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Sample records for premenopausal women examined

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone elicits gonadotropin secretion in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); Timmermans, M. (Mirjam); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY QUESTION Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In

  2. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training ...

  3. Relationship between underweight, bone mineral density and skeletal muscle index in premenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J; Park, H S

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common health problems in postmenopausal women. However, studies of these issues in premenopausal women are limited. Our present study aimed to investigate relationship the between underweight, bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) in a representative sample of premenopausal Korean women. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Participants included 1767 healthy, ≥ 20-year-old, non-obese premenopausal women. Underweight was defined as BMIrelationship between underweight, BMD and SMI after adjusting for confounding factors. The prevalence of low BMD and low SMI in underweight women was 23.9% and 18.4%, respectively, compared with 9.4% and 1.7% in normal weight women. Low BMD and/or low SMI were present in 36.7% of underweight women compared with 10.7% of normal weight women. After adjustments, underweight women exhibited a higher odds ratio for low BMD (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 2.31-5.05), low SMI (OR, 11.61; 95% CI, 6.17-21.88) and combined low BMD and low SMI (OR, 23.82; 95% CI, 8.92-63.58) when compared with normal weight women. Underweight premenopausal women are at a higher risk of low bone mass and low skeletal muscle. Educational efforts that promote a normal weight in premenopausal women should be reinforced. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association between levels of serum ferritin and bone mineral density in Korean premenopausal and postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2010.

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    Chon, Seung Joo; Choi, Yun Rak; Roh, Yun Ho; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2014-01-01

    As women go through menopause, serum estrogen decreases and ferritin increases. Decreased serum estrogen is well known to cause detrimental effects on bone health; however, data on the associations of serum ferritin with BMD before and after menopause are still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women. This study was performed using data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including 7300 women (4229 premenopausal and 3071 postmenopausal). BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at the femur and the lumbar spine, and serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Median serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women were higher than those in premenopausal women despite the same age ranges. Serum ferritin levels were only significantly correlated with BMD on the lumbar spine (β = -0.189, p-value = 0.005) in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. Additionally, BMD on the lumbar spine had tended to decrease as serum ferritin quartiles increase (P for trend = 0.035) in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. On the other hand, there were no significant associations between serum ferritin levels and BMD on the total femur and, femur neck in premenopausal women, and BMD on the total femur, femur neck, and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Increased serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with BMD in premenopausal women, particularly on the lumbar spine, but not in postmenopausal women.

  5. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

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    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21...

  6. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group...... and compared with a control group with no physical training (CO, n=15). Training was performed for 1 h twice a week. After 16 weeks, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (P..., regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  7. Aging is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Has testosterone passed the test in premenopausal women with low libido? A systematic review

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    Reed BG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Beverly G Reed, Laurice Bou Nemer, Bruce R Carr Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Background: There are limited evaluation and treatment options for low libido in premenopausal women. This review sought to evaluate the available evidence supporting the evaluation of testosterone serum levels and testosterone treatment of premenopausal women with low libido. Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for articles that referenced the evaluation of testosterone serum level and/or testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido from 1995 to 2015. Additional references were obtained from the reference sections of other papers and from peer review. Studies that included only postmenopausal women were excluded. A total of 13 studies were reviewed in detail. Nine studies examined the relationship between testosterone serum levels and sexuality, an additional three studies examined the effect of testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido, and one study examined both the topics. Results: Six of the ten testosterone serum evaluation studies failed to show a significant association between testosterone serum level and libido. Only one out of four studies examining testosterone treatment in premenopausal women was able to show any clear improvement in libido; however, the effect was limited to only the intermediate dose of testosterone, with the low and high doses of testosterone not producing any effect. Conclusion: The currently available evidence does not support testosterone serum evaluation or treatment in premenopausal women with low libido. Hence, further studies are warranted. Keywords: androgens, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD, ovary, testis, sexual dysfunction, sexual interest, arousal disorder

  9. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in men, premenopausal women, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of bone mineral density is based on population studies in postmenopausal women. However, the increased use of bone densitometry has raised questions regarding the applicability of this classification to men, premenopausal women, and children. These questions were addressed at the International Society for Clinical Densitometry 2003 Position Development Conference. T-scores can be used and a diagnosis of osteoporosis made for T-scores of -2.5 or less (male reference database) in men age 65 yr and older and in men from 50 to 64 yr of age if other risk factors for fracture are present. The WHO classification should not be applied to premenopausal women. Men and premenopausal women with secondary causes of low bone density or bone loss may be clinically diagnosed with osteoporosis, taking bone density into consideration. In children and adolescents (males and females less than 20 yr of age), there are no densitometric criteria for diagnosing osteoporosis. If Z-scores are -2.0 or less (using pediatric databases of age-matched controls), then a characterization such as "low bone density for chronologic age" is appropriate. In men under 50 yr of age, premenopausal women, and children, Z-scores, not T-scores, should be used when reporting bone density results.

  10. Bio-Social Predictors of Hypertension Among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

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    Renu Tyagi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the contribution of various biological and lifestyle factors toward progression to hypertension are examined among menopausal and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study among 245 women of 20 to 65 years was conducted. Besides blood pressure, fat percentage using bio-electric impedance analyzer and adiposity indices such as body mass index (BMI, waist–hip ratio (WHR, and waist–height ratio (WHtR were taken. Mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic were used to analyze the data. Statistically significant differences (p< .001 for blood pressure among postmenopausal and premenopausal women were found. Among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the prehypertensive and hypertensive group showed significant differences with the normotensive women for body weight (p< .005, regional obesity, and general obesity. Low educational level, working status of women, socioeconomic status, nuclear family setup, postmenopausal status, and obesity were found to be the likely risk factors for prehypertension or hypertension among women.

  11. Comparison of unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women

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    M. Shirzaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry mouth is one of the most common complications during menopause that affects quality of life as well as oral tissue dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 80 healthy women including 40 postmenopausal women as case group and 40 over 30-year-old premenopausal women as control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire including demographics, oral symptoms and examination. The subjects were asked to avoid eating and drinking 90 minutes before examination. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was measured by spitting method in milliliters per minute. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test, T-test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean unstimulated saliva was 0.182±0.149 ml/min and 0.304±0.129 ml/min in postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively and the difference was statistically significant. The prevalence of dry mouth was 45% in postmenopausal women and was 12.5% in premenopausal women. Burning sensation in mouth and change in taste sensation were 27.5% and 5% in postmenopausal women and were 2.5% and 0% in premenopausal women. There was negative significant correlation between the unstimulated salivary flow rate and age. Conclusion: The unstimulated salivary flow rate decreases after menopause. Oral symptoms are more prevalent in this period compared to before menopause. These differences may be due to hormonal changes (decreased estrogen and progesterone during menopause.

  12. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel;

    2010-01-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, right...

  13. Melatonin levels in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

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    Senel, Kazim; Baygutalp, Fatih; Baykal, Tuba; Erdal, Akin; Ugur, Mahir

    2013-06-01

    The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, widespread pain disorder of unknown etiology. It has been suggest that familial component, environmental factors, endocrine and neurotransmitter alterations, and psychological factors may contribute to the development of FMS. The role of melatonin in FMS is unclear. Some studies describe a lower nocturnal peak and a decreased secretion of melatonin in women with FMS when compared with healthy matched controls. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible role of melatonin in FMS patients. We examined the characteristics and levels of melatonin in 25 consecutive premenopausal women with FMS. Serum blood samples were collected from 25 patients and 20 the age and gender matched healthy controls. Melatonin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the results were compared with those from healthy subjects. Serum melatonin levels of FMS patients were not statistically different from those of controls (P > 0.05). No association was observed between melatonin levels of patients with FMS and disease duration, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and pain scores. Our results demonstrate that melatonin levels were similar in patients with FMS and healthy controls. Further studies are needed to determine the possible role of melatonin.

  14. Association between levels of serum ferritin and bone mineral density in Korean premenopausal and postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Joo Chon

    Full Text Available As women go through menopause, serum estrogen decreases and ferritin increases. Decreased serum estrogen is well known to cause detrimental effects on bone health; however, data on the associations of serum ferritin with BMD before and after menopause are still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women.This study was performed using data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including 7300 women (4229 premenopausal and 3071 postmenopausal. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at the femur and the lumbar spine, and serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay.Median serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women were higher than those in premenopausal women despite the same age ranges. Serum ferritin levels were only significantly correlated with BMD on the lumbar spine (β = -0.189, p-value = 0.005 in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. Additionally, BMD on the lumbar spine had tended to decrease as serum ferritin quartiles increase (P for trend = 0.035 in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. On the other hand, there were no significant associations between serum ferritin levels and BMD on the total femur and, femur neck in premenopausal women, and BMD on the total femur, femur neck, and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women.Increased serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with BMD in premenopausal women, particularly on the lumbar spine, but not in postmenopausal women.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in obese premenopausal women.

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    Carroll, S; Marshall, P; Ingle, L; Borkoles, E

    2012-12-01

    Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a measure of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in apparently healthy adults. We aimed to determine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on HRR among clinically obese premenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a 3-month non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRR among healthy clinically obese premenopausal women. Thirty-one were randomly assigned to 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention and 31 served as controls. Sixty-one participants performed a maximal treadmill walking test with metabolic gas exchange. Baseline anthropometric measures were closely related to HRR at 1 min, which may indicate reduced parasympathetic reactivation. Post-exercise HRR at 60 s (HRR60) increased from 21.3 ± 6.2 to 27.8 ± 10.2 bpm in the intervention group compared with a smaller reduction (26.8 ± 12.3 to 24.5 ± 9.9 bpm) in controls (test for interaction P = 0.0001). HRR120 showed a significant effect of time (P = 0.0002) with no significant interaction with lifestyle intervention. A significant increase in VO2 peak was evident in the lifestyle group (21.6 to 23.6 mL/kg/min) compared with a modest reduction in the controls (22.6 to 21.6 mL/kg/min; test for interaction, P = 0.001). Clinically obese healthy premenopausal women achieved significant improvements in HRR60 and VO peak following a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  17. Menstrual irregularity and bone mass in premenopausal women: Cross-sectional associations with testosterone and SHBG

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    Otahal Petr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been few studies examining the associations between menstrual irregularity, androgens and bone mass in population-based samples of premenopausal women. This study aimed to describe the associations between menstrual pattern, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and bone mass in a population-based sample of premenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional study (N = 382, mean age 31.5 years. Menstrual pattern was assessed by questionnaire, bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS and androgen status was assessed by levels of serum testosterone, SHBG and the free androgen index (FAI. Results Women with irregular cycles (n = 41, 11% had higher free androgen index (FAI, P = 0.01 and higher QUS measurements including speed of sound (SOS, 1%, P Conclusion Irregular menstrual cycles were associated with higher bone mass in this population-based sample of premenopausal women suggesting menstrual disturbance should continue to be evaluated but may be less harmful for bone mass. The association between menstrual irregularity and bone mass was partially mediated by markers of androgen status especially free testosterone.

  18. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

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    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women.

  19. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

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    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Can bone loss be reversed by antithyroid drug therapy in premenopausal women with Graves' disease?

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    Belsing Tina Z

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Hyperthyroidism can lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk particularly in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism behind is still unclear. Objective Prospective examination of the influence of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid autoantibodies on BMD in premenopause. Design We have examined 32 premenopausal women with untreated active Graves' disease from time of diagnosis, during 18 months of antithyroid drug therapy (ATD and additionally 18 months after discontinuing ATD. Variables of thyroid metabolism, calcium homeostasis and body composition were measured every 3 months. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured at baseline, 18 ± 3 and 36 ± 3 months. Data were compared to base line, a sex- and age matched control group and a group of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with non-suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Results The study showed significantly (p Conclusion The results indicated a clinically relevant impact of thyroid function on bone modulation also in premenopausal women with Graves' disease, and further indicated the possibility for a direct action of TRAb on bones.

  1. Acupuncture in Premenopausal Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Prospective Cohort Pilot Study

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    Susan H. Oakley, MD, FACOG

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In this cohort of premenopausal women with HSDD, 5 weeks of acupuncture therapy was associated with significant improvements in sexual function, particularly desire. This supports a role for acupuncture as a therapeutic option for women with low desire.

  2. Sweating and thirst perception in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during moderate exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Amabebe; Sonia I. Omorodion; Janet O. Ozoene; UGWU, ANDREW C.; Leonard F. Obika

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the sweat rate (SR), sweat volume (SV), sweat sodium concentration (S[Na+]) and changes in thirst perception (TP), in premenopausal (preM), perimenopausal (periM) and postmenopausal (postM) women after moderate exercise. Methods: Thirty healthy women comprising preM (22.5 ± 0.8 yrs, n = 10), periM (46.5 ± 1.1 yrs, n = 10) and postM (52.2 ± 0.9 yrs, n = 10) participated in the study. All participants gave informed consent. TP was rated using the visual...

  3. [The clinical characteristics of women with uterine hemorrhages in premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E

    1989-01-01

    The clinical characteristics was studied on 431 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopaussal phase of the climacterium. The author established that menarche, duration of menstrual interval and the menstruation itself before the bleeding did not differ from those of female population in the country. The same was referred to the reproductive characteristics. Premenopausal bleeding reached its peak between 46 and 48 years of age as its duration was relatively great. It was connected with frequent neuro-endocrine and metabolic pathology. The most frequent manifestations were obesity and hypertension. The number of the former hepatitis patients was comparatively large. Diseases of the uterine body were frequent in the structure of genital pathology. The frequency of benign, precancerous and malignant neoplastic processes (without myoma) was high-12.7%.

  4. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  5. Premenopausal osteoporosis

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    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis has traditionally been considered a disorder of postmenopausal women, but low bone mass and accelerated bone loss can also occur early in life causing premenopausal osteoporosis. There are a few risk factors that increase a woman′s risk of premenopausal osteoporosis, including drugs, hormonal and nutritional factors, and physical in-activity, which need to be identified and managed accordingly. Lifestyle modification is of importance in preventing progressive bone loss in premenopausal women and should be actively encouraged.

  6. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

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    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Compared to Premenopausal Women at Middle Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Muka, Taulant; Koster, Maria P H; Roeters van Lennep, Jaenine E; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Fauser, Clemens G K M; Meun, Cindy; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Boersma, Eric; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A young age at menopause has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular risk profile between women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premenopausal controls of comparable age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control st

  8. Effect of energy deficiency on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Kim C; Williams, Nancy I

    2007-07-01

    Physical activity has been associated with decreased breast cancer risk, potentially through changes in estrogen metabolism. Two-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) have different biological properties, and the ratio of these metabolites (2/16) has been proposed to predict breast cancer risk. Diet and exercise have been found to influence estrogen metabolism, particularly when a state of negative energy balance is achieved. We sought to determine whether 4 months of moderate-intensity exercise coupled with calorie restriction would result in changes in urinary 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16 in sedentary, premenopausal, eumenorrheic women. Average age was 31.5 yr, average body fat was 31.6%, and average BMI was 23.7. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured in 24 women during the baseline and for four intervention months in the midfollicular and midluteal phases. The intervention produced a significant drop in body fat (4.5%) and body weight (3.7 kg). Aerobic fitness increased significantly (26%; P effects of the diet and exercise intervention on 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16. However, when divided into tertiles according to baseline 2/16, the intervention resulted in significant increases in 2/16 in women in the lowest tertile. Women in the lowest tertile (average 2/16 = 0.91) did not differ from the other tertiles in baseline estradiol concentrations, body fat, weight, fitness, or changes in these variables with the intervention. The data suggest that women at higher risk for developing breast cancer because of low 2/16 may reduce their risk by participating in lifestyle interventions such as exercise/calorie restriction.

  9. Comparison of 3 dimensional sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in Premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser I. Abd Elkhalek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: 3-D sonohysterography is a very safe, well tolerated and effective modality for evaluation of intracavitary uterine abnormalities and is an accurate alternative technique for hysteroscopy among the premenopausal women that suffers from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB.

  10. Role of Ovarian Function Suppression in Premenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historically, endocrine therapy for breast cancer began with ovarian ablation (OA) for the treatment of premenopausal patients. After the identification of estrogen receptors and the development of many antiestrogens, tamoxifen has been approved and used as the standard endocrine therapy for hormonal receptor (HR)-positive premenopausal patients to date. With the development of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, the paradigm of endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer began to change from OA to ovarian function suppression (OFS). To date, the indication for OFS was limited to those premenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer who were unable to use tamoxifen as the primary adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, following the definitive demonstration of the therapeutic role of OFS added to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor after chemotherapy in large randomized trials, such as Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial or Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial, the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for the use of endocrine therapy in premenopausal HR-positive breast cancer were recently updated to recommend OFS in high-risk patients who required adjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, the role of OFS to protect ovarian function during chemotherapy in premenopausal women has remained controversial, and some evidence showing the protective effect of OFS on the ovaries during chemotherapy as well as its therapeutic effect for breast cancer in premenopausal women with HR-negative breast cancer was recently published. Further evaluation is necessary to determine its exact role. In conclusion, the role of OA or OFS has been evolving, not only to improve the efficacy of breast cancer treatment, but also to preserve ovary function. OFS remains a main strategy for premenopausal women with HR-positive early breast cancer, though its exact role should be determined in further studies. PMID:28053622

  11. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained.

  12. Sarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Marianne C; Hunter, Gary R; Livingstone, Margaret Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the decline of muscle mass with age, causes impaired gait, disability and falls. It may therefore increase the risk of fracture for osteoporotic women. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in osteopenic and osteoporotic women, and to determine if hormone replacement therapy (HRT), diet, or physical activity (PA) has a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. One hundred and thirty-one premenopausal and 82 postmenopausal (54 taking HRT) healthy women (17-77 years) volunteered for the study. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI) (appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height) below 5.45 kg/m2. Osteopenia was defined by a densitometric t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) below -1.0 and osteoporosis by a t-score below -2.5. Nutrient intake was assessed using 3-day food records and physical activity (PA) was measured using the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pearson chi-squared, independent t-tests, simple correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In premenopausal osteopenic women the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.5%. In postmenopausal women it was 25% for those with osteopenia, and 50% for those with osteoporosis. PA was independently related to RSMI (beta=0.222, p=0.0001), but diet and HRT were not. After adjusting for PA, RSMI was not significantly related to BMD. These data suggest that the relationship between RSMI, BMD and risk of osteoporosis may largely be mediated through participation in PA. Sarcopenia screening simultaneous to BMD examinations by DXA, may be of value in identifying osteoporotic women with sarcopenia, a group that may be most in need of exercise interventions to increase muscle and BMD.

  13. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women.

  14. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Shea, Karen L; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2015-11-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), -54 (-98, -15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (-33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-128 (-214, -41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [-96 (-159, -32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [-0.30 (-0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy.

  15. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Dan; CHEN Yu; WU Wei; ZHANG Feng; XU Jia; CUI Wei; LI Shu-lan; LI Rong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pre-menopausal women are at risk for iron deficiency due to menstrual blood losses. The prevalence rates (PR) of iron depletion, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and iron deficiency were 34.4%, 15.1% and 49.5% in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women respectively in China.1 Traditionally, the diagnosis of iron deficiency relies on the hematological markers (hemoglobin (HGB),mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW))and biochemical markers (serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)). Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered to be used as a marker of iron deficiency.2 The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of CHr with the old markers in diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women.

  16. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  17. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  18. The prognostic impact of obesity on molecular subtypes of breast cancer in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, F P; Solak, M; Petekkaya, I; Keskin, O; Kertmen, N; Sarici, F; Arik, Z; Babacan, T; Ozisik, Y; Altundag, K

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity throughout the world will result in expansion of the number of women at risk for developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated with adverse outcomes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. In premenopausal women, the association is less clear. We investigated the impact of obesity on tumor features, hormonal status, recurrence and mortality in premenopausal breast cancer patients, classified according to molecular subtypes. 818 premenopausal women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were analysed. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI): i) normal body weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)); ii) overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/ m(2)); and iii) obese (BMI:>30 kg/ m(2)). Clinocopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed for triple negative, HER-2 overexpressing and luminal subtypes. Obese patients compared with normal-weight women were older at diagnosis (pobese patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively). Obesity (HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-2.1; p=0.04) and lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3- 3.3; p=0.02) were found to be independent prognostic factors for TNBC mortality. Obesity is associated with estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative tumors and poor OS in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

  19. Hormonal Modulation of Breast Cancer Gene Expression: Implications for Intrinsic Subtyping in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Sarah M.; Dasari, Pallave; Walsh, David; Townsend, Amanda R.; Price, Timothy J.; Ingman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Clinics are increasingly adopting gene-expression profiling to diagnose breast cancer subtype, providing an intrinsic, molecular portrait of the tumor. For example, the PAM50-based Prosigna test quantifies expression of 50 key genes to classify breast cancer subtype, and this method of classification has been demonstrated to be superior over traditional immunohistochemical methods that detect proteins, to predict risk of disease recurrence. However, these tests were largely developed and validated using breast cancer samples from postmenopausal women. Thus, the accuracy of such tests has not been explored in the context of the hormonal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. Concordance between traditional methods of subtyping and the new tests in premenopausal women is likely to depend on the stage of the menstrual cycle at which the tissue sample is taken and the relative effect of hormones on expression of genes versus proteins. The lack of knowledge around the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on gene expression in breast cancer patients raises serious concerns for intrinsic subtyping in premenopausal women, which comprise about 25% of breast cancer diagnoses. Further research on the impact of the menstrual cycle on intrinsic breast cancer profiling is required if premenopausal women are to benefit from the new technology of intrinsic subtyping. PMID:27896218

  20. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  1. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  2. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (piron (piron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, piron iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, piron negatively (r=-0.119, piron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in determining bone density in healthy premenopausal women.

  3. Efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with chemotherapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. Literatures were extracted from databases including Excerpta Medica Database, Springer, Pubmed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biological Medicine from their inception up to May 2014. The main efficacy measures were 5 years overall survival (OS, 10 years OS, 5 years disease free survival and 5 years progress free survival. Ten randomized comparison clinical trials were eligible in this study. The result showed that goserelin combined with chemotherapy group can improve the survival rate and decrease the incidence of arthralgia in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, respectively, compared to the control group. However, they can increase the occurrence of vomiting during the chemotherapy process. Compared with the simple chemotherapy, goserelin combined with chemotherapy can provide benefits for premenopausal women with breast cancer on improving the survival rate and reducing arthralgia.

  4. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  5. Mannose-binding lectin in pre-menopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, R; Nitzan, O; Chazan, B; Edelstein, H; Raz, R

    2010-09-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) comprises an oligomeric serum protein that is a member of the collectin class of the C-type lectin superfamily. Its deficiency is genetically determined and confers predisposition to recurrent infections as well as increased infection severity. This correlation has been demonstrated in recurrent furunculosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and in pneumococcal and Candida infections. The present study aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between MBL serum levels and recurrent urinary tact infections (UTI) in pre-menopausal women. The present aged-matched double-blind controlled study was conducted in 100 pre-menopausal adult women: 50 who suffered from recurrent UTI and 50 without UTI. The MBL concentration was measured in a single serum sample from each patient using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MBL serum levels [median (range)] were 2500 (4-12,000) ng/mL and 2105 (4-22,800) ng/mL for the research and control groups, respectively. The results from the two groups were compared and were not statistically different (p 0.4). According to these results, MBL serum levels are not associated with an increased risk for recurrent UTI in pre-menopausal women.

  6. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Coping Strategies of Tri-Dimensional Problems of Premenopausal Women - A Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Boro, Enu; Jamil, M D; Roy, Aakash

    2016-11-01

    Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A 'p-value' tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge of tri-dimensional problems in premenopausal women.

  7. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  8. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms in premenopausal women: interaction between genotype and smoking on lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has multiple effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the association between the four common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 gene locus, -1989T>G, +261G>C, IVS1-397T>C and IVS1-351A>G, and lipid and lipoprotein levels in southern Brazilians. The sample consisted in 150 men and 187 premenopausal women. The women were considered premenopausal if they had regular menstrual bleeding within the previous 3 months and were 18-50 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, secondary hyperlipidemia due to renal, hepatic or thyroid disease, and diabetes. Smoking status was self-reported; subjects were classified as never smoked and current smokers. DNA was amplified by PCR and was subsequently digested with the appropriate restriction enzymes. Statistical analysis was carried out for men and women separately. In the study population, major allele frequencies were _1989*T (0.83, +261*G (0.96, IVS1-397*T (0.58, and IVS1-351*A (0.65. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an interaction between +261G>C polymorphism and smoking was a significant factor affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (P = 0.028 in women. Nonsmoking women with genotype G/C of +261G>C polymorphism had mean HDL-C levels higher than those with G/G genotype (1.40 ± 0.33 vs 1.22 ± 0.26 mmol/L; P = 0.033. No significant associations with lipid and lipoprotein levels in women and men were detected for other polymorphisms. In conclusion, the +261G>C polymorphism might influence lipoprotein and lipid levels in premenopausal women, but these effects seem to be modulated by smoking, whereas in men ESR1 polymorphisms were not associated with high lipoprotein levels.

  9. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often due to a disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition to hirsutism, women with PCOS may have irregular or absent menstrual periods and/or infertility. Acne, obesity, and an increased risk of diabetes are ...

  10. Early onset vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in premenopausal women and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Andreas R; Faber, Melanie; Knappe, Gabriele; Hellriegel, Simin; Emons, Günter

    2008-03-01

    For vulvar Lichen sclerosus (LS) immunological factors, genetic predisposition, and decreased 5 alpha-reductase activity have been discussed as aetiological factors. During the last decade an increase of LS in young women has been suspected. Aim of this study was to evaluate data of premenopausal women with early onset LS to find potential risk factors focussing on the use of oral contraceptives. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 40 premenopausal patients with early onset LS regarding use of oral contraceptives (OCPs), and first occurrence of LS. To compare these data in a case-control study we analyzed a matched control group of 110 healthy women. All our LS patients were using OCPs compared to 73 women (66.4%) in the control group. OCPs with anti-androgenic activity (chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, and drospirenone) were used by 28 (70%) of the LS patients and by 35 (47.9%) of the 73 women using OCPs in the control group. Thus, the odds ratio for early onset LS for women using anti-androgenic OCPs was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12-5.75). Our data suggest that disturbance of the androgen dependent growth of the vulvar skin by OCPs and especially by OCPs with anti-androgenic properties might trigger the early onset of LS in a subgroup of susceptible young women.

  11. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londono J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available John Londono,1 Paula Valencia,1 Ana María Santos,1 Luisa F Gutiérrez,2 Roberto Baquero,1 Rafael Valle-Oñate1,3 1Rheumatology Department, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 2Preventive Care Ltd, Research Unit, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 3Rheumatology Department, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4 and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3% had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7% had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001. The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–16, age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2, a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2, or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2. Conclusion: Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature

  12. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  13. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area.

  14. Patterns of nonmasslike enhancement at screening breast MR imaging of high-risk premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, Catherine S; Raza, Sughra; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Current U.S. recommendations for breast cancer screening of women with at least a 20%-25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer include contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breasts. The cancer detection rate in high-risk women undergoing screening MR imaging is approximately 10 times higher than that in normal-risk women undergoing screening mammography. Many of these high-risk women commence MR imaging screening while they are premenopausal, when the breasts are most influenced by cyclical hormonal changes. Healthy premenopausal breast tissue enhances in a cyclical and variable manner. This enhancement is described as background enhancement. Typically, enhancement of normal breast tissue occurs in a symmetric and diffuse pattern, and there is little diagnostic difficulty in classifying it as normal background parenchymal enhancement. However, sometimes the pattern is more focal, asymmetric, or regional. It may then be described as nonmasslike enhancement, an observation associated with both benign and malignant breast pathologic conditions. A review of the morphologic features and internal enhancement patterns in normal but nondiffuse background enhancement and abnormal nonmasslike enhancement in high-risk premenopausal women can help improve interpretive specificity and decrease false-positive interpretations. MR imaging pitfalls and interpretation strategies for localized background enhancement and pathologic nonmasslike enhancement in this high-risk population are highlighted. In evaluating nonmasslike enhancement, the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon to perform careful analysis of morphologic features, along with an understanding of the role and limitations of kinetic information, will help balance early breast cancer detection against false-positive interpretation.

  15. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Heiman; H. Rupp; E. Janssen; S.K. Newhouse; M. Brauer; E. Laan

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two s

  16. Premenopausal and postmenopausal differences in bone microstructure and mechanical competence in Chinese-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marcella D; Liu, X Sherry; Zhou, Bin; Agarwal, Shivani; Liu, George; McMahon, Donald J; Bilezikian, John P; Guo, X Edward

    2013-06-01

    Compared to white women, premenopausal Chinese-American women have more plate-like trabecular (Tb) bone. It is unclear whether these findings are relevant to postmenopausal women and if there are racial differences in the deterioration of bone microarchitecture with aging. We applied individual trabecula segmentation and finite element analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography images in premenopausal and postmenopausal Chinese-American and white women to quantify within-race age-related differences in Tb plate-versus-rod microarchitecture and bone stiffness. Race-menopause status interactions were assessed. Comparisons between races within menopause status were adjusted for age, height and weight. Comparisons between premenopausal and postmenopausal women were adjusted for height and weight. Adjusted analyses at the radius indicated that premenopausal Chinese-Americans had a higher plate bone volume fraction (pBV/TV), Tb plate-to-rod ratio (P-R ratio), and greater plate-plate junction densities (P-P Junc.D) versus white women (all p led to 19% greater whole bone stiffness (p white women. Postmenopausal Chinese-American versus white women had greater Ct.Th, Dcort, and relatively intact Tb plates, resulting in similar Tb stiffness but 12% greater whole bone stiffness (p white women. There are advantages in cortical and Tb bone in premenopausal Chinese-American women. Within-race cross-sectional differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal women suggest greater loss of plate-like Tb bone with aging in Chinese-Americans, though thicker cortices and more plate-like Tb bone persists.

  17. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  18. Relationship of leptin, resting metabolic rate, and body composition in premenopausal hispanic and non-Hispanic White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sarah E; King, George A; Dorgo, Sandor; Vella, Chantal A; Tomaka, Joe W; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between fasting serum leptin, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in premenopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (White) women. Participants were 67 Hispanic and 43 White women who arrived at the laboratory in a fasted state for measurement of RMR by indirect calorimetry, bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin levels were determined by EIA. Multiple regression analysis revealed that body mass and lean body mass were the best predictors of RMR. Leptin was not a significant predictor of RMR. Further research needs to be done to examine the role of leptin on metabolism, especially in ethnic groups predisposed to development of obesity and related disorders.

  19. The contribution of body composition, substrates, and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J;

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range...... of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6...... circumference, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, and estradiol concentrations explained 49% of the variance in 24-h lipid oxidation. An obese subgroup of women (n = 27) had significantly higher 24-h energy expenditure, lipid, and carbohydrate oxidation rates than an age-matched normal weight group (n = 16...

  20. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  1. Quality of life and pain in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder: The POWER Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonbolian Nina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas it is established that organic pain may induce depression, it is unclear whether pain is more common in healthy subjects with depression. We assessed the prevalence of pain in premenopausal women with major depression (MDD. Subjects were 21- to 45-year-old premenopausal women with MDD (N = 70; age: 35.4 +/- 6.6; mean +/- SD and healthy matched controls (N = 36; age 35.4 +/- 6.4 participating in a study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression Study. Methods Patients received a clinical assessment by a pain specialist, which included the administration of two standardized forms for pain, the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form, and the Initial Pain Assessment Tool, and two scales of everyday stressors, the Hassles and Uplifts Scales. In addition, a quality-of-life instrument, the SF-36, was used. The diagnosis of MDD was established by a semi-structured interview, according to the DSM-IV criteria. Substance P (SP and calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP, neuropeptides which are known mediators of pain, were measured every hour for 24 h in a subgroup of patients (N = 17 and controls (N = 14. Results Approximately one-half of the women with depression reported pain of mild intensity. Pain intensity was significantly correlated with the severity of depression (r2 = 0.076; P = 0.04 and tended to be correlated with the severity of anxiety, (r2 = 0.065; P = 0.07, and the number of depressive episodes (r2 = 0.072; P = 0.09. Women with MDD complained of fatigue, insomnia, and memory problems and experienced everyday negative stressors more frequently than controls. Quality of life was decreased in women with depression, as indicated by lower scores in the emotional and social well-being domains of the SF-36. SP (P Conclusion Women with depression experienced pain more frequently than controls, had a lower quality of life, and complained more of daily stressors

  2. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  3. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsinejad-Marj, Maryam; Talebi, Shokufeh; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Mediterranean diet (MD) has long been suspected to impact on health promotion. Epidemiologic studies reveal the protective role of adherence to this dietary pattern on cancer incidence. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern influence on breast cancer risk in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. We performed an electronic search of published studies earlier than Apr 2015 using Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Scopus databases. The search terms included: breast neoplasm, breast tumors, mammary carcinoma, mammary neoplasm, breast cancer, and Mediterranean diet. Study inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English; 2) with a study arm of MD intervention or MD style assessment; 3) reported the BC risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We summarized the findings of 8 studies in this review, including five cohorts and three case-control studies. Although, cohort studies reported controversial results in this field, case-control studies resulted inverse relation between this Mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in pre or/and postmenopausal women. It seems that there is no sufficient data to reach a conclusion about the effect of MD on breast cancer risk in pre and postmenopausal, but there are some evidences suggesting the protective association. More cohort studies in different parts of the world are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Randomized trial of bilateral oophorectomy versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, J N; Krook, J E; Green, S J; Kubista, T P; Everson, L K; Ahmann, D L; Chang, M N; Bisel, H F; Windschitl, H E; Twito, D I

    1986-02-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy of bilateral oophorectomy with that of tamoxifen at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, and to examine the efficacy of each as a crossover treatment. Initial treatment responses were seen in ten of 27 patients (37%) treated with oophorectomy and seven of 26 patients (27%) treated with tamoxifen. The difference was not statistically significant. Crossover responses were seen in five of 15 patients (33%) treated with oophorectomy, including three responses in ten prior tamoxifen nonresponders; and two of 18 patients (11%) treated with tamoxifen. Time to progression distributions were not significantly different during initial treatment, and no significant differences in survival were noted. Thus, there was no overall disadvantage to the use of tamoxifen as opposed to oophorectomy as initial hormonal therapy, and a failure to respond to tamoxifen did not preclude a response to subsequent oophorectomy. Exploratory data analysis within subsets indicated consistent differential treatment effects in the visceral dominant patients. Of the 16 such patients treated with oophorectomy, eight (50%) experienced objective responses but there were no responses in the 14 patients treated with tamoxifen. In the nine visceral dominant crossover patients who had not responded to initial tamoxifen, three (33%) subsequently responded to oophorectomy. Time to progression distributions within the visceral dominant subset appeared to be better for the patients treated initially with oophorectomy. However, one must be very cautious in drawing conclusions from exploratory subset analyses, especially with the small sample size. Further studies would be required to test any hypothesis of differential organ site responsiveness.

  5. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M; Di Brezzo, R; Fort, I L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this 48-week exercise intervention was designed to examine the effects of power and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD). Premenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a power (N.=8) or resistance (N.=11) training group. The power exercises included jumping rope, skipping, hopping, and other power-type exercises. The resistance training group performed 8-10 whole-body strengthening exercises at 70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Before and after the exercise intervention, BMD was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the total-body, lumbar spine, left femoral neck, and left greater trochanter. Muscular strength was measured by hand grip dynamometer and 1RM of chest press and leg press. Muscular power was assessed by the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. There were no statistical differences between the two training groups for any of the BMD measurements. Chest press strength was different between the two groups, increasing 6.41 and 1.1kg for the resistance and power groups, respectively over the course of the training period (F[1.15]=9.44, P<0.01). There was a significant time effect for leg press 1RM (F[1.15]=6.04, P=0.03). The participants increased by 12.37kg after the 48-week intervention. Hand grip strength also increased after the study intervention (F[1.16]=46.32, P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that power and resistance training are comparable techniques for maintaining bone density.

  6. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Estrogen Metabolism in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alma J.; Phipps, William R.; Thomas, William; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well accepted that exercise can decrease breast cancer risk. Limited clinical evidence suggests that this risk could be mediated through changes in estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Our objective was to investigate the effects of exercise on premenopausal estrogen metabolism pertinent to breast cancer risk. Methods Sedentary, healthy, young eumenorrheic women were randomized into an intervention of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise 5 times a week for approximately 16 weeks (n = 212), or into a usual-lifestyle sedentary control group (n = 179). Urinary levels of estrogens (estrone [E1], estradiol, and estriol) and nine estrogen metabolites were measured at baseline and at study end by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The ratios of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1/16α-OHE1) and 2-OHE1 to 4-hydroxyestrone (2- OHE1/4-OHE1) were also calculated. Results The exercise intervention resulted in significant increases in aerobic fitness and lean body mass, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. For exercisers who completed the study (n = 165), 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 increased significantly (P = 0.043), while E1 decreased significantly (P = 0.030) in control participants (n = 153). The change from baseline in 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 was significantly different between groups (P = 0.045), even after adjustment for baseline values. Conclusions The exercise intervention resulted in a significant increase in the 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 ratio, but no differences in other estrogen metabolites or ratios. Impact Our results suggest that changes in premenopausal estrogen metabolism may be a mechanism by which increased physical activity lowers breast cancer risk. PMID:23652373

  7. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dupuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  8. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  9. Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Ahola, Riikka; Guo, Hui; Korpelainen, Raija; Uchimaru, Jin; Vainionpää, Aki; Sato, Kyoko; Sakai, Aiko; Salo, Sinikka; Kishimoto, Koshi; Itoi, Eiji; Komatsu, Shoko; Jämsä, Timo; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, there are no previous studies to examine the effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise (HIE) on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of office-based HIE on BMD in healthy premenopausal Japanese women. Ninety-one healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive stretching exercise (SE) or HIE (stretching, along with up to 5 × 10 vertical and versatile jumps) for 12 months. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Several cardiovascular risk factors and leg strength also were assessed. An accelerometer-based recorder was used to measure daily impact loading in four 1-week samples. The progression of the HIE program was ensured by the accelerometer. Thirty-three women (71.7%) in the SE group and 34 (75.6%) in the HIE group completed the study. There was a significant difference in the change in the femoral neck BMD between the groups in favor of the HIE group [0.6% (95% CI: -0.4, 1.7) vs. -1.0% (95% CI: -2.2, 0.2)]. Adiponectin, LDL, HDL, and the leg strength of participants in both the groups improved during the intervention. These finding suggested that office-based brief HIE can be recommended for premenopausal women for preventing bone mineral loss.

  10. Relationship between BMI and skinfold thicknesses to risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Tatjana; Mikalacki, Milena; Matić, Radenko; Korovljev, Darinka; Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Vujkov, Sandra; Srdić, Biljana; Sakac, Dejan

    2013-05-01

    Studies conducted on children and adults have pointed to the correlation of BMI (kg/m2) with risk factors for certain diseases. Other studies have stressed a more intense correlation between the risk factors and indicators of subcutaneous fat obtained in other ways. The aim Of the study was to compare the intensity of correlation between the risk factors and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness in relation to BMI. The study included 53 postmenopausal and 107 premenopausal women, the risk factors were assessed upon systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose concentration, triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Statistically significant differences were established in almost all variables referring to premenopausal and postmenopausal women, except in body height, subscapular skinfold thickness and tryglyceride concentration. Significant correlation with the risk factors was detected in BMI and both skinfold thicknesses, while the subscapular thickness correlates more intensively with the risk factors than it is the case with the triceps thickness. The results indicate that BMI equally correlates with risk factors as well as skinfold thickness.

  11. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  12. Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Attas Omar S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested this association in type 2 diabetic women, categorized as obese, overweight and normal body weight groups based on BMI. Design and methods A total of 101 subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, C reactive protein, leptin, TGF-α, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Data were logarithmically transformed for variables not normally distributed. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni was applied to compare the data between the groups. Simple and partial correlation coefficients between the variables were determined and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between the variables of interest. Results Significantly increased levels of IL-6, C reactive protein, leptin and significantly decreased levels of adiponectin were found in obese group, while the levels of TNF-α and TGF-α were unaltered. A positive correlation between waist circumference and IL-6 was found in obese group. Similarly, C reactive protein, waist and hip circumferences were linearly correlated with BMI in obese group. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed several significant predictors for breast cancer risk. Conclusion Obesity and type 2 diabetes, owing to their effects on adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators, contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. This study emphasizes healthy life style and better management of these metabolic disorders to avoid the pathogenesis of breast cancer and of other chronic diseases.

  13. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels.

  15. The influence of a physical activity program on the body and the cardio vascular parameters of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the life cycle of a woman's body figure is changed gradually, but on reaching middle age, as a result of follicular loss of ovarian function among others, are emphasized the physiological changes and increase health risk and welfare. Androgyny in association with obesity increases the risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, osteoarthritis, arthritis, cancers and other disorders of female middle age. Physical activity has gained importance increasing in therapy in the climacteric. It has demonstrated the positive effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease and weight maintenance. This study investigates the influence of a physical activity program for five months on cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure and body composition in premenopausal women. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10, and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of blood pressure and body composition before and after an aerobic training. Results indicate greater extent in reducing diastolic blood pressure and body fat in over 35 years premenopausal women. Therefore, performing aerobics, step and toning improves factors cardiovascular risk as high blood pressure and body composition in over 35 premenopausal women.

  16. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies...... the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry...... have been inconclusive. AIM: To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed...

  17. The Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Gut Microbiota Composition in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota composition in premenopausal women. The participants consisted of 71 premenopausal Finnish women (aged 19–49 years. Gut microbiota were analyzed using flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene hybridization and DNA-staining. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max was assessed by respiratory gas analyzer and body composition by Bioimpdance. We found that participants with low VO2max had lower Bacteroides, but higher Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides than the high VO2max group (p < 0.05 for all. VO2max was inversely associated with EreC (r = −0.309, p = 0.01 but not with other bacteria. VO2max also negatively correlated with fat% (r = −0.755, p < 0.001, triglycerides (r = −0.274, p = 0.021 and leptin (r = −0.574, p < 0.001. By contrast, EreC was positively associated with fat% (r = 0.382, p = 0.002, dietary fat intake (r = 0.258, p = 0.034, triglycerides (r = 0.390, p = 0.002 and leptin (r = 0.424, p = 0.001, but negatively with carbohydrate intake (r = −0.252, p = 0.034 and HDL (r = −0.26, p = 0.028. After adjusting for age and dietary intake, all the significant associations remained. However, after adjusting for fat%, the associations between VO2max and EreC disappeared. Our results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with gut microbiota composition, independent of age and carbohydrate or fat intake. The association between VO2max and EreC, however, appears to be mediated by body fatness.

  18. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in the uterosacral ligaments of premenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Jong Sun

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: In the premenopausal state, higher BMI may be a stronger associate factor than vaginal birth for the development of POP. The higher mtDNA copy number, COL3α1, and MMP2 gene expressions are highly associated with POP in the UL of premenopausal women.

  19. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  20. Sociodemographic Factors Related to Quality of Life Among Premenopausal Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Akinyele, Isaac Olaoluwa

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) of premenopausal women (PW) was assessed using primary data collected between September and December 2011. A 26-item questionnaire (WHO-QoL BREF) was administered to 285 apparently healthy women selected from two local government areas in Ibadan. The scores were categorized into poor (≤ 79.53) and good (>79.53) QoL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study factors associated with QoL. The mean score for the overall QoL (OQoL) was 65.18 ± 11.35 (range = 81.25). The Cronbach's alpha for all domains as well as the OQoL were within an acceptable range. The proportion of women with good OQoL was significantly higher in the urban areas (18.2 percent) than in the rural areas (9.2 percent) (p WHO-QoL BREF is a reliable instrument for measuring QoL among PW in Nigeria. Younger PW and women in the urban areas were more likely to have good QoL.

  1. An evidence-based approach to hormonal therapies for premenopausal women with fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethaby, Anne E; Vollenhoven, Beverley J

    2008-04-01

    Ovarian steroids, particularly oestrogen, are important factors for fibroid growth. This has provided a rationale for the investigation of hormonal therapies for women with fibroids. This chapter will assess the role of hormonal therapies for pre-menopausal women with fibroids. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2006. Twenty-nine relevant randomized controlled trials and two systematic reviews were found. The included studies assessed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) alone, GnRHa plus add-back (with either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene) and GnRHa given for at least 3 months prior to surgery for fibroids. Two trials assessed the effects of raloxifene alone. One trial assessed the effects of low-dose mifepristone, and a pilot study assessed the role of the selective progesterone receptor modulator, asoprisinil. GnRHa reduce fibroid and uterine volume and heavy bleeding but are associated with menopausal symptoms and bone loss, which limit long-term use. There is some evidence that add-back therapy, either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene, can reduce the menopausal symptoms associated with GnRHa and/or loss of bone density, but there is insufficient good-quality research to make definitive conclusions. GnRHa given for at least 3 months before fibroid surgery improve pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, reduce uterine and pelvic symptoms, and reduce the rate of vertical incisions during laparotomy. Women undergoing hysterectomy are more likely to have a vaginal than an abdominal procedure. Limited evidence suggests that raloxifene may be useful in older premenopausal women with lower concentrations of background oestradiol. Limited short-term evidence of two progestogenic therapies indicates that low-dose mifepristone may improve quality of life and bleeding in the short term, and asoprisinil may improve bleeding

  2. Identification of a linkage disequilibrium block in chromosome 1q associated with BMD in premenopausal white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L; Curry, Leah R; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F; Edenberg, Howard J; Hui, Siu L; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stage, 654 SNPs across the linked region were genotyped in a sample of 1309 premenopausal white women. The most significant evidence of association for lumbar spine (p = 1.3 x 10(-6)) was found with rs1127091 in the GATAD2B gene. In the second stage, 52 SNPs around this candidate gene were genotyped in an expanded sample of 1692 white women. Significant evidence of association with spinal BMD (p 2.5% of the variation in spinal BMD in these women. The 230-kb LD block contains 11 genes, but because of the extensive LD, the specific gene(s) contributing to the variation in BMD could not be determined. In conclusion, the significant association between spinal BMD and SNPs in the 230-kb LD block in chromosome 1q indicates that genetic factor(s) in this block plays an important role in peak spinal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women.

  3. Body size in relation to urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among premenopausal women during the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II, we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (P (trend) = 0.01) and current BMI (P (trend) = 0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (P (trend) = 0.26). Six EMs were 18-27% lower in women with a height 68+ versus ≤62 in., primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (P (trend) = 0.04). Eight EMs were 18-50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings.

  4. The Transaction Between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Sexual Functioning: A Prospective Study of Premenopausal, Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    A number of studies have called attention to the problematic interplay between depression and anxiety symptoms and sexual difficulties. However, despite the bidirectional conceptualization of the association between affective and sexual problems, few studies have adequately examined temporal precedence or state-level fluctuations between these two constructs. Using Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression, the current study employed a repeated measures design to examine how weekly changes in affective symptoms were related to weekly changes in sexual functioning in a non-clinical sample of premenopausal women. First, we examined how general distress, anxious arousal, and anhedonia were concurrently related to various indices of sexual functioning. Next, we examined lagged effects of mood and anxiety symptoms predicting later levels of sexual functioning. Finally, we tested sexual functioning's influence on later reports of affective symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that, of the three symptom types tested, anhedonic depression was the most consistently related to sexual problems, and that these relations were more proximal than distal. The preponderance of data suggested temporal precedence of mood on sexual symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of prospective studies in the investigation of mental and sexual health.

  5. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  6. Weight loss associated with reduced intake of carbohydrate reduces the atherogenicity of LDL in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Ingrid; Zern, Tosca; Herron, Kristin; West, Kristy; Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S; Shachter, Neil S; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a 3-tier intervention including dietary modifications (ie, moderate energy restriction, decreased carbohydrate, increased protein), increased physical activity, and the use of carnitine as a dietary supplement was evaluated on plasma lipids and the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in a population of overweight and obese premenopausal (aged 20-45 years) women. Carnitine or a placebo (cellulose) was randomly assigned to the participants using a double-blind design. Carnitine supplementation was postulated to enhance fat oxidation resulting in lower concentrations of plasma triglycerides. Seventy women completed the 10-week protocol, which followed a reduction in their energy intake by 15% and a macronutrient energy distribution of 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate. In addition, subjects increased the number of steps taken per day by 4500. As no differences were observed between the carnitine and placebo groups in all the measured parameters, all subjects were pooled together for statistical analysis. Participants decreased (Pweight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were decreased by 4.5%, 8.0%, 12.3%, and 19.2% (Pweight loss (weight) associated with reduced caloric intake, lower dietary carbohydrate, and increased physical activity impacts the atherogenicity of LDL.

  7. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  8. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C. Houghton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03 and 23.6% (p = 0.03 lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10 in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers, although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution; 17.1% difference (p = 0.001 for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index and 15.1% difference (p = 0.005 for waist-to-height ratio. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  9. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  10. The effect of exercise and estrogen on osteoprotegerin in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah L; Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are widely recognized, however physically active women can develop exercise associated menstrual cycle disturbances such as amenorrhea (i.e., estrogen deficiency) secondary to a chronic energy deficiency. To assess the effects of exercise status and estrogen deficiency on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its relationship to bone resorption in premenopausal exercising women. Cross-sectional study of serum OPG, urinary c-telopeptides (uCTX), urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G), urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (PdG) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured on multiple occasions in 67 women. Volunteers were retrospectively grouped: 1) sedentary menstruating group (SedMen n=8), 2) exercising menstruating group (ExMen, n=36), and 3) exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen, n=23). One-way ANOVAs were performed, and LSD post-hoc tests were performed when differences were detected. Subjects were similar with respect to age (24.2+/-1.0 years), weight (57.8+/-1.7 kg), and height (164.3+/-1.3 cm) (p>0.05). ExMen and ExAmen groups were more aerobically fit (p=0.003) and had less body fat (p=0.002) than the SedMen group. Resting energy expenditure/fat free mass was lowest (p=0.001) in the ExAmen groups. Mean E1G across the measurement period (peffect of exercise, and that suppressed OPG may play a role in the etiology of increased bone resorption observed in exercising women with chronic estrogen deficiency secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  11. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations and antioxidant and inflammatory status in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-07-14

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, seventy-two women were classified as low ( ≤ 4), 150 as moderate (5-6), and fifty-three as high adherers ( ≥ 7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0 and 1.7 mg/l for low, moderate and high adherers (P trend= 0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (P trend= 0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63 and 1.45 μg/ml (P trend= 0.02 before and P trend= 0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/ml) did not reach statistical significance (P trend= 0.18). In an analysis by BMI, overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (P trendadherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premen...

  13. Identification of a Linkage Disequilibrium Block in Chromosome 1q Associated With BMD in Premenopausal White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L.; Curry, Leah R.; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Hui, Siu L.; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stag...

  14. Effect of Yoga on Pain, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Serotonin in Premenopausal Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Moseon Lee; Woongjoon Moon; Jaehee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and...

  15. Association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-07-28

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, 3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  16. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  17. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with metabolic syndrome among premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-M; Zheng, Z-H; Li, T-F; Han, L-S; He, Y-J; Zhang, Y-L; Zeng, H-L; Liu, S-Y

    2017-04-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) and different MS components among premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in China. Patients and methods Altogether 113 premenopausal women with SLE and the age-matched healthy cohorts were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Clinical manifestations and laboratory data including serum 25(OH)D concentration were collected. A multivariable analysis was performed to analyze the association of 25(OH)D with MS and its components. Results The prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency (25(OH)D D, MS and its components demonstrated that the lower level of 25(OH)D was associated with increased MS prevalence (OR = 0.920, p = 0.012), a decreased level of high-density lipoprotein (OR = 1.059, p = 0.033) and a higher level of fasting glucose (OR = 0.810, p = 0.004). These associations were still detectible after adjustment for age, body mass index and SLE-related variables. Conclusion The level of 25(OH)D is associated with MS and its components in premenopausal women with SLE.

  18. Utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen YW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Wei Shen,1 Xiao-Man Zhang,1 Meng Lv,1 Ling Chen,1 Tian-Jie Qin,1 Fan Wang,1 Jiao Yang,1 Pei-Jun Liu,2 Jin Yang1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy are major concerns for premenopausal women with breast cancer. A potential ovarian function preservation strategy is administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists during adjuvant chemotherapy; however, studies of the clinical efficacy of GnRH agonists to protect chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage have shown mixed results. Objective: This meta-analysis study was designed to estimate the efficacy of GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods: Electronic literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases searching, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and the Wanfang Data were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs published until September 2015. Only RCTs that examined the effect of GnRH agonists for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The rate of spontaneous resumption of menses and spontaneous pregnancy were collected. All data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark and Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA. Results: Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,062 participants (GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy, n=541; chemotherapy alone, n=521 were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly greater number of women treated with GnRH agonist experienced spontaneous resumption of menses after the adjuvant chemotherapy, yielding a pooled odds ratio of 2.57 (versus chemotherapy alone, 95

  19. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on metabolomic profiles in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M; Hashim, Y Z H-Y; Wingfield, M; Culliton, M; McAuliffe, F; Gibney, M J; Brennan, L

    2010-04-01

    Characterization of the normal degree of physiological variation in the metabolomic profiles of healthy humans is a necessary step in the development of metabolomics as both a clinical research and diagnostic tool. This study investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle on (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) derived metabolomic profiles of urine and plasma from healthy women. In this study, 34 healthy women were recruited and a first void urine and fasting blood sample were collected from each woman at four different time points during one menstrual cycle. Serum hormone levels were used in combination with the menstrual calendar to classify the urine and plasma samples into five different phases i.e. menstrual, follicular, periovulatory, luteal and premenstrual. The urine and plasma samples were analysed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and subsequent data were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis. PCA of the urine spectra showed no separation of samples based on the phases of the menstrual cycle. Multivariate analysis of the plasma spectra showed a separation of the menstrual phase and the luteal phase samples (R(2) = 0.61, Q(2) = 0.41). Subsequent analysis revealed a significant decrease in levels of glutamine, glycine, alanine, lysine, serine and creatinine and a significant increase in levels of acetoacetate and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL CH(2)) during the luteal phase. These results establish a need to control for metabolic changes that occur in plasma due to the menstrual cycle in the design of future metabolomic studies involving premenopausal women.

  20. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  1. Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre; Battegay, Edouard; Breymann, Christian; Furrer, Joerg; Schulthess, Georg

    2011-09-22

    This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of intravenous iron in treating fatigue in nonanemic patients with low serum ferritin concentration. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 90 premenopausal women presenting with fatigue, serum ferritin ≤ 50 ng/mL, and hemoglobin ≥ 120 g/L were randomized to receive either 800 mg of intravenous iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or intravenous placebo. Fatigue and serum iron status were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Median fatigue at baseline was 4.5 (on a 0-10 scale). Fatigue decreased during the initial 6 weeks by 1.1 in the iron group compared with 0.7 in the placebo group (P = .07). Efficacy of iron was bound to depleted iron stores: In patients with baseline serum ferritin ≤ 15 ng/mL, fatigue decreased by 1.8 in the iron group compared with 0.4 in the placebo group (P = .005), and 82% of iron-treated compared with 47% of placebo-treated patients reported improved fatigue (P = .03). Drug-associated adverse events were observed in 21% of iron-treated patients and in 7% of placebo-treated patients (P = .05); none of these events was serious. Intravenous administration of iron improved fatigue in iron-deficient, nonanemic women with a good safety and tolerability profile. The efficacy of intravenous iron was bound to a serum ferritin concentration ≤ 15 ng/mL. This study was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (www.isrctn.org) as ISRCTN78430425.

  2. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-03-16

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p HDL (HDL-C (r = -0.148, p HDL-C (r = -0.258, p HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age.

  3. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  4. Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health

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    Julian F. Calderon-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05 bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05 was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  5. Dietary habits, nutrients and bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women: the contribution of fish to better bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-12-27

    The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5-7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  6. Anthropometric and lifestyle associations of bone mass in healthy pre-menopausal Mexican and Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Yoo, Eun Jung; Hawkins, Steven A

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have established the lifestyle predictors of peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Mexican-American (MA) and Asian-American (AA) women. Pre-menopausal MA (n = 48) and AA (n = 58) women aged 30-45 years old were tested for BMD, body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscle function. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status, prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors, physical activity, and diet were determined via questionnaire. Pearson's correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the associations between various osteoporosis risk factors and BMD. Body composition, anthropometric, and BMD differences were noted between groups. Hip, but not spine BMD, remained significantly higher for the MA compared to the AA group after adjustment for age, BMI, income, and physical activity index. Lean body mass was a significant predictor of hip BMD for both groups and this relationship was stronger for the AA group. Lean body mass may explain ethnic differences in BMD.

  7. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-09-01

    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  8. Circulating hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: a randomized trial of low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Harriet; Bonanni, Bernardo; Gandini, Sara; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Serrano, Davide; Macis, Debora; Puccio, Antonella; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Gulisano, Marcella; Formelli, Franca; Decensi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Tamoxifen and fenretinide have been extensively studied and exhibit breast cancer-preventing activity. We aimed to assess their effect on sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and retinol, and their association with mammographic density (MD) and breast cancer events. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to tamoxifen 5 mg/day, fenretinide, both agents, or placebo for 2 years. We measured MD and circulating concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydro-epiandrosteronesulfate, prolactin, SHBG, and retinol at baseline and on yearly intervals. The associations with breast cancer events were evaluated through competing risk and Cox regression survival models. Low-dose tamoxifen markedly and enduringly increased SHBG, whereas the increases in testosterone, estradiol, and prolactin and reduction in LH weakened after 1 year. Fenretinide increased testosterone and androstenedione and decreased retinol. MD correlated directly with SHBG and inversely with retinol. After a median follow-up of 12 years, the 10-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer events was 37 % in women with SHBG ≤ 59.3 nmol/L, 22 % in women with SHBG between 59.3 and 101 nmol/L, and 19 % in women with SHBG > 101 nmol/L (P = 0.018). The difference among SHBG tertiles remained statistically significant at multivariable analysis: HR = 2.26 (95 % CI 1.04, 4.89) for the lowest versus the highest tertile. We conclude that low-dose tamoxifen or fenretinide exhibits favorable hormonal profiles as single agents, further supporting their administration for prevention of breast cancer in premenopause. Notably, SHBG levels were inversely associated with breast neoplastic events.

  9. The Proliferative Activity of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Normal Tissue Predicts Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Jin; Oh, Hannah; Peterson, Michael A; Almendro, Vanessa; Hu, Rong; Bowden, Michaela; Lis, Rosina L; Cotter, Maura B; Loda, Massimo; Barry, William T; Polyak, Kornelia; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and proliferative activity of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells are suggested to correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and the frequency of mammary epithelial cells expressing p27, estrogen receptor (ER), and Ki67 in normal breast tissue. We performed a nested case-control study of 302 women (69 breast cancer cases, 233 controls) who had been initially diagnosed with benign breast disease according to the Nurses' Health Studies. Immunofluorescence for p27, ER, and Ki67 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from benign biopsies containing normal mammary epithelium and scored by computational image analysis. We found that the frequency of Ki67(+) cells was positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women [OR = 10.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-48.0]. Conversely, the frequency of ER(+) or p27(+) cells was inversely, but not significantly, associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (ER(+): OR = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; p27(+): OR = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.45-1.75). Notably, high Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and high Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies were significantly associated with a 5-fold higher risk of breast cancer compared with low Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and low Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies, respectively, among premenopausal women (Ki67(hi)/p27(lo): OR = 5.08, 95% CI, 1.43-18.1; Ki67(hi)/ER(lo): OR = 4.68, 95% CI, 1.63-13.5). Taken together, our data suggest that the fraction of actively cycling cells in normal breast tissue may represent a marker for breast cancer risk assessment, which may therefore impact the frequency of screening procedures in at-risk women. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1926-34. ©2016 AACR.

  10. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

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    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  11. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups.

  12. CYP19 Genetic Polymorphism Haplotype AASA Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Premenopausal Women with Lymph Node-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN- negative, hormone receptor- (HR- positive early breast cancers. Genotyping for the CYP19 polymorphisms rs4646 (A/C, rs1065779 (A/C, CYP19 (TTTAn (short allele/long (S/L allele using the 7 TTTA repeat polymorphism as the cut-off, and rs1870050 (A/C was performed on 296 patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers. All patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Associations were examined between these 4 genotypes and 6 common haplotypes of CYP19 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Patients were divided into the 6 subhaplotypes of CCLA (41.1%, AASA (17.1%, CASA (11.9%, CCLC (8.9%, CCSA (7.5%, AASC (8.9%, and others (4.6%. In premenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was significantly associated with a poor DDFS (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 3.3; P=0.001, DFS (aHR, 2.5; P=0.0008, and OS (aHR, 2.9; P=0.0004 after adjusting for age, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, chemotherapy, pathology, adjuvant hormone therapy, menopausal status, and radiotherapy. Furthermore, haplotype AASA remained a negative prognostic factor for premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of DDFS (aHR, 4.5; P=0.0005, DFS (HR, 3.2; P=0.003, and OS (HR, 6.4; P=0.0009. However, in postmenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was not associated with a poor prognosis, whereas the AASC haplotype was significantly associated with a poor DFS (aHR, 3.1; P=0.03 and OS (aHR, 4.4; P=0.01. Our results indicate that, in patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers, genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with poor survival of premenopausal women but does not affect survival of postmenopausal women.

  13. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  14. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moseon; Moon, Woongjoon; Kim, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P yoga group (P yoga group (P yoga group, while it reduced (P yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain.

  15. Biomarker prediction of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea in premenopausal women with breast cancer participating in E5103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; O'Neill, Anne; Miller, Kathy D; Schneider, Bryan P; Baker, Emily; Sparano, Joseph A; Dang, Chau; Northfelt, Donald W; Sledge, George W; Partridge, Ann H

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pre-chemotherapy anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a biomarker for chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in breast cancer patients. A multicenter randomized controlled trial, ECOG5103, assigned patients with early stage breast cancer to standard doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with either placebo or one of two durations of bevacizumab therapy. Five hundred ninety-one patients were part of the decision-making/quality of life substudy, in which there were surveys from baseline through 18-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-four women were included in this analysis of menses data because they were premenopausal at enrollment, responded to the 12-month survey, had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy or ovarian function suppression before that survey, and had serum banked for research before chemotherapy. One hundred of the 124 also responded to the 18-month survey. Median age was 45 years (range 25-55), and median serum AMH level was 0.11 ng/mL (range 0.01-8.63) prior to treatment. Eighty-two percent had CRA at 12 months, and 81 % at 18 months. In multivariate analyses, older age (p = 0.0003) was the only statistically significant predictor of 12-month CRA, but at 18-months, lower pre-chemotherapy AMH (p = 0.04) and older age (p = 0.008) were both statistically significant predictors of CRA. Race, bevacizumab therapy, and tamoxifen use were not statistically significantly associated with CRA after adjustment for AMH and age. Pre-chemotherapy AMH level is a potential novel biomarker for CRA in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. Further research to evaluate the clinical utility of AMH testing is warranted.

  16. Comparison of the effects of two resistance training regimens on muscular and bone responses in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, A C; Meyer, F; da Veiga, A D R; Zanardo, V P S

    2010-09-01

    A 28-week resistance training with linear periodization was compared with an undulating model in 27 premenopausal women. In both groups, bone mineral density (BMD) was not changed but muscle strength increased, and there were changes in anthropometrical and muscle damage parameters, indicating that in this population, these models are similar concerning these variables. This study seeks to compare the effects of resistance training with undulating versus linear periodization on BMD, muscle strength, anthropometrical variables, and muscle damage parameters in premenopausal women. Twenty-seven females (39.6 +/- 0.41 years, mean +/- standard error), without osteopenia or osteoporosis and without calcium supplementation, were randomly assigned either to a linear periodization group (LPG, n = 14) or to an undulating periodization group (UPG, n = 13). The subjects were trained three times a week for 28 weeks. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal and submaximal dynamic muscle strengths were measured through the 1-RM and 20-RM tests, respectively. Anthropometrical (body mass, skinfolds, and perimeters) and muscle damage parameters were assessed through serum creatine kinase (CK) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). BMD remained unchanged in both groups, despite significant increases in maximal (LPG, 37-73%; UPG, 40-70%) and submaximal (LPG, 82-114%; UPG, 70-102%) muscle strength. The perimeter of the distal thigh was increased (about 1.7 cm) in both groups. CK and DOMS were greater in the first mesocycle than in the subsequent ones. After the 1st training session in each mesocycle, 24 and 48 h CK was increased as compared to pretraining values. The resistance training of 28 weeks increased muscle strength in both training groups with no difference in BMD or in the occurrence of muscle damage.

  17. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Lomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition.

  18. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women(∗): (∗)2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  19. Biological and psychological predictors of visceral pain sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, T E; Houtveen, J H; Doornen, L J P; Benson, S; Grigoleit, J-S; Cesko, E; Elsenbruch, S

    2014-04-01

    Factors that are associated with pain perception remain incompletely understood, especially in the visceral pain field. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate possible psychological and biological predictors of visceral pain sensitivity in healthy subjects. In a sample of 59 healthy premenopausal female subjects on hormonal contraceptives, measures of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in daily life, trait and state anxiety, depression, serum cortisol concentrations and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were obtained, followed by assessment of rectal distension pain sensitivity measures (i.e., rectal distension sensory threshold, pain threshold and pain ratings for discrete rectal distension stimuli). Regression analyses showed that more GI symptoms in daily life predicted a lower pain threshold. Higher levels of state anxiety predicted a lower pain threshold. Higher cortisol concentrations predicted lower pain ratings. IL-6 was positively related to GI symptoms but was a non-significant predictor of pain threshold in the multiple regression analysis. Similar to findings in patients with functional GI symptoms, we showed that subclinical GI symptoms predict visceral pain sensitivity. In line with somatic pain findings, state but not trait anxiety was found to predict visceral pain sensitivity. Our finding on serum cortisol as positive predictor of pain sensitivity might be interpreted in light of immunosuppressive effects of cortisol. Our finding on the role of IL-6 in GI symptoms is promising for understanding GI complaints in patients and needs further investigation. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  20. Correlation between insulin resistance and breast elasticity heterogeneity measured by shear wave elastography in premenopausal women - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=-0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=-0.59, p<0.001 and Rs=-0.60, p<0.001 respectively). The heterogeneity of fatty tissue but not glandular elasticity also correlated with body mass index. Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear.

  1. Correlation between body mass index and overactive bladder symptoms in pre-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Palma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between Overactive Bladder (OAB symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI in women aged 20-45. Methods: We interviewed 1.050 women aged 20-45 in the area of Campinas, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms. In this study, we used the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire (ICS standard, in its validated portuguese version and a specific questionnaire for the demographics, which includes information about BMI. Results: Overall, women with BMI ≥30 presented a significantly higher score than women with a lower BMI (18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0066. In the analysis of individual symptoms, no significant differences were found regarding urinary frequency (p=0.5469. Women with BMI ≥30 presented more nocturia than women with BMI ranging between 18.5 and 24.9 (p=0.0154. Women in the group of BMI 25 - 29.9 presented more urgency than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0278. Significant difference was also found regarding urge-incontinence; women with BMI 25 - 29.9 presented a higher score than women in the group 18.5 - 24.9 (p= 0.0017. Analysis was also performed on the visual analogue scale regarding how much each symptom bothers the women (quality of life. There were no significant differences regarding frequency, nocturia or urgency but urgency incontinence bother was significant. Women with BMI 25 - 29.9 were more bothered by incontinence than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.002. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reinforces the correlation between BMI and OAB symptoms. Obese women present more OAB symptoms than non-obese women.

  2. Neutrophilic inflammatory response and oxidative stress in premenopausal women chronically exposed to indoor air pollution from biomass burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    The possibility of inflammation and neutrophil activation in response to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use has been investigated. For this, 142 premenopausal, never-smoking women (median age, 34 years) who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 126 age-matched control women who cook with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. The neutrophil count in blood and sputum was significantly higher (p enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that they had 72%, 67%, and 54% higher plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, respectively, and doubled neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8. Immunocytochemical study revealed significantly higher percentage of airway neutrophils expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase, while the serum level of nitric oxide was doubled in women who cooked with biomass. Spectrophotometric analysis documented higher myeloperoxidase activity in circulating neutrophils of biomass users, suggesting neutrophil activation. Flow cytometry showed excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes of biomass-using women, whereas their erythrocytes contained a depleted level of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indoor air of biomass-using households had two to four times more particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) as measured by real-time laser photometer. After controlling potential confounders, rise in proinflammatory mediators among biomass users were positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) in indoor air, suggesting a close relationship between IAP and neutrophil activation. Besides, the levels of neutrophil activation and inflammation markers were positively associated with generation of ROS and negatively with SOD, indicating a role of oxidative stress in mediating neutrophilic inflammatory response following chronic inhalation of biomass smoke.

  3. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  4. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  5. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements.Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women.Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg...

  6. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyuan Wang; Peter Bua; Jillian Capodice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 ...

  7. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg ...

  8. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  9. Uncoupling protein-2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression during very-low-calorie diet in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, P; Millet, L; Larrouy, D; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Louvet, J P; Langin, D

    1998-07-01

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial protein expressed in a wide range of human tissues. By uncoupling respiration from ATP synthesis, UCP2 might be involved in the control of energy expenditure. We have investigated UCP2 gene expression in human adipose tissue. In eight subjects, we found a positive correlation (r = 0.91, P < 0.002) between subcutaneous and visceral fat depots UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, suggesting that UCP2 mRNA level in subcutaneous adipose tissue is a good index of UCP2 gene expression in whole body adipose tissues. The effect of a 25-day very-low-calorie diet un UCP2 mRNA level and resting metabolic rate was investigated in eight obese premenopausal women. There was no difference in UCP2 mRNA levels before and during the diet. After 25 days of hypocaloric diet, a positive correlation was found between adipose tissue UCP2 mRNA level and resting metabolic rate adjusted for lean body mass (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). These results show that very-low-calorie diet, unlike short-term fasting, is not associated with an induction in UCP2 mRNA expression, and that adipose tissue UCP2 mRNA levels may be related to variations in resting energy expenditure in humans.

  10. Effect of Yoga on Pain, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Serotonin in Premenopausal Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS, and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P<0.001, whereas it increased (P<0.05 in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P<0.01. Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P<0.01, whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P=0.05. Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P<0.01 in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P=0.07. Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain.

  11. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. RESULTS: Physically active women had lower fat percentage...... were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score......PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...

  12. 25(OH) vitamin D levels in premenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakova, Adelina D; Gateva, Antoaneta T; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity play an important role in development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Current evidence suggests that vitamin D (VitD) deficiency may contribute to the disturbance in insulin metabolism and the development of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate VitD levels, measured as 25(OH)D, in Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. The study included 103 women, divided into three groups - group 1 Obese (n = 33); group 2 Nonobese PCOS (n = 50), and group 3 Obese PCOS (n = 20). 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Almost 2/3 of the women with PCOS and/or obesity appeared to be VitD-deficient. Women with obesity, especially visceral (with or without PCOS), had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to lean PCOS subjects. Women with and without metabolic syndrome however did not differ significantly in 25(OH)D levels. Women with normal body mass index (BMI) had higher 25(OH)D levels compared to overweight and obese (p = 0.028). There was no correlation between 25(OH)D levels and indices of glucose metabolism - fasting blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and after OGTT and HOMA index.

  13. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings.

  14. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Eisa, Marwa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB. PMID:28003825

  15. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Hussain, Sherif H; Hassanin, Alaa S; Khalaf, Waleed M; Etman, Mohamed K; Elsafty, Mohammed S E; Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Hasanien, Ahmad S; Sakna, Noha A; Taema, Mohammed; Mostafa, Mohammed H; Eisa, Marwa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  16. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Laban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS, and three-dimensional (3D Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL to detect endometrial polyps (EPs in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33% were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9% had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P=0.223; P=0.06. 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  17. Changes in tissue composition of the vaginal wall of premenopausal women with prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.H.; Ruiz-Zapata, A.M.; Bril, H.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Belien, J.A.M.; Stoop, R.; Helder, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare histological and biochemical features of the (normal) precervical anterior vaginal wall and the prolapsed anterior vaginal wall of women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). These data were compared to tissue of the precervical anterior vaginal wall

  18. The impact of gastric bypass surgery on sex hormones and menstrual cycles in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Mandrup; Madsbad, Sten; Hougaard, David M;

    2016-01-01

    postoperative months. SHBG increased progressively and was doubled after 12 months. In contrast, total and free androgens and DHEA declined about 50% during the first three postoperative months and remained fairly constant hereafter. One year after surgery, 85% (11/13) of the women with oligo-/amenorrhea gained...

  19. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (Ppost-menopausal women.

  20. Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynberg, J; Brewer, S

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of an alternative to chemical medication in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in healthy women. The efficacy of a unique herbal formulation of Muira puama and Ginkgo biloba (Herbal vX) was assessed in 202 healthy women complaining of low sex drive. Various aspects of their sex life were rated before and after 1 month of treatment. Responses to self-assessment questionnaires showed significantly higher average total scores from baseline in 65% of the sample after taking the supplement. Statistically significant improvements occurred in frequency of sexual desires, sexual intercourse, and sexual fantasies, as well as in satisfaction with sex life, intensity of sexual desires, excitement of fantasies, ability to reach orgasm, and intensity of orgasm. Reported compliance and tolerability were good. These initial findings support the strong anecdotal evidence for the benefits of Herbal vX on the female sex drive. A double-blind study is planned to further research these results.

  1. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  2. Fat/Fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which diet affects breast cancer (BC) risk are poorly understood but a positive relationship between fat and a negative association with fiber intake and BC risk have been demonstrated. Here we study the association between dietary fat/fiber ratio and estrogen metabolism. Fifty women were recruited, 22 were included in the low fat/high fiber and 22 were in the high fat/low fiber and 6 did not meet our criteria. Estrogens (determined in plasma, urine and feces) and dietary re...

  3. Postoperative Quality of Life and Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women Undergoing Laparoscopic Myomectomy for Symptomatic Fibroids: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Julia Caroline; Radosa, Christoph Georg; Mavrova, Russalina; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Hamza, Amr; Joukhadar, Ralf; Baum, Sascha; Karsten, Maria; Juhasz-Boess, Ingolf; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Radosa, Marc Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign gynecologic tumors. To date laparoscopy myomectomy is the gold standard for treatment of symptomatic fibroids in reproductive-aged women. Detailed counseling about the effects of this procedure on postoperative sexuality and quality of life is important in these patients. However, available data on these subjects are limited and contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess sexual function and quality of life in premenopausal women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Material and Methods All premenopausal women who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids between April 2012 and August 2014 at a tertiary university center were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. Sexual function and quality of life were assessed for the pre- and postoperative (six months post-operatively) state using two validated questionnaires, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the European Quality of Life Five-Dimension Scale (EQ-5D). Results Ninety-five of the 115 (83%) eligible patients completed the study. Overall a significant improvement in quality of life and sexual function was observed in the study cohort: Median FSFI (28 (18.7–35.2)) and EQ-5D scores (1 (0.61–1) after laparoscopic myomectomy were significantly higher than preoperative scores (21.2 (5.2–33.5); 0.9 (0.2–1); p ≤ 0.01). The number, position and localization of the largest fibroids were not correlated with pre- or postoperative sexual function or quality of life. Conclusion Laparoscopic myomectomy might have positive short-term effects on postoperative quality of life and sexual function in premenopausal women suffering from symptomatic fibroids. PMID:27898669

  4. Effect of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on markers of cardiovascular risk among premenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraker, Randi E; Pennell, Michael; Sprangers, Peter; Vitolins, Mara Z; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-08-01

    Low-fat and low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets can have a beneficial effect on longitudinal measures of blood pressure and blood lipids. We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in blood pressure and blood lipids in a population of premenopausal women. We hypothesized that results may differ by level of adherence to the respective diet protocol and baseline presence of hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomized to a low-fat (n=41) or low-carbohydrate (n=38) diet. As part of the 52-week Lifestyle Eating and Fitness (LEAF) intervention trial, we fit linear mixed models to determine whether a change in outcome differed by treatment arm. Within-group trends in blood pressure and blood lipids did not differ (p>0.30). Across study arms, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP, 3 mm Hg, p=0.01) over time, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not change significantly over the course of the study. Blood lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoproteins [LDL], and high-density lipoproteins [HDL]) all exhibited nonlinear trends over time (p0.20). We observed a decline in SBP among women who were hypertensive at baseline (p0.40). Our results support that dietary interventions may be efficacious for lowering blood pressure and blood lipids among overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, a decrease in SBP was the only favorable change that was sustained in this study population. These changes can be maintained over the course of a 1-year intervention, yet changes in blood lipids may be less sustainable.

  5. Failure to Consider the Menstrual Cycle Phase May Cause Misinterpretation of Clinical and Research Findings of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker assessment plays a critical role in the study and prevention of disease. However, variation in biomarkers attributable to the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women may impair understanding the role of certain biomarkers in disease development and progression. Thus, in light of the recently increasing evidence of menstrual cycle variability in multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers, a reexamination of approaches for appropriately studying and diagnosing cardiovascular disease in premenopausal women is warranted. We reviewed studies (from 1934 through 2012) evaluating changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers across phases of the menstrual cycle, including markers of oxidative stress, lipids, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. Each was observed to vary significantly during the menstrual cycle. For example, nearly twice as many women had elevated cholesterol levels warranting therapy (≥200 mg/dL) during the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (14.3% vs. 7.9%), with only 3% having consistently high levels during all phases of the cycle. Similarly, nearly twice as many women were classified as being at an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (high sensitivity C-reactive protein >3 mg/L) during menses compared with other phases (12.3% vs. 7.4%). Menstrual cycle–associated variability in cardiometabolic biomarkers is an important source of variability that should be accounted for in both research and clinical settings. PMID:24042431

  6. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms and their association with estradiol and estrogen metabolites in women who are premenopausal and perimenopausal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran R; Wilson, Angela L; Kardia, Sharon R; Chu, Jian; McConnell, Daniel S

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate measured concentrations of estradiol (E2) and the urinary estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the primary genes involved in estrogen catabolism. We investigated the association of 4 CYP1A1 SNPs (CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP1A1 rs1531163, CYP1A1 rs2606345, and CYP1A1 rs1048943) and 2 CYP1B1 SNPs (CYP1B1 rs162555 and CYP1B1 rs1056836) to circulating serum E2 concentrations and the urinary estrogen metabolites 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-OHE1. The associations were evaluated in 1,340 participants of 4 racial/ethnic groups from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) who were premenopausal and perimenopausal. There was substantial variation in the allele frequencies of the SNPs for African American and Caucasian women. There was, however, remarkable comparability between Chinese and Japanese women; their CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 allele frequencies differed by only < or =11%. There was significant variation in E2 concentrations by genotype within racial/ethnic group for CYP1A1 rs2606345. In particular, Japanese women with the CC genotype had lower E2 concentrations than did Japanese women with the AC genotype. Chinese women with the CC genotype had higher 2-OHE1 concentrations than did Chinese women with the AC genotype. Further, African American women with the CC genotype had higher 16alpha-OHE1 concentrations than did those with other genotypes. CYP1A1 rs2606345 may play an important role in estrogen metabolism in women who are premenopausal and perimenopausal.

  7. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  8. Vitamin D status and its correlation with blood pressure in premenopausal Saudi women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Al Mazeedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a major health problem in the Saudi population. A negative association between blood pressure and vitamin D level has been suggested in several clinical and epidemiological studies and evidence for an effect of vitamin D in lowering blood pressure was reported. These findings indicate that 1,25(OH2D3 deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension through its effect on the renin-angiotensin system. We are the first to investigate the correlation between blood pressure or renin concentration and vitamin D status in the Saudi population METHODS: we included 201 healthy Saudi premenopausal females (20-45 years old. Blood pressure was measured by a standardized method using an automated blood pressure monitor (BPTru. Fasting blood samples were collected from each participant after 20 minutes of rest in the seated position. Serum cholicalciferol, PTH and renin concentration were measured by sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassaymethod (DiaSorin, Italy. RESULTS: The analysis included 192 subjects who were normotensive (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg.  A total of  34% of women had a severe deficiency (vitamin D ≤ 12.5 nmol/L; 41% had moderate deficiency (vitamin D levels between 12.5 - 25 nmol/L;  23% had mild deficiency (vitamin D level ≥ 25 - < 50 nmol/L; and 2% had insufficiency (vitamin D level  ≥ 50 - ≤ 75 nmol/L. None had a sufficient level of ≥75 nmol/L.  The systolic blood pressure ranged from 79-130.5mmHg and the diastolic from 48.5-85.5 mmHg.  Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in women that were in the lower 2 quartiles of vitamin D.  However, linear regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders showed that 25(OHD level was not a predictor of either systolic or diastolic blood pressures.  A negative correlation (although not significant was found between vitamin D level and plasma renin concentration in this study group. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D

  9. Genetic and environmental factors affecting peak bone mass in premenopausal Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Yoshika; Yanagi, Hisako; Hara, Shuichi; Amagai, Hitoshi; Endo, Kazue; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Tomura, Shigeo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between peak bone mass and genetic and environmental factors. We measured whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine BMD, and radius BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and analyzed eight genetic factors: vitamin D receptor (VDR)-3′, VDR-5′, estrogen receptor (ER), calcitonin receptor (CTR), parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) allelic polym...

  10. Daily environmental differences in blood pressure and heart rate variability in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2015-01-01

    As daily environments change, behavior and activity also change and as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are allostatically tied to these factors, one might expect that environments that elicit the greatest behavioral/activity variation should also evince the highest BP and HR variability [standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV)]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this premise. Two hundred and six women (age = 37.6 ± 9.1 years) wore an ambulatory BP monitor on a midweek workday. All worked in clerical, technical, or professional positions. Ambulatory BP and HR Means, SDs and CVs at work (11 AM-3 PM), home (∼6-10 PM) and during sleep (∼10 PM-6 AM) were compared using repeated measures ANCOVA. Mean BP and HR decreased from work and home to sleep [121 ± 11, 120 ± 11 vs. 107 ± 12 systolic; 82 ± 10, 80 ± 11 vs. 66 ± 11 diastolic; 79 ± 12, 80 ± 12 vs. 68 ± 11 HR (all P < 0.001)], while the CV of systolic and diastolic BP increased [0.06 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03 systolic; 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 diastolic (P < 0.001)]. The HR SD decreased during sleep [8.1 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 3.8 vs. 6.9 ± 3.2 (P < 0.001)]. HR variability follows the expected variability pattern with behavior and activity, whereas BP does not. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Ming, Moy Foong; Chinna, Karuthan; Suboh, Suhaili; Pendek, Rokiah

    2014-01-01

    Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (supplementation on HOMA-IR, serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (all p>0.05) between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374) and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897.

  12. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiometabolic Risks and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Premenopausal Women in a Tropical Country – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Ming, Moy Foong; Chinna, Karuthan; Suboh, Suhaili; Pendek, Rokiah

    2014-01-01

    Background Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. Aim To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Design A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (supplementation on HOMA-IR, serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (all p>0.05) between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374) and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. Conclusion Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897 PMID:25350669

  13. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  14. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  15. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country -- a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Pendek, Rokiah; Suboh, Suhaili; Tan Tong Boon, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out.The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the role of vitamin D

  16. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out. The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods/design Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. Discussion This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body

  17. Progressive high-intensity resistance training and bone mineral density changes among premenopausal women: evidence of discordant site-specific skeletal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Carroll, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Regular weight-bearing physical activity has been widely recommended for adult women and may be beneficial in preserving bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented on the effects of progressive high-intensity resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Structured computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews Multifile were undertaken along with hand-searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to September 2004. Criteria for included studies were published controlled studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of progressive, high-intensity resistance training studies on BMD in premenopausal women. Two authors reached consensus on all included and excluded studies. Study outcomes for analysis were radiographic BMD assessment from first follow-up at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Primary outcomes for analysis were absolute changes in BMD g/cm(2) at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Relative changes (percentage change) in BMD at lumbar spine were also assessed. Data were extracted from studies including study design, participant characteristics and treatment mode, intensity and duration, using electronic data extraction forms. Where necessary, relevant information was obtained by contacting study authors. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using a well recognised three-question instrument designed to assess bias. Informal assessment for small sample study effects and potential bias was undertaken through visual inspection of funnel plots. The weighted mean difference method (inverse of the variances) was used for combining study group estimates. Quantification of the effect of heterogeneity among study outcomes was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Random

  18. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...... patients with irregular menses should include serum (s)-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, s-prolactin, s-Testosterone (T), and s-sex hormone-binding globulin. Further evaluation is needed in patients with markedly elevated s-T or with clinical Cushing's syndrome. Hirsute patients have a high risk of diabetes...

  19. Indoor air pollution from biomass burning activates Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study among premenopausal women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan K; Roy, Amrita; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. The authors investigated in this study whether cumulative exposures to biomass smoke cause activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). For this, the authors enrolled 87 premenopausal (median age 34 years), nonsmoking women who used to cook with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 85 age-matched control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated forms of Akt protein (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) in PBL, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils in sputum of biomass-using women than control. Akt activation in biomass users was associated with marked rise in generation of reactive oxygen species and concomitant depletion of superoxide dismutase. Measurement of particulate matter having a diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 µm in indoor air by real-time aerosol monitor showed 2 to 4 times more particulate pollution in biomass-using households, and Akt activation was positively associated with particulate pollution after controlling potential confounders. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to biomass smoke activates Akt, possibly via generation of oxidative stress.

  20. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  1. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  2. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  3. Women's Perspective of Breast Self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Iranian women. Early diagnosis of the disease is vitally important in successful treating of it and reducing its mortality and care-cost burden. In our country, the major causes of mortality and other unfavorable complications of the disease are due to late referring of women. Breast Self -Examination (BSE) is a low-cost, low-risk, self-performed screening, which, according to the evidence from the literature improves the prospects for women's survival. A content analysis with a qualitative approach was conducted in depth on women through semi-structured (individual and group) interviews. Based on the result analysis, one them related to women's prospect BSE: Including Fearful feeling, with 2 Sub-themes A: Change body image B: Uncertain future. Training courses on breast cancer and BSE screening program for women (vulnerable poor population) is necessary so as to change their beliefs and culture in order to promote this health behavior.

  4. Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Wang, Christina; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of environmental chemicals, may interfere with typical reproductive hormone production both in utero and in adulthood. Although they are best known as anti-androgens, increasingly, evidence suggests that phthalates, particularly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), may also suppress estrogen production. Given that both androgens and estrogens are essential for sexual function, particularly sexual interest, it is plausible that adult exposure to phthalates alters sexual function. To this end, we used data from 360 women participating in a pregnancy cohort study (the Study for Future Families) to examine whether urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with two dimensions of self-reported sexual dysfunction in the months prior to conception: lack of sexual interest and vaginal dryness. Women in the highest quartile of urinary concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, a DEHP metabolite, had 2.58 (95% CI 1.33, 5.00) times the adjusted odds of reporting that they almost always or often lacked interest in sexual activity, and results were similar for mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.32, 4.95), another DEHP metabolite. Self-reported vaginal dryness was not associated with any phthalate metabolite concentration. This study is novel in its focus on sexual function in relation to environmentally relevant (rather than occupational) exposure to phthalates in adult women and these preliminary findings merit replication in a large, prospective study. Better understanding how adult exposure to phthalates may affect reproductive health, including sexual function, is of public health interest given that virtually all Westerners are exposed to phthalates.

  5. A specific haplotype in the 3' end of estrogen-receptor alpha gene is associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Chanprasertyothin, S; Saetung, S; Rajatanavin, R

    2005-10-01

    It is well established that the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis is under genetic influence. We have recently identified a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 8 of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) gene in the vicinity of the stop codon (G2014A) that is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, we attempted to locate SNPs in the 3'-unstranslated region (3'UTR) of the ERalpha gene that are in linkage disequilibrium with the exon 8 SNP and assessed their utilization in the risk assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 352 Thai postmenopausal women. The association with bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women was also investigated in 202 premenopausal women. A C to A SNP 1,748 nucleotides distal to the end of the stop codon (C3768A) was identified. The C3768A SNP was not overrepresented in subjects with osteoporosis. However, the presence of the A-C haplotype allele based on the A2014 and C3768 alleles was significantly related to the risk of osteoporosis independently of age, body weight, the G2014A and C3768A SNPs (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.42-3.91). Moreover, the presence of the A-C haplotype allele was associated with lower femoral neck BMD in premenopausal women ( P =0.05). We concluded that a specific haplotype in the 3' end of the ERalpha gene is associated with lower BMD in premenopausal women and is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is likely that the haplotype allele exerts its influence on bone as early as during young adulthood to increase the risk of osteoporosis later in life.

  6. The influence of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in premenopausal women with anorexia nervosa and amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebow, Jocelyn; Sim, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density is one of the primary risks of chronic amenorrhea, and the effects of potentially long-term menstrual disruption on bone mass are serious concerns for individuals with a past or current anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. As such, estrogen therapies are frequently used to address amenorrhea associated with AN. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the effectiveness of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in women with amenorrhea. Data regarding the effectiveness of oral contraceptives were of low quality and mixed, with the majority of studies finding no benefit of these treatments on bone mineral density. Hormone replacement therapy findings were also mixed, though promising results were found in a study comparing transdermal administration of physiologic estrogen, delivered in developmentally sensitive incremental doses to placebo controls. Though this study suggests a possible role for estrogen therapies in addressing bone density loss in women with AN, in general, more studies are needed. Clinical drawbacks of using these therapies in the treatment of AN, including the loss of menses resumption as a clinical marker for weight and nutritional rehabilitation, must be considered in the decision to use estrogen therapies, particularly given the uncertain effectiveness of most of these treatments.

  7. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  8. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibola, Christine F

    2004-08-04

    Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack), as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17beta-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 +/- 91 to 164 +/- 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04) following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 +/- 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03) with the 1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 +/- 0.14 to 8.4 +/- 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1), which increased further to 16.8 +/- 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002). These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Decreased luteinizing hormone pulse frequency is associated with elevated 24-hour ghrelin after calorie restriction and exercise in premenopausal women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane; Hill, Brenna R; Leidy, Heather J; Williams, Nancy I

    2013-01-01

    ...) pulsatility in Rhesus monkeys, rats, men, and recently women. We previously reported that 24-h ghrelin concentrations are elevated in women following a 3-mo exercise and diet program leading to weight loss...

  10. Randomized Double-Blind 2 × 2 Trial of Low-Dose Tamoxifen and Fenretinide for Breast Cancer Prevention in High-Risk Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decensi, Andrea; Robertson, Chris; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Mora, Serena; Gulisano, Marcella; Johansson, Harriet; Galimberti, Viviana; Cassano, Enrico; Moroni, Simona M.; Formelli, Franca; Lien, Ernst A.; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Johnson, Karen A.; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tamoxifen and fenretinide are active in reducing premenopausal breast cancer risk and work synergistically in preclinical models. The authors assessed their combination in a two-by-two biomarker trial. Patients and Methods A total of 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN, n = 160), or 5-year Gail risk ≥ 1.3% (n = 54) were randomly allocated to either tamoxifen 5 mg/d, fenretinide 200 mg/d, their combination, or placebo. We report data for plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), mammographic density, uterine effects, and breast neoplastic events after 5.5 years. Results During the 2-year intervention, tamoxifen significantly lowered IGF-I and mammographic density by 12% and 20%, respectively, fenretinide by 4% and 10% (not significantly), their combination by 20% and 22%, with no evidence for a synergistic interaction. Tamoxifen increased endometrial thickness principally in women becoming postmenopausal, whereas fenretinide decreased endometrial thickness significantly. The annual rate of breast neoplasms (n = 48) was 3.5% ± 1.0%, 2.1% ± 0.8%, 4.7% ± 1.3%, and 5.2% ± 1.3% in the tamoxifen, fenretinide, combination, and placebo arms, respectively, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.32 to 1.52), 0.38 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.90), and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.46 to 1.99) relative to placebo (tamoxifen × fenretinide adverse interaction P = .03). There was no clear association with tumor receptor type. Baseline IGF-I and mammographic density did not predict breast neoplastic events, nor did change in mammographic density. Conclusion Despite favorable effects on plasma IGF-I levels and mammographic density, the combination of low-dose tamoxifen plus fenretinide did not reduce breast neoplastic events compared to placebo, whereas both single agents, particularly fenretinide, showed numerical reduction in annual odds of breast neoplasms. Further follow-up is indicated. PMID:19597031

  11. Plasma Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Risk of Breast Cancer among Premenopausal Women%血浆性激素水平和绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞兰; 张海琛; 李国权; 徐晓颖; 邹丽娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of plasma sex steroid hormone levels with risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.Methods By use of case-control study,levels of plasma estradiol (E3),testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) were measured in 75 premenopausal women with breast cancer patients and 78 matched control subjects by radioimmunoassay during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles.Conditional logistic regression models,controlling for breast cancer risk factors,were used to examine their associations with breast cancer risk.All statistical tests were two-sided.Results (1)The plasma levcls of E2 and T of case group were significantly higher than those of control group.The plasrna level of P was lower than that of the control group,but the resuts as not statistically significant.(2)Increased risks of breast cancer were positively associated with elevated plasma concentration of testosterone(adjusted odds ratio[OR] for highest versus lowest quartile=3.63,95% confidence interval[95%CI] =1.82-7.45,Ptrend =0.015).Elevated serum progesterone concentrations was associated with a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer risk(adjusted OR =0.43,95%CI=0.20-0.85,Ptrend =0.023).Higher level of estradiol was associated with modest,non-statistically significant increase in risk of breast cancer(adjusted OR =2.48,95 % CI =1.27-5.14,Ptrend =0.270).Conclusion Results suggested that high plasma level of testosterone was positively associated with breast cancer risk,while high plasma level of progesterone was negatively associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.%目的 评价血浆类固醇性激素水平与绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系.方法 采用放射免疫法测定75例绝经前女性乳腺癌病例和78例匹配对照的血浆雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)及睾酮(T)水平,并应用条件Logistic回归分析绝经前女性血浆E2、P、T水平与患乳腺癌危险性的关系.结果 (1)病例组血浆E2

  12. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  13. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  14. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women LOS EFECTOS DE UN PROGRAMA DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA AERÓBICA SOBRE EL ESTADO DE ÁNIMO EN MUJERES PREMENOPÁUSICAS [The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

    La relación entre ejercicio físico y estado de ánimo es cada vez más importante en las investigaciones. La mayoría informa de los beneficios del ejercicio sobre la salud física, y no sobre el estado de ánimo. Este estudio pretende conocer los cambios que provoca un programa de actividad física aeróbica sobre el estado de ánimo en mujeres premenopáusicas. Participaron 20 mujeres premenopáusicas, separadas en 2 grupos: menores de 35 años (n=10 y mayores de 35 años (n=10. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a una valoración del estado de ánimo antes y al final del programa. El programa de intervención duró 5 meses, con una frecuencia de 3 sesiones por semana y una duración de 60 minutos por sesión. La intensidad del ejercicio fue del 60 - 70% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima de reserva. Los resultados indican mejoras en el vigor y en la angustia en mujeres

  15. Pectineal Ligament Hysteropexy for Uterine Prolapse in Premenopausal Women by Open and Laparoscopic Approach in Indian Urban and Rural Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vivek Madhusudan; Otiv, Suhas R; Dagade, Vasant B; Borse, Mahindra; Majumder, Rabin N; Shrivastava, Maneesha; Shelmohkar, Ravindra; Bijwe, Smita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate (a) the surgical outcomes of pectineal ligament hysteropexy (PLH) for uterine prolapse by laparotomy and (b) the feasibility and safety of the procedure by laparoscopic route. This is a retrospective consecutive case series of women who underwent PLH from January 1998 to December 2011. The prolapsed uterus was suspended with polyester tape to pectineal ligament on either side through a Cherney incision or laparoscopically at 3 urban and 3 rural hospitals in India. In 194 women who underwent PLH (176 open and 18 laparoscopic), there were no intraoperative complications. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 0.5-12 years) for open method and 1 year (range, 0.5-2 years) for laparoscopic approach. There were 46 births in 40 women after the procedure including 32 vaginal and 14 cesarean deliveries. Overall, 10 women (5.1%) had uterine prolapse recurrence; 7 of these occurred after vaginal delivery. One woman had tape erosion into the bladder because of pelvic tuberculosis. At follow-up, 12 women developed cystocele, and 7 women developed portio vaginalis elongation. There were no postoperative enteroceles. Overall reoperation rate was 14.9%. Laparoscopic PLH had minimal morbidity with no recurrence over 2 years. Open PLH for uterine prolapse may be safely performed and gives durable support to the prolapsed uterus with low recurrence risk.

  16. Efficacy of goserelin plus anastrozole in premenopausal women with advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue with tamoxifen: results of the JMTO BC08-01 phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Anan, Keisei; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Higaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Maki; Shibuta, Kenji; Sagara, Yasuaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tsuyuki, Shigeru; Mase, Takahiro; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety. Between September 2008 and November 2010, 37 patients were enrolled. Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had ER-positive tumors, and 36 (97.3%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative tumors. Thirty-six (97.3%) had measurable lesions and 1 (2.7%) had only bone metastasis. The ORR was 18.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.0-35.2%], the CBR was 62.2% (95% CI, 44.8-77.5%) and the median PFS was 7.3 months. Eight patients had adverse drug reactions but none resulted in discontinuation of treatment. GOS plus ANA is a safe effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, recurrent or advanced breast cancer. The treatment may become viable treatment in the future, particularly when TAM is ineffective or contraindicated. Further studies and discussion are warranted.

  17. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    . Design, Setting, and Subjects: In a population study, we included Danish women with new autoimmune overt hypothyroidism not diagnosed within the first year after a pregnancy (n = 117; median age 53.0 y) and age-andregion-matched euthyroid controls from the same population (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures......: In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...... births and induced abortions were major risk factors for the development of autoimmune overt hypothyroidism in women aged up to 55 years. The increased risk for hypothyroidism after giving birth extends longer than just to the 1-year postpartum period, and numbers of previous pregnancies should be taken...

  18. Estudo da atividade hormonal de mulheres tratadas com tamoxifeno no menacme A study of hormone activity in premenopausal tamoxifen-treated women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Roberto de M. Bernardes Jr

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do tamoxifeno nos níveis séricos de progesterona, estradiol, prolactina, hormônio luteinizante (LH, hormônio folículo-estimulante (FSH e da globulina transportadora dos hormônios sexuais (SHBG, quando administrado a mulheres no menacme, nas doses de 10 e 20 mg/dia por 22 dias. Métodos: Estudo aleatório e duplo-cego. Foram incluídas 43 mulheres pré-menopausadas e eumenorréicas. Foram distribuídas em 3 grupos: A (N = 15; placebo, B (N = 15; 10 mg/dia e C (N = 13; 20 mg/dia. Foram realizadas duas dosagens hormonais, sendo a primeira no 22º dia do ciclo menstrual que precedeu o uso da droga e a segunda após 22 dias de uso do medicamento. Utilizaram-se os testes de Levene e t-pareado para avaliar a homogeneidade da amostra e a variação das dosagens hormonais, respectivamente. Resultados: As concentrações séricas de estradiol, progesterona e SHBG aumentaram significantemente nos grupos B e C. No grupo C, observou-se ainda elevação no nível sérico de FSH (p Purpose: to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen (TAM on plasma levels of estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG when given to premenopausal women in the doses of 10 and 20 mg/day for 22 days. Patients and Methods: a randomized double-blind study was performed with 43 premenopausal eumenorrheic women. The patients were divided into three groups: A (N = 15, placebo; B (N = 15, TAM 10 mg/day and C (N = 13, 20 mg/day. They started taking an oral dose of TAM or placebo on the very first day of the menstrual cycle. Two hormone determinations were performed, both on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle: the first in the cycle that preceded the use of the drug and the second, in the following cycle, after 22 days of using the medication. We used the Levine and Student tests in order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample and the variation of the hormone

  19. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age, calcium, smoking, and physical activity on appendicular and axial bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a 2-y study of 200-300 healthy young women aged 20-39 y. There was no cross-sectional change of BMD with age or longitudinal change with bone loss. No effect of birth-control pills on BMD was seen. There also was no association of calcium intake with BMD and/or with BMD changes. Current calcium intake was not a significant influence on BMD in this age group. Daily activity had no effect on BMD and there was no apparent additive interaction of activity and calcium intake on BMD. Smokers had significantly lower spine BMD and a tendency for lower BMD at other sites. Body weight was a better predictor of BMD than was any other factor. There was no association of BMD or BMD changes with both urinary calcium and hydroxyproline normalized for creatinine.

  20. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  1. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  2. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  3. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6......% of the variance in sleeping energy expenditure was accounted for by plasma androstenedione concentration (4%, P = 0.0005) and by free T3 index (2%, P = 0.03). Thus physiological variation among individuals in plasma androstenedione concentration may result in a difference in energy expenditure of 908 k...

  4. Effects of lycopene on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in premenopausal breast cancer survivors and women at high familial breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Dorien W.; Vrieling, Alina; Korse, Catharina M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.; van Doorn, Jaap; Kaas, Reinie; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial to evaluate whether tomato-derived lycopene supplementation (30 mg/day for 2 mo) decreases se

  5. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  6. Sexual function in premenopausal women before and after renal transplantation%肾移植前后绝经期前成年女性性功能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立新; 夏仁飞; 周敏捷

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究绝经期前成年女性肾移植前、后的性功能改变.方法 42例成年已婚女性、透析治疗超过6个月、肾移植术后肾功能恢复正常超过6个月的女性肾移植受者纳入研究.统计肾移植前后月经周期情况、检验患者手术前后性激素水平.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)量表分别评估术前、术后患者的性功能.结果 肾移植前闭经、月经稀发、月经频发及月经正常的患者分别有18例(42.9%)、10例(23.8%)、5例(11.9%)、9例(21.4%),移植后分别为7例(16.7%)、5例(11.9%)、6例(14.3%)、24例(57.1%).肾移植后催乳素(PRL)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)及黄体生成素(LH)较肾移植术前明显降低,而雌二醇(E2)和孕酮(P)较术前升高(P<0.001).移植前19例(45.2%)、术后36例(85.7%)受者有性生活(P<0.001).肾移植前、后女性性功能障碍(FSD)的总发病率分别为90.5%、40.5%(P<0.001).肾移植前FSFI评分中性欲、性唤起、阴道润滑、性满意度、性高潮及性交痛领域的分值显著低于肾移植后(P<0.001).结论 肾移植术后肾功能恢复正常后成年女性受者的性功能能够明显改善.%Objective To study the changes in sexual function in premenopausal women after renal transplantation.Methods Forty-two married premenopausal women receiving dialysis therapy for at least 6 months with normal renal function for 6 months after renal transplantation were examined for hormonal profiles and menstrual cydes.The sexual functions of the patients were evaluated using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) before and 6 months after the transplantation.Results Before renal transplantation,amenorrhea,oligomenorrhea,polimenorrhea,and eumenorrhea were found in 18 cases (42.9%),10 cases (23.8%),5 cases (11.9%) and 9 cases (21.4%),as compared to 7 cases (16.7%),5 cases (11.9%),6 cases (14.3%) and 24 cases (57.1%) after the transplantation,respectively.Prolactin (PRL

  7. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 围绝经期妇女生殖激素水平与情绪障碍的相关性%Correlation between reproductive hormones and mood disorders of premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全华; 吴玲萍; 杨佩文; 杜晓东

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the correlation between reproductive hormones and mood disorders of premenopausal women.Methods:95 premenopausal patients from April 201 2 to February 201 4 in our hospital were selected.According to the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scale,patient’s mood was assessed.According to the results of the assessment,the patients were divided into control group,anxiety group,depression group and anxiety and depression group.Differences of estuarial (E2),luteinizing hormone (LH),progesterone (P),follicle stimu-lating hormone (FSH)and testosterone (T)of four groups were observed and compared.Results:The estuarial level of anxiety group was higher than that of depression group.The estuarial level of depression group was signifi-cantly lower than that of control group.The difference was statistically significant (P  关性(P<0.05)。结论:围绝经期妇女的生殖激素水平同情绪障碍密切相关,临床应给予足够重视。

  9. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  10. Older Women and the Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kathleen E.

    1988-01-01

    Trained 528 women in breast self-examination (BSE), provided behavioral management intervention for one year, and withdrew intervention for second-year follow-up. Results showed that women over age 50 did more BSEs during intervention year and were significantly more compliant during follow-up year than were younger women. (Author/NB)

  11. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  12. Effects of lifestyle exercise on premenopausal bone health: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Opeyemi; Forsyth, Jacky

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis, a slowly evolving public health epidemic, often with an insidious presentation is largely preventable but the optimal dimensions of exercise that may be prescribed for enhancing bone-health among premenopausal adults are yet to be elucidated. Hence, the escalating incidence and burden of prevalence of osteoporosis is yet unabated. Considering that exogenous hormones in the form of hormonal contraception are known to modulate bone mass, investigations of their possible influence on the translation of exercise-induced osteogenic stimuli on the mature bone is pertinent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of specified lifestyle exercise on bone-health of premenopausal women. Premenopausal women (n = 96, mean age: 22.25 ± 3.5 years; mean BMI: 23.43 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month randomised controlled trial involving home-based rest-interspersed bouts of high-impact exercise for the intervention group and sham exercise for the control group. Approximately half (47) of the participants (24-exercise, 23-control) were on hormonal-based contraception while the other half (49: 24-exercise, 25-control) were not on hormonal contraception. The regime led to a significant 3.7 % increase in broadband ultrasound attenuation of exercisers compared to controls; hormonal contraceptive use did not appear to potentiate the osteogenic effects of the lifestyle exercise regime. The research highlights that short, discrete bouts of high-impact exercise may be a potential public health prescription for enhancing premenopausal bone-health regardless of hormonal contraceptive use.

  13. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kiazand, Alexandre; Alhassan, Sofiya; Kim, Soowon; Stafford, Randall S; Balise, Raymond R; Kraemer, Helena C; King, Abby C

    2007-03-07

    Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately. To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables. Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up. Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing. Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (PZone, -1.6 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.4 kg), LEARN, -2.6 kg (-3.8 to -1.3 kg), and Ornish, -2.2 kg (-3.6 to -0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups. In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic

  14. The Folk-Linguistics of Women's Speech: An Empirical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Patricia Hayes

    1981-01-01

    Examines reactions to male and female discussants who express positions of dissent in small decision-making groups. Results indicate that both men and women were persuasive when they used well-supported arguments. The use of qualifiers (tag questions, disclaimers) only had an adverse affect, however, when used by women. (PD)

  15. Women leadership in Oxford House: examining their strengths and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret I; Dziekan, Marta M; Horin, Elizabeth V; Jason, Leonard A; Ferrari, Joseph R; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives and definition of leadership by women and mothers with children (n = 40) affiliated with Oxford Houses, a communal mutual-help recovery setting. Participants were asked questions relating to their experiences living in an Oxford House including the strengths and challenges encountered and how leadership impacted the stability in their house. Results illustrated the value of female leadership and highlighted the characteristics deemed important for women leaders in Oxford House, as well as some differences between these women's perception of leadership and the standard definition of leadership. The implications of the findings and how they may be useful to women's and mothers' with children houses are discussed.

  16. Expressão da proteína Bax no tecido mamário normal de mulheres no menacme tratadas com raloxifeno Expression of Bax protein in normal tissue of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Furtado-Veloso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a expressão do antígeno Bax no epitélio mamário normal de mulheres na pré-menopausa tratadas com raloxifeno. MÉTODOS: estudo randomizado duplo-cego, envolvendo 33 mulheres pré-menopáusicas com fibroadenoma. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: Placebo, (n=18 e Raloxifeno 60 mg, (n=15. A medicação foi usada durante 22 dias, começando no primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual. Uma biópsia foi realizada no 23º dia do ciclo menstrual, durante a qual uma amostra do tecido mamário normal adjacente ao fibroadenoma foi coletada e submetida a estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizando o anticorpo policlonal anti-Bax para avaliar a expressão da proteína Bax. A imunorreação para a proteína Bax foi avaliada, levando-se em consideração a intensidade e a fração de células coradas, cuja combinação resultou em um escore final de 0 a 6. Os casos com escore final >3 foram classificados como positivos para proteína Bax. O teste do c2 foi usado para análise estatística dos dados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the expression of Bax antigen in the normal mammary epithelium of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene. METHODS: a randomized double-blind study was conducted in 33 ovulatory premenopausal women with fibroadenoma. Patients were divided into two groups: Placebo, (n=18 and Raloxifene 60 mg, (n=15. The medication was used for 22 days, beginning on the first day of the menstrual cycle. An excisional biopsy was carried out on the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle and a sample of normal breast tissue adjacent to the fibroadenoma was collected and submitted to immunohistochemical study using anti-Bax polyclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of Bax protein. Immunoreaction for Bax was evaluated taking into consideration intensity and fraction of stained cells, whose combination resulted in a final score ranging from 0 to 6. Cases with a final score >3 were classified as positive for Bax. The c2 test was used for statistical

  17. Micronucleus formation, DNA damage and repair in premenopausal women chronically exposed to high level of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2010-03-29

    Genotoxicity of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been examined in 132 biomass users (median age 34 years) and 85 age-matched control women from eastern India who used the cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to cook. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was evaluated in buccal (BEC) and airway epithelial cells (AEC); DNA damage was examined by comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); and expressions of gamma-H2AX, Mre11 and Ku70 proteins were localized in AEC and PBL by immunocytochemistry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in blood were measured by spectrophotometry. Real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure particulate pollutants in indoor air. Compared with controls, biomass users had increased frequencies of micronucleated cells in BEC (3.5 vs. 1.7, pair, and MN frequency and comet tail % DNA were positively associated with these pollutants after controlling potential confounders. Thus, chronic exposure to biomass smoke causes chromosomal and DNA damage and upregulation of DNA repair mechanism.

  18. Determination of attitudes with gynecologic examination and anxiety of Turkish women before gynecologic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned with the purpose determination of attitudes with gynecologic examination and anxiety of Turkish women before gynecologic examination.Material & Methods: The sample of this descriptive and cross-sectional constituted by 240 women, applying for gynecologic examination in Gynecologic Policlinic of Ordu Maternity-Gynecologic and Child Hospital of who accepted to participate in the research. The data were collected with of a questionnarie form and State Anxiety Inventory. This study was made between the dates of 4 April- 30 May 2006. In the analysis of data, frequency, percentage, standart deviation, arithmetic mean, Kruskal wallis test, t test, ANOVA varience analysis, Mann –Whitney U test and Chi square test were used.Results: In the research, it was determined that the state axiety average point of women is 43.85±5,41. It was been that level anxiety of women before gynecologic examination was “middle level anxiety”. It was found that there is a significant between state anxiety inventory points according to the job and gynecologic examination experience of women order in the family with state anxiety (P=,000. Doctor’s knowledge and capability (63,8%, doctor’s knowledge giving (44,6% and doctor’s complaisant (41,7% were important in women’ doctor preferring for gynecologic examination. It was found that 37,5% of the women desired only doctor and 37,1% of the women desired their husband during gynecologic examination. It was determined that women felt uncomfortable because of nakedness genital organs of them (67,1% and negatif communication between doctor and women (39,6% in previously gynecologic examination. Women perceived feelings as embarrassment (62,5%, distress (38,8%, fear (37,9%, pain (21,7% during gynecologic examination. Expectations of women from health professionals during gynecologic examination were complaisant (45,0%, interest (28,3%, perceptiveness (24,2%.Conclusion: This study

  19. Laparoscopy and ultrasound examination in women with acute pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Felding, C

    1990-01-01

    The results of preoperative pelvic examination and eventual ultrasound examination were correlated with the laparoscopic findings in 316 women with acute pelvic pain. The predictive values of normal and abnormal findings at pelvic examination were 46.9 and 82.1%, respectively. 42.1% of the women...... had ultrasound examination performed. This investigation showed to be helpful especially in patients with normal findings at pelvic examination. If ultrasonic findings were abnormal the results at laparoscopy were also abnormal in 90%. On the contrary, normal findings at ultrasound examination did...... not exclude abnormal pelvic findings. The predictive value of normal results at ultrasound examination was 50.0%. This discrepancy between ultrasonic and pelvic findings can be explained by the size of the pelvic masses. Ultrasound examination is a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients with acute pelvic...

  20. [Depression-anxiety and disability in the premenopausal and postmenopausal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezircioğlu, Incim; Gülseren, Leyla; Oniz, Adile; Kindiroğlu, Neşe

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare levels of depression-anxiety and disability in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The study was carried out with women between 45-55 years of age, living in the service area of a Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center. Women who did not have a menstruation at least for one year were accepted as postmenopausal. The premenopausal group was consisted of women having menstruation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were applied to the women. Four hundred and ninety four women were recruited to the study. There were 214 women in the premenopausal period and 280 women in the postmenopausal period. In premenopausal women the level of education was higher and smoking was more prevalent; whereas in postmenopausal women the prevalence rates of being housewife and having continuous drug therapy due to chronic physical diseases were higher. In postmenopausal women, levels of depression and disability were significantly higher. In this group, the predictive factors for having a high HAD score were disability, education having a previous psychiatric disorder having drug therapy due to chronic physical diseases, diabetes mellitus, low level, menopause before the age of 40, not having any counselling for menopause, and not having routine laboratory tests. Having a previous psychiatric disorder and not having any counselling were also predicting disability. None of the variables predicted a high HAD score psychiatric disorder and not having any counselling were also predicting disability and disability in the premenopausal women. The postmenopausal period seems to predispose women to depressive symptoms and disability compared to the premenopausal period.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a Prototype Formulation of Sublingual Testosterone and a Buspirone Tablet, Versus an Advanced Combination Tablet of Testosterone and Buspirone in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, Kim; De Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a prototype formulation of sublingual testosterone and a buspirone tablet, versus an advanced combination tablet of testosterone and buspirone in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  3. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Wiklund

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a prototype formulation of sublingual testosterone and a buspirone tablet, versus an advanced combination tablet of testosterone and buspirone in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  5. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  6. Assessing the thickness of the vaginal wall and vaginal mucosa in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal women by transabdominal ultrasound: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balica, Adrian; Wald-Spielman, Daniella; Schertz, Katherine; Egan, Susan; Bachmann, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    As life expectancy increases, the number of women reporting adverse genito-urinary symptoms (genitourinary syndrome of menopause; GSM) from menopause, including vaginal dryness and sexual pain, also will increase. Current objective measurements of vaginal atrophy such as maturation index require vaginal swabs and are invasive; at present, no minimally invasive measurements exist. The purpose of this study was to assess whether total vaginal wall thickness (TVT) and total vaginal mucosa thickness (TMT) as measured by transabdominal ultrasound could qualify as additional objective markers of vaginal wall thinning which could be related to menopausal status. Women presenting for pelvic ultrasound had a transabdominal ultrasound scan performed to measure TVT and TMT at the level of the bladder trigone. In addition, a transvaginal endometrial lining thickness was measured. The ultrasound measurement data from 76 participants showed that there was a significant difference in the mean value for TVT and endometrial lining between pre- and post-menopausal women. The same difference in mean was not observed for TMT. TVT may be a reliable measure of vaginal thinning, which worsens with estrogen decline. These preliminary data also suggest that TMT does not have the same correlation as the TVT measurement. A larger sample is needed to further assess the usefulness and sensitivity of these measures and whether there is clinical and/or research usefulness in obtaining vaginal wall measurements by transabdominal ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of endurance training on the relationships between sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein A1 and physical fitness in pre-menopausal women with mild obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, S; Shono, N; Kondo, Y; Nishizumi, M

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with changes in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), physical fitness and spontaneous dietary intake before and after endurance training. Ten pre-menopausal obese women (32 to 49 years) who had never smoked or regularly drunk alcohol participated in this study. Physical training at an intensity of lactate threshold was performed for six months at a frequency of three times per week for 60 minutes using a cycle ergometer. Together with a reduction in body weight (-4.1 kg; P < 0.05) and with increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max = +3.4 ml/kg/min or +0.09 l/min; P < 0.05), the training induced some changes in both plasma lipid and lipoprotein. Although the total cholesterol (total-C), triglyceride, HDL2-C and apoprotein A1 (Apo A1) levels did not change, significant increases in HDL-C and HDL3-C, and significant reductions in Apo B, total-C/HDL-C ratio and fasting insulin concentrations were found after training. SHBG levels tended to increase after endurance training, but the changes were not significant. No alteration was observed in spontaneous dietary intake after training. A significant correlation (r = 0.648) was observed between the change in VO2 max(l/min) and the change in SHBG. In addition, changes in both VO2 max(l/min) and SHBG were significantly associated with changes in HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1. The changes in dietary intake did not correlate with the changes in SHBG, VO2max, HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Examining Nutritional Adequacy and Dietary Diversity Among Women in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Ishdorj, Ariun; McKyer, E L J; Mkuu, Rahma

    2017-01-19

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional adequacy and dietary composition among women residing in Zinder and Maradi of Niger, and the factors that affect the variety of their dietary intake. Methods Data from 3360 women of ages 15-49 were used in the analysis. The variable of interest was the Women Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), which is the simple sum of scores of the 9 categorized food groups, ranging from 0 to 9. Lower values for WDDS indicate nutritionally inadequate dietary diversity. Analysis included descriptive, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression. Results The majority of the participants were residing in the Maradi Region (56.7%) and were living in households with both male and female adults (94.9%). The mean WDDS was 3.5 in Zinder compared to 2.5 in Maradi (p food items in both Zinder and Maradi were starchy staple food (98.3%). Region of residence was one of the strong predictor of WDDS. A total number of farmers in the household and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) had positive and significant effects on WDDS whereas Household Hunger Scale (HHS) had a negative and significant effect on WDDS. Conclusion Niger has one of the highest concentrations of malnutrition in the world. In 2012, approximately 2.5 million Nigeriens were affected by malnutrition. Our study results reinforce the importance to conduct more studies that examine the nutritional intake of women in Niger.

  9. Status of trace elements and antioxidants in premenopausal and postmenopausal phase of life: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Sabah; Alhefdhi, Tayef; Aleem, Ansari M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the extent of free radical damage in the form of oxidative stress, the antioxidant status and correlate with trace element levels in postmenopausal females as compared to premenopausal females. Participants between the ages of 30-60 years were recruited for the study and status of antioxidant enzymes and trace metals level was determined. The serum Calcium (Ca) levels after menopause was higher than that of the premenopausal group (P0.05). In postmenopausal women, antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) significantly decreased (P<0.001) in postmenopausal women showing oxidative stress in the cells. Concentrations of vitamin-C pointed out a significant decrease (P<0.05) in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women.

  10. Bioequivalence studies of tibolone in premenopausal women and effects on expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzyme AKR1C (aldo-keto reductase) family caused by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon W; Kim, Yoon G

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of a test formulation of tibolone with the marketed reference formulation in 24 young healthy female volunteers. Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone for menopausal women. Volunteers were treated with the 2 formulations of tibolone (total dose of active ingredient 2.5 mg) according to a 2 x 2 crossover design with a 1-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxytibolone, which are major metabolites of tibolone, were assayed in timed samples over a 24-hour period with a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The reference and test formulations gave a mean 3alpha-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 5.0 and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively, and a mean 3beta-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 16.4 and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. The mean AUC(t) of 3alpha-hydroxytibolone was 24.7 and 24.3 ng h/mL, whereas the mean AUC(t) of 3beta-hydroxytibolone was 57.6 and 54.8 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The authors did not find significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the 2 formulations, but metabolite formation was different from reports in postmenopausal women. The authors therefore measured the effects of estradiol on the expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzymes, from the aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) family, using HepG2 cell (human hepatoma cells) and MCF-7 cell (human breast cancer cells). Estradiol increased mRNA levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C3 and protein levels of total AKR1C in HepG2 cells. Estradiol selectively enhanced levels of AKR1C2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Thus, changes in the major metabolites of tibolone might result from changes in AKR1C family expression by patient estrogen status.

  11. Practice of breast self-examination among women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Al-Jashamy, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the practice and associated factors of breast self- examination (BSE) among Malaysian women. For this cross-sectional study 250 women were selected by a simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire was consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about BSE, and practice of BSE. Obtained data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. T-test and ANOVA test were used to explore the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of BSE. About 32% of the participants reported that they have had family history of cancer and about 20% of the participants reported that they have had family history of breast cancer. The majority of the participants (88.8%) have heard about breast cancer and 78.4% of the participants have heard about BSE. Race, marital status, residency, regular exercise, awareness about breast cancer, belief that breast cancer can be detected early, belief that early detection improves the chance of survival, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, awareness about BSE, and belief that BSE is necessary, significantly influenced the practice of BSE among women. Practice of BSE on monthly basis was found to be 47.2% among the study participants. The socio-demographic characteristics significantly influence the practice of BSA among women in Malaysia. The findings of this study might not only influence the planning of specific screening interventions and strategies in Malaysia but might also be important for the relevant international communities, interested in the peculiarities of BSE incidence in different countries.

  12. Clinical manifestations of premenopausal women with coronary arterial disease%未绝经女性患者冠状动脉事件临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田然; 方全; 张抒扬; 田庄; 谢洪智; 刘震宇; 金晓峰; 王崇慧; 严晓伟; 朱文玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical characteristics among premenopansal women with coronary arterial disease(CAD)with or without atherosclerosis(AS)and postmenopausal women with CAD.Methods The clinical and coronary angiographic data,traditional risk factors(age,smoking,blood pressure,lipid profile,blood glucose,BMI,family history)were compared among premenopause(Pre-M,n=42)and post-menopause(Post-M,n=172)women with CAD as well as Pre-M patients with non-AS CAD(non-AS CAD,n=18).Results Compared with the Post-M patients with CAD,Pre-M CAD patients had significantly fewer traditional risk factors,such as hypertension,diabetes and hypercholesterolemia,significantly more acute coronary syndrome and fewer previous history of chest pain,significantly more single vessel lesion and lower Gessini score(all P0.05).Conclusions Pre-M CAD patients had less traditional risk factors and lower coronary lesion score compared to post-M CAD patients. Obesity is an independent risk factor for Pre-M CAD. Non-AS coronary artery disease is also an important reason for the development of coronary arterial events in premenopausal women.%目的 分析未绝经女性患者冠状动脉事件的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析1995-2007年间于北京协和医院接受诊治的未绝经女性冠心病患者47例,已绝经女性冠心病患者172例和未绝经非动脉粥样硬化性冠状动脉疾病女性患者(non-AS CAD组)18例的临床表现.结果 (1)与已绝经冠心病组比较:未绝经冠心病组的高血压、糖尿病、高脂血症的发生率较低(均P<0.01),既往发生胸痛较少(14.9%比82.6%,P<0.01),冠心病危险因素个数较少(1.04±0.98比2.21±0.10,P<0.01),急性冠状动脉综合征(ACS)较多(83.0%比48.8%,P<0.01);冠状动脉造影显示以单支病变为主(70.2%比29.1%,P<0.01),冠状动脉病变积分(Gensini评分)较低(10.5±7.2比56.5+27.0,P<0.01);logstic回归发现,肥胖是未绝经女性冠心病患者独立的危险因素(OR =3.655,95%CI:1.15~11.59,P

  13. Factors related to variation in premenopausal bone mineral status: a health promotion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, C; McColl, R S

    2000-01-01

    Bone loss prior to menopause may contribute to later risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Women may be able to optimize premenopausal bone mass and/or prevent losses. Heredity, and possibly age at menarche (retrospectively determined), are unmodifiable risk factors and attention should therefore be directed to more amenable factors. Amenorrhea, low body weight, disordered eating, and smoking are modifiable risk factors. Vitamin D is not a factor for premenopausal women who receive incidental sun exposure and consume fortified foods, but supplementation should be considered for others, especially during the winter months. Protective factors include a higher body weight (especially due to increased muscularity), calcium supplementation, and purposeful load-bearing exercise. Positive effects of oral contraceptives are most apparent in women with menstrual irregularities. Reproductive history (parity), lactation, moderate intakes of alcohol and caffeine, and the appropriate treatment of endometriosis have no apparent effect on premenopausal bone.

  14. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  15. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian

    2016-05-01

    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 未绝经女性与同年龄段男性冠心病患者临床特点及冠状动脉病变的对比分析%Clinical characterization of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women and age-matched men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱定君; 陈志强; 夏鸿莉; 李新花

    2011-01-01

    目的 雌激素对女性心血管有保护作用.文中旨在通过与同年龄男性冠心病患者比较,探讨未绝经女性冠心病患者的临床和冠状动脉病变特点.方法 选择120例在我院经冠状动脉造影确诊的未绝经女性冠心病患者为研究组,同期在我院经冠状动脉造影确诊的136例年龄匹配的男性冠心病患者为对照组.分别对其临床特点及冠状动脉病变的的特征进行比较.结果 未绝经女性组高脂血症、糖尿病比例显著高于对照组,吸烟史显著低于对照组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05);2组高血压、家族史比例无统计学差异(P>0.05).未绝经女性组临床表现以心绞痛为主,对照组以急性心肌梗死为主.2组均以单支病变为主,但病变支数无论是单支,还是双支及3支均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 未绝经女性冠心病患者危险因素相对较多,临床表现以心绞痛为主,急性心肌梗死较少.%Objective It is known that estrogen exerts multifaceted effects on the heart and blood vessels of females. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of premenopausal women with coronary heart disease ( CHD). Methods We included 120 premenopausal women with CHD in a study group and 136 age-matched men with CHD in a control group, and compared the coronary risk factors, clinical symptoms and angiographic characteristics between the two groups. Results Compared with the male controls, the premenopausal women had higher incidences of diabetes and dyslipidemia and a lower rate of smoking (P 0. 05). Angina was the main clinical manifestation in the premenopausal women, while acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was more prevalent among the male controls, and both were more likely to have single-vessel disease and less likely to have three-vessel disease. No significant differences were observed in the characteristics of their coronary lesions (P>0.05). Conclusion Premenopausal women with CHD have

  17. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N; McClain, Kathleen M; Jones, Michael E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Blot, William J; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A Heather; Giles, Graham G; Gram, Inger T; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kitahara, Cari M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A; Milne, Roger L; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R; Peeters, Petra H; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMIBMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  19. Endometrial polyp surveillance in premenopausal breast cancer patients using tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use that had undergone a gynecological examination. Results Among 120 patients, 44.2% (n=53) were asymptomatic with an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of the patients that reported abnormal uterine bleeding, 5% (n=6) had an endometrial thickness <5 mm and 20% (n=24) had an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. The final group of patients were asymptomatic, but showed an abnormal endometrial lesion, such as an endometrial polyp, by transvaginal ultrasonography (30.8%, n=37). Of the 56 benign lesions that were histologically reviewed, 50 (41.7%) were endometrial polyps, 3 (2.5%) were submucosal myomas, 2 (1.7%) were endometrial hyperplasias, and 1 (0.8%) was chronic endometritis. There were 64 (53.3%) other non-pathologic conditions, including secreting, proliferative, and atrophic endometrium, or in some cases, there was insufficient material for diagnosis. In our data, only one case was reported as a complex hyperplasia without atypia arising from an endometrial polyp, and one patient was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use, the majority of the patients were asymptomatic, and endometrial polyps were the most common endometrial pathology observed. Therefore, we believe that endometrial assessment before starting TMX treatment, and regular endometrial screening throughout TMX treatment, are reasonable suggestions for premenopausal breast cancer patients. PMID:28217668

  20. Analysis of plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels in premenopausal women with breast cancer Análisis de los niveles de zinc en plasma y eritrocitos en mujeres premenopáusicas con cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Tinoco-Veras

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc deficiency has been associated with damage and oxidative changes in DNA that may increase an individual's risk of cancer. Furthermore, zinc metabolism may be affected in cancer patients, leading to alterations in its distribution that would favor carcinogenesis. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels in women with breast cancer were evaluated in this cross-sectional, controlled study. Material and methods: Fifty-five premenopausal women of 25 to 49 years of age with and without breast cancer were divided into two groups: Group A, composed of women without breast cancer (controls, n = 26 and Group B, composed of women with breast cancer (cases, n = 29. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry at γ = 213.9 nm. Diet was assessed using the 3-day diet recall method and analyzed using the NutWin software program, version 1.5. Student's t-test was used to compare means and significance was established at p = 0.05. Results: Mean plasma zinc levels were 69.69 ± 9.00 g/dL in the breast cancer patients and 65.93 ± 12.44 g/dL in the controls (p = 0.201. Mean erythrocyte zinc level was 41.86 ± 8.28 μgZn/gHb in the cases and 47.93 ± 7.00 μgZn/gHb in the controls (p Introducción: La deficiencia de zinc se relacionada con daños y modificaciones oxidativas del DNA, lo que puede favorecer el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, en pacientes con cáncer, puede haber alteraciones en el metabolismo del zinc con alteración en su distribución, favoreciendo la cancinogénesis. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas y eritrocitarias de zinc en mujeres con cáncer de mama. Material y métodos: estudio de naturaleza transversal, del tipo caso y control llevado a cabo en 55 mujeres pre-menospáusicas con y sin cáncer de mama con un rango de edades situado entre 25 y 49 años. Las pacientes fueron distribuidas en dos grupos: Grupo A, sin cáncer de mama

  1. [The secretion of the main ovarian steroids during bleeding in the premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E; Kŭnchev, L; Stankov, B

    1989-01-01

    The authors study the secretion of the basic ovarian steroids (estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) during dysfunctional bleedings in 46 women at the premenopausal phase of climacteric (mean age of 47.02 years). The results show that the premenopausal bleeding occurs on the background of manifested hypoestradiolemia (2.5 times lower than that at the early follicular phase), hypoprogesteronemia (relatively higher that at the early follicular early follicular phase) and relatively high testosteronemia. Determination of the hormones during three successive days show lack of definite dynamics in the secretion of these ovarian steroids. Considerable individual differences are described.

  2. Practicing breast self-examination among women attending primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saadoon F. Al-Azmy

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Received 5 June 2012; accepted 29 August 2012 ... tors that could affect its performance and explore women's awareness about its practice steps. Methods: ... Mobile: +965 66612524. ... of all ages, and to make women familiar with both the appear- ... Table 1 presents personal, menstrual and child bearing.

  3. Perceptions of Mentoring: Examining the Experiences of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Scarlett M.; Calhoun, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive mixed methods study gathered both quantitative and qualitative data on the mentoring experiences of women superintendents in a Southeastern state. The quantitative participants included 39 women superintendents from this state and the qualitative portion of the study was comprised of eight female superintendents purposefully…

  4. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  5. [Single-hormone prophylaxis of uterine hemorrhages in the premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E

    1989-01-01

    Single-hormone prophylaxis with gestagen (Primolut nor) was carried out on 62 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopause of climacteric at mean age of 46.8 years. A ten-day scheme with application of 5 mg of gestagen daily from 16 to 25 day of the cycle for a period of 6 months was used. The treatment provided stable clinical characteristic of the successive pseudomenstrual cycles could continue for a considerable time practically till disappearance of pseudo-menstruation and transition of the woman in postmenopause. Primolut nor was a convenient drug also in women under continuous anticoagulant treatment. However it was effective and could not be used for treatment of accompanied climacteric symptoms.

  6. Breast Self-Examination among Chinese Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wang, Caroline C.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly among the fast-growing demographic group of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). In this study, the authors assessed the awareness of breast self-exam (BSE) and factors predicting practice of BSE among Chinese immigrant women living in San Francisco. Three hundred and ninety-seven women…

  7. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Pdiet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Pdiet composition on weight loss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Women's Advancement in Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdo, Linda M.; Dickson, Marcus W.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed female middle managers from organizations in three industries, examining the relationship between organizational culture and women's advancement to management. Results indicated that aspects of organizational culture typically associated with women related to women's progress. Organizational culture practices related to gender equity were…

  9. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: A study of 498 urban women from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Results: Prevalence of MS amongst postmenopausal women was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that in premenopausal women by both, IDF (premenopausal 45% and postmenopausal 55% and H_MS criteria (premenopausal 44% and postmenopausal 56%. However, this significance disappeared when data was adjusted for the confounding variable of age.

  10. Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Perspectives about Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Holden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample.  Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted.  Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW.  Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW.  These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.  

  11. Medical and psychological examination of women seeking asylum: documentation of human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A; Patsalides, B

    1997-01-01

    Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.

  12. Osteoporosis and prevention. Assessment of mineral density, geometry and biomechanics of bone by means of peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) in premenopausal women assuming phytoestrogens; Osteoporosi e fitoestrogeni: valutazione della densita' minerale ossea mediante tomografia computerizzata quantitativa periferica nelle donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, C.; Tarolo, G.L.; Bestetti, A.; Tagliabue, L.; Del Sole, A.; Alberti, G. [Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Cestaro, B. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Cattedra e Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Nucleare; Pepe, L. [ACN-L' Accessorio Nucleare, Cerro Maggiore, MI (Italy). Lab. Nucleari

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the work was to describe the noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biochemical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with Mediterranean dietary intake lacking in these substances. Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius of the non dominant forearm. pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di studiare in modo non-invasivo la densita' minerale, le caratteristiche geometriche e biomeccaniche dell'osso in donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa che assumevano con la dieta fitoestrogeni e confrontare questi dati con quelli di donne anch'esse in premenopausa, con dieta di tipo mediterraneo assolutamente priva di questi elementi con azione simil-ormonale. La densita' minerale, le proprieta' geometriche meccaniche dell'osso sono state valutate a livello del radio ultradistale non dominante mediante tomografia computerizzata (TC) quantitativa periferica, che nelle donne in premenopausa con dieta ricca di fitoestrogeni ha evidenziato valori della densita' minerale ossea totale, trabecolare e di resistenza ossea piu' elevati, anche se in modo non significativo, rispetto a quelli dei controlli con dieta mediterranea. Questi risultati preliminari suggerirebbero come l'assunzione quotidiana di fitoestrogeni

  13. Effect of hormone therapy on exercise capacity in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Saiu, Francesca; Deidda, Martino; Mercuro, Silvia; Vitale, Cristiana; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2007-10-01

    To compare the exercise capacity of postmenopausal women with matched premenopausal controls, as well as postmenopausal women before and after 3 months of hormone therapy (HT). This study examined the response to strenuous isotonic exercise in 30 women with recently developed menopause (age, mean+/-standard deviation, 50.6+/-1.1 years) without cardiovascular risk factors or diseases. Thirty premenopausal subjects, matched one-to-one for age and biophysical characteristics, were the control group. Postmenopausal women underwent examination before (T(0)) and 3 months after (T(1)) HT (oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day) with high-resolution ultrasound determination of peripheral flow-mediated vasodilation and an integrative cardiopulmonary test. Postmenopausal women showed an impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation (Pexercise intolerance, and there are benefits in introducing HT.

  14. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  15. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: primary or secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Description of a clinical case of avitaminosis D in premenopausal woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been described in obese individuals and in some autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS). In particular, more than 50% of premenopausal women with pAPS have hypovitaminosis D. In this issue we report a case of an obese, premenopausal, and hypertensive woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome, affected by deep venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism after rib fracture who presented hypovitamino...

  16. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-level managerial positions.

  17. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  18. Examining Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Differentiation in African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…

  19. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and serum total adiponectin concentrations. Relationships between variables were assessed using Student's t-tests, Pearson's and Spearman's Rho correlations, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hispanic women had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than NHW women, even after controlling for body fat (%) (P women combined and for NHW women (P ≤ 0.04), but not for Hispanic women. Insulin resistance was inversely related to adiponectin for all women and for NHW women (P women. Adiponectin concentration was not significantly associated with number of CVD risk factors for these women. While adiponectin was associated with markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance for all women of this study and despite lower adiponectin concentrations for Hispanic women than NHW women, the role of adiponectin to these conditions among Hispanics remains unclear. There was no significant association between adiponectin and CVD risk for these women. Future research should focus on understanding mechanisms for up-regulating adiponectin secretion and if ethnicity affects adiponectin gene expression and secretion given the beneficial effects derived from elevated adiponectin levels.

  20. Body Esteem and Self-examination in British Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Dewhurst, Anne M

    2013-06-01

    Breast and testicular cancers affect a substantial and increasing proportion of the global population. Self-examination encourages early detection and treatment of these cancers, which positively impacts on patient quality of life and survival. The present study investigated the role of body esteem in breast and testicular self-examination. Men (N = 60) and women (N = 90) recruited from a British University completed the body esteem scale and either the testicular self-examination or breast self-examination questionnaire. Logistic regression models revealed that body esteem predicted women's intention to engage in breast self-examination. Women with higher levels of sexual attractiveness and those with lower levels of weight concern were more likely to report that they would regularly self-examine in the future. Body esteem did not however, distinguish between those women that did or did not currently self-examine or predict men's current or intended testicular self-examination. The findings have implications for the promotion of self-examination and highlight an emerging area of preventive health research.

  1. Examining trends in family planning among harder-to-reach women in Senegal 1992–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Francesca L.; Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Faye, Adama; Lynch, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent increases in family planning (FP) use have been reported among women of reproductive age in union (WRAU) in Senegal. However, trends have not been monitored among harder-to-reach groups (including adolescents, unmarried and rural poor women), key to understanding whether FP progress is equitable. We combined data from six Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Senegal between 1992/93 and 2014. We examined FP trends over time among WRAU and subgroups, and trends in knowledge of FP and intention to use among women with unmet need for FP. Our results show that percent demand satisfied is lower among rural poor women and adolescents than WRAU, although higher among unmarried women. Marked recent increases have been observed in all subgroups, however fewer than 50% of women in need of FP use modern contraception in Senegal. Knowledge of FP has risen steadily among women with unmet need; however, intention to use FP has remained stable at around 40% since 2005 for all groups except unmarried women (75% of whom intend to use). Significant progress in meeting the need for FP has been achieved in Senegal, but more needs to be done particularly to improve acceptability of FP, and to strategically target interventions toward adolescents and rural poor women. PMID:28106100

  2. CLITORAL ANATOMY IN NULLIPAROUS, HEALTHY, PREMENOPAUSAL VOLUNTEERS USING UNENHANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’CONNELL, HELEN E.; DeLANCEY, JOHN O. L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose We determined the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of normal clitoral anatomy. Materials and Methods A series of MRI studies of 10 healthy, nulliparous volunteers with no prior surgery and normal pelvic examination was studied and the key characteristics of clitoral anatomy were determined. A range of different magnetic resonance sequences was used without any contrast agent. Results The axial plane best revealed the clitoral body and its proximal continuation as the paired crura. The glans was seen more caudal than the body of the clitoris. The bulbs of the clitoris had the same signal as the rest of the clitoris in the axial plane and they related consistently to the other erectile structures. The bulbs, body and crura formed an erectile tissue cluster, namely the clitoris. In turn, the clitoris partially surrounded the urethra and vagina, forming a consistently observed tissue complex. Midline sagittal section revealed the shape of the body, although in this plane the rest of the clitoris was poorly displayed. The coronal plane revealed the relationship between the clitoral body and labia. The axial section cephalad to the clitoral body best revealed the vascular component of the neurovascular bundle to the clitoris. The fat saturation sequence particularly highlighted clitoral anatomy in healthy, premenopausal, nulliparous women. Conclusions Normal clitoral anatomy has been clearly demonstrated using noncontrast pelvic MRI. PMID:15879834

  3. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  4. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  5. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  6. Birth size in the most recent pregnancy and maternal mortality in premenopausal breast cancer by tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ahlgren, Johan; Adolfsson, Jan; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between measures of offspring size at birth in the most recent pregnancy before premenopausal breast cancer diagnosis and the risks of maternal breast cancer mortality, taking tumor characteristics into account. We also aimed to investigate if these associations are modified by age at childbirth, time since childbirth, parity, and age at diagnosis. We followed 6,019 women from their date of premenopausal breast cancer (diagnosed from 1992 to 2008) until emigration, death or December 31st, 2009, whichever occurred first. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for parity, age at diagnosis, and education level, to estimate associations between women pregnancy, cancer characteristics and offspring birth characteristics, and mothers' mortality risk. In stratified analyses, mortality risks were estimated by tumor stage, ER or PR status. There was no association between offspring birth weight (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.99-1.01, when used as a continuous variable), birth weight for gestational age or ponderal index, and premenopausal breast cancer mortality. Similarly, in analyses stratified by tumor stage, receptor status, and time difference between last pregnancy and date of diagnosis, we found no associations between birth size and breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that "premenopausal breast cancer mortality is associated with offspring birth characteristics in the most recent pregnancy before the diagnosis" may not be valid. In addition, these associations are not modified by tumor characteristics.

  7. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  8. Transvaginal ultrasound examination of women with and without pelvic venous congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve; Campbell, Deidre; Bartram, Clive I.; Rogers, Vera; El-Haddad, Cadria; Patel, Sujata; Beard, Richard W

    2000-12-01

    AIM: To determine if transvaginal ultrasound, including power Doppler examination, can distinguish between women with and without pelvic congestion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six women with pelvic congestion were prospectively examined using transvaginal ultrasonography and standard uterine and ovarian measurements made. Additionally, planimetric measurements of each ovary were taken using an image analysis program to determine the cross-sectional area of ovarian stroma and follicles, if any. Power Doppler images of adnexal vessels were obtained and planimetric estimates of surface area calculated. A congestion score was assigned to each patient, based on vein number, diameter and morphology on grey-scale scanning. Identical measurements were obtained from 19 asymptomatic women and results compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between women with pelvic congestion and controls with respect to power Doppler or grey-scale images of adnexal vessels, or congestion score. However, women with pelvic congestion had significantly larger and multicystic ovaries when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal ultrasound measurements of adnexal vasculature, including power Doppler measurements, cannot reliably distinguish women with pelvic congestion from controls. However, ultrasound may remain useful for diagnosis of pelvic congestion, predominantly because it is able to visualize multi-cystic ovaries in these patients. Halligan, S. (2000).Clinical Radiology 55 , 954-958.

  9. Examining the Personal Nature of the K-14 Engineering Pipeline for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Jennifer Sue

    This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.

  10. Role of the chosen general practitioner in educating women on the importance of regular gynecological examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Zlatka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since regular screening is the best way of preventing the development of cervical cancer, the objective has been set to assess the motivation of women to have regular gynecological examinations and to estimate the role of the chosen general practitioner. Material and Methods. The survey was performed on the basis of the prospective study done at the Health Centre ”Novi Sad” in 2009 during the systematic regular examinations carried out by general practitioners. Results. It was found that 60.8% of the examined women had regular checkups; 21.5% visited their doctor once in the period of two to five years and 4.9% had undergone the examination in a period > 10 years, whereas 1.9 women had never had an examination. Other examinees had occasional check-ups with various time laps between them. Discussion. The reasons for not visiting a gynecologist were fear of the examination, absence of discomforts and lack of time. However, 87.2% of the examinees visited a gynecologist after they had been advised to do so by their general practitioner. Gynecological finding was good in 87.6% of the women, 3.4% were found to have carcinoma and 8.9% had some other abnormal finding. Conclusion. According to the obtained results, it has been concluded that the chosen general practitioner has a very important role in motivating women to have regular gynecological examinations and in educating them on the risk factors for developing malignant diseases and on the possible prevention.

  11. Factors associated with breast self-examination among Malaysian women teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, P; Kandiah, M; Parsa, N

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to breast self-examination (BSE) among teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 425 female teachers in 20 randomly selected secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief model was randomly selected secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief model was used, including sociodemographic background and knowledge, beliefs and practices about breast cancer and BSE. Only 19% of the women performed BSE on a regular basis. Higher knowledge about breast cancer, greater confidence in performing BSE and regular visits to a physician were significant predictors for practising BSE. To promote BSE practice among Malaysian women, tailored health education and health promotion programmes should be developed based on a specific understanding of women's health beliefs.

  12. Examining the effects of remote-video confederates on young women's food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Salvy, S.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    One's decisions about eating are at times, largely based on the observations of other people's eating behavior. Previous studies have shown that modeling of eating is a robust effect. The current research examined the impact of a video remote confederate on young women's food intake. Experiment 1 ex

  13. Examining the Experiences, Perceptions, and Challenges of Women Leaders in Private, Nonprofit Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Barbara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to interview women presidents and leaders in private, nonprofit universities regarding commonalities of perceptions and experiences in the leadership role, to examine the meaning of reactive behavior in the perceptions about their role, how they react or behave in their role, and if they perceived gender…

  14. Examining the Impact of Federal Grants to Reduce Violent Crimes against Women on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E.; Alda, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault on college campuses is persistently underreported; therefore, Clery Act sexual assault statistics are not strong indicators of incidence. Instead, they may indicate whether students feel comfortable reporting on a particular campus. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Office on Violence Against Women Campus…

  15. Examining the Experiences, Perceptions, and Challenges of Women Leaders in Private, Nonprofit Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Barbara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to interview women presidents and leaders in private, nonprofit universities regarding commonalities of perceptions and experiences in the leadership role, to examine the meaning of reactive behavior in the perceptions about their role, how they react or behave in their role, and if they perceived gender…

  16. Cohesion and Trauma: An Examination of a Collegiate Women's Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa B.; Meyer, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Adventure Based Counseling (i.e., a low-element challenge program) on the cohesion of a collegiate women's volleyball team. Results suggest postintervention improvements in team cohesion. The support created in the challenge experience also transferred to the players helping one another to grieve the untimely…

  17. Examining the Mentoring Relationships of Women Working in Intercollegiate Athletic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Glenna G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mentoring relationships of women working within intercollegiate athletic administration. More specifically, the mentor characteristics and the career and psychosocial benefits of having a mentor in intercollegiate athletic administration were the focus of the study. The population for this study was all…

  18. Cohesion and Trauma: An Examination of a Collegiate Women's Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa B.; Meyer, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Adventure Based Counseling (i.e., a low-element challenge program) on the cohesion of a collegiate women's volleyball team. Results suggest postintervention improvements in team cohesion. The support created in the challenge experience also transferred to the players helping one another to grieve the untimely…

  19. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  20. 绝经前超重女性躯干脂肪或下肢瘦组织与代谢综合征关联性分析%Relationship between change of trunk fat/lean muscle and metabolic syndrome or its component in overweight premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永泽; 张雅萍; 沈喜妹; 卢娟娟; 黄凌宁; 杨立勇; 张松菁; 严孙杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between trunk fat/lean tissue and metabolic syndrome in over weight or obese premenopausal women.Methods 136 premenopausal overweight or obese women (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2) was enrolled from our outpatients from January 2006 to December 2012.Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure fat,muscle mass,and calculated trunk fat content (% TF),leg muscle content (% LM),and trunk/leg muscle ratio (TMR).Then they were divided into 4 groups,according to quartile of % TF,% LM,TMR.Metabolic syndrome was in the diagnosis of criteria as Chinese Diabetes Society recommended.The relevance ratio of hypertension,hyperglycemia,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome were compared by chi-square test,trends analyzed by the chi-square test for linear trend and the influence that they have on metabolic syndrome were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Spearman rank correlation was used in evaluating of the relationship.Results (1) the detection rate of hypertension increases with % TF (x2total =9.042,x2trend =6.147 ; P < 0.05) ; with the increasing of TMR,the detection rate of hypertension and dyslipidemia and 3 metabolic disorder components were increasing gradually (x2total =8.628,9.890,9.589; x2trend =7.556,9.017,6.445; P < 0.05 all above).And all of them make no difference with increasing of % LM (P > 0.05 all above).(2) The results of logistic regression analysis showed that both % TF and TMR entered the regression equation for hypertension,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome,and TMR also entered the regression equation for hyperglycemia.(3) Hypertension,dyslipidemia,hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome were all positively correlated with TMR (r =0.218,0.218,0.209,0.204,P < 0.05 all above).% LM was not correlated with all of them (P > 0.05).Hypertension,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome were all positively correlated with % TF (r =0.174,0.171,0.175,P < 0.05 all above).Conclusion Abnormal

  1. Awareness and practice of breast self examination among malaysian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Siew Yim; Chew, S L

    2011-01-01

    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.

  2. Performance of First Mammography Examination in Women Younger Than 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Kapp, Julie M.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Geller, Berta; Buist, Diana S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Few data have been published on mammography performance in women who are younger than 40 years. Methods We pooled data from six mammography registries across the United States from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We included 117 738 women who were aged 18–39 years when they had their first screening or diagnostic mammogram during 1995–2005 and followed them for 1 year to determine accuracy of mammography assessment. We measured the recall rate for screening examinations and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and cancer detection rate for all mammograms. Results For screening mammograms, no cancers were detected in 637 mammograms for women aged 18–24 years. For women aged 35–39 years who had the largest number of screening mammograms (n = 73 335) in this study, the recall rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.4% to 12.9%), sensitivity was 76.1% (95% CI = 69.2% to 82.6%), specificity was 87.5% (95% CI = 87.2% to 87.7%), positive predictive value was 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1% to 1.5%), and cancer detection rate was 1.6 cancers per 1000 mammograms (95% CI = 1.3 to 1.9 cancers per 1000 mammograms). Most (67 468 [77.7%]) of the 86 871 women screened reported no family history of breast cancer. For diagnostic mammograms, the age-adjusted rates across all age groups were: sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI = 82.7% to 88.7%), specificity of 88.8% (95% CI = 88.4% to 89.1%), positive predictive value of 14.6% (95% CI = 13.3% to 15.8%), and cancer detection rate of 14.3 cancers per 1000 mammograms (95% CI = 13.0 to 15.7 cancers per 1000 mammograms). Mammography performance, except for specificity, improved in the presence of a breast lump. Conclusions Younger women have very low breast cancer rates but after mammography experience high recall rates, high rates of additional imaging, and low cancer detection rates. We found no cancers in women younger than 25 years and poor performance for the large group of women aged

  3. Pap, Mammography, and Clinical Breast Examination Screening Among Women with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Elena M.; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.; Krahn, Gloria L.; Walsh, Emily S.; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Iezzoni, Lisa I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has found some disparities between U.S. women with and without disabilities in receiving clinical preventive services. Substantial differences may also exist within the population of women with disabilities. The current study examined published research on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examinations across disability severity levels among women with disabilities. Methods: Informed by an expert panel, we followed guidelines for systematic literature reviews and searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases. We also reviewed in-depth four disability- or preventive service-relevant journals. Two reviewers independently extracted data from all selected articles. Findings Five of 74 reviewed publications of met all our inclusion criteria and all five reported data on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examination. Articles classified disability severity groups by functional and/or activity levels. Associations between disability severity and Pap smear use were inconsistent across the publications. Mammography screening fell as disability level increased according to three of the five studies. Results demonstrated modestly lower screening, but also were inconsistent for clinical breast examinations across studies. Conclusion Evidence is inconsistent concerning disparities in these important cancer screening services with increasing disability levels. Published studies used differing methods and definitions, adding to concerns about the evidence for screening disparities rising along with increasing disability. More focused research is required to determine whether significant disparities exist in cancer screening among women with differing disability levels. This information is essential for national and local public health and health care organizations to target interventions to improve care for women with disabilities. PMID:23816150

  4. INFLUENCE OF MENOPAUSE ON BLOOD PRESSURE DIPPING IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study if menopause influences the blood pressure (BP decrease level during nighttime in women with metabolic syndrome.Methods. 84 women with metabolic syndrome are examined, from them 52 are in postmenopause (average age is 56 [SD 5] years and 32 are in premenopause (average age is 44 [5] years. Anthropomorphic measurements were made, levels of office BP and heart rate were assessed, ambulatory BP monitoring was carried out, lipids and glucose of blood serum were studied.Results. Clinical parameters, characterizing metabolic syndrome, didn’t vary between the groups. Number of patients with insufficient decrease of BP in postmenopausal women didn’t differ significantly from the number of such women in premenopausal period (for systolic BP: 64% versus 52%, p=0,288; for diastolic BP: 34% versus 42%, p=0,469. Nevertheless, when evaluating the level of systolic BP decrease during nighttime as continuous variable, significant differences between groups are revealed (M±SEM [95% CI]: 4.4±1.5% [1.4-7.3] in postmenopausal women versus 11.3±1.7% [7.9-14.8] in premenopausal women, p=0,011.Conclusion. Postmenopause associates with insufficient systolic BP decrease during nighttime in women with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Breast self-examination practices in Nigerian women attending a tertiary outpatient clinic

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    A M Ogunbode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The morbidity and mortality caused by breast cancer can be decreased by early detection with breast self-examination (BSE. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the factors determining the practice of BSE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 140 women aged above 18 years who presented consecutively in a General Outpatient's clinic in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. This was the baseline study from an intervention study which looked at the effect of demonstration of BSE on improving Clinical Breast Examination (CBE among two groups of respondents. Structured questionnaires were validated and administered by an interviewer and the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. RESULTS: The overall self-reported prevalence of BSE practice was 62.1% among the respondents. Older women (16, 76.2%, married women (63, 65.6% and women with tertiary education (51, 68.9% had the highest prevalence of BSE practice. Prevalence rate was highest for civil servant (25, 78.1%, P = 0.04. The practice of BSE was higher among women with a previous history of breast disease (15, 68.2% and in respondents with a family history of breast disease (7, 63.6%, Only 11 (12.6% performed BSE as per guidelines, which was once in a month. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BSE was found to be high, especially in those with tertiary education and in those with a past personal or family history of breast disease. In resource-constrained countries, BSE is a screening tool that can be employed to help reduce the breast cancer burden because routine mammography screening is not yet feasible. Women need to be informed about the when and how to perform BSE.

  6. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chiun-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  7. Visualising uncertainty: Examining women's views on the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kate; Kochetkova, Inna; Whitby, Elspeth

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal screening occupies a prominent role within sociological debates on medical uncertainty. A particular issue concerns the limitations of routine screening which tends to be based on risk prediction. Computer assisted visual technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now starting to be applied to the prenatal realm to assist in the diagnosis of a range of fetal and maternal disorders (from problems with the fetal brain to the placenta). MRI is often perceived in popular and medical discourse as a technology of certainty and truth. However, little is known about the use of MRI as a tool to confirm or refute the diagnosis of a range of disorders in pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research with pregnant women attending a fetal medicine clinic in the North of England this paper examines the potential role that MRI can play in mediating pregnancy uncertainty. The paper will argue that MRI can create and manage women's feelings of uncertainty during pregnancy. However, while MRI may not always provide women with unequivocal answers, the detailed information provided by MR images combined with the interpretation and communication skills of the radiologist in many ways enables women to navigate the issue. Our analysis of empirical data therefore highlights the value of this novel technological application for women and their partners. It also seeks to stress the merit of taking a productive approach to the study of diagnostic uncertainty, an approach which recognises the concepts dual nature.

  8. [Knowledge and practices of women in Iraqi universities on breast self examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N; Al Attar, W; Eliessa, R; Al-Madfaie, Z; Nedal, F

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), among a sample of educated Iraqi women. The study sample comprised 858 women aged 18-62 years affiliated to 6 major Iraqi universities, categorized according to occupation as teaching staff (11.5%), administrative staff (18.0%) and students (70.5%). Data were collected by a self-completed questionnaire. In all, 93.9% of the women had heard about BSE, the main source of information was television (39.9%), doctors (18.4%) and the awareness campaign of the Iraqi National Breast Cancer Research Programme (11.6%). Only 53.9% of the women practised BSE; the most common excuses by those that did not were lack of knowledge of the significance of BSE (42.0%) and lack of confidence in their ability to perform BSE (39.5%). Just over 38% did not seek medical advice if they experienced signs/symptoms of breast disease, attributing that to reasons of timidity, lack of time or fear of discovering cancer. The majority (88%) of the women were willing to instruct others in BSE (aftertraining), 40% of whom were interested in collaborating with the National Breast Cancer Awareness Programme in Iraq.

  9. Investigating the medical forensic examination from the perspectives of sexually assaulted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J

    2009-02-01

    Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the

  10. Unemployment among Women: Examining the Relationship of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P.; Smith, Mark W.; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of…

  11. Unemployment among Women: Examining the Relationship of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P.; Smith, Mark W.; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of…

  12. Women's Sexual Harassment at Workplace:Application of GT in examining Women's feeling of Insecurity at Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Maktoobian; Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction long time has gone since women entered the workplace; and instead of discussing whether or not women should enter workplace, we must now investigate women's experiences, troubles and problems...

  13. Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Mary Atanga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE; 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83% having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17% of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE.

  14. Performance of women candidates on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination, 1973-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, J J; Fletcher, S W; Quimby, B B; Shea, J A

    1985-01-01

    Trends in the performances of female and male candidates taking the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination from 1973 through 1982 were examined. The mean scores of female candidates who graduated from medical schools in the United States or Canada and who were taking the examination for the first time improved from 428 to 470, and the percentage of those passing improved from 59% to 76%. The number of women taking the examination also increased markedly, by over 500%. Performance of female candidates remained slightly lower than that of male candidates, regardless of the quality of the residency training program or the medical school from which a candidate had graduated or the rating given a candidate by the director of the candidate's residency program. Except for the oldest candidates, age followed this pattern as well. Our findings suggest that the gender gap in scores on the Certifying Examination in Internal Medicine is narrowing.

  15. Overweight, obesity and risk of premenopausal breast cancer according to ethnicity: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, A; Ferrari, P; Muwonge, R; Moskal, A; Biessy, C; Romieu, I; Hainaut, P

    2013-08-01

    The association of overweight and obesity with premenopausal breast cancer remained unclear, ethnicity could play a role. A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of all studies on obesity and premenopausal breast cancer published from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. Dose-response meta-analysis was used to determine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer associated with different anthropometric measurements in different ethnic groups. For body mass index (BMI), each 5 kg m(-2) increase was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.97). After stratification by ethnicity, the inverse association remained significant only among Africans (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98) and Caucasians (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.95). In contrast, among Asian women, a significant positive association was observed. For waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), each 0.1 unit increase was positively associated with premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16); the largest effect was detected in Asian women (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.24), while small effects of 5% and 6% were observed in African and Caucasian women, respectively. Our results suggest the importance of considering both fat distribution and ethnicity when studying premenopausal breast cancer. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Reproductive and lifestyle risk factors and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Lajous, Martin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Several breast cancer risk factors have been consistently associated with mammographic density (MD); however, data are limited for Hispanic women. We examined data from 1007 premenopausal and 600 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teachers' Cohort. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and MD. Among premenopausal women, age, current body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease, alcohol intake, and breastfeeding 12 months or more were associated with higher percent MD. Among postmenopausal women, age, current BMI, BMI at age 18 years, weight change since age 18 years, and speaking or having parents who speak an indigenous language were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease and greater age at natural menopause were positively associated with percent MD. Other breast cancer risk factors, such as age at menarche, parity, and age at first pregnancy, were not significantly associated with density in either premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Results from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort are generally consistent with predictors of mammographic density observed in primarily non-Hispanic white populations; however, certain risk factors (e.g., parity) were not significantly associated with MD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sociocultural factors associated with breast self-examination among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Abolhasan; Shojaizadeh, Davood; Montazeri, Ali; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%), believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93%) and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9%) and increased worry (78.9%). The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%), the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7%) and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%). The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9%) and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%). In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in doing or not

  18. Cultural beliefs and clinical breast examination in Hmong American women: the crucial role of modesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Vang, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Despite grave cancer disparities in Hmong American women, investigation of the group's breast cancer screening behavior is sparse. This study examined how cultural factors are associated with breast cancer screening utilization, specifically clinical breast exam (CBE), in this population. One hundred and sixty-four Hmong American women between ages 18 and 67 were recruited from a large Midwestern metropolitan area with a median age of 28.0 years. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of cultural variables with receipt of CBE. Roughly 73% of Hmong American women reported ever having had a CBE. Logistic regression revealed that endorsing more modest views was the greatest barrier to ever having had a CBE. Age and language preference were also found to be significant predictors of past CBE use. Cultural factors should be considered in developing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening in this population. In particular, Hmong American women who have less English proficiency and are relatively younger should be targeted in breast cancer screening efforts.

  19. Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    FEMME FATALE: AN EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN COMBAT AND THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE AMERICAN MILITARY OPERATIONS BY KRISTAL L.M...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American

  20. Routine pelvic examinations: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of women's attitudes and beliefs after new guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Juliana M; Vegunta, Suneela; Al-Badri, Mina; Faubion, Stephanie S; Fields, Heather E; Shah, Amit A; Wallace, Mark R; Ruddy, Barbara E; Bryan, Michael J; Temkit, M'hamed; MacLaughlin, Kathy L

    2017-01-01

    Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions. Nonpregnant women age≥21years presenting to outpatient clinics at Mayo Clinic in Arizona or Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, received the survey. After being asked about pelvic examination practices and beliefs, participants were informed of the ACP guideline, to determine effect on attitudes and beliefs. Demographic characteristics and pertinent medical history questions were collected from participants. In total, 671 women who were predominantly white, married, and educated completed surveys. Participants described pelvic examinations as reassuring, and a majority believed the examinations were useful in detecting ovarian cancer (74.6%), necessary for screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (71.0%), or necessary before initiating contraception (67.0%). After reading the 2014 ACP guideline, significantly fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations (P<0.001). Despite evidence to the contrary, women believed pelvic examinations were necessary for STI screening, contraception initiation, and ovarian cancer detection. After education on the ACP screening guideline, fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations.

  1. Practice of breast self-examination among high risk Chinese women in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background The incidence of breast cancer in Hong Kong is increasing and breast serf-examination (BSE) as a screening tool is becoming mere popular, especially among first-dsgree relatives (FDR) of breast cancer victims. BSE may be mere applicable to Chinese women as their breast size is smaller. This study explores the BSE practice in this group of women. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted by sending questionnaires to 330 FDR of breast cancer patients treated in the Department of Surgeory, Univeisity of Hong Kong. BSE behavior was studied with respect to its frequency,awareness, completeness and confidence of practice. Results 110 subjects returned the questionnaires with a response rate of 33%.The mean age of the respondent was 37 years. Only 57 women (52%) were practicers. The practicers have a stronger BSE awareness (p<0.01) and a lower mean score on thought barriers (P=0.002) than the non-practicers. 40% of the practicers gain their BSE knowledge through clinicians and their mean period of practica was 3.2 yeara. 68% of the practicers performed BSE completely.The overall confidence rate was 35%, but the rate was 43% among those who performled complete BSE.Thirteen factors possibly related to the completeness and rate of confidence of BSF examination were studied.The only factor that significantly deternined completenass was the time spent for each examination (P=0.002).The complete practicers required a longer time than the incomplete practicers(6.60 and 2.96 min, respectively).Women with a stronger BSE intention (P=0.001)and a lower mean score on thought barrers(P=0.001)performed the examination confidently. Conclusions Slightly over half of the FDR practice BSE.The majority perform a complete BSE but they are not confident in finding abnormalities. Women spending more time on BSE are associated with a higher rate of completeness. However,only those with a stronger DSE: intention and lesser thought barriers are more confident in their practice.

  2. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  3. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p women's demographic characteristics, marital status (single vs. engaged), mothers' level of education, income, and smoking were significant in predicting depressive symptoms. Assessment of physical violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies.

  4. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  5. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  6. Investigation of the Roles of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Galectin-3 Expression in the Pathogenesis of Premenopausal Endometrial Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Kasap

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis and etiology of endometrial polyps has not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial polyp development using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of galectin-3 and cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2 during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women with endometrial polyps or normal endometrium. Methods Thirty-one patients with endometrial polyps and 50 healthy control patients were included in this study. The levels of expression of COX-2 and galectin-3 were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: The percentage of COX-2–positive cells and the intensity of COX-2 staining in the endometrium did not vary during the menstrual cycle either in the control group or in patients with endometrial polyps. However, expression of galectin-3 was significantly lower in endometrial polyps and during the proliferative phase of the endometrium compared with the secretory phase. Conclusions: Our data suggests that the pathogenesis of endometrial polyps does not involve expression of COX-2 or galectin-3.

  7. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir

    2013-05-01

    Contexte : Les saignements utérins anormaux sont directement à l’origine d’un fardeau considérable imposé aux femmes, à leur famille et à la société tout entière en matière de soins de santé. Jusqu’à 30 % des femmes chercheront à obtenir l’aide d’un médecin pour contrer ce problème au cours de leurs années de fertilité. La présente directive clinique remplace les directives cliniques précédentes sur le sujet et a pour but d’outiller les fournisseurs de soins de santé pour qu’ils puissent offrir des soins reposant sur les toutes dernières données probantes au moment de procéder au diagnostic de ce problème courant, et d’en assurer la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale. Objectif : Fournir une directive clinique factuelle à jour pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge des saignements utérins anormaux (SUA) chez les femmes en âge de procréer. Issues : Parmi les issues évaluées, on trouve les effets des SUA sur la qualité de vie et les résultats des interventions (y compris la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA). Méthodes : Les membres du comité sur la directive clinique ont été sélectionnés en fonction de leurs spécialisations respectives en vue de représenter une gamme d’expériences pratiques et universitaires : le milieu de pratique au Canada, le type de pratique, la sous-spécialité et les antécédents généraux en gynécologie ont donc été pris en considération. Le comité a analysé les données pertinentes issues de la littérature médicale anglophone (y compris les lignes directrices publiées). Les recommandations ont été formulées sous forme de déclarations de consensus. Le document final a été analysé et approuvé par le comité exécutif et le Conseil de la SOGC. Résultats : Le présent document offre un résumé des dernières données quant au diagnostic, aux explorations et à la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA. Les recommandations qui y sont formulées peuvent être adaptées par les professionnels de la santé qui offrent leurs services aux femmes qui présentent de tels saignements. Conclusions : Les saignements utérins anormaux constituent un trouble courant et parfois débilitant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer. La mise en œuvre d’une standardisation de la terminologie connexe, d’une approche systématique en matière de diagnostic et d’exploration, et d’une approche par étapes pour ce qui est de l’intervention s’avère nécessaire. Toutes les interventions thérapeutiques ont pour objectif absolu de débuter le traitement au moyen de modalités thérapeutiques médicales, pour ensuite avoir recours aux modalités chirurgicales les moins effractives possibles, le tout en vue de permettre à la patiente d’obtenir des résultats satisfaisants. Données : Des recherches ont été menées en mars 2011 dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane afin d’en tirer les articles publiés en anglais, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine hemorrhage », « menorrhagia ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « menorrhagia », « heavy menstrual bleeding », « abnormal uterine bleeding »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais entre janvier 1999 et mars 2011. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en février 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Avantages, désavantages et coûts : La mise en œuvre des recommandations de la présente directive clinique entraînera l’amélioration de la santé et du bien-être des femmes qui présentent des saignements utérins anormaux, de leur famille et de la société. Les coûts économiques de la mise en œuvre de la présente directive clinique au sein du système de santé canadien n’ont pas été pris en considération. Déclarations sommaires 1. Les SUA constituent un trouble courant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer et qui exerce des effets considérables sur les plans social et économique. (II-2) 2. La terminologie contemporaine utilisée pour décrire les SUA chez les femmes en âge de procréer vise à simplifier les définitions et à fournir des descriptions standard en ce qui concerne les symptômes présentés par la patiente. (III) 3. Les conséquences des SUA sur la santé globale d’une femme déterminent le degré d’intervention pouvant s’avérer requis. (II-2) 4. Une anamnèse et un examen physique exhaustifs indiqueront souvent la cause des SUA, et détermineront la nécessité de procéder à d’autres explorations et de mettre en œuvre d’autres traitements. (III) 5. L’imagerie et l’hystéroscopie offrent au clinicien des renseignements additionnels qui contribuent à l’évaluation et au traitement de la patiente, lorsque les circonstances le permettent. (I) 6. Une fois que la présence d’une tumeur maligne ou d’une pathologie pelvienne significative a été écartée, la mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical constitue une option thérapeutique de première intention efficace pour ce qui est des saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 7. La mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical adapté aux objectifs thérapeutiques, aux souhaits en matière de contraception, aux pathologies médicales sous-jacentes et à la tolérance quant aux effets indésirables d’une patiente donnée permettra de favoriser l’observance et de maximiser la probabilité de réussite du traitement. (III) 8. Les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques offrent, en matière de satisfaction de la patiente, des résultats semblables à ceux de l’ablation hystéroscopique traditionnelle, en plus de compter moins de risques de complication et de nécessiter une anesthésie moindre. (I) 9. L’hystérectomie constitue un traitement définitif contre les saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 10. Les saignements utérins anormaux attribuables à des fibromes sous-muqueux peuvent être pris en charge au moyen d’une myomectomie hystéroscopique. (I) 11. Les troubles hémostatiques héréditaires peuvent constituer une cause sous-jacente de saignements utérins anormaux, la maladie de von Willebrand étant présente dans la majorité de ces cas. (II-2) 12. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus peuvent donner lieu à une anémie significative et nécessiter des soins de première urgence. (III) 13. Chez les adolescentes, les SUA découlent plus souvent qu’autrement d’une dysfonction ovulatoire associée à l’immaturité de l’axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-ovarien. (II-2) Recommandations 1. L’adoption d’une terminologie internationale standardisée devrait être envisagée pour ce qui est des SUA. (III-C) 2. La tenue d’un hémogramme complet est recommandée chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements abondants ou prolongés. (II-2A) 3. En présence de toute possibilité de grossesse, une analyse d’urine sensible ou un test sérique de grossesse devrait être mené. (III-C) 4. Le dépistage des troubles de la coagulation ne devrait être envisagé que chez les femmes qui présentent des antécédents de saignements menstruels abondants remontant à la ménarche ou des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de saignements anormaux. (II-2B) 5. Le tenue de tests de la fonction thyroïdienne n’est pas indiquée, sauf en présence de constatations cliniques laissant entrevoir un possible indice de suspicion de maladie thyroïdienne. (II-2D) 6. Lorsque la tenue d’une imagerie s’avère indiquée, l’échographie transvaginale devrait constituer la modalité de première intention dans le cas des SUA. (I-A) 7. L’échohystérographie avec injection de liquide intra-utérin et l’hystéroscopie diagnostique devraient être utilisées aux fins du diagnostic et de la caractérisation des anomalies intra-utérines discrètes (telles que les fibromes sous-muqueux). (I-A) 8. Le recours à la biopsie endométriale devrait être envisagé chez les femmes de plus de 40 ans qui présentent des saignements ou chez les femmes dont les saignements ne réagissent pas au traitement médical, ainsi que chez les jeunes femmes qui présentent des facteurs de risque de cancer de l’endomètre. (II-2A) 9. La biopsie endométriale menée en cabinet devrait remplacer la dilatation-curetage de l’utérus à titre de modalité initiale d’évaluation de l’endomètre chez ces femmes. (II-2A) 10. Les lésions focales de l’endomètre qui nécessitent une biopsie devraient être prises en charge au moyen d’une évaluation guidée par hystéroscopie. (II-2A) 11. Des options non hormonales, telles que les AINS et les antifibrinolytiques, peuvent être utilisées efficacement pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants dont la manifestation est principalement cyclique ou prévisible. (I-A) 12. Les contraceptifs oraux combinés, l’acétate de médroxyprogestérone-retard et le système intra-utérin à libération de lévonorgestrel permettent une diminution considérable des saignements menstruels et devraient être utilisés pour traiter les femmes présentant des saignements utérins anormaux qui souhaitent obtenir une contraception efficace. (I-A) 13. Les progestatifs cycliques administrés pendant la phase lutéale ne permettent pas une diminution efficace de la perte sanguine; ainsi, ils ne devraient pas être utilisés à titre de traitement visant particulièrement les saignements menstruels abondants. (I-E) 14. Le danazol et les agonistes de la GnRH permettront une diminution efficace des saignements menstruels, et pourraient être utilisés en présence de scénarios dans le cadre desquels l’utilisation d’autres traitements médicaux ou chirurgicaux a échoué ou est contre-indiquée. (I-C) 15. Les patientes qui prennent un agoniste de la GnRH pendant plus de six mois devraient se voir prescrire une hormonothérapie de compensation, lorsque celle-ci n’a pas déjà été mise en œuvre au début du traitement à l’agoniste de la GnRH. (I-A) 16. Le SIU à libération d’un progestatif donne lieu à l’obtention d’issues semblables à celles de l’ablation de l’endomètre chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements menstruels abondants; ainsi, son utilisation pourrait être prise en considération avant d’avoir recours à une intervention chirurgicale. (I-A) 17. Chez des candidates appropriées, les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques devraient être les méthodes d’ablation à privilégier, et ce, en raison de leur efficacité et de leur innocuité supérieures, par comparaison avec les techniques hystéroscopiques. (I-A) 18. À l’exception des AINS, les mêmes agents médicaux qui sont utilisés pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants chez les femmes présentant une coagulation normale peuvent être efficacement utilisés chez les femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (II-1B) 19. Le recours à une approche multidisciplinaire constitue la meilleure façon d’assurer la prise en charge des femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires qui connaissent des saignements menstruels considérablement abondants ou chez lesquelles le traitement médical conventionnel a échoué. (III-C) 20. La planification de l’hystérectomie ou la mise en œuvre d’un traitement faisant appel à des produits sanguins devraient être menées en consultation avec un hématologue dans le cas des patientes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (III-C) 21. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus devraient faire l’objet d’une prise en charge sans délai et de façon systématique, et ce, afin de minimiser la morbidité chez la patiente et la nécessité d’avoir recours à une transfusion sanguine. (III-C) 22. Les œstrogènes à forte dose et l’acide tranexamique peuvent contribuer à atténuer ou à juguler les saignements menstruels abondants aigus. (III-C) 23. Chez les adolescentes qui connaissent des saignements menstruels abondants à la ménarche ou peu après, l’anamnèse et les explorations devraient comprendre une évaluation visant à déterminer la présence d’un trouble hémostatique sous-jacent. (II-2A).

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Premenopausal Women Treated for Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    femininity and sexuality, may negatively impact her body-image. Chemotherapy may ... traitement adjuvant ont contribué à une augmentation du nombre de jeunes survivants. .... problems concentrating on her work as a sales executive at a ...

  10. Evaluation of clinical breast examination and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeonu PO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,1 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,1 Vincent Chidi Enemuo,2 Uzoma MaryRose Agwu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: Breast cancer in pregnancy accounts for 2%–3% of all breast cancers. The increased vascularity and lymphatic drainage from the breast during pregnancy potentiate the metastatic spread of the cancer to the regional lymph nodes. However, the increased breast density in pregnancy makes it difficult to detect breast lesions early.Aim: To evaluate and compare the detection rate of breast lesions using clinical breast examination (CBE and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women. Methodology: A cross-sectional comparative study involving antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, was conducted between March 3, 2014, and December 31, 2014. CBE and breast ultrasonography were done in the participants at booking and repeated at 6 weeks postpartum. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology were done in women with suspicious breast lesions on CBE or breast ultrasonography or both. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at the 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software version 17.0. Test of significance was done using chi-square test. A P-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 320 pregnant women participated in the study. Of these, 267 (83.4% were aware of breast cancer. Although more lesions were detected with breast ultrasonography than by CBE, there was no statistically significant difference between them (25 versus 17; P=0.26.The histology of the lesions revealed 21 benign lesions and 4 normal breast tissues. The sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was 95.2%, while that of CBE was 66.7%. The specificity, positive predictive

  11. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience.

  12. Major depression during and after the menopausal transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, J T; Kravitz, H M; Chang, Y-F; Cyranowski, J M; Brown, C; Matthews, K A

    2011-09-01

    It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to pre-menopause. We aimed to examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were peri- or post-menopausal compared to when they were pre-menopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms (VMS), serum levels of, or changes in, estradiol (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone (T) and relevant confounders. Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42-52 years, who were pre-menopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual and current major depression at baseline and at annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones, were obtained annually. Women were two to four times more likely to experience a major depressive episode (MDE) when they were peri-menopausal or early post-menopausal. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, VMS and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are pre-menopausal.

  13. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Kumcagız

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Facult...

  14. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Kumcagız

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Me...

  15. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kumcagız, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Facult...

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and T-regulatory cells in premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Cesta, Alisia; Recchia, Laura; Rea, Silvio

    2013-04-01

    Estradiol (E2) plays a key role in human reproduction through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and T-regulatory cells (T-Regs), which are also important in breast cancer (BC) growth. The primary endpoint of the present study was the investigation of whether E2 suppression, chemotherapy and radiation therapy decreased the levels of VEGF and T-Regs of premenopausal patients with high-risk early BC. The secondary endpoints were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Between April 2003 and July 2008, 100 premenopausal women with early, high-risk BC were entered into the study. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: median age, 43 years (range, 26-45); median number of positive axillary nodes, 3.3; median Ki-67, 33%. Plasma E2, VEGF and T-Reg were measured at baseline and every year. Treatment comprised luteneizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, tailored chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) tumours. At 4 years, a statistically significant decrease in E2, VEGF and T-Reg levels was observed; the PFS and OS rates were 94 and 98%, respectively. Hot flushes and G1 osteopenia occurred following LH-RH analogue administration, while no unexpected toxicity was observed following chemotherapy. E2 deprivation with an LH-RH analogue, tailored chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in ER(+) tumours decreased plasma VEGF levels and T-Regs numbers in premenopausal high-risk ER(+) and ER- BC patients. In addition, a favorable impact on PFS and OS was observed.

  17. Keeping women active: an examination of the impacts of self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and leadership on women's persistence in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kathleen M; Little, Donna E

    2010-10-01

    Physical inactivity in women is a worldwide problem that has not only been well-documented but has provoked much government concern and policy activity. However, an even more important issue is encouraging women's persistence in physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between women's experiences of participation in a government-funded physical activity festival, their intentions to continue participation, and their participation behavior six months after the festival. Results from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 20 women revealed that enhanced self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and supportive leadership had motivated the women's future intentions to participate. Follow-up surveys showed their levels of interest and participation in physical activity had been maintained. These results enhance our understanding of the relationship between key outcomes of women's physical activity participation and their persistence in physical activity.

  18. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  19. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  20. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James J; Hehn, Laura E; Klein, David A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous infections is typically responsible for recurrences. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse three or more times per week, spermicide use, new or multiple sex partners, and having a UTI before 15 years of age are established risk factors. In postmenopausal women, risk is primarily increased by sequelae of lower estrogen levels. Episodes of recurrent UTI are typically characterized by dysuria and urinary frequency or hesitancy. Findings from the history or physical examination that suggest complicated infection or another disease process warrant additional evaluation. At least one symptomatic episode should be verified by urine culture to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Imaging is rarely warranted. Short courses of antibiotics are as effective as longer courses. Patient-initiated treatment lowers the cost of diagnosis, number of physician visits, and number of symptomatic days compared with physician-initiated treatment. It also reduces antibiotic exposure compared with antibiotic prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis effectively limits UTI recurrence but increases the risk of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Cranberry products may reduce recurrent UTIs in premenopausal women, but are less effective than antibiotic prophylaxis, and data are conflicting. Optimal dosing is unknown. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis may benefit from topical estrogen therapy.

  1. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  2. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. A Naturalistic Examination of Social Comparisons and Disordered Eating Thoughts, Urges, and Behaviors in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of body, eating, and exercise social comparisons on prospective disordered eating thoughts and urges (i.e., restriction thoughts, exercise thoughts, vomiting thoughts, binge eating urges) and behaviors (i.e., restriction attempts, exercising for weight/shape reasons, vomiting, binge eating) among college women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, in which they used their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess body, eating, and exercise comparisons as predictors of disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors at the next report, adjusting for body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and the disordered eating thought/urge/behavior at the prior report, as well as body mass index. Results Body comparisons prospectively predicted more intense levels of certain disordered eating thoughts (i.e., thoughts about restriction and exercise). Eating comparisons prospectively predicted an increased likelihood of subsequent engagement in all disordered eating behaviors examined except vomiting. Exercise comparisons prospectively predicted less intense thoughts about exercise and an increased likelihood of subsequent vomiting. Discussion Social comparisons are associated with later disordered eating thoughts and behaviors in the natural environment and may need to be specifically targeted in eating disorder prevention and intervention efforts. Targeting body comparisons may be helpful in terms of reducing disordered eating thoughts, but eating and exercise comparisons are also important and may need to be addressed in order to decrease engagement in actual disordered eating behaviors. PMID:26610301

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  5. Organizational Democracy and Women's Empowerment: An Examination of Four Advocacy Organizations in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Women's empowerment is an important aim of the development activities of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh. In a patriarchal society, women experience discrimination and their participation in decision making processes often is not allowed in domestic, political and economic affairs. Most women's organizations mainly work to create a better, non-discriminatory, and equal society for women. To focus on this goal, these organizations often are not conscious of democracy at their...

  6. Raising the Bar: An Examination of Career Pathways among Women Working in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    In today's society, women who return back to school seeking an advancement within their career is a transition within the lives of women that occurs in various contexts, including the women's ages at the time of their transition, which can define both their expectations and opportunities along their life stages and career paths. In the past, women…

  7. Men and women are from Earth: examining the latent structure of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Bobbi J; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Taxometric methods enable determination of whether the latent structure of a construct is dimensional or taxonic (nonarbitrary categories). Although sex as a biological category is taxonic, psychological gender differences have not been examined in this way. The taxometric methods of mean above minus below a cut, maximum eigenvalue, and latent mode were used to investigate whether gender is taxonic or dimensional. Behavioral measures of stereotyped hobbies and physiological characteristics (physical strength, anthropometric measurements) were examined for validation purposes, and were taxonic by sex. Psychological indicators included sexuality and mating (sexual attitudes and behaviors, mate selectivity, sociosexual orientation), interpersonal orientation (empathy, relational-interdependent self-construal), gender-related dispositions (masculinity, femininity, care orientation, unmitigated communion, fear of success, science inclination, Big Five personality), and intimacy (intimacy prototypes and stages, social provisions, intimacy with best friend). Constructs were with few exceptions dimensional, speaking to Spence's (1993) gender identity theory. Average differences between men and women are not under dispute, but the dimensionality of gender indicates that these differences are inappropriate for diagnosing gender-typical psychological variables on the basis of sex. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  9. Menopause and blood mercury levels: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Tai June; Lee, Myung-Hwa; Park, Won I

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between menopause and blood mercury concentrations in South Korean women. Women aged ≥20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were included in this study. Primary and secondary analyses included women aged ≥20 years (n = 1,642) and 45-55 years (i.e., perimenopausal; n = 325), respectively. For all analyses, the mercury levels were log-transformed. The linear regression model for mercury levels was adjusted for age, body mass index, household income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, smoking history, alcohol intake, physical activity, number of pregnancies, serum ferritin levels, and fish consumption. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed blood mercury levels were significantly lower in women who were menopausal [β-coefficient -0.1488; 95 % confidence interval -0.2586, -0.0389; P = 0.01) than in those who were premenopausal. A similar relationship was identified in perimenopausal women (β-coefficient -0.1753; 95 % confidence interval -0.3357, -0.015; P = 0.03). The blood mercury concentration was lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a significant positive correlation between blood mercury concentrations and both the frequency of alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels.

  10. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  11. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  12. Prolactina, estradiol e anticorpos anticardiolipina em amostra de mulheres pré-menopáusicas com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico: estudo-piloto Prolactin, estradiol and anticardiolipin antibodies in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Tiskievicz

    2011-10-01

    . Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA are associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS, but can be found in patients with SLE without APLS, and relate to cardiovascular risk and nephrite. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing whether the presence of ACA is associated with hormonal changes in a sample of women with SLE. METHODS: Forty-seven women diagnosed with SLE according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, aged 30.8 ± 8.12 years, were evaluated. None was on hormonal contraception, and their SLE activity was estimated using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI. Patients were stratified, according to the presence or absence of ACA, and estradiol and prolactin levels were measured. RESULTS: Nine (19.1% of 47 patients were positive for ACA. No differences were found between groups concerning age, duration of disease, and SLEDAI. In contrast, the median estradiol level was lower in the ACA-positive group [46.8 (21.0-72.1 pg/mL] than in the ACA-negative group [122.3 (64.8-172.7 pg/mL, P = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: These results suggest, for the first time, an inverse association between ACA and estradiol levels in premenopausal SLE patients. Considering that both lower endogenous estradiol levels and ACA positivity are related to atherosclerosis, our finding may be clinically relevant in predicting cardiovascular risk and/or APLS development in SLE.

  13. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  14. Women in engineering in Turkey - a large scale quantitative and qualitative examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alice E.; Dengiz, Berna

    2010-03-01

    The underrepresentation of women in engineering is well known and unresolved. However, Turkey has witnessed a shift in trend from virtually no female participation in engineering to across-the-board proportions that dominate other industrialised countries within the 76 years of the founding of the Turkish Republic. This paper describes the largest known direct cross-sectional study of women in engineering in Turkey with over 800 participants. The methods include survey and facilitated focus groups. The study shows that women in Turkey choose engineering mainly because they enjoy the underlying mathematics and science. There is no gender bias on the part of teachers or fellow students; however, women students believe that they have fewer opportunities than male peers and acutely feel the lack of role models. Working professionals in industry or government perceive that women assume a more indirect, supporting role; however, women overall strongly affirm their selection of engineering despite some negative factors.

  15. Women's Sexual Harassment at Workplace:Application of GT in examining Women's feeling of Insecurity at Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maktoobian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction long time has gone since women entered the workplace; and instead of discussing whether or not women should enter workplace, we must now investigate women's experiences, troubles and problems. Talking about sexual harassment and feeling of insecurity goes back to more than four decades ago, but the evidence show that little work has been down on sexual harassment and feeling of insecurity; and even still in some societies speaking about this topic is typically considered to be a social taboo. Sexual harassment and feeling of insecurity are a manifestation of gender inequality at macro level. Apart from various gender discriminations, Women may become exposed to insecurity and harassment, because of their very own female body. The purpose of this article is to explore women's experiences regarding sexual harassment at workplace. Methods and Materials The aim of the present research is to study women's feeling of insecurity at workplace by means of qualitative approach (social interpretivism. In doing so, 20 female employees were interviewed in Isfahan. Data collection tools include semi-structured and in-depth interviews, and participant observation techniques. For data analysis, Grounded Theory was used. This method consists of five steps, including a three-step coding system by which the data is analyzed through open, selective and axial coding procedures. Discussion & Result & Conclusion By using the result of the three-stage coding a paradigmatic model was achieved, in which occupational workplace, lifestyle, methods of encounter, and mental and job degradation are important. The situation of workplace and lifestyle (behavioral manifestation and physical appearance, gender stereotypes and imbalanced power relationships are among the most important reasons that cause Women feel insecure at workplace. Also, in the presented paradigmatic model, contextual conditions include a typology of peoples' personality, the level and intensity

  16. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters and Pain and Demographic Features in Pre and Postmenopausal Women

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    Erdal Yücel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural damage of bone tissue resulting in increased bone fragility. History, physical examination, laboratory investigations and different imaging technics are used in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS is an alternative method for diagnosis of osteoporosis and evaluation of fracture risk. In this study we aimed to evaluate the association between quantitative ultrasound values and pain and demographic features in pre- and postmenopausal women. One hundred voluntary women aged over 40 years who were admitted to hospital in one day were included. Eight of these were excluded for different reasons. Demographic features and pain parameters were inquired. Quantitative ultrasound evaluation was performed with Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer equipment. Speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA values and stiffness parameters were used for evaluation. Twenty four (26.1% of the objects were premenopausal and 68 (73.9% were postmenopausal. 24 (100% of premenopausal objects and 57 (% 83.8 of postmenopausal objects had pain (p=0.061. In evaluation with QUS, mean BUA values were 67.9 ± 13.5 in premenopausal and 60.0 ± 15.8 in postmenopausal women (p=0.026. Mean stiffness values were found 91.2 ± 13.6 in premenopausal and 80.1 ± 17.6 in postmenopausal women (p=0.013. In all of the subjects, QUS parameters were found negatively corraleted with age, while no relationship was found with occupation, education level, body mass index (BMI and pain. Consequently, we found negative correlation between age and QUS parameters, but for other demographic features there was no correlation. This study will be more sensitive and specific if performed on more patients and supported by other measurement methods.

  17. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

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    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model

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    Aghamolaei Teamur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iranian women, many of whom live in small cities, have limited access to mammography and clinical breast examinations. Thus, breast self examination (BSE becomes an important and necessary approach to detecting this disease in its early stages in order to limit its resultant morbidity and mortality. This study examined constructs arising from the Health Belief Model as predictors of breast self examination behavior in a sample of women living in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Methods This study was conducted in eight health centers located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The sample consisted of 240 eligible women who were selected from referrals to the centers. The inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 30 years and over; and able to read and write Farsi. Women with breast cancer, who were pregnant, or breast feeding, were excluded from the study. Data were collected by using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. This instrument measures the concepts of disease susceptibility (3 items, seriousness (6 items, benefits (4 items, barriers (8 items and self-efficacy (10 items. Results The subjects' mean age was 37.2 (SD = 6.1 years. Just under a third of the subjects (31.7% had performed BSE in the past and 7.1% of them performed it at least monthly. Perceived benefits and perceived self-efficacy of the women who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not practice BSE (p 2 = 0.52. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated that perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy could be predictors of BSE behavior among the sample of women. Therefore, BSE training programs that emphasize self-efficacy and address perceived barriers are recommended.

  19. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

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    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  20. Knowledge and Beliefs of Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer among Market Women in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria.

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    Kelechi Elizabeth Oladimeji

    Full Text Available In most resource constrained settings like Nigeria, breast self-examination self-breast examination (BSE is culturally acceptable, religious friendly and attracts no cost. Women's knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer and its management may contribute significantly to medical help-seeking behaviours. This study aimed to assess knowledge and beliefs of BSE among market women.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 603 market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistical methods.The mean age of the respondents was 34.6±9.3 years with 40% of the women aged between 30-39years. The proportion of married women was 339 (68.5% with 425 (70.8% respondents reporting that they do not know how to perform BSE. However, 372 (61.7% women strongly agreed that BSE is a method of screening for breast cancer. Highest proportion 219 (36.3% reported that the best time for a woman to perform BSE was 'anytime'. Most of the respondents believed breast cancer is a dangerous disease that kills fast and requires a lot of money for treatment.More efforts are needed in creating awareness and advocacy campaigns in the grassroots in order to detect early breast cancer and enhance prevention strategies that would reduce the burden of breast cancer in Nigeria.

  1. Tamoxifen with ovarian function suppression versus tamoxifen alone as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

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    Yan, Shunchao; Li, Kai; Jiao, Xin; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian function suppression (OFS) significantly downregulates the concentration of plasma estrogens. However, it is unclear whether it offers any survival benefits if combined with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in premenopausal women. This meta-analysis was designed to assess data from previous studies involving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment plus OFS in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials published prior to February 1, 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared tamoxifen alone with tamoxifen plus OFS for premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The evaluated endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results Four randomized controlled trials comprising 6,279 patients (OFS combination, n=3,133; tamoxifen alone, n=3,146) were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant improvement in disease-free survival or overall survival with addition of OFS in either the whole population or the hormone receptor-positive subgroup. The risk of distant recurrence was not reduced with the addition of OFS in the whole population. A subgroup analysis showed that addition of OFS significantly improved overall survival in patients who were administered chemotherapy. Conclusion Based on the available studies, concurrent administration of OFS and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for premenopausal women with breast cancer has no effect on prolonging disease-free survival and overall survival, excluding patients who were administered chemotherapy. It should not be widely recommended, except perhaps for women who were hormone-receptor positive and who were also administered adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26109867

  2. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed.

  3. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

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    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  4. The likelihood of Latino women to seek help in response to interpersonalvictimization: An examination of individual, interpersonal and socioculturalinfluences

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    Chiara Sabina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Help-seeking is a process that is influenced by individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors. Thecurrent study examined these influences on the likelihood of seeking help (police, pressing charges,medical services, social services, and informal help for interpersonal violence among a national sample ofLatino women. Women living in high-density Latino neighborhoods in the USA were interviewed by phonein their preferred language. Women reporting being, on average, between "somewhat likely" and "verylikely" to seek help should they experience interpersonal victimization. Sequential linear regression resultsindicated that individual (age, depression, interpersonal (having children, past victimization, andsociocultural factors (immigrant status, acculturation were associated with the self-reported likelihood ofseeking help for interpersonal violence. Having children was consistently related to a greater likelihood toseek all forms of help. Overall, women appear to respond to violence in ways that reflects their ecologicalcontext. Help-seeking is best understood within a multi-layered and dynamic context.

  5. Diabetes Screening in US Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2012

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    Turyk, Mary E.; Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Xia, Yinglin; Gerber, Ben S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined individual, socioeconomic, and health care use characteristics of women with a history of GDM and the association of those characteristics with diabetes screening, and we estimated their rates of undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes. Methods Using 3 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012), we identified 284 women with a history of GDM who were eligible for diabetes screening. Screening status was defined by self-report of having had a blood test for diabetes within the prior 3 years. Undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes were assessed by hemoglobin A1c measurement. Results Among women with a history of GDM, 67% reported diabetes screening within the prior 3 years. Weighted bivariate analyses showed screened women differed from unscreened women in measured body mass index (BMI) category (P = .01) and number of health visits in the prior year (P = .001). In multivariable analysis, screening was associated with a greater number of health visits in the prior year (1 visit vs 0 visits, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–5.18; 2 or 3 visits, AOR, 7.05; and ≥4 visits, AOR, 5.83). Overall, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.3%–31.7%) of women had undiagnosed prediabetes and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.7%–11.3%) had undiagnosed diabetes. Conclusion More health visits in the prior year was associated with receiving diabetes screening. Fewer opportunities for screening may delay early detection, clinical management, and prevention of diabetes. Prediabetes in women with a history of GDM may be underrecognized and inadequately treated. PMID:27609302

  6. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

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    Hatice Kumcagız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital Outpatient Clinic on 126 pregnant women admitted constituted. Pregnant women in order to collect data, "Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory ',' Body Image Scale 'and' Personal Information Form 'was applied. The data obtained, percentage ratings, the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test and correlation analysis were evaluated using one-way. Results, scores of young age, pregnant women's body image is higher than others (r =- 0,305, p = 0.001, educational level of the relationship between body image and self esteem levels and significantly (p <0.05 that, with the body of pregnant women in marriage is a negative correlation between perceptions of pregnant women, body image scores decreased with increasing years of marriage (r =- 0,297, p = 0.001., pregnant women with high socio-economic level, a higher body image scores (p <0.01, non-pregnant body does not use perception scores were higher. In addition, women who want to become pregnant have a higher self-esteem and body perception, number of pregnancies is higher than others, at least the perception of the body of pregnant women (r =- 0,254, p = 0.01, pregnant women affected by perceptions of physical self-esteem, self-esteem is high pregnant women's body perceptions (those with high body image 139.8 ± 25.2 points, moderate (120.6 ± 30.9 points was higher than in those with a statistically significant difference (t =- 3,819, p = 0.000. was found. The results are discussed.

  7. Examining the relationship between hormone therapy and dry-eye syndrome in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional comparison study.

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    AlAwlaqi, Ahmed; Hammadeh, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hormone therapy (HT) and dry-eye syndrome (DES) in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed on 360 postmenopausal women. They were grouped into two groups. Group 1 was the control group (n = 189) without DES symptoms and which did not receive HT. Group 2 (n = 177) consisted of women with DES symptoms. Group 2 was randomly grouped into two further categories-group 2A (n = 90) that received estrogen-only HT, and group 2B (n = 87) in which participants were treated with a combination of estrogen and progesterone HT. The severity of symptom levels was determined using the Ocular Surface Disease Index levels that identify the extent of the relationship between the sex hormones and DES. A further comparison of the severity of symptoms among women using HT and those not using HT was used to establish the relationship between HT and DES in postmenopausal women. There was a significant variation in the severity levels of DES across women not using HT and those who were using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[2, 357] = 974.186, P 1 mg/d) across women using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[2, 357] = 302.513, P women using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[3, 356] = 218.266, P women. Instead, prolonged HT use seems to increase the risk of DES.

  8. My Sister's Keeper: A Qualitative Examination of Mentoring Experiences among African American Women in Graduate and Professional Schools

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    Patton, Lori D.

    2009-01-01

    Eight African American women's mentoring experiences in graduate school are examined pertaining to lessons learned, characteristics and behaviors of African American female mentors, challenges with White mentors (male and female), and stereotypical images of African American female mentors. The findings support mentoring as a method of empowerment…

  9. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

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    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  10. What's Feminism Got to Do with It? Examination of Feminism in Women's Everyday Lives

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    Claire Carter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been considerable debate about the role and meaning of feminism in younger women's lives. Feminism can be understood as an empowering discourse, fostering critical awareness and resistance to dominant social norms. However, it can also be experienced as regulatory and disciplinary, clearly defining who and what constitutes a "good" feminist. Utilizing Michel Foucault's principle of care of the self, this paper analyzes women's body practices in relation both to women's interpretation of feminism and to dominant feminist discourses. The complexities of negotiating diverse social identities, as well as women's desire for a happier life and greater self-worth, provide some important nuances to contemporary debates about feminism.

  11. An empirical examination of women's empowerment and transformative change in the context of international development.

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    Grabe, Shelly

    2012-03-01

    This paper responds to calls from social scientists in the area of globalization and women's empowerment to test a model that investigates both structural and individual components of women's empowerment in the context of globalization. The investigation uses a liberation psychology framework by taking into account the effects of globalization, human rights discourse, and women's activism within social movements to identify how structural inequities may be related to empowerment. Surveys conducted in rural Nicaragua revealed that land ownership and organizational participation among women were related to more progressive gender ideology, and in turn, women's power and control within the marital relationship, individual levels of agency, and subjective well-being. The study demonstrates that psychology can bridge the theoretical arguments surrounding human rights with the practical implementation of development interventions, and provide empirical support that has yet to be demonstrated elsewhere. The findings have important implications for strategies and interventions that can improve conditions for women and contribute to the aims of social justice articulated in the Beijing Platform for Action.

  12. An examination of the health information seeking experiences of women in rural Ontario, Canada

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    C.N. Wathen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women are active information seekers, particularly in the context of managing health for themselves and their families. Rural living may present particular challenges and opportunities for women in their health information seeking. Method. Forty women living in a rural part of Ontario, Canada were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. They were asked about their health information seeking for both chronic and acute concerns. Analysis. Interview transcripts were organized using NVivo software (version 6 and analysed using a coding scheme iteratively developed by both authors. Results. Emerging themes included: the context of rural living, information and health literacy, the role of unanticipated information intermediaries in the search process, and the mis-match between assumptions made by 'the system' about sources of information, and women's lived realities. Conclusion. . There are unique challenges and enablers to health information seeking for women living in rural areas, including the role of formal, informal and ICT-based information intermediaries, the availability to women of required literacies for health information seeking and uptake. Research findings such as those presented in this paper can assist in better understanding both the contexts of information seeking, as well as the preferences and behaviour of those with information needs.

  13. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan.

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    Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

    2012-01-01

    Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.

  14. [Clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive postmenopausal women in relation to menopause causes].

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    Kolbasnikov, S V; Bakhareva, O N

    2006-01-01

    To specify clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive women depending on the type of menopause. A total of 195 hypertensive women were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 50, age 45.6 +/- 4.5 years) consisted of premenopausal women, group 2 (n = 100, age 57.4 +/- 4.7 years) - of women with natural menopause, group 3 (n = 45, age 55.1 +/- 5.9 years)--with early and/or surgical menopause. Severity of the menopausal syndrome, anxiety, depression, alexitimia, mental performance, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm were examined. The premenopausal women were characterized by cardial and cerebral disorders, unaffected psychovegetative function and initial symptoms of lowering mental performance. Hypertensive women with natural menopause showed combination of cardial and cerebral symptoms with moderate anxio-depressive disorders, alexitimia, subnormal parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system in high centralization of heart rhythm regulation and attention disturbances. Patients with surgical and/or early menopause had marked cardial and cerebral symptoms, moderate anxiodepressive disorders, alexitimia, inhibition of mental performance, vegetative dysfunction, overcentralization of heart rhythm control. With development of postmenopausal metabolic symptom complex, severity of hypertension grows with emergence of anxiodepressive disorders which combine with vegetative regulation disorders and attenuation of mental performance.

  15. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

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    Abadi MH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment

  16. A qualitative examination of women's self-presentation and social physique anxiety during injury rehabilitation.

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    Driediger, Molly V; McKay, Carly D; Hall, Craig R; Echlin, Paul S

    2016-12-01

    To understand women's self-presentation experiences in the rehabilitation setting, and their attitudes and preferences toward the social and physical features of the rehabilitation environment. Qualitative study. Outpatient physiotherapy clinic. Ten women (age 18 to 64) with high social physique anxiety (Social Physique Anxiety Scale score ≥25) referred for physiotherapy following acute injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted prior to commencement of treatment, and again after a third treatment session. Participants experienced extensive self-presentational concerns that were intensified due to the nature of the physiotherapy environment. The women reported that their self-presentational anxiety did not diminish over time, and was related to others' negative perceptions regarding their physical appearance and inability to perform exercises as well as expected. The presence of men or younger women in the clinic was identified as a barrier to appointment attendance, along with open concept clinic settings, which were associated with the most potential for evaluation. Mirrors and windows in the physiotherapy clinic were highlighted as anxiety provoking. The women suggested that they would feel apprehensive about advocating for themselves if they felt uncomfortable with the area in which they were receiving treatment, and instead used avoidance coping strategies (e.g., hiding behind equipment, preventing eye contact) to manage their anxiety. Physique-anxious women experience extensive self-presentational concerns in the rehabilitation environment, which could affect treatment adherence. Modifying the treatment setting, providing protective self-presentational strategies such as positive self-talk, and open patient-therapist communication could be implemented to help mitigate these concerns. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

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    Safieh Jamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on

  18. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women.

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    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R

    2005-02-01

    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  19. Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American Military Operations (Drew Paper Number 5, August 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    AUG 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in...UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Femme Fatale An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American Military...2009 Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center Cataloging Data Alfonso, Kristal L. M. Femme fatale : an examination of the role of women in combat

  20. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  1. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  2. Not a Big Deal? Examining Help-Seeking Behaviors of Sexually Victimized Women on the College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, McKenzie; Stichman, Amy

    2016-12-01

    The sexual assault and coercion of women on university campuses continues to be an ongoing problem. It is estimated that more than 15% of women attending college experience some type of sexual assault or coercion each year. As universities and other social institutions begin to acknowledge the prevalence of sexual victimization, an increased emphasis has been placed on helping victims of sexual crimes. The current study uses results from 378 surveys completed by females at a midwestern university to examine the help-seeking behaviors of those who have been victimized. This study specifically focuses on formal and informal reporting, identifying help agents, and reasons for not reporting. Results reveal that 1% of women who were victimized reported their experience to a formal entity, whereas 45% told an informal agent, such as a friend or roommate. Reasons for not reporting included not identifying the experience as rape, wanting to keep the experience private, and feeling ashamed.

  3. An Eye Tracking Examination of Men's Attractiveness by Conceptive Risk Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Ray; Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has indicated that women prefer men who exhibit an android physical appearance where fat distribution is deposited on the upper body (i.e., shoulders and arms) and abdomen. This ideal physical shape has been associated with perceived dominance, health, and immunocompetence. Although research has investigated attractability of men with these ideal characteristics, research on how women visually perceive these characteristics is limited. The current study investigated visual perception and attraction toward men in Hispanic women of Mexican American descent. Women exposed to a front-posed image, where the waist-to-chest ratio (WCR) and hair distribution were manipulated, rated men's body image associated with upper body strength (low WCR 0.7) as more attractive. Additionally, conceptive risk did not play a strong role in attractiveness and visual attention. Hair distribution did not contribute to increased ratings of attraction but did contribute to visual attraction when measuring total time where men with both facial and body hair were viewed longer. These findings suggest that physical characteristics in men exhibiting upper body strength and dominance are strong predictors of visual attraction.

  4. Barriers to Women in Roles of Leadership in Higher Education: An Examination of Leadership Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather Hall

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis study identifies ten leadership books currently in use in college leadership courses and explores the issues of gender bias as well as masculine and feminine leadership styles throughout the selected texts. An objective of this research was to gain understanding of the unique ways women approach leadership and to determine if…

  5. Women in Academic Leadership Roles at Research Intensive Universities: Examining the Recent Past Using NSOPF-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveling, Joyce Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in personal and institutional factors that impact women's advancement to academic leadership roles at research intensive universities. It uses data from a 1993 national collection of information on post-secondary faculty. Academic leaders were defined as faculty who served as department chairs, deans,…

  6. A Pilot Examination of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Sleep in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jessica R.; Adams, Sue K.; Kisler, Tiffani S.

    2014-01-01

    While sleep deficits in adulthood are common and worsening, college women experience significantly more sleep problems and depression than their male counterparts. In recent years, sleep has been investigated as one of the primary contributors to college functioning and GPA. No known study, however, has investigated the connection between…

  7. Somatic health of 2500 women examined at a sexual assault center over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene; Skovlund, Charlotte W

    2016-01-01

    significantly after sexual assault. Likewise, the number of visits to a general practitioner was significantly higher in exposed women both before and after the assault (16 vs. 10/year). Complications associated with childbirth were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  8. Women in Engineering in Turkey--A Large Scale Quantitative and Qualitative Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alice E.; Dengiz, Berna

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in engineering is well known and unresolved. However, Turkey has witnessed a shift in trend from virtually no female participation in engineering to across-the-board proportions that dominate other industrialised countries within the 76 years of the founding of the Turkish Republic. This paper describes the largest…

  9. A Pilot Examination of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Sleep in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jessica R.; Adams, Sue K.; Kisler, Tiffani S.

    2014-01-01

    While sleep deficits in adulthood are common and worsening, college women experience significantly more sleep problems and depression than their male counterparts. In recent years, sleep has been investigated as one of the primary contributors to college functioning and GPA. No known study, however, has investigated the connection between…

  10. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.

  11. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  12. Female DUI offenders: a comparison to male counterparts and an examination of the effects of intervention on women's recidivism rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J; McMillen, D L; Miller, D I

    1991-03-01

    Female DUI offenders who participated in a controlled, random assignment DUI intervention study, the Mississippi DUI Probation Follow-Up Project, were compared to their male counterparts on demographic, drinker status and recidivism variables. In comparison to men, women in the project were less likely to be married, more likely to be between 30 and 50 years of age, less likely to have less than a 9th grade education, less likely to be screened as a high-problem-risk drinker, less likely to have prior DUI and public drunkenness arrests and less likely to recidivate. The effects of short-term rehabilitation, 1 year's probation and administration of the Life Activities Inventory-Current Status Questionnaire (LAI-CSQ) on the long-term recidivism rates of women were examined. The analysis for screened low-problem-risk women was inconclusive due to lack of statistical power. However, the repeated administration of the LAI-CSQ was detrimental for screened high-problem-risk women and tended to be detrimental for women with fewer than 12 years of education. Implications for intervening with female DUIs are discussed.

  13. Examining the relationship between sport and health among USA women:An analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer R. Pharr; Nancy L. Lough

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted linking sports participation and health in childhood and adolescence;however, little is known about the contribution of sport to women’s health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport and women’s health in the USA by analyzing data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2013 national BRFSS survey. Unlike the BRFSS core component from previous years, in 2013, participants were questioned extensively about their physical activity behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identifie by the participants. Two researchers categorized the 76 activities as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based on previously identifie categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. Results: Women who participated in sport had better health outcomes with significant y lower odds for all chronic diseases except asthma and better general health than women who participated in conditioning exercise, household tasks, or recreation, and many of the significan differences remained after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusion: Sport participation was associated with more positive health outcomes among women in the USA compared with the other categories. As a means to improve health of women, the USA could focus on efforts to increase sport participation among women.

  14. Association between Obesity and Chronic Laryngitis in Women - Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hoon Joo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and chronic laryngitis in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES collected during 2008-2010. Methods: KNHANES was a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 13,819. Obesity status was measured by using BMI and waist circumference. Results: Among the population over 19 years of age, the prevalence of chronic laryngitis was 4.0 ± 0.4%. Chronic laryngitis was significantly associated with age, BMI, waist circumference, fat proportion, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. Old age and current smoking were significantly associated with chronic laryngitis in men. Obese women were at a higher risk for chronic laryngitis than women without obesity (odds ratio (OR 2.022, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.412-2.895 after further adjustment for confounders. Women with abdominal obesity were also at higher risk for chronic laryngitis (OR 1.475, 95% CI 1.024-2.126. Conclusion: Obese women in Korea have an elevated risk for developing chronic laryngitis. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of obesity on this condition.

  15. Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults in a sexual health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Susan; Morgan, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of group A streptococcus (GAS) causing vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults are described. A review of the literature of genital GAS is made, as this is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults. Contrasts are made between anogenital carriage of GAS and group B streptococcus (GBS) to highlight the differences in anogenital carriage between these two organisms.

  17. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Press, Michael F.; Deming, Sandra L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A.; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Conti, David V.; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10−6) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65–70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry. PMID:24852375

  18. Distance matters: a population based study examining access to maternity services for rural women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelsen Jude

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past fifteen years there has been a wave of closures of small maternity services in Canada and other developed nations which results in the need for rural parturient women to travel to access care. The purpose of our study is to systematically document newborn and maternal outcomes as they relate to distance to travel to access the nearest maternity services with Cesarean section capabililty. Methods Study population is all women carrying a singleton pregnancy beyond 20 weeks and delivering between April 1, 2000 and March 31, 2004 and residing outside of the core urban areas of British Columbia. Maternal and newborn data was linked to specific geographic catchments by the B.C. Perinatal Health Program. Catchments were stratified by distance to nearest maternity service with Cesarean section capabililty if greater than 1 hour travel time or level of local service. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to test predictors of adverse newborn and maternal outcomes. Results 49,402 cases of women and newborns resident in rural catchments were included. Adjusted odds ratios for perinatal mortality for newborns from catchments greater than 4 hours from services was 3.17 (95% CI 1.45-6.95. Newborns from catchments 2 to 4 hours, and 1 to 2 hours from services generated rates of 179 and 100 NICU 3 days per thousand births respectively compared to 42 days for newborns from catchments served by specialists. Conclusions Distance matters: rural parturient women who have to travel to access maternity services have increased rates of adverse perinatal outcomes.

  19. An examination of women experiencing obstetric complications requiring emergency care: perceptions and sociocultural consequences of caesarean sections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasheda; Blum, Lauren S; Sultana, Marzia; Bilkis, Sayeda; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the physical and socioeconomic postpartum consequences of women who experience obstetric complications and require emergency obstetric care (EmOC), particularly in resource-poor countries such as Bangladesh where historically there has been a strong cultural preference for births at home. Recent increases in the use of skilled birth attendants show socioeconomic disparities in access to emergency obstetric services, highlighting the need to examine birthing preparation and perceptions of EmOC, including caesarean sections. Twenty women who delivered at a hospital and were identified by physicians as having severe obstetric complications during delivery or immediately thereafter were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the women. The study was carried out in Matlab, Bangladesh, during March 2008-August 2009. Data-collection methods included in-depth interviews with women and, whenever possible, their family members. The results showed that the women were poorly informed before delivery about pregnancy-related complications and medical indications for emergency care. Barriers to care-seeking at emergency obstetric facilities and acceptance of lifesaving care were related to apprehensions about the physical consequences and social stigma, resulting from hospital procedures and financial concerns. The respondents held many misconceptions about caesarean sections and distrust regarding the reason for recommending the procedure by the healthcare providers. Women who had caesarean sections incurred high costs that led to economic burdens on family members, and the blame was attributed to the woman. The postpartum health consequences reported by the women were generally left untreated. The data underscore the importance of educating women and their families about pregnancy-related complications and preparing families for the possibility of caesarean section. At the same time, the health systems

  20. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  1. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.

  2. Premenopausal Obesity and Breast Cancer Growth Rates in a Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Shawna B; McGinley, John N; Neil, Elizabeth S; Thompson, Henry J

    2016-04-11

    Obese premenopausal women with breast cancer have poorer prognosis for long term survival, in part because their tumors are larger at the time of diagnosis than are found in normal weight women. Whether larger tumor mass is due to obesity-related barriers to detection or to effects on tumor biology is not known. This study used polygenic models for obesity and breast cancer to deconstruct this question with the objective of determining whether cell autonomous mechanisms contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer burden. Assessment of the growth rates of 259 chemically induced mammary carcinomas from rats sensitive to dietary induced obesity (DS) and of 143 carcinomas from rats resistant (DR) to dietary induced obesity revealed that tumors in DS rats grew 1.8 times faster than in DR rats. This difference may be attributed to alterations in cell cycle machinery that permit more rapid tumor cell accumulation. DS tumors displayed protein expression patterns consistent with reduced G1/S checkpoint inhibition and a higher threshold of factors required for execution of the apoptotic cell death pathway. These mechanistic insights identify regulatory targets for life style modifications or pharmacological interventions designed to disrupt the linkage between obesity and tumor burden.

  3. Assessment of the Awareness and Practice of Women vis-à-vis Breast Self-Examination in Fasa in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Rastad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of women's mortality the world over. Breast self-examination (BSE is a method that often leads to detect breast cancer in the early stage. This study aimed at assessing the awareness and practice of women in the city of FASA vis-à-vis BSE.  Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study , 300 women over 15 years old who referred to the health centers of Fasa were chosen via the clustered method. A questionnaire comprising items about the patients’ demographics as well as their awareness and practice regarding BSE was completed for all the study population by a trained midwife through interviews. Subsequently, descriptive statistics , x2, and t-test were employed for analysis using SPSS Software ( version 15 .   Results: Fifty-five per cent of the cases had poor knowledge and 90% had poor practice. There was a significant correlation between knowledge and practice (p value < 0.0001. The highest level of knowledge was found among those with university levels of education. There was also a significant correlation between practice and educational levels (p value < 0.0001.   Conclusion: Given that the majority of the women under study had poor knowledge and function vis-à-vis BSE, it seems advisable that regular and systematic training programs be devised in relation to breast cancer prevention strategies such as practical classes on BSE , breast clinical examination, and mammography in order to raise awareness among women about the need to perform BSE.

  4. Women and Cancer: Examining Breast Cancer-Screening Behaviors and Survival

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-24

    This podcast features Siran Koroukian, PhD, associate professor in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of one of PCD’s most recent articles. Dr. Koroukian answers questions about the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio and discusses the effectiveness of the program among low-income women enrolled Medicare.  Created: 7/24/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/24/2015.

  5. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48% had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women’s perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups–older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  6. Sixty women a day examined with world-unique mammography system from Sectra. Breast disease centre in Sweden offers lowest radiation dose in the world

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Sectra's digital mammography system, Sectra MicroDose Mammography(TM), has been used to examine more than 1,500 women in the Helsingborg Hospital mammography screening program. This was accomplished in the record time of two months in clinical operation. The system is now being used to examine more than sixty women every day" (1 page).

  7. An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshi; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John

    2004-05-01

    In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common themes identified are concerned not only with health-related issues (i.e. physical stress of managing diabetes, psychological stress of managing diabetes, fears about the future, suffering the complications of diabetes, and financial aspects of living with diabetes), but also with marginal economic conditions (e.g. poverty, unemployment); trauma and violence (e.g. abuse, murder, suicide, missing children, bereavement); and cultural, historical, and political aspects linked to the identity of being Aboriginal (e.g. 'deep-rooted racism', identity problems). These themes are, in fact, acknowledged not as mutually exclusive, but as intertwined. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is important to give attention to diversity in the Aboriginal population. Specifically, Métis-specific stressors, as well as female-specific stressors, were identified. An understanding of stress experienced by Aboriginal women and men with diabetes has important implications for policy and programme planning to help eliminate or reduce at-risk stress factors, prevent stress-related illnesses, and enhance their health and life quality.

  8. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. French women's breast self-examination practices with time after undergoing BRCA1/2 genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, C; Apostolidis, T; Petri-Cal, A; Mouret-Fourme, E; Gauthier-Villars, M; Lasset, C; Berthet, P; Fricker, J-P; Caron, O; Luporsi, E; Gladieff, L; Noguès, C; Julian-Reynier, C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the impact of BRCA1/2 genetic test results on cancer-free women's breast-self-examination (BSE) practices and to prospectively determine their influence on psychological functioning. A prospective longitudinal study on French women's BSE practices and frequencies in BRCA1/2 carriers (N = 217) and non-carriers (N = 313) 1 and 2 years following disclosure of the test results, along with psychological factors predicting BSE practices. Before disclosure, BSE was practised by 47.2% of the women, and increased to 57.3% 1 year later. No change in the women's practices was noted between 12 and 24 months after the test. Carriers and non-carriers practicing regularly BSE at baseline were, respectively 8 to 6 times more likely to be practising BSE regularly at 12 months after being tested. Among the carriers, having fewer depressive symptoms at baseline and believing in the ability of BSE to detect breast cancer were found to be the most decisive factors associated with BSE practices 1 year after disclosure, following adjustment for BSE baseline practices. Among the non-carriers, believing in the ability of BSE to detect breast cancer, greater post-test anxiety, and a higher perceived risk of breast cancer were found to be predictors of post-test BSE practices after adjusting for BSE baseline practices. In France, where performing BSE is neither mandatory nor recommended, an increase in BSE practices was found to occur after disclosure of women's genetic test results, regardless of their carrier status.

  10. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juul; Hansen, P R; Søgaard, P

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal...... average heart rates twice a week for 16 weeks and compared with a matched inactive control group (CG; n=10). During the training period, left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased by 13% in FG and 11% in RG (P....0+/-1.3 mm (Ptraining groups. Peak systolic velocity increased by 26% in FG and 17% in RG (P

  11. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  12. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Premenopausal mammographic density in relation to cyclic variations in endogenous sex hormone levels, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Coupland, Ben; McCormack, Valerie A; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lorna; Hillier, Stephen G; Holly, Jeff M; Moss, Sue; Dowsett, Mitchell; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2009-08-15

    Mammographic density is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, and endogenous hormones, which are risk factors for breast cancer, may be involved in the mechanism. This cross-sectional study of 494 premenopausal women is the first to account for cyclic variations in estrogen levels, by measuring urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) in the periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and to assess the role of androgens. Computer-assisted density readings were obtained from digitized mammograms. Mean ovulatory E1G level and daily E1G load were both positively associated with percent density before adjustment for body mass index (BMI), with women in the top fourth having 10.2% (95% CI: 2.9%, 18.1%) and 8.9% (1.7%, 16.7%), respectively, higher density than those in the bottom fourth (Ptrend before/after BMI adjustment=0.006/0.11 and 0.01/0.13, respectively). Neither the peak nor luteal E1G levels were predictive of density after adjustment for E1G levels at other points in the cycle. The plasma androgens testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were negatively associated with density. In mutually adjusted analyses, density was positively associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and negatively with IGF-II (Ptrend=0.006 for both) but not with IGF binding protein-3. There was also weak evidence of a positive association of prolactin with density. The study supports the hypothesis that endogenous hormones affect density in premenopausal women; in particular, it shows a positive association between estrogen levels and density and suggests that the mean level throughout the cycle is the most biologically relevant measure. Most of these hormone-density associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI.

  14. Discrimination in Legal Practice: An Examination of Policies Impacting on Educational Opportunities for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Fisher, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to extend the traditional cultural divide between male and female lawyers by examining contradictory workplace policies that discriminate against the work and education of female auxiliary workers within general legal practice in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses membership categorisation devices,…

  15. Exploration of barriers to breast-self examination among urban women in Shah Alam, Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alabsi, Aied M; Abdul Manaf, Mohd Rizal; Ijaz, Sharea; Kassim, Saba

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Barriers for practicing breast self examination (BSE) await exploration. To assess the practice of BSE and its correlated factors and particularly barriers amongst urban women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 222 Malaysian women using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean (SD) age was 28.5 (±9.2) years, 59.0% were university graduates. Of the total, 81.1% were aware of breast cancer and 55% practiced BSE. Amongst 45% of respondents who did not practice BSE, 79.8% did not know how to do it, 60.6% feared being diagnosed with breast cancer, 59.6% were worried about detecting breast cancer, 22% reported that they should not touch their bodies, 44% and 28% reported BSE is embarrassing or unpleasant, 29% time consuming, 22% thought they would never have breast cancer or it is ineffective and finally 20% perceived BSE as unimportant. Logistic regression modeling showed that respondents aged ≥45 years, being Malay, married and having a high education level were more likely to practice BSE (psocio-demographic factors and socioeconomic status.

  16. Preliminary Examination of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Women with Purging Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Williams, Diana L.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined pre- and post-prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in women with bulimia nervosa (BN), purging disorder (PD), and non-eating disorder control women to better understand whether alterations in satiation-related hormones in BN may be linked to binge-eating episodes or other altered ingestive behaviors. Method Participants included women with BN (n = 19), PD (n = 14), or controls (n = 14). Participants provided subjective ratings for hunger and fullness and plasma samples before and after consumption of a standardized test meal. Results As expected, GLP-1 levels increased significantly following test meal consumption; however, participants with BN displayed significantly lower GLP-1 levels compared to PD and control participants both before and after consumption of the test meal. There were no significant differences between PD and control participants in GLP-1 levels, but individuals with PD displayed significantly higher levels of fullness throughout the test meal as compared to both control and BN participants. Discussion Our findings provide preliminary evidence that reduced GLP-1 levels in individuals with BN may be associated with binge-eating episodes. Additionally, increased fullness in individuals with PD does not appear to be accounted for by exaggerated post-prandial GLP-1 release. PMID:24590464

  17. Natural History of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Women and Dysmenorrhea: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bjork Olafsdottir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies have shown that women are more likely to have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and more women seek healthcare because of IBS than men. Aim. We wanted to examine the natural history of IBS and dysmenorrhea in women over a 10-year period and to assess the change in IBS after menopause. Method. A population-based postal study. A questionnaire was mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population aged 18–75 in 1996 and again in 2006. Results. 77% premenopausal women had dysmenorrhea in the year 1996 and 74% in 2006. 42% of women with dysmenorrhea had IBS according to Manning criteria in the year 2006 and 49% in 1996. 26% of women with dysmenorrhea had IBS according to Rome III 2006 and 11% in the year 1996. In 2006 30% women had severe or very severe dysmenorrhea pain severity. More women (27% reported severe abdominal pain after menopause than before menopause 11%. Women without dysmenorrhea were twice more likely to remain asymptomatic than the women with dysmenorrhea. Women with dysmenorrhea were more likely to have stable symptoms and were twice more likely to have increased symptoms. Conclusion. Women with IBS are more likely to experience dysmenorrhea than women without IBS which seems to be a part of the symptomatology in most women with IBS. IBS symptom severity seems to increase after menopause.

  18. The Effect of Breast Self Examination Educational Program on the Knowledge and Performance of Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Yoshany

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and one of the major causes of cancer deaths in women. Early diagnosis leads to significant reduction of mortality from breast cancer, in other words it can increase the lifespan of people with this cancer. This study aimed to determine the effect of education on knowledge and performance of 20-60 year old women in Yazd city about Breast Self Examination (BSE. Materials & Methods: In this study, 100 women aged from 20 to 60 years old who referred to Yazd health centers were selected. They were matched in terms of cultural, social, and economical aspects. In this quasi-experimental study, data was collected through administration of questionnaires before and after training in two stages. The collected information were then analyzed using the statistical software SPSS (version 18 by T-tests and ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The results of statistical analyses revealed a significant difference between participants' knowledge and performance scores before and after training (0.05> p. In this study, age, marital status, education level, history of breastfeeding, and its duration had a significant relationship with  participants' knowledge; also, positive family history of breast cancer had a significant relationship with their performance (0.05> p. Between the subjects' performance was a significant difference in two groups with negative and positive family history of Brest cancer before and after two months of educational program. (0.05> p. Conclusion: According to the achieved results and the positive impact of education on the increase of knowledge and performance, educational programs in the field of breast cancer and its screening methods are recommended to be held for all age groups. In order to promote women's health from puberty to menopause more attention should be paid to the follow-up and training.

  19. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density.

  20. An examination of affect prior to and following episodes of getting drunk in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-06-30

    The current study examined the association between affect and self-reported alcohol intoxication in women with bulimia nervosa (BN; N=133). Participants completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Momentary global positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), as well as the facets of NA (fear, guilt, hostility and sadness), were measured. Forty-five participants endorsed that they "got drunk" during the study period. Daily mean and variability of global PA and NA were compared between days with self-reported alcohol intoxication and days without self-reported alcohol intoxication. Trajectories of affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. There were no differences in the mean or variability of PA or NA on days characterized by self-reported alcohol intoxication compared to days with no self-reported alcohol intoxication (ps>0.05). PA decreased significantly prior to self-reported alcohol intoxication and remained stable afterwards. There were no changes in global NA before or after self-reported alcohol intoxication, but an examination of the facets of NA showed that sadness increased following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. These findings showed only partial support for a negative reinforcement model of alcohol use in women with BN.

  1. Examining social physique anxiety and disordered eating in college women. The roles of social comparison and body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Brownstone, Lisa M; Higgins, M K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2012-12-01

    Social physique anxiety has been found to be associated with disordered eating. However, what is not yet known is what behaviors college women may engage in that strengthen this relation. In the current study, we examined two possible moderating factors, social comparison and body surveillance. We examined whether these moderators might also generalize to trait anxiety, as well. Participants were 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance were tested as moderators of the relation between social physique anxiety and disordered eating. Results indicated that general social comparison, appearance-related social comparison, and body surveillance significantly moderated this relation. Individuals who were high in social physique anxiety and who reported high levels of general or appearance-related social comparison or body surveillance reported much higher levels of disordered eating than those with high social physique anxiety and low levels of these behaviors. Results indicated that only the trait anxiety×body surveillance interaction was significant in identifying elevated disordered eating. Results provide information regarding who may experience high levels of disordered eating in association with social physique anxiety, which has clinical implications including the conceptualization of social comparison and body surveillance as safety behaviors.

  2. Diabetes and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han Na; Chae, Hong Seok; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms among Korean women. Methods We performed an analysis of data for 6,572 women aged 30 or over obtained from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. We examined the presence of depressive symptoms and the treatment of depression according to diabetes status. Results The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 22.6% of subjects with diabetes. In the multiple logistic regression model, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.21) but the treatment of depression among diabetics was less common (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.55). Uncontrolled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 7%) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.69 to 1.73) among diabetics. Conclusion Physicians should manage individuals with diabetes in consideration of the presence of depressive symptoms, especially in those with uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:24921031

  3. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: an application of the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Azita; Jomand, Tayyebh; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Screening behavior rates are low in the world. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate breast self-examination (BSE) rate and the relationships of Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs for predicting BSE. Path analysis was used to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of HBM factors on BSE in this population (N = 382). Data were collected by a part of Champion's HBM Scale (CHBMS) and a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that 7.6% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. The final model provided a good fit to the data, with 13 variables explaining 62% of the variance in BSE. Perceived self-efficacy was intermediate construct between modifying factors and HBM constructs. Also, perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits were the most highly related to BSE. The results suggest that HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE in Iranian women.

  4. An examination of body tracing among women with high body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Crowther, Janis H

    2014-09-01

    Within eating disorder treatment programs, a body tracing activity is often used to address body dissatisfaction and overestimation of body size; however, the effects of this activity have never been empirically evaluated. This research examined the effects of body tracing on body dissatisfaction and mood among 56 female participants assigned to either a body tracing or control group. Scores were collected on trait body dissatisfaction and a series of Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Results showed that trait body dissatisfaction moderated the relationship between group and levels of state appearance dissatisfaction and anxiety. These results suggest that individuals experiencing higher levels of trait body dissatisfaction demonstrated greater state body dissatisfaction following participation in the body tracing activity. Individuals with lower trait body dissatisfaction experienced greater anxiety after drawing a human body. These findings have potential implications for the use of this strategy in the treatment of eating disorder patients.

  5. High dietary sodium intake is associated with low bone mass in postmenopausal women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S-J; Ha, Y-C; Park, Y

    2017-01-10

    The present cross-sectional study performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 9526 women older than 18 years of age demonstrates that high sodium intake is associated with lower bone mineral density and sodium intake ≥2000 mg/day is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  6. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  7. Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in US women – The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, Liesbeth; Choi, Hyon

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Despite the substantial prevalence of gout in the ageing female population, female hormonal influence has not been comprehensively examined. We evaluated and quantified the potential independent association between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of women. Methods: Using data from 7662 women aged 20 years and older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), we ex...

  8. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  9. Does clinical examination aid in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in women? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinicians should be aware of the diagnostic values of various symptoms, signs and antecedents. This information is particularly important in primary care settings, where sophisticated diagnostic approaches are not always feasible. The aim of the study is to determine the probability that various symptoms, signs, antecedents and tests predict urinary tract infection (UTI) in women. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify articles published in all languages through until December 2008. We particularly focused on studies that examined the diagnostic accuracy of at least one symptom, sign or patient antecedent related to the urinary tract. We included studies where urine culture, a gold standard, was preformed by primary care providers on female subjects aged at least 14 years. A meta-analysis of the likelihood ratio was performed to assess variables related to the urinary tract symptoms. Results Of the 1, 212 articles identified, 11 met the selection criteria. Dysuria, urgency, nocturia, sexual activity and urgency with dysuria were weak predictors of urinary tract infection, whereas increases in vaginal discharge and suprapubic pain were weak predictors of the absence of infection. Nitrites or leukocytes in the dipstick test are the only findings that clearly favored a diagnosis of UTI. Conclusions Clinical findings do not aid in the diagnosis of UTI among women who present with urinary symptoms. Vaginal discharge is a weak indicator of the absence of infection. The urine dipstick test was the most reliable tool for detecting UTI. PMID:21985418

  10. Effects of cognitive style and maintenance strategies on breast self-examination (BSE) practice by African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T C; Penn, N E; Kulik, J A; Spieth, L E

    1992-12-01

    A convenience sample of 159 African American women, 18-45 years old, was trained to perform breast self-examination (BSE) and was categorized according to the participants' cognitive style (monitors/blunters). Participants were then randomly assigned to one of four groups differing in BSE maintenance strategy (self-management, positive reinforcement, both, or neither). Self-reported monthly compliance with BSE was subsequently assessed during a 9-month period. A significant interaction between maintenance strategies and cognitive style was found. For blunters, the highest compliance rates and the highest competency scores occurred in the group with no maintenance strategy, whereas for monitors, the highest compliance rates and competency scores were found in the groups receiving positive reinforcement and/or self-management strategies. Additional results indicate that high levels of BSE competency were achieved across conditions and that competency improved over time.

  11. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    .1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14...

  12. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  13. Examining women's perceptions of their mother's and romantic partner's interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively.

  14. Body Image and Dieting Failure in College Men and Women: Examining Links between Depression and Eating Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Linda J.; Wasserman, Erika L.

    1995-01-01

    Explored whether the links of depression, eating problems, and body image that apply to women also apply to men. A study of 234 male and female college students showed depression was higher in those with negative body image for both men and women. Depression accounted for significant variability in eating problems only in women. (GR)

  15. PTSD symptomatology and hazardous drinking as risk factors for sexual assault revictimization: examination in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Ullman, Sarah E

    2013-06-01

    A sexual victimization history is a risk factor for experiencing further sexual victimization. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been posited as predictors of revictimization through multiple pathways, including through their association with risk recognition and alcohol use. There is, however, limited longitudinal research examining these revictimization risk factors, including the extent to which they predict risk for forcible rape (rape involving threat or force) and incapacitated rape (rape of a victim incapacitated by substances). Additionally, there is no research evaluating ethnic differences in revictimization risk pathways. The current study examined PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking as predictors of new forcible and incapacitated rape over 1 year in a community sample of European American (n = 217) and African American (n = 272) sexual assault victims (M = 34 years; 84% high school education or above). We hypothesized that PTSD symptoms would predict both types of revictimization and hazardous drinking would predict incapacitated rape. Results supported that PTSD symptoms predicted both types of rape (forcible rape, β = .34; incapacitated rape, β = .20), and hazardous drinking predicted incapacitated rape (β = .24). PTSD symptoms predicted hazardous drinking in African American women only (β = .20). Thus, there is a need to evaluate risk pathways for specific types of victimization among diverse samples.

  16. Factors Affecting of Attitude in Breast Self-Examination among Fertile Age Women in Wosi Sub District of West Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Caroline Etwiory

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2010 the WHO (World Health Organization estimates that the incidence of breast cancer are 11 million and in 2030 will grow to 27 million cancer deaths. Ministry of Health, there are about 80 cases of breast cancer in the province of West Papua. This is not as much as the one in Papua province whose cases reached 466 cases of breast cancer. The factors that influence the actions breast self examination (BSE in women of childbearing age in the Wosi sub district, western Manokwari. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study design. Cross-sectional study. Women of fertile age population is 259 and 157 samples. Results indicated that there was an effect of age with action (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 0.102-Upper 0.519, no effect of recent education (p-value 0.516 RP = Lower 1.479 - Upper 1.919, there was no effect of the work (p-value 0.406 RP = Lower 0.714 - Upper 2.671, there was no effect of Social Economy (p-value 1.000 RP = Lower .545 - Upper 1.958, there was the influence of Information (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,022 - Upper 15.383, there is no influence of Knowledge ( p-value 0.840 0.410 RP = Lower - Upper 2.023, there is no influence of attitude (p-value 0.316 RP = Lower 0,493- Upper 12.218, there is the influence of Family Support (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,186- Upper 13.175.

  17. Leukocyte telomere length dynamics in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Benetos, Athanase; Verhulst, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period. METHODS: To test this premise we performed a longitudinal study (an average follow-up of 12...

  18. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  19. Prospective validation of a blood-based 9-miRNA profile for early detection of breast cancer in a cohort of women examined by clinical mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria B; Kodahl, Annette R; Binder, Harald;

    2016-01-01

    is significantly different between women with breast cancer and controls (p-value woman whose 9-miRNA profile predicted a 73% probability of having breast cancer indeed developed the disease within one year despite being categorized as clinically healthy...... developed a 9-miRNA profile using serum and LNA-based qPCR that effectively stratified patients with early stage breast cancer vs. healthy women. To further develop the test into routine clinical practice, we collected serum of women examined by clinical mammography (N = 197) according to standard...

  20. Examining women's agency in managing intimate partner violence and the related risk of homelessness: The role of harm minimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental impact on women and children's emotional, physical and social well-being and has been identified as one of the most common contributors to women's experiences of housing instabilities and homelessness. Women affected by IPV often experience a great level of uncertainty around housing solutions when trying to leave an abusive partner. This study explores women's responses to IPV and the related risk of homelessness through women's narratives (n = 22) in Queensland, Australia. Of particular interest are women's decisions and actions to minimise the impact of IPV as well as homelessness on their and their children's safety and well-being. Findings reveal that women's agency in relation to harm minimisation can take various forms, including the decision to stay with, leave or return to an abusive partner. The data offer insights into women's strategic attempts to manage IPV and the related risk of homeless while trying to minimise the harm associated with one and the other. Implications for understanding women's agency in managing IPV and the related risk of homelessness and providing adequate support mechanisms to improve women and children's social, emotional and physical well-being are discussed.

  1. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  2. Effect of a weight loss intervention on anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors in pre- versus postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahradnik Hans-Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study examines changes in body weight, fat mass, metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight and obese pre- and postmenopausal women who participated in a weight loss intervention. Methods Seventy-two subjects were included in the analysis of this single arm study (premenopausal: 22 women, age 43.7 ± 6.4 years, BMI 31.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; postmenopausal: 50 women, age 58.2 ± 5.1 years, BMI 32.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2. Weight reduction was achieved by the use of a meal replacement and fat-reduced diet. In addition, from week 6 to 24 participants attended a guided exercise program. Body composition was analyzed with the Bod Pod®. Blood pressures were taken at every visit and blood was collected at baseline and closeout of the study to evaluate lipids, insulin, cortisol and leptin levels. Results BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose, leptin and cortisol were higher in the postmenopausal women at baseline. Both groups achieved a substantial and comparable weight loss (pre- vs. postmenopausal: 6.7 ± 4.9 vs 6.7 ± 4.4 kg; n.s.. However, in contrast to premenopausal women, weight loss in postmenopausal women was exclusively due to a reduction of fat mass (-5.3 ± 5.1 vs -6.6 ± 4.1 kg; p Blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose improved significantly only in postmenopausal women whereas total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lowered significantly in both groups. Conclusion Both groups showed comparable weight loss and in postmenopausal women weight loss was associated with a pronounced improvement in metabolic risk factors thereby reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Correlation of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Chinese women with chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuan; DAI Juan; LONG Yin; WU Hao; LI Xiao-juan; DING Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background Periodontitis and osteoporosis aro one of the frequently encountered diseases in post-menopausal women. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulated bone metabolism. To investigate the possible effect of ER-alpha (α) gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with chronic periodontitis (CP), we provided sufficient quantitative information concerning the correlation between ER gene polymorphisms and BMD in periodontitis.Methods Sixty-five post-menopausal and eighty pro-menopausal CP women, and sixty post-menopausal healthy individuals were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral mucosa swab sample of each subject by the Chelex-100 method. Determination of the ER-α polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique with Xbal and Pvull enzyme. The index for periodontal examination includes clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).Results There were no significant differences between the ER-(α genotypes of Pvull and Xbal and BMD in post-menopausal and pro-menopausal CP patients, respectively (P >0.05). However, there was association between preand post-menopausal CP patients at BMD of lumbar spine L2-L4 (P=0.027) and Ward's BMD (P=0.004). Furthermore, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Pvull ∏ genotype presented significantly lower Ward's BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.007), meanwhile, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Xbal AA genotype presented significantly lower spine L2-L4 BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.003).Conclusions ER-(α gene polymorphisms may be a susceptible indicator for BMD variation of lumbar spine L2-L4 and Ward in Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women patients with CP.

  4. An examination of the tripartite influence model of body image : does women's sexual identity make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Huxley, Caroline J.; Halliwell, Emma; Clarke, Victoria (Associate Professor in Sexuality Studies)

    2014-01-01

    According to the tripartite influence model of body image, appearance pressures from family, friends, partners, and the media lead to body dissatisfaction and restrained eating behaviours. There is strong support for this model among young, White heterosexual women. Evidence suggests that women who identified as lesbian as bisexual (LB) may be protected from sociocultural pressures around thinness, but no known research has tested the tripartite model among LB women. The current research test...

  5. An examination of the relationship between normal range thyrotropin and cardiovascular risk parameters: a study in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F; McLaughlin, Anne Marie; Walsh, Cathal D; Sheehan, Frances; O'Shea, Donal

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between thyrotropin concentrations within the accepted reference range and cardiovascular risk. Initially, 728 women aged 45-60 years were enrolled over a 12-month period. All participants underwent full cardiovascular assessment, including detailed health questionnaire, sphygomanometry, body mass index (BMI) calculation, fasting glucose and lipid profiling, and measurement of serum thyrotropin concentrations. Patients whose thyrotropin concentrations were within the reference range (0.5-4.5 mU/L) were divided into quartiles (n = 629). The means of cardiovascular risk parameters between the first (n = 158) and fourth (n = 157) quartile were compared. Subsequently, the relationships between thyrotropin concentration and risk parameters for cardiovascular disease were examined. This study demonstrates that, within the reference range, increasing thyrotropin concentrations are associated with increasing risk parameters for the development of cardiovascular disease. Subjects with thyrotropin concentrations within the uppermost quartile of the reference range had significantly increased waist circumference, BMI, glucose, triglyceride, and systolic blood pressure measurements when compared to those in the lowermost quartile. Furthermore, significant relationships between thyrotropin and waist circumference, BMI, and fasting glucose and triglycerides concentrations were demonstrated. Finally, independent relationships between thyrotropin and both fasting glucose and triglyceride concentrations were demonstrated. Within the reference range, increasing thyrotropin concentrations are associated with increasing cardiovascular risk parameters. Fasting glucose and triglycerides have been shown to be independently associated with thyrotropin concentration.

  6. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  7. Osteocalcin levels on oral glucose load in women being investigated for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schweighofer, Natascha; Hacker, Nicole; Trummer, Olivia; Borel, Olivier; Pieber, Thomas R; Chapurlat, Roland; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) might play a hormone-like role in energy metabolism and the regulatory circuit between the pancreas and osteoblasts. Effects of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on total OC, undercarboxylated (ucOC), and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) in insulin-resistant (IR) and noninsulin-resistant (nIR) premenopausal women was evaluated, and the relationships of changes in OC, ucOC, and cOC with area under the curve (AUC) insulin and the Matsuda index were examined. In this cross-sectional study, 105 premenopausal women underwent OGTT; 18 were IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] > 2.6; (2 with type 2 diabetes, 2 with impaired glucose tolerance), and 87 were nIR (3 with impaired glucose tolerance). Changes in total OC, ucOC, and cOC were evaluated 60 and 120 minutes after glucose loading. At baseline, IR subjects had significantly lower levels of total OC, cOC, and ucOC. In nIR women, total OC decreased by 19% from 18.0 ng/mL (14.5-24.7) at baseline to 14.6 ng/mL (10.9-17.8) after 120 minutes, ucOC decreased by 22% from 3.2 ng/mL (2.1-4.5) to 2.5 ng/mL (1.7-3.5), and cOC decreased by 26% from 14.9 ng/mL (12.1-20.4) to 11.1 ng/mL (9.0-14.5) (P < .001, respectively). No significant decreases were noted in IR subjects. The declines in OC and cOC predicted AUCinsulin (ΔOC: β = 0.301, P = .001; ΔcOC: β = 0.315, P < .001) and the Matsuda index (ΔOC: β = -0.235, P = .003; ΔcOC: β = -0.245, P = .002). Glucose intake lowers levels of OC, ucOC, and cOC in nIR women, the extent of which predicts IR and insulin sensitivity in premenopausal women. OC parameters seem suppressed in IR women. There might be a differential osteoblast response to oral glucose in IR and nIR women, with OC reflecting this finding.

  8. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  9. Presentation of Women and Gilligan's Ethic of Care in College Textbooks, 1970-1990: An Examination of Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Tracey L.; Brabeck, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a content analysis of the presentation of women in 69 college textbooks published between 1970 and 1990. Specifically reviews this material in light of Carol Gilligan's moral theory that men favor an orientation towards justice while women are oriented towards care. Includes a brief literature review and critique of Gilligan's theory. (MJP)

  10. Vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Jin, Woo Sung; Park, Juwon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Bae, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women were investigated. Total 2,162 women’s data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008–2014 ware analyzed by complex sampling design logistic regression analysis and complex sampling design general linear model. Women who over 19 years old were included, and who has osteoporosis or abnormal parathyroid hormone or renal failure or liver cirrhosis or abnormal creatinine were excluded. Age and body mass index were used as covariate. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin D status were not associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women as well were not associated with pain and quality of life in Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the present study and considering the effects of vitamin D on fracture and osteoporosis, it can be suggested that additional cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. PMID:28119885

  11. Measurement of body dissatisfaction in college-enrolled Mexican American Women: A Rasch-based examination of the validity and reliability of the EDI-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Riley, Barth Brian; Hoyland-Domenico, Lisa; Lee, Chia-Kuei

    2015-12-01

    Measures of body dissatisfaction have not been validated for Mexican American (MA) women, who evaluate their bodies differently than Caucasian women. In this study, the psychometric properties of the EDI-III, Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (BDS) were examined in a sample of college-enrolled MA women using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Criterion validity was also addressed. BDS evidenced good item fit, person and item reliability, once poorly correlated items were removed. Two qualitatively distinct dimensions of body dissatisfaction were identified: (1) overall body shape and stomach, and (2) the lower body. Validity of the scales was supported. Results suggest: MA women's satisfaction with overall body shape is not synonymous with attitudes toward their lower body.

  12. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  13. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  14. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: primary or secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Description of a clinical case of avitaminosis D in premenopausal woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome

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    Mauro Turrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels have been described in obese individuals and in some autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS. In particular, more than 50% of premenopausal women with pAPS have hypovitaminosis D. In this issue we report a case of an obese, premenopausal, and hypertensive woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome, affected by deep venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism after rib fracture who presented hypovitaminosis D. 7 years before, diagnosis of pAPS had been made after the detection of thrombocytopenia (present at a young age and arterial ischemia of a lower limb. For seven years she was treated with acetylsalicylic acid without complications. We found positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, a triple antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL positivity and levels of vitamin D < 4 µg/l. The case report arises some questions: is vitamin D deficiency due to obesity or APS? Is the positivity of anti-dsDNA indicative of progression to SLE? Is preventive therapy with hydroxychloroquine indicated? Does the high-risk aPL profile justify a high-intensity and life-long anticoagulation regimen?http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i2.912

  15. Combination goserelin and tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a multicentre study by the ITMO group. Italian Trials in Medical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, R.; Biganzoli, L.; Bajetta, E.; Celio, L.; Fornasiero, A.; Mariani, L.; Zilembo, N.; Di Bartolomeo, M.; Di Leo, A.; Arcangeli, G.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that tamoxifen may improve the efficacy of medical castration with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues, but very few data have so far been published concerning the clinical and endocrinological activity of this therapeutic modality. In this phase II multicentre trial conducted by the Italian Trials in Medical Oncology group (ITMO), 64 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive or unknown breast cancer were treated with monthly s.c. injections of goserelin 3.6 mg, in association with a tamoxifen daily dose of 20 mg, as first-line therapy for their advanced disease. All of the patients were evaluable for efficacy and there was an overall response rate of 41% (95% confidence interval 28-52%), with 7 of the 26 responders achieving complete remission. The median time to response was 4 months (range 2-17), and the median response duration was 13 months (range 6-37 +). Better responses were observed in soft tissues (51%); the response in visceral and bone metastases was respectively 19% and 37%. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and oestradiol were significantly decreased by the treatment, oestrogen levels being constantly suppressed to within the range observed in post-menopausal women. No significant change was detected in serum testosterone levels. In our experience, although it was not associated with any increased clinical efficacy, the concurrent use of goserelin and tamoxifen proved to be a feasible approach in the management of premenopausal advanced breast cancer. PMID:7734310

  16. African American women in STEM: Uncovering stories of persistence and resilience through an examination of social and cultural capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle Stevens

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still

  17. Relationship between oxidative stress and diabetic osteopenia in premenopausal rats

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    Valéria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense and diabetic osteopenia remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship among lipid peroxidation index, antioxidant defense parameters and bone metabolism in a premenopausal diabetic model using measures including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentration (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH content in brain homogenates, histomorphometric analysis, biomechanical testing and bone mineral density (BMD. Female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycle were divided into two groups: Group 1: control rats (n = 15 and Group 2: diabetic rats (n = 15. Diabetes was induced by alloxan and confirmed by glycemia >250 mg/dL. The lipid peroxidation index, measured by TBARS concentration, showed a significant increase (pA relação entre peroxidação lipídica, defesa antioxidante e osteopenia diabética permanece obscura. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre índice de peroxidação lipídica, parâmetro de defesa antioxidante e metabolismo ósseo em um modelo diabético pré-menopausa através de medidas como a concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (SRAT e conteúdo de glutationa reduzida (GSH no homogenato cerebral, análises histomorfométricas, teste biomecânico e densidade mineral óssea (DMO. Ratos Wistar fêmeas com ciclo estral regular foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 - ratas controle (n = 15 e Grupo 2 - ratas diabéticas (n = 15. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana e confirmado pela glicemia >250 mg/dL. O índice de peroxidação lipídica, medido pela concentração de SRAT, demonstrou um aumento significativo (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos, em relação aos animais controle. Entretanto, o parâmetro de defesa antioxidante, mensurado pelo conteúdo de GSH, foi reduzido significativamente (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos. As análises histomorfométricas mostraram um aumento significativo (p<0.05 da separação trabecular do f

  18. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR) at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population. Methods Data from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely). Results The mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015). The mean body mass index (BMI) of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001). The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012). Conclusion Korean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men. PMID:24627831

  19. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  20. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  1. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in different cervical lesion among organized health-examination women in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-ying; XUE Yue-zhen; CHEN Min; HAN Ling; LUO Man

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women worldwide.Human papillomavirus(HPV)plays a central role in the etiology of cervical cancer.It is important to describe the prevalence of HPV infection in different types of cervical lesions and to explore the relation between HPV viral load and the severity of cervical lesions.Methods To describe the HPV infection prevalence and viral load in different age groups,we retrospectively investigated 6405 cases of women who were organized by their units to take health-examination.They were given Hybrid Capture ll tests between Janury 2005 and December 2006.The correlation between HPV viral load and pathology was assessed.Results Overall HPV infection prevalence was 29.1%(1864/6405),while in women 18-20 years old it was 54.4% (31/57),the highest among all age groups.After declining rapidly,HPV prevalence stabilized at about 30.0%in women aged 30 and older.Of the 6405 women,1 483 women had a colposcopic biopsy and 33.2%(492/1 483)were positive for HPV DNA.Twenty-one percent of women with a normal diagnosis(238/1 095)had HPV infection,a statistically significantly lower prevalence than in women with cervical lesions,including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (68.8%in CINl,66.7% in CIN2,and 76.5%in CIN3)or with cervical cancer(94.1%).The correlation coefficient between viral load and cervical lesion severity was 0.134,which was not tatistically significant(P=0.075).Viral load values in women with CINs and cervical cancer were calculated,and no significant differences were dentified.Conclusions The revalence of high-risk HPV infection among women attending hospitals for health-examination in Shanghai is similar to the worldwide rate.HPV viral load can distinguish ervical lesions from normal individuals but cannot adequately predict the severity of cervical lesions.

  2. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  3. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Richard; Meeker, John D.; Powell, Sheena-Gail; Hauser, Russ; Huang, Tianyi; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that women have higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites than do men, possibly because of a higher use of personal care products. Few studies have evaluated the association between phthalate metabolites, diabetes, and diabetes-related risk factors among women. Objective: We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women who participated in a cross-sectional study. Methods: We used urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and self-reported diabetes of 2,350 women between 20 and 79 years of age who participated in the NHANES (2001–2008). We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for urinary creatinine, sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and body size. A secondary analysis was conducted for women who did not have diabetes to evaluate the association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment–estimated insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, women with higher levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) had an increased odds of diabetes compared with women with the lowest levels of these phthalates. Women in the highest quartile for MBzP and MiBP had almost twice the odds of diabetes [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.47) and OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.85), respectively] compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nonmonotonic, positive associations were found for MnBP and ΣDEHP, whereas MCPP appeared to have a threshold effect. Certain phthalate metabolites were positively associated with FBG and insulin resistance

  4. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  5. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: a prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the ability of direct and belief-based measures of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to predict exercise and diet intention and behavior of overweight women. Participants were 117 overweight, community-dwelling women and university students enrolled in a 4-week exercise and diet program. Participants completed baseline measures of demographic characteristics and the TPB constructs. Their exercise and diet adherence were also recorded. We found that: (1) the direct measure of perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted exercise intention, (2) the direct measures of instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted diet intention, and (3) none of the direct or belief-based measures of the TPB constructs predicted 4-week exercise or diet behavior. Furthermore, several beliefs were associated with the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. Implications of these results for designing exercise and diet interventions with overweight women are discussed.

  6. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

  7. Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

  8. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  9. Expanding the Psychological Wellness Threshold for Black College Women: An Examination of the Claiming Your Connections Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.; Ahn, Suran; Chan, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of a culturally congruent group intervention program entitled ''Claiming Your Connections (CYC)'' aimed at reducing stress and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black college women. Method: Using an experimental design, a total of 96…

  10. Social Factors that Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination: A Challenge to the Transfer of Training Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to understand how social factors might help or hinder the training transfer process. Specifically, this qualitative research looked at the meanings a group of women attached to social factors that might influence their practice of breast self-exam. Implications for transfer of training are suggested.…

  11. Educating Rita: An Examination of the Female Life Course and Its Influence on Women's Participation in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. Jo; Norton, Susan

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of 7 life events within the last 2 years and the top three 3 reasons for return were identified by 61 women returning to higher education. Motivations clustered in the following categories: financial improvement, personal goals and aspirations, self-fulfilment/self-esteem, and family considerations. (Contains 34 references.) (SK)

  12. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  13. Association between Awareness of Nutrition Labels and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity in Korean Women: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010~2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hae Young; Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Ji Su; Han, Kyung do

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between awareness of nutrition labeling and menstrual cycle irregularity in women from a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. A total of 4,324 women aged 19~54 years from the 2010~2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participated in the study. The participants were classified into three groups based on self-report responses to a questionnaire about their awareness of nutrition labels: Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups. The Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups comprised 46.4%, 44.9%, and 8.7% of the participants, respectively, and 53.6% of the participants had never used nutrition labels. In the Not-Knowing Group, irregular menstrual cycles for more than 3 months were significantly more common than women with irregular menstrual cycles for up to 3 months and women with regular menstrual cycles. Women in the Not-Knowing Group were more likely to exhibit menstrual cycle irregularity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.10~2.41) compared to women in the Reading Group after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise regularity, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, metabolic syndrome, age at menarche, parity, and use of oral contraceptives. No awareness of nutrition labeling appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity in a nationally representative group of Korean women.

  14. Childhood physical abuse is associated with incident metabolic syndrome in mid-life women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midei, Aimee J; Matthews, Karen A; Chang, Yue-Fang; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease. Our objective was to examine whether childhood abuse predicted incident metabolic syndrome, a precursor to heart disease, in midlife women. Participants were 342 (114 Black, 228 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and women were evaluated for presence of the metabolic syndrome over 7 annual follow-up visits. Women were classified as having metabolic syndrome if they met 3 of the following criteria: waist circumference >88 cm, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, HDL Childhood Trauma Questionnaire is a standardized measure that retrospectively assesses 3 domains of abuse in childhood and adolescence: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Approximately 34% of the participants reported a history of abuse. Cox model survival analysis showed that physical abuse was associated with incident metabolic syndrome over the course of 7 years (HR = 2.12, p = .02), adjusted for ethnicity, age at baseline, and time-dependent menopausal status. Sexual abuse and emotional abuse were unrelated to the metabolic syndrome. This is the first study to show that a history of childhood abuse, specifically physical abuse, is related to the development of metabolic syndrome in midlife women.

  15. Impact of a health education intervention program regarding breast self examination by women in a semi-urban area of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma in the world and the second most prevalent in Indian females. Over 0.7 million new cases of carcinoma breast are detected every year globally, with nearly 0.3 million deaths, affecting 28 per 100,000 females in the age group of 35 to 60 years. Breast self examination (BSE) can detect 40% of breast lesions. The present study aimed to assess the impact of a health education intervention program about breast self examination (BSE) among women in a semi-urban area in Madhya Pradesh, India. The study was carried out in three phases; pre-intervention phase, intervention phase, and post-intervention phase. A total of 1000 women were included. Interventional health education in the form of a lecture, pamphlets, flip charts and demonstration of the five step method of breast self examination using audio-visual aids was administrated. There was a significant improvement in knowledge regarding all aspects of breast self examination of the intervention group from pre- to post-test. After the intervention program, 590 (59%) women had good knowledge and among them 90.7% practiced (BSE) compared to 0% pre-test. An overall increase in the awareness of 43% and 53% of BSE practice was observed in the study group after intervention. Seven cases of breast disease were detected in which two were breast carcinoma and five were fibroadenomas. The knowledge and practices of women toward breast self examination for early detection were observed to be inadequate in respondents but there was a significant improvement after the intervention. Health education programs through various channels to increase the awareness and knowledge about BSE are the need of the hour. Mass media cancer education should promote widespread access to information about early detection behavior.

  16. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  17. Quality of life and mental health among women with ovarian cancer: examining the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer.

  18. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  19. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  20. Effect of body mass index on breast cancer during premenopausal and postmenopausal periods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Cheraghi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and breast cancer. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall effect of overweight and obesity on breast cancer risk during pre- and post-menopausal period. DATA SOURCES: All major electronic databases were searched until April 2012 including Web of Knowledge, Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Furthermore, the reference lists and related scientific conference databases were searched. REVIEW METHODS: All prospective cohort and case-control studies investigating the association between BMI and breast cancer were retrieved irrespective of publication date and language. Women were assessed irrespective of age, race and marital status. The exposure of interest was BMI. The primary outcome of interest was all kinds of breast cancers confirmed pathologically. Study quality was assessed using the checklist of STROBE. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two authors separately. The effect measure of choice was risk ratio (RR(i and rate ratio (RR(a for cohort studies and odds ratio (OR in case-control studies. RESULTS: Of 9163 retrieved studies, 50 studies were included in meta-analysis including 15 cohort studies involving 2,104,203 subjects and 3,414,806 person-years and 35 case-control studies involving 71,216 subjects. There was an inverse but non-significant correlation between BMI and breast cancer risk during premenopausal period: OR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86, 1.02; RR(i = 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.16; and RR(a = 0.99 (95% CI 0.94, 1.05, but a direct and significant correlation during postmenopausal period: OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.07, 1.24; RR(i = 1.16 (95% CI 1.08, 1.25; and RR(a = 0.98 (95% CI 0.88, 1.09. CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis showed that body mass index has no significant effect on the incidence of breast cancer during premenopausal period. On the other hand, overweight and obesity may have a minimal effect on

  1. Low-to-moderate alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, M; Holman, C D J

    2011-01-01

    ... in premenopausal women (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Thus, the effect of low-to-moderate alcohol intake on breast cancer risk remains contentious.Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women, a population that consumes alcohol at very low levels (). WHO reported that the lifetime prevalence of abstainer...

  2. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  3. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  4. Men are from Mars, women are from Venus? Examining gender differences in self-presentation on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Eimler, Sabrina C; Papadakis, Anna-Margarita; Kruck, Jana Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    Psychological research on gender differences in self-presentation has already revealed that women place higher priority on creating a positive self-presentation, while men are less concerned about the image they present in face-to-face (ftf) communication. Nowadays, with the extensive use of new media, self-presentation is no longer so closely tied to ftf situations, but can also take place in the online world. Specifically, social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, offer various features such as profile pictures, groups, and virtual bulletin boards with which users can create elaborated online representations of themselves. What remains open is whether this virtual self-presentation on SNS is subject to gender differences. Based on studies emphasizing gender-related differences in Internet communication and behavior in general, it can be assumed that men and women have different motives regarding their SNS usage as well. A multimethodological study, combining results of an online survey and a content analysis of 106 user profiles, assessed users' diverse motives for participating in SNS in general, and their use of specific profile elements or self-presentation in particular. In this sample of StudiVZ users, women tend to be more likely to use SNS for comparing themselves with others and for searching for information. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to look at other people's profiles to find friends. Moreover, women tend to use group names for their self-presentation and prefer adding portrait photos to their profiles, while men choose full-body shots.

  5. An examination of sexual orientation group patterns in mammographic and colorectal screening in a cohort of U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Pazaris, Mathew J; Nichols, Lauren P; Bowen, Deborah; Wei, Esther K; Spiegelman, Donna

    2013-03-01

    Underutilization of cancer screening has been found especially to affect socially marginalized groups. We investigated sexual orientation group patterns in breast and colorectal cancer screening adherence. Data on breast and colorectal cancer screening, sexual orientation, and sociodemographics were gathered prospectively from 1989 through 2005 from 85,759 U.S. women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Publicly available data on state-level healthcare quality and sexual-orientation-related legal protections were also gathered. Multivariable models were used to estimate sexual orientation group differences in breast and colorectal cancer screening, controlling for sociodemographics and state-level healthcare quality and legal protections for sexual minorities. Receipt of a mammogram in the past 2 years was common though not universal and differed only slightly by sexual orientation: heterosexual 84 %, bisexual 79 %, and lesbian 82 %. Fewer than half of eligible women had ever received a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and rates did not differ by sexual orientation: heterosexual 39 %, bisexual 39 %, and lesbian 42 %. In fully adjusted models, state-level healthcare quality score, though not state-level legal protections for sexual minorities, was positively associated with likelihood of being screened for all women regardless of sexual orientation. Concerns have been raised that unequal healthcare access for sexual orientation minorities may adversely affect cancer screening. We found small disparities in mammography and none in colorectal screening, though adherence to colorectal screening recommendations was uniformly very low. Interventions are needed to increase screening in women of all sexual orientation groups, particularly in areas with poor healthcare policies.

  6. [A comprehensive prevention programs on AIDS, HBV and syphilis among pregnant women and couples experienced premarital medical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xi-En; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Yang, Rong-Rong; Rezivan, Silafu; Li, Feng-Liang; Qin, Ai-Hua; Li, Li; Wu, Li-Zhen; Zong, Li-Li

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive prevention programs on HIV, HBV and syphilis transmission from mother to child and between premarital couples. HIV, HBV and syphilis were screened among pregnant women with interventional measure for infected women; HIV, HBV and syphilis (TP) were screened among premarital couples with medical advice. The HIV, HBsAg and TP positive rates were 8.4‰ (111/13 280), 54‰ (711/13 186) and 12.8‰ (159/12 401) respectively among pregnant women and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 73.8‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate (P premarital couples and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 131.5‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate alone (P < 0.001). Comprehensive prevention was more economical than prevention for HIV alone. The comprehensive strategies for prevention of HIV, HBV and syphilis was feasible, effective and economical that could help to actively conduct the preventive measures.

  7. Family matters: examining a multi-family group intervention for women with BRCA mutations in the scope of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Chiquelho, Raquel; Santos, Teresa Almeida; Sousa, Liliana

    2010-12-01

    The availability of family-centred services for women genetically at-risk for breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA) due to deleterious genetic mutations is still scarce, despite the distress that these women and their families may experience. This study describes a multi-family group intervention for women who tested positive for BRCA mutations and their families. Methods include a time-limited psycho-educational programme involving educational and support components and consisting of four semi-structured multi-family sessions. Three families (a total of nine people) attended the programme in genetic counselling for hereditary cancers at a Portuguese public hospital. A focus group interview was performed 1 month after the last session to assess both the practical and the psychosocial impacts and to collect suggestions from participants. The present paper focuses on the practical aspects of the intervention, its development and its evaluation. Participants reported that the programme is well-structured and that responds to the needs of patients and their families by improving coping skills and medical awareness in the adaptation to genetic illness. Results reinforce the need to integrate psychosocial and family-oriented interventions in genetic counselling, addressing the holistic experience of hereditary disease. Recommendations for enhancing the services available are provided. The multi-family discussion group, combining educative and supportive services with a family focus, can be successfully adapted in genetic counselling protocols.

  8. Evaluation of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis patients: its correlation with disease activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A Esaily

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Serum level of ucOC (which is a mirror of vitamin K deficiency was found to be higher in premenopausal RA patients than controls and correlated positively with disease activity and inversely with BMD measurement.

  9. Association between Coffee Consumption and Renal Impairment in Korean Women with and without Diabetes: Analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ha; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye Mi; Sung, Ji Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that coffee consumption has an influence on kidney function. This study investigated the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and renal impairment in Korean women, in consideration of diabetic status. Methods This study involved 2,673 women aged 35 to 84 years who had participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, conducted in 2008. Habitual coffee consumption was classified into three categories: less than 1 cup per day, 1 cup per day, and 2 or more cups per day. Renal function impairment was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The prevalence of diabetes and renal function impairment was higher in women who drank < 1 cup of coffee per day. Compared with drinking < 1 cup of coffee per day, the odds ratio (OR) for renal function impairment was significantly lower (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.95; P = 0.03) in those who habitually drank ≥ 2 cups per day after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. When data were stratified according to the presence of diabetes, coffee consumption ≥ 2 cups of coffee per day showed an inverse association with renal function impairment in only diabetic women (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88; P = 0.04), compared with consumption < 1 cup of coffee per day. Conclusion In a representative sample of Korean women, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of renal impairment especially in middle and elderly-aged diabetic women. PMID:23904956

  10. From "sex toy" to intrusive imposition: a qualitative examination of women's experiences with vaginal dilator use following treatment for gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberley; Fergus, Karen; Dasgupta, Tracey; Fitch, Marg; Doyle, Catherine; Adams, Lauran

    2012-04-01

    Regular use of vaginal dilators has been recommended as a prophylactic measure following radiation treatment for gynecological cancers in order to minimize vaginal stenosis and promote optimal healing of the vagina. Despite the well-established reluctance of women to adopt this practice, little is known about the difficulties and concerns associated with vaginal dilator use. To investigate women's experiences with the vaginal dilator and to understand the psychosocial factors that influence women's adoption of rehabilitative dilator use. This is an exploratory qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 10 women with a history of gynecological cancer and who were prescribed a vaginal dilator. Interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method and examined for recurrent themes. The main outcome measure was a semi-structured interview comprised of open-ended questions designed to elicit information concerning topic areas relevant to gynecological cancer, vaginal dilator use, and sexuality. The analysis resulted in five main categories underlying the core category of "From 'sex toy' to intrusive imposition." These were: (i) embarrassing sex toy; (ii) reliving the invasion of treatment; (iii) aversive "hands-on" experience; (iv) not at the forefront of my recovery; and (v) minimizing the resistance. Rehabilitative vaginal dilator use is a complex, multifaceted, and personal phenomenon that carries deep psychological and emotional implications that make it intrusive. These findings may enhance the way in which vaginal dilators are introduced and help healthcare providers address better women's difficulties and concerns with the dilators. Ultimately, it may also lead to improved health maintenance and quality of life for women recovering from gynecological cancer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Sik KimDepartment of Gender Equality and Social Cohesion Research, Korean Women's Development Institute, Seoul, Republic of KoreaObjective: To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.Methods: Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005 aged 20–29 years.Results: Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise, overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.Conclusion: This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.Keywords: body mass index, perceived body weight, body weight, body image, suicidal ideation 

  12. A comparative study of circulating plasma lipid components and superoxide dismutase activity in pre and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhari

    2016-09-01

    Results: Mean serum SOD level in premenopausal women was 4.80+/-1.73 U/ml and in postmenopausal was 1.35+/-0.58 U/ml. This variation was found to be extremely significant (p <0.0001. Changes in lipid components in pre and postmenopausal women showed that total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal participants. These variations were also significant (p = 0.0003. Levels of HDL-C were lower in postmenopausal women than pre-menopausal group with a mean+/-SD of 51.5+/-12.20 mg/dl and 54.05+/-14.03mg/dl respectively. Conclusions: Findings of this study corroborate the hypothesis that gradual loss of ovarian function is associated with a decrease in antioxidant status. Menopause also leads to changes in lipid components, which can predispose women to cardiovascular diseases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3801-3805

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice about breast cancer and breast self-examination among women seeking out-patient care in a teaching hospital in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Early detection of BC and early treatment increases the chance of survival. According to Breast Health Global Initiative guidelines for low and middle income countries, diagnosing BCs early by promoting breast self-awareness; clinical breast examination (CBE and resource adapted mammographic screening will reduce BC mortality. There is a paucity of data on the knowledge and awareness of BC and self-breast examination in India. We designed this hospital based cross sectional descriptive study to evaluate the current status of knowledge, awareness and practices related to BC and breast self-examination in the female rural population attending a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: We did a random sampling to identify and enroll 360 women and their female relatives. We excluded a participant from the study if she had already undergone a screening mammography or had had a BC. The data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire in vernacular language. Results: Our study population included 360 women with a mean age of 45.81 (±10.9 years. Only 5 (1.38% females had a family history of BC. A whopping 81% of women did not have any knowledge about BC. All the women thought that CBE by doctors was the only way for screening BC. Conclusions: We concluded that with the results of this study, it is imperative to increase awareness about BC and its detection methods in the community through health education campaigns. We should have major policy changes to increase future screening programs and health education programs which would have an overall positive impact on reducing the disease burden.

  14. Pathways to success in science: A phenomenological study, examining the life experiences of African-American women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giscombe, Claudette Leanora

    This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and

  15. Power of the Pill or Power of Abortion? Re-Examining the Effects of Young Women's Access to Reproductive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Caitlin Knowles

    2012-01-01

    Recent research postulating that the diffusion of confidential access to the birth control pill to young women in the United States contributed to the dramatic social changes of the late 1960s and 1970s has not adequately accounted for the largely contemporaneous diffusion of access to abortion. Estimates using a new panel of data on state policies related to access to the pill and abortion indicate that while access to the pill may have played a role in the sexual revolution, it had little e...

  16. A comparison of vaginal ultrasound and digital examination in predicting preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Anne; Severac, François; Meyer, Nicolas; Akladios, Cherif Y; Gaudineau, Adrien; Favre, Romain; Langer, Bruno; Sananes, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of digital examination in addition to ultrasonic measurement of cervical length for predicting spontaneous preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor. This was a prospective cohort study in Strasbourg University Hospital, France, between January 2013 and January 2015. All women with a singleton pregnancy hospitalized with threatened preterm labor between 23 and 34 weeks of gestation were included. Cases of iatrogenic preterm delivery were excluded. A multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the significant predictive parameters of spontaneous preterm delivery was performed. The primary endpoint of our study was a preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. A total of 395 women were included in our study. The rate of preterm delivery before 34 weeks was 13%. In univariate analysis every single cervical parameter assessed by the digital examination and all the ultrasound parameters were significantly associated with preterm delivery. The final model included five variables predicting preterm birth: visualization of the membranes at the speculum examination (OR 15.8, 95% CI 2.43-146), ultrasound cervical length (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89), signs of inflammation (OR 6.23, 95% CI 2.07-22.9), gestational age on admission (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.0), and presence of vaginal infection (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.52-12.7). None of the cervical parameters assessed by the digital examination provided additional predictive value of preterm delivery. Our study suggests that digital examination does not add to the information given by vaginal ultrasound evaluation in predicting preterm labor. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J; Qiao, Ning; Hannan, Marian T; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to determine the association between intake of total alcohol or individual alcoholic beverages and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Adjusting for potential confounding factors, we examined alcohol intakes and BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine in 1182 men and in 1289 postmenopausal and 248 premenopausal women in the population-based Framingham Offspring cohort (age: 29–86 y). Results: Men were predominantly beer drinkers, and women were predominantly wine drinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, hip BMD was greater (3.4–4.5%) in men consuming 1–2 drinks/d of total alcohol or beer, whereas hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0–8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d of total alcohol or wine. Intake of >2 drinks/d of liquor in men was associated with significantly lower (3.0–5.2%) hip and spine BMD than was intake of 1–2 drinks/d of liquor in men. After adjustment for silicon intake, all intergroup differences for beer were no longer significant; differences for other alcohol sources remained significant. Power was low for premenopausal women, and the associations were not significant. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of alcohol may be beneficial to bone in men and postmenopausal women. However, in men, high liquor intakes (>2 drinks/d) were associated with significantly lower BMD. The tendency toward stronger associations between BMD and beer or wine, relative to liquor, suggests that constituents other than ethanol may contribute to bone health. Silicon appears to mediate the association of beer, but not that of wine or liquor, with BMD. Other components need further investigation. PMID:19244365

  18. Women Who Sleep More Have Reduced Risk of Peptic Ulcer Disease; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Ko, Seung Yeon; Han, Kyung-Do

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is integral to life and sleep duration is important in sleep quality, physical, and psychological health. Disturbances in sleep duration have been associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders, hypertension, and overall mortality. Sleep disturbance has also been linked with various gastrointestinal disorders. However, the association between sleep and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has not been evaluated. We investigated the association between sleep duration and PUD. Subjects were included from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2008–2009. Individuals with PUD were defined as those with a physician diagnosis of PUD. Daily sleep duration was established by asking participants the amount of time that they slept per day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of PUD and sleep duration. This study included 14,290 participants (8,209 women). The prevalence of PUD was 5.7% and was higher in men (6.8%) than in women (4.9%). Women who slept ≥9 hours were significantly less likely to have PUD compared to women who slept 7 hours. In men, longer sleep duration (≥9 hours) had a tendency toward PUD prevention. Our results suggest that longer sleep duration may play a protective role for PUD development. PMID:27830741

  19. A Qualitative Study to Examine Perceptions and Barriers to Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain among Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Pham Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of reproductive age are particularly at risk of obesity because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and postpartum weight retention, resulting in poor health outcomes for both mothers and infants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions and barriers to GWG among low-income women in the WIC program to inform the development of an intervention study. Eleven focus groups were conducted and stratified by ethnicity, and each group included women of varying age, parity, and prepregnancy BMI ranges. Participants reported receiving pressure from spouse and family members to “eat for two” among multiple barriers to appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. Participants were concerned about gaining too much weight but had minimal knowledge of weight gain goals during pregnancy. Receiving regular weight monitoring was reported, but participants had inconsistent discussions about weight gain with healthcare providers. Most were not aware of the IOM guidelines nor the fact that gestational weight gain goals differed by prepregnancy weight status. Results of these focus groups analyses informed the design of a pregnancy weight tracker and accompanying educational handout for use in an intervention study. These findings suggest an important opportunity for GWG education in all settings where pregnant women are seen.

  20. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improves Cognition of Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Folic acid, vitamin B12 , pyridoxine, and homocystine are being measured in blood before and after treatment to determine effects of repletion of...34extracted" and "nonextracted" specimens. From such rigid analyses the evidence of lack of contamination can be easily verified. 56 Appendix III...iron and zinc status we are now targeting ads at vegetarians . e. We shared our concerns about recruitment with the contracting officer and proposed

  1. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Aagaard, Per; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    The present intervention was designed to investigate whether a 14-week period of regular recreational association football (F) or endurance running (R) has an effect on the risk of falls and bone fractures due to gains in muscle function and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). Fifty healthy u...

  2. C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1 in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia syndrome

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    Shereen M Olama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion We found a significant increase in serum CTX-1 in FMS patients compared with controls, and this was correlated with the disease severity. Increased CTX-1 may lead to the early development of osteoporosis. More comprehensive and detailed studies are needed to determine the exact role of CTX-1 in FMS.

  3. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease and with a mean age difference between groups of only 4 years were studied. Cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function were determined by transthoracic echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging and 2-dimensional speckle tracking. Measurements were performed at baseline...

  4. Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Shereem Mohamed; Senna, Mohammed K; Elarman, Mohammed Mohamed; Elhawary, Galal

    2013-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have impaired mobility and therefore get less sunlight exposure, we postulated that they may be at increased risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). The aim of this study was to assess and compare serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density (BMD) value in patients with primary FMS (PFMS) and healthy controls. A total of 50 patients with PFMS participated in this case-control study, and 50 healthy females who were age-matched to the patients were used as the control group. Venous blood samples collected from all subjects were used to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposterior, femoral neck and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients with PFMS had significantly lower serum 25-OHD than controls (15.1 ± 6.1 and 18.8 ± 5.4 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.0018). Apart from the BMD in the lumbar spine, which was significantly lower in the PFMS patients compared with controls (p = 0.0012), no significant difference was found in other measures of BMD. Compared to PFMS patients who had serum level of the 25-OHD >20 ng/ml, the patients with 25-OHD ≤20 ng/ml are more likely to have impaired short memory (46.4 vs. 13.6%, respectively, p = 0.0136), confusion (50 vs. 18.2%, respectively, p = 0.0199), mood disturbance (60.7 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0185), sleep disturbance (53.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, p = 0.0271), restless leg syndrome (57.1 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0346) and palpitation (67.9 vs. 36.4%, respectively, p = 0.0265). Serum level of the 25-OHD is inversely correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain (p = 0.016), Beck score for depression (p = 0.020) and BMD at lumbar spine (p = 0.012). The lumbar BMD inversely correlated with VAS of pain (p = 0.013) and Beck score for depression (p = 0.016). This study confirmed high preval