfer from the CD cavity to the aqueous phase. Quenching experiments of PPD and PPO by iodide further prove the above conclusions. The results suggest that stereo effect is the crucial factor to the inexistence of nanotube in PPD (or PPO)-β-CD systems.

  12. Oxidative phenols in forage crops containing polyphenol oxidase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Ifat; Threadgill, Michael D; Moorby, Jon M; Winters, Ana

    2010-02-10

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing enzymes that catalyze oxidation of endogenous monophenols to ortho-dihydroxyaryl compounds and of ortho-dihydroxyaryl compounds to ortho-quinones. Subsequent nucleophilic addition reactions of phenols, amino acids, and proteins with the electrophilic ortho-quinones form brown-, black-, or red-colored secondary products associated with the undesired discolouration of fruit and vegetables. Several important forage plants also exhibit significant PPO activity, and a link with improved efficiency of ruminant production has been established. In ruminant animals, extensive degradation of forage proteins, following consumption, can result in high rates of excretion of nitrogen, which contributes to point-source and diffuse pollution. Reaction of quinones with forage proteins leads to the formation of protein-phenol complexes that are resistant to proteolytic activity during ensilage and during rumen fermentation. Thus, PPO in red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been shown to improve protein utilization by ruminants. While PPO activity has been demonstrated in a number of forage crops, little work has been carried out to identify substrates of PPO, knowledge of which would be beneficial for characterizing this trait in these forages. In general, a wide range of 1,2-dihydroxyarenes can serve as PPO substrates because these are readily oxidized because of the ortho positioning of the hydroxy groups. Naturally occurring phenols isolated from forage crops with PPO activity are reviewed. A large number of phenols, which may be directly or indirectly oxidized as a consequence of PPO activity, have been identified in several forage grass, legume, cereal, and brassica species; these include hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids. In conclusion, a number of compounds are known or postulated to enable PPO activity in important PPO-expressing forage crops. Targeting the matching of these compounds with PPO activity

  13. Polyphenol oxidase activity in subcellular fractions of tall fescue contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wanting; Lu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yanzheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yandi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding enzyme responses to contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key step in the elucidation of POP metabolic mechanisms in plants. However, there is little information available on enzyme activity in subcellular fractions of POP-contaminated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cell fractions of plants under contamination stress from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a greenhouse batch technique. Three parameters, E(cell), E(cell-n), and P(cell), denoting the amount of PPO activity, cell fraction content-normalized PPO activity, and proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction, respectively, were used in this study. Contamination with phenanthrene, as a representative PAH, at a relatively high level (>0.23 mg L⁻¹) in culture solution generally stimulated PPO activity in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) roots and shoots and their cellular fractions. The amount and distribution proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction of phenanthrene-contaminated roots and shoots were (in descending order): cell solution > > cell wall > cell organelles. Cell solution was the dominant storage domain of PPO activity and contributed 84.0 and 82.8% of PPO activity in roots and shoots, respectively. The cell wall had the highest density of PPO activity in roots and shoots, based on the highest cell fraction content normalized PPO activity in this cell fraction. Our results provide new information on enzyme responses in plant intracellular fractions to xenobiotic POPs and fundamental information on within-plant POP metabolic mechanisms.

  14. Cloning of prophenoloxidase from hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus and its expression and enzyme activity during the molt cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Javier V; Chung, J Sook

    2013-11-01

    The arthropods cuticle undergoes dramatic morphological and biochemical changes from being soft to hardness through each molting process. Prophenoloxidase (PPO) known as a key enzyme in the arthropod innate immune system involved in the melanization reaction, has been related with the initial shell-hardening process, specifically in the sclerotization of the protein matrix in the new cuticle. Since hemocytes have been reported as the main PPO source in arthropods, the transport of hemocyte PPO into the newly laid, soft cuticle has been proposed for shell-hardening occurring during and immediately after ecdysis. In order to define the role of hemocyte PPO in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, the full-length cDNA sequence (2806 nt) of hemocytes PPO of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (CasPPO-hemo) is isolated using degenerate PCR and 5'-3' RACE. CasPPO-hemo encodes a putative PPO (672 aa) showing three hemocyanin domains: N, M, and C in order and two copper binding sites (CuA & CuB). The sequence analysis identifies the putative CasPPO-hemo as zymogen which requires the cleavage at the N-terminus for its activation. Hemocyte extract (CasHLS) contains the PO, the activity of which depends on the in vitro activation of trypsin. The expression levels of CasPPO-hemo are kept constant during the molt cycle. The increase in the number of hemocytes at early premolt correlates with the elevated PO activity, while at late premolt, the increment in hemocyte numbers does not reflect on the PO activity. The functional importance of the changes in the levels of CasHLS-PO activity during molt cycle is discussed in relation to cuticle hardening process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial predictive value for PET with FDG on the response to first chemotherapy of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas; Valeur de prediction de la TEP au FDG initiale sur la reponse a la chimioradiotherapie premiere des cancers du col uterin localement evolues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamois, J.; Peignaux, K.; Ciappuccini, R.; Bonnetain, F.; Brunotte, F.; Berriolo-Riedinger, A.; Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 -Dijon (France)

    2007-11-15

    The initial value of the standardized uptake value is not statistically associated to the tumor response after chemoradiotherapy in the uterine cervix carcinomas. It is observed a trend to a better tumor response in case of S.U.V. ( standardized uptake value) higher on the PET before therapy. A study bearing on a more important number of patients is necessary to measure its predictive value. (N.C.)

  16. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  17. Strange quark and the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon: the first results from the G{sup 0} experiment; Contribution du quark etrange a la structure electromagnetique du nucleon: les premiers resultats de l'experience G{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, B

    2005-10-15

    In the framework of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the nucleon is described as being composed of three valence quarks surrounded by a sea of virtual quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. If the role of this virtual sea in the nucleon properties is inferred to be important, this contribution is still poorly understood. In this context, we study the role of the strange quarks in the nucleon since this is the lightest quark flavor of the sea with no valence contribution. We are determining its contribution to the charge and magnetization distributions in the nucleon via parity violation experiments. The measurement is performed by elastically scattering polarized electrons from nucleon target. A world wide program in which the G0 experiment takes place has been performing for a decade. The G0 experiment and the analysis of the results from its forward angles phase are the topics of this thesis. This document presents the physics case of the strangeness content of the nucleon (mass, spin, impulsion). It describes also the formalism related to the electroweak probe and the form factors, and then the principle of parity violating asymmetry measurement. The G0 experimental setup, which was built and installed in the Hall C of the Jefferson Laboratory (Usa), is detailed. This set-up was designed for the measurement of asymmetries of the order of 10{sup -6} with an overall relative uncertainty better than 10 %, over a momentum transfer range 0.1-1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The various steps of the data analysis are exposed. They have allowed us to start from measured counting rates to reach parity violating physics asymmetries. This required a careful treatment of the various sources of systematical errors which is discussed extensively. Finally the results from the G0 forward angle measurement, its comparison with others experiments and with theoretical models, are presented. They support a non null strange quark contribution. (author)

  18. Premiers résultats issus d'une station d'alimentation innovante pour la mise en œuvre de l'alimentation de précision des porcs en croissance élevés en groupe et alimentés de façon rationnée

    OpenAIRE

    Marcon, Michel; Boutry, Charlotte; Massabie, Patrick; Brossard, Ludovic; Quiniou, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A feeder prototype has been developed by IFIP in association with an equipment manufacturer to perform precision feeding for 96 group‐housed growing pigs, each equipped with a RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) ear tag. It consists in five automatic feeders (AF), one weighing‐sorting station (WS), and three areas. The WS station is placed on force sensors and allows for weighing pigs individually, with a 0.1 kg accuracy, and sorting them towards (1) the AF (pigs whose daily cumula...

  19. Le site paléo-indien de Piedra Museo (Patagonie). Sa contribution au débat sur le premier peuplement du continent américainThe palaeo-indian site of Piedra Museo (Patagonia). Its contribution to the debate on the peopling of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V.; d'Errico, Francesco; Zarate, Marcelo

    2000-08-01

    The Piedra Museo site (Santa Cruz, Argentina), excavated over the past nine years has yielded a rich archaeological record, which contributes to the discussion on the first peopling of the Americas. We present here a new study of the site, based on an analysis of the stratigraphy, spatial distribution of archaeological remains, bone taphonomy, and discussion of new AMS- 14C dates. We conclude that remains of extinct species with cut-marks from the lower levels are contemporaneous of stone tools and cores from the same levels. This demonstrates that humans were present in the southern part of Patagonia around 10 300 and 11 100 years BP and suggests that hunting of large mammals was a part of their subsistence strategies.

  20. Report to the prime minister relative to the decree no 2002-560 from April 18, 2002 and approving the collective service schemes; Rapport au Premier ministre relatif au decret no. 2002-560 du 18 avril 2002 approuvant les schemas de services collectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The collective service schemes have been implemented by the French government in order to encourage the decentralization and a complementary development of urban and rural areas in all regions of France and in the domains of high school teaching and research, culture, health, information and communication, goods and public transportation, energy, natural and rural environments, and sports. This ambitious organization requires the joint action of the government, of the local authorities, and of the overall economical and social actors of the country. This document presents the objectives of the collective service schemes and the decree written by the prime minister for their approval. (J.S.)