WorldWideScience

Sample records for premenopausal caucasian women

  1. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  2. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...... patients with irregular menses should include serum (s)-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, s-prolactin, s-Testosterone (T), and s-sex hormone-binding globulin. Further evaluation is needed in patients with markedly elevated s-T or with clinical Cushing's syndrome. Hirsute patients have a high risk of diabetes...

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone elicits gonadotropin secretion in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); Timmermans, M. (Mirjam); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY QUESTION Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In

  4. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in men, premenopausal women, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of bone mineral density is based on population studies in postmenopausal women. However, the increased use of bone densitometry has raised questions regarding the applicability of this classification to men, premenopausal women, and children. These questions were addressed at the International Society for Clinical Densitometry 2003 Position Development Conference. T-scores can be used and a diagnosis of osteoporosis made for T-scores of -2.5 or less (male reference database) in men age 65 yr and older and in men from 50 to 64 yr of age if other risk factors for fracture are present. The WHO classification should not be applied to premenopausal women. Men and premenopausal women with secondary causes of low bone density or bone loss may be clinically diagnosed with osteoporosis, taking bone density into consideration. In children and adolescents (males and females less than 20 yr of age), there are no densitometric criteria for diagnosing osteoporosis. If Z-scores are -2.0 or less (using pediatric databases of age-matched controls), then a characterization such as "low bone density for chronologic age" is appropriate. In men under 50 yr of age, premenopausal women, and children, Z-scores, not T-scores, should be used when reporting bone density results.

  6. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training ...

  7. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S; Marshall, P; Ingle, L; Borkoles, E

    2012-12-01

    Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a measure of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in apparently healthy adults. We aimed to determine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on HRR among clinically obese premenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a 3-month non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRR among healthy clinically obese premenopausal women. Thirty-one were randomly assigned to 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention and 31 served as controls. Sixty-one participants performed a maximal treadmill walking test with metabolic gas exchange. Baseline anthropometric measures were closely related to HRR at 1 min, which may indicate reduced parasympathetic reactivation. Post-exercise HRR at 60 s (HRR60) increased from 21.3 ± 6.2 to 27.8 ± 10.2 bpm in the intervention group compared with a smaller reduction (26.8 ± 12.3 to 24.5 ± 9.9 bpm) in controls (test for interaction P = 0.0001). HRR120 showed a significant effect of time (P = 0.0002) with no significant interaction with lifestyle intervention. A significant increase in VO2 peak was evident in the lifestyle group (21.6 to 23.6 mL/kg/min) compared with a modest reduction in the controls (22.6 to 21.6 mL/kg/min; test for interaction, P = 0.001). Clinically obese healthy premenopausal women achieved significant improvements in HRR60 and VO peak following a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women.

  10. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15...... and biochemical hyperandrogenism, whereas older patients are more obese with more severe hirsutism and more cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors....

  11. Acupuncture in Premenopausal Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Prospective Cohort Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan H. Oakley, MD, FACOG

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In this cohort of premenopausal women with HSDD, 5 weeks of acupuncture therapy was associated with significant improvements in sexual function, particularly desire. This supports a role for acupuncture as a therapeutic option for women with low desire.

  12. [The clinical characteristics of women with uterine hemorrhages in premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E

    1989-01-01

    The clinical characteristics was studied on 431 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopaussal phase of the climacterium. The author established that menarche, duration of menstrual interval and the menstruation itself before the bleeding did not differ from those of female population in the country. The same was referred to the reproductive characteristics. Premenopausal bleeding reached its peak between 46 and 48 years of age as its duration was relatively great. It was connected with frequent neuro-endocrine and metabolic pathology. The most frequent manifestations were obesity and hypertension. The number of the former hepatitis patients was comparatively large. Diseases of the uterine body were frequent in the structure of genital pathology. The frequency of benign, precancerous and malignant neoplastic processes (without myoma) was high-12.7%.

  13. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  14. Premenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis has traditionally been considered a disorder of postmenopausal women, but low bone mass and accelerated bone loss can also occur early in life causing premenopausal osteoporosis. There are a few risk factors that increase a woman′s risk of premenopausal osteoporosis, including drugs, hormonal and nutritional factors, and physical in-activity, which need to be identified and managed accordingly. Lifestyle modification is of importance in preventing progressive bone loss in premenopausal women and should be actively encouraged.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Compared to Premenopausal Women at Middle Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Muka, Taulant; Koster, Maria P H; Roeters van Lennep, Jaenine E; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Fauser, Clemens G K M; Meun, Cindy; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Boersma, Eric; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A young age at menopause has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular risk profile between women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premenopausal controls of comparable age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control st

  16. Bacteriuria in pregnancy: a comparison of Bangladeshi and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versi, E; Chia, P; Griffiths, D J; Harlow, B L

    1997-01-01

    During a 5-year period all urine culture results from pregnant Caucasian and Bangladeshi women booked for confinement at the Royal London Hospital, London, UK, were reviewed to determine race-specific rates of bacteriuria. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteriuria in the Caucasian group was 6.3% compared to 2.0% for the Bangladeshi women. Caucasian women were found to be at significantly greater risk across all pregnancy outcome and history categories, with the greatest risk observed in grand multiparous women (RR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.8-8.3). Pregnancies that resulted in preterm delivery showed a strong association of bacteriuria in Caucasian women which was not seen in the Bangladeshi women (RR: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.0-8.7). The data suggest that Caucasian women have a significantly higher prevalence of bacteriuria in pregnancy than their Bangladeshi neighbors. Differences in hygiene practices and clothing may explain the observed differences in the bacteriuria rates.

  17. Effect of energy deficiency on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Kim C; Williams, Nancy I

    2007-07-01

    Physical activity has been associated with decreased breast cancer risk, potentially through changes in estrogen metabolism. Two-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) have different biological properties, and the ratio of these metabolites (2/16) has been proposed to predict breast cancer risk. Diet and exercise have been found to influence estrogen metabolism, particularly when a state of negative energy balance is achieved. We sought to determine whether 4 months of moderate-intensity exercise coupled with calorie restriction would result in changes in urinary 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16 in sedentary, premenopausal, eumenorrheic women. Average age was 31.5 yr, average body fat was 31.6%, and average BMI was 23.7. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured in 24 women during the baseline and for four intervention months in the midfollicular and midluteal phases. The intervention produced a significant drop in body fat (4.5%) and body weight (3.7 kg). Aerobic fitness increased significantly (26%; P effects of the diet and exercise intervention on 2-OHE1, 16alpha-OHE1, or 2/16. However, when divided into tertiles according to baseline 2/16, the intervention resulted in significant increases in 2/16 in women in the lowest tertile. Women in the lowest tertile (average 2/16 = 0.91) did not differ from the other tertiles in baseline estradiol concentrations, body fat, weight, fitness, or changes in these variables with the intervention. The data suggest that women at higher risk for developing breast cancer because of low 2/16 may reduce their risk by participating in lifestyle interventions such as exercise/calorie restriction.

  18. Melatonin levels in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Kazim; Baygutalp, Fatih; Baykal, Tuba; Erdal, Akin; Ugur, Mahir

    2013-06-01

    The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, widespread pain disorder of unknown etiology. It has been suggest that familial component, environmental factors, endocrine and neurotransmitter alterations, and psychological factors may contribute to the development of FMS. The role of melatonin in FMS is unclear. Some studies describe a lower nocturnal peak and a decreased secretion of melatonin in women with FMS when compared with healthy matched controls. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible role of melatonin in FMS patients. We examined the characteristics and levels of melatonin in 25 consecutive premenopausal women with FMS. Serum blood samples were collected from 25 patients and 20 the age and gender matched healthy controls. Melatonin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the results were compared with those from healthy subjects. Serum melatonin levels of FMS patients were not statistically different from those of controls (P > 0.05). No association was observed between melatonin levels of patients with FMS and disease duration, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and pain scores. Our results demonstrate that melatonin levels were similar in patients with FMS and healthy controls. Further studies are needed to determine the possible role of melatonin.

  19. Relationship between underweight, bone mineral density and skeletal muscle index in premenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J; Park, H S

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common health problems in postmenopausal women. However, studies of these issues in premenopausal women are limited. Our present study aimed to investigate relationship the between underweight, bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) in a representative sample of premenopausal Korean women. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Participants included 1767 healthy, ≥ 20-year-old, non-obese premenopausal women. Underweight was defined as BMIrelationship between underweight, BMD and SMI after adjusting for confounding factors. The prevalence of low BMD and low SMI in underweight women was 23.9% and 18.4%, respectively, compared with 9.4% and 1.7% in normal weight women. Low BMD and/or low SMI were present in 36.7% of underweight women compared with 10.7% of normal weight women. After adjustments, underweight women exhibited a higher odds ratio for low BMD (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 2.31-5.05), low SMI (OR, 11.61; 95% CI, 6.17-21.88) and combined low BMD and low SMI (OR, 23.82; 95% CI, 8.92-63.58) when compared with normal weight women. Underweight premenopausal women are at a higher risk of low bone mass and low skeletal muscle. Educational efforts that promote a normal weight in premenopausal women should be reinforced. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of 3 dimensional sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in Premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser I. Abd Elkhalek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: 3-D sonohysterography is a very safe, well tolerated and effective modality for evaluation of intracavitary uterine abnormalities and is an accurate alternative technique for hysteroscopy among the premenopausal women that suffers from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB.

  1. Role of Ovarian Function Suppression in Premenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historically, endocrine therapy for breast cancer began with ovarian ablation (OA) for the treatment of premenopausal patients. After the identification of estrogen receptors and the development of many antiestrogens, tamoxifen has been approved and used as the standard endocrine therapy for hormonal receptor (HR)-positive premenopausal patients to date. With the development of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, the paradigm of endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer began to change from OA to ovarian function suppression (OFS). To date, the indication for OFS was limited to those premenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer who were unable to use tamoxifen as the primary adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, following the definitive demonstration of the therapeutic role of OFS added to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor after chemotherapy in large randomized trials, such as Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial or Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial, the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for the use of endocrine therapy in premenopausal HR-positive breast cancer were recently updated to recommend OFS in high-risk patients who required adjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, the role of OFS to protect ovarian function during chemotherapy in premenopausal women has remained controversial, and some evidence showing the protective effect of OFS on the ovaries during chemotherapy as well as its therapeutic effect for breast cancer in premenopausal women with HR-negative breast cancer was recently published. Further evaluation is necessary to determine its exact role. In conclusion, the role of OA or OFS has been evolving, not only to improve the efficacy of breast cancer treatment, but also to preserve ovary function. OFS remains a main strategy for premenopausal women with HR-positive early breast cancer, though its exact role should be determined in further studies. PMID:28053622

  2. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained.

  3. Aging is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  5. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Shea, Karen L; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2015-11-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), -54 (-98, -15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (-33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-128 (-214, -41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [-96 (-159, -32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [-0.30 (-0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy.

  6. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group...... and compared with a control group with no physical training (CO, n=15). Training was performed for 1 h twice a week. After 16 weeks, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (P..., regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  7. Has testosterone passed the test in premenopausal women with low libido? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed BG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Beverly G Reed, Laurice Bou Nemer, Bruce R Carr Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Background: There are limited evaluation and treatment options for low libido in premenopausal women. This review sought to evaluate the available evidence supporting the evaluation of testosterone serum levels and testosterone treatment of premenopausal women with low libido. Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for articles that referenced the evaluation of testosterone serum level and/or testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido from 1995 to 2015. Additional references were obtained from the reference sections of other papers and from peer review. Studies that included only postmenopausal women were excluded. A total of 13 studies were reviewed in detail. Nine studies examined the relationship between testosterone serum levels and sexuality, an additional three studies examined the effect of testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido, and one study examined both the topics. Results: Six of the ten testosterone serum evaluation studies failed to show a significant association between testosterone serum level and libido. Only one out of four studies examining testosterone treatment in premenopausal women was able to show any clear improvement in libido; however, the effect was limited to only the intermediate dose of testosterone, with the low and high doses of testosterone not producing any effect. Conclusion: The currently available evidence does not support testosterone serum evaluation or treatment in premenopausal women with low libido. Hence, further studies are warranted. Keywords: androgens, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD, ovary, testis, sexual dysfunction, sexual interest, arousal disorder

  8. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21...

  9. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Dan; CHEN Yu; WU Wei; ZHANG Feng; XU Jia; CUI Wei; LI Shu-lan; LI Rong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pre-menopausal women are at risk for iron deficiency due to menstrual blood losses. The prevalence rates (PR) of iron depletion, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and iron deficiency were 34.4%, 15.1% and 49.5% in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women respectively in China.1 Traditionally, the diagnosis of iron deficiency relies on the hematological markers (hemoglobin (HGB),mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW))and biochemical markers (serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)). Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered to be used as a marker of iron deficiency.2 The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of CHr with the old markers in diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women.

  10. Comparison of unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirzaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry mouth is one of the most common complications during menopause that affects quality of life as well as oral tissue dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 80 healthy women including 40 postmenopausal women as case group and 40 over 30-year-old premenopausal women as control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire including demographics, oral symptoms and examination. The subjects were asked to avoid eating and drinking 90 minutes before examination. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was measured by spitting method in milliliters per minute. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test, T-test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean unstimulated saliva was 0.182±0.149 ml/min and 0.304±0.129 ml/min in postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively and the difference was statistically significant. The prevalence of dry mouth was 45% in postmenopausal women and was 12.5% in premenopausal women. Burning sensation in mouth and change in taste sensation were 27.5% and 5% in postmenopausal women and were 2.5% and 0% in premenopausal women. There was negative significant correlation between the unstimulated salivary flow rate and age. Conclusion: The unstimulated salivary flow rate decreases after menopause. Oral symptoms are more prevalent in this period compared to before menopause. These differences may be due to hormonal changes (decreased estrogen and progesterone during menopause.

  11. Bio-Social Predictors of Hypertension Among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Tyagi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the contribution of various biological and lifestyle factors toward progression to hypertension are examined among menopausal and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study among 245 women of 20 to 65 years was conducted. Besides blood pressure, fat percentage using bio-electric impedance analyzer and adiposity indices such as body mass index (BMI, waist–hip ratio (WHR, and waist–height ratio (WHtR were taken. Mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic were used to analyze the data. Statistically significant differences (p< .001 for blood pressure among postmenopausal and premenopausal women were found. Among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the prehypertensive and hypertensive group showed significant differences with the normotensive women for body weight (p< .005, regional obesity, and general obesity. Low educational level, working status of women, socioeconomic status, nuclear family setup, postmenopausal status, and obesity were found to be the likely risk factors for prehypertension or hypertension among women.

  12. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  13. The prognostic impact of obesity on molecular subtypes of breast cancer in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, F P; Solak, M; Petekkaya, I; Keskin, O; Kertmen, N; Sarici, F; Arik, Z; Babacan, T; Ozisik, Y; Altundag, K

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity throughout the world will result in expansion of the number of women at risk for developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated with adverse outcomes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. In premenopausal women, the association is less clear. We investigated the impact of obesity on tumor features, hormonal status, recurrence and mortality in premenopausal breast cancer patients, classified according to molecular subtypes. 818 premenopausal women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were analysed. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI): i) normal body weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)); ii) overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/ m(2)); and iii) obese (BMI:>30 kg/ m(2)). Clinocopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed for triple negative, HER-2 overexpressing and luminal subtypes. Obese patients compared with normal-weight women were older at diagnosis (pobese patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively). Obesity (HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-2.1; p=0.04) and lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3- 3.3; p=0.02) were found to be independent prognostic factors for TNBC mortality. Obesity is associated with estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative tumors and poor OS in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

  14. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  15. Association between levels of serum ferritin and bone mineral density in Korean premenopausal and postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Seung Joo; Choi, Yun Rak; Roh, Yun Ho; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2014-01-01

    As women go through menopause, serum estrogen decreases and ferritin increases. Decreased serum estrogen is well known to cause detrimental effects on bone health; however, data on the associations of serum ferritin with BMD before and after menopause are still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women. This study was performed using data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including 7300 women (4229 premenopausal and 3071 postmenopausal). BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at the femur and the lumbar spine, and serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Median serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women were higher than those in premenopausal women despite the same age ranges. Serum ferritin levels were only significantly correlated with BMD on the lumbar spine (β = -0.189, p-value = 0.005) in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. Additionally, BMD on the lumbar spine had tended to decrease as serum ferritin quartiles increase (P for trend = 0.035) in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. On the other hand, there were no significant associations between serum ferritin levels and BMD on the total femur and, femur neck in premenopausal women, and BMD on the total femur, femur neck, and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Increased serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with BMD in premenopausal women, particularly on the lumbar spine, but not in postmenopausal women.

  16. Hormonal Modulation of Breast Cancer Gene Expression: Implications for Intrinsic Subtyping in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Sarah M.; Dasari, Pallave; Walsh, David; Townsend, Amanda R.; Price, Timothy J.; Ingman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Clinics are increasingly adopting gene-expression profiling to diagnose breast cancer subtype, providing an intrinsic, molecular portrait of the tumor. For example, the PAM50-based Prosigna test quantifies expression of 50 key genes to classify breast cancer subtype, and this method of classification has been demonstrated to be superior over traditional immunohistochemical methods that detect proteins, to predict risk of disease recurrence. However, these tests were largely developed and validated using breast cancer samples from postmenopausal women. Thus, the accuracy of such tests has not been explored in the context of the hormonal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. Concordance between traditional methods of subtyping and the new tests in premenopausal women is likely to depend on the stage of the menstrual cycle at which the tissue sample is taken and the relative effect of hormones on expression of genes versus proteins. The lack of knowledge around the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on gene expression in breast cancer patients raises serious concerns for intrinsic subtyping in premenopausal women, which comprise about 25% of breast cancer diagnoses. Further research on the impact of the menstrual cycle on intrinsic breast cancer profiling is required if premenopausal women are to benefit from the new technology of intrinsic subtyping. PMID:27896218

  17. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  18. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel;

    2010-01-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, right...

  19. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (piron (piron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, piron iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, piron negatively (r=-0.119, piron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in determining bone density in healthy premenopausal women.

  20. Menstrual irregularity and bone mass in premenopausal women: Cross-sectional associations with testosterone and SHBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otahal Petr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been few studies examining the associations between menstrual irregularity, androgens and bone mass in population-based samples of premenopausal women. This study aimed to describe the associations between menstrual pattern, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and bone mass in a population-based sample of premenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional study (N = 382, mean age 31.5 years. Menstrual pattern was assessed by questionnaire, bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS and androgen status was assessed by levels of serum testosterone, SHBG and the free androgen index (FAI. Results Women with irregular cycles (n = 41, 11% had higher free androgen index (FAI, P = 0.01 and higher QUS measurements including speed of sound (SOS, 1%, P Conclusion Irregular menstrual cycles were associated with higher bone mass in this population-based sample of premenopausal women suggesting menstrual disturbance should continue to be evaluated but may be less harmful for bone mass. The association between menstrual irregularity and bone mass was partially mediated by markers of androgen status especially free testosterone.

  1. Efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with chemotherapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. Literatures were extracted from databases including Excerpta Medica Database, Springer, Pubmed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biological Medicine from their inception up to May 2014. The main efficacy measures were 5 years overall survival (OS, 10 years OS, 5 years disease free survival and 5 years progress free survival. Ten randomized comparison clinical trials were eligible in this study. The result showed that goserelin combined with chemotherapy group can improve the survival rate and decrease the incidence of arthralgia in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, respectively, compared to the control group. However, they can increase the occurrence of vomiting during the chemotherapy process. Compared with the simple chemotherapy, goserelin combined with chemotherapy can provide benefits for premenopausal women with breast cancer on improving the survival rate and reducing arthralgia.

  2. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  3. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  4. Association between levels of serum ferritin and bone mineral density in Korean premenopausal and postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Joo Chon

    Full Text Available As women go through menopause, serum estrogen decreases and ferritin increases. Decreased serum estrogen is well known to cause detrimental effects on bone health; however, data on the associations of serum ferritin with BMD before and after menopause are still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women.This study was performed using data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including 7300 women (4229 premenopausal and 3071 postmenopausal. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at the femur and the lumbar spine, and serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay.Median serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women were higher than those in premenopausal women despite the same age ranges. Serum ferritin levels were only significantly correlated with BMD on the lumbar spine (β = -0.189, p-value = 0.005 in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. Additionally, BMD on the lumbar spine had tended to decrease as serum ferritin quartiles increase (P for trend = 0.035 in premenopausal women after adjusting confounding factors. On the other hand, there were no significant associations between serum ferritin levels and BMD on the total femur and, femur neck in premenopausal women, and BMD on the total femur, femur neck, and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women.Increased serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with BMD in premenopausal women, particularly on the lumbar spine, but not in postmenopausal women.

  5. Mannose-binding lectin in pre-menopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, R; Nitzan, O; Chazan, B; Edelstein, H; Raz, R

    2010-09-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) comprises an oligomeric serum protein that is a member of the collectin class of the C-type lectin superfamily. Its deficiency is genetically determined and confers predisposition to recurrent infections as well as increased infection severity. This correlation has been demonstrated in recurrent furunculosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and in pneumococcal and Candida infections. The present study aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between MBL serum levels and recurrent urinary tact infections (UTI) in pre-menopausal women. The present aged-matched double-blind controlled study was conducted in 100 pre-menopausal adult women: 50 who suffered from recurrent UTI and 50 without UTI. The MBL concentration was measured in a single serum sample from each patient using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MBL serum levels [median (range)] were 2500 (4-12,000) ng/mL and 2105 (4-22,800) ng/mL for the research and control groups, respectively. The results from the two groups were compared and were not statistically different (p 0.4). According to these results, MBL serum levels are not associated with an increased risk for recurrent UTI in pre-menopausal women.

  6. Can bone loss be reversed by antithyroid drug therapy in premenopausal women with Graves' disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsing Tina Z

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Hyperthyroidism can lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk particularly in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism behind is still unclear. Objective Prospective examination of the influence of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid autoantibodies on BMD in premenopause. Design We have examined 32 premenopausal women with untreated active Graves' disease from time of diagnosis, during 18 months of antithyroid drug therapy (ATD and additionally 18 months after discontinuing ATD. Variables of thyroid metabolism, calcium homeostasis and body composition were measured every 3 months. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured at baseline, 18 ± 3 and 36 ± 3 months. Data were compared to base line, a sex- and age matched control group and a group of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with non-suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Results The study showed significantly (p Conclusion The results indicated a clinically relevant impact of thyroid function on bone modulation also in premenopausal women with Graves' disease, and further indicated the possibility for a direct action of TRAb on bones.

  7. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Coping Strategies of Tri-Dimensional Problems of Premenopausal Women - A Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Boro, Enu; Jamil, M D; Roy, Aakash

    2016-11-01

    Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A 'p-value' tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge of tri-dimensional problems in premenopausal women.

  8. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  9. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms in premenopausal women: interaction between genotype and smoking on lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has multiple effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the association between the four common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 gene locus, -1989T>G, +261G>C, IVS1-397T>C and IVS1-351A>G, and lipid and lipoprotein levels in southern Brazilians. The sample consisted in 150 men and 187 premenopausal women. The women were considered premenopausal if they had regular menstrual bleeding within the previous 3 months and were 18-50 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, secondary hyperlipidemia due to renal, hepatic or thyroid disease, and diabetes. Smoking status was self-reported; subjects were classified as never smoked and current smokers. DNA was amplified by PCR and was subsequently digested with the appropriate restriction enzymes. Statistical analysis was carried out for men and women separately. In the study population, major allele frequencies were _1989*T (0.83, +261*G (0.96, IVS1-397*T (0.58, and IVS1-351*A (0.65. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an interaction between +261G>C polymorphism and smoking was a significant factor affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (P = 0.028 in women. Nonsmoking women with genotype G/C of +261G>C polymorphism had mean HDL-C levels higher than those with G/G genotype (1.40 ± 0.33 vs 1.22 ± 0.26 mmol/L; P = 0.033. No significant associations with lipid and lipoprotein levels in women and men were detected for other polymorphisms. In conclusion, the +261G>C polymorphism might influence lipoprotein and lipid levels in premenopausal women, but these effects seem to be modulated by smoking, whereas in men ESR1 polymorphisms were not associated with high lipoprotein levels.

  10. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often due to a disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition to hirsutism, women with PCOS may have irregular or absent menstrual periods and/or infertility. Acne, obesity, and an increased risk of diabetes are ...

  11. Early onset vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in premenopausal women and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Andreas R; Faber, Melanie; Knappe, Gabriele; Hellriegel, Simin; Emons, Günter

    2008-03-01

    For vulvar Lichen sclerosus (LS) immunological factors, genetic predisposition, and decreased 5 alpha-reductase activity have been discussed as aetiological factors. During the last decade an increase of LS in young women has been suspected. Aim of this study was to evaluate data of premenopausal women with early onset LS to find potential risk factors focussing on the use of oral contraceptives. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 40 premenopausal patients with early onset LS regarding use of oral contraceptives (OCPs), and first occurrence of LS. To compare these data in a case-control study we analyzed a matched control group of 110 healthy women. All our LS patients were using OCPs compared to 73 women (66.4%) in the control group. OCPs with anti-androgenic activity (chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, and drospirenone) were used by 28 (70%) of the LS patients and by 35 (47.9%) of the 73 women using OCPs in the control group. Thus, the odds ratio for early onset LS for women using anti-androgenic OCPs was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12-5.75). Our data suggest that disturbance of the androgen dependent growth of the vulvar skin by OCPs and especially by OCPs with anti-androgenic properties might trigger the early onset of LS in a subgroup of susceptible young women.

  12. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londono J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available John Londono,1 Paula Valencia,1 Ana María Santos,1 Luisa F Gutiérrez,2 Roberto Baquero,1 Rafael Valle-Oñate1,3 1Rheumatology Department, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 2Preventive Care Ltd, Research Unit, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 3Rheumatology Department, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4 and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3% had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7% had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001. The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–16, age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2, a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2, or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2. Conclusion: Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature

  13. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  14. Sweating and thirst perception in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during moderate exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Amabebe; Sonia I. Omorodion; Janet O. Ozoene; UGWU, ANDREW C.; Leonard F. Obika

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the sweat rate (SR), sweat volume (SV), sweat sodium concentration (S[Na+]) and changes in thirst perception (TP), in premenopausal (preM), perimenopausal (periM) and postmenopausal (postM) women after moderate exercise. Methods: Thirty healthy women comprising preM (22.5 ± 0.8 yrs, n = 10), periM (46.5 ± 1.1 yrs, n = 10) and postM (52.2 ± 0.9 yrs, n = 10) participated in the study. All participants gave informed consent. TP was rated using the visual...

  15. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms and their association with estradiol and estrogen metabolites in women who are premenopausal and perimenopausal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran R; Wilson, Angela L; Kardia, Sharon R; Chu, Jian; McConnell, Daniel S

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate measured concentrations of estradiol (E2) and the urinary estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the primary genes involved in estrogen catabolism. We investigated the association of 4 CYP1A1 SNPs (CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP1A1 rs1531163, CYP1A1 rs2606345, and CYP1A1 rs1048943) and 2 CYP1B1 SNPs (CYP1B1 rs162555 and CYP1B1 rs1056836) to circulating serum E2 concentrations and the urinary estrogen metabolites 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-OHE1. The associations were evaluated in 1,340 participants of 4 racial/ethnic groups from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) who were premenopausal and perimenopausal. There was substantial variation in the allele frequencies of the SNPs for African American and Caucasian women. There was, however, remarkable comparability between Chinese and Japanese women; their CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 allele frequencies differed by only < or =11%. There was significant variation in E2 concentrations by genotype within racial/ethnic group for CYP1A1 rs2606345. In particular, Japanese women with the CC genotype had lower E2 concentrations than did Japanese women with the AC genotype. Chinese women with the CC genotype had higher 2-OHE1 concentrations than did Chinese women with the AC genotype. Further, African American women with the CC genotype had higher 16alpha-OHE1 concentrations than did those with other genotypes. CYP1A1 rs2606345 may play an important role in estrogen metabolism in women who are premenopausal and perimenopausal.

  16. Patterns of nonmasslike enhancement at screening breast MR imaging of high-risk premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, Catherine S; Raza, Sughra; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Current U.S. recommendations for breast cancer screening of women with at least a 20%-25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer include contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breasts. The cancer detection rate in high-risk women undergoing screening MR imaging is approximately 10 times higher than that in normal-risk women undergoing screening mammography. Many of these high-risk women commence MR imaging screening while they are premenopausal, when the breasts are most influenced by cyclical hormonal changes. Healthy premenopausal breast tissue enhances in a cyclical and variable manner. This enhancement is described as background enhancement. Typically, enhancement of normal breast tissue occurs in a symmetric and diffuse pattern, and there is little diagnostic difficulty in classifying it as normal background parenchymal enhancement. However, sometimes the pattern is more focal, asymmetric, or regional. It may then be described as nonmasslike enhancement, an observation associated with both benign and malignant breast pathologic conditions. A review of the morphologic features and internal enhancement patterns in normal but nondiffuse background enhancement and abnormal nonmasslike enhancement in high-risk premenopausal women can help improve interpretive specificity and decrease false-positive interpretations. MR imaging pitfalls and interpretation strategies for localized background enhancement and pathologic nonmasslike enhancement in this high-risk population are highlighted. In evaluating nonmasslike enhancement, the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon to perform careful analysis of morphologic features, along with an understanding of the role and limitations of kinetic information, will help balance early breast cancer detection against false-positive interpretation.

  17. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Heiman; H. Rupp; E. Janssen; S.K. Newhouse; M. Brauer; E. Laan

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two s

  18. Premenopausal and postmenopausal differences in bone microstructure and mechanical competence in Chinese-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marcella D; Liu, X Sherry; Zhou, Bin; Agarwal, Shivani; Liu, George; McMahon, Donald J; Bilezikian, John P; Guo, X Edward

    2013-06-01

    Compared to white women, premenopausal Chinese-American women have more plate-like trabecular (Tb) bone. It is unclear whether these findings are relevant to postmenopausal women and if there are racial differences in the deterioration of bone microarchitecture with aging. We applied individual trabecula segmentation and finite element analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography images in premenopausal and postmenopausal Chinese-American and white women to quantify within-race age-related differences in Tb plate-versus-rod microarchitecture and bone stiffness. Race-menopause status interactions were assessed. Comparisons between races within menopause status were adjusted for age, height and weight. Comparisons between premenopausal and postmenopausal women were adjusted for height and weight. Adjusted analyses at the radius indicated that premenopausal Chinese-Americans had a higher plate bone volume fraction (pBV/TV), Tb plate-to-rod ratio (P-R ratio), and greater plate-plate junction densities (P-P Junc.D) versus white women (all p led to 19% greater whole bone stiffness (p white women. Postmenopausal Chinese-American versus white women had greater Ct.Th, Dcort, and relatively intact Tb plates, resulting in similar Tb stiffness but 12% greater whole bone stiffness (p white women. There are advantages in cortical and Tb bone in premenopausal Chinese-American women. Within-race cross-sectional differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal women suggest greater loss of plate-like Tb bone with aging in Chinese-Americans, though thicker cortices and more plate-like Tb bone persists.

  19. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  20. Quality of life and pain in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder: The POWER Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonbolian Nina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas it is established that organic pain may induce depression, it is unclear whether pain is more common in healthy subjects with depression. We assessed the prevalence of pain in premenopausal women with major depression (MDD. Subjects were 21- to 45-year-old premenopausal women with MDD (N = 70; age: 35.4 +/- 6.6; mean +/- SD and healthy matched controls (N = 36; age 35.4 +/- 6.4 participating in a study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression Study. Methods Patients received a clinical assessment by a pain specialist, which included the administration of two standardized forms for pain, the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form, and the Initial Pain Assessment Tool, and two scales of everyday stressors, the Hassles and Uplifts Scales. In addition, a quality-of-life instrument, the SF-36, was used. The diagnosis of MDD was established by a semi-structured interview, according to the DSM-IV criteria. Substance P (SP and calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP, neuropeptides which are known mediators of pain, were measured every hour for 24 h in a subgroup of patients (N = 17 and controls (N = 14. Results Approximately one-half of the women with depression reported pain of mild intensity. Pain intensity was significantly correlated with the severity of depression (r2 = 0.076; P = 0.04 and tended to be correlated with the severity of anxiety, (r2 = 0.065; P = 0.07, and the number of depressive episodes (r2 = 0.072; P = 0.09. Women with MDD complained of fatigue, insomnia, and memory problems and experienced everyday negative stressors more frequently than controls. Quality of life was decreased in women with depression, as indicated by lower scores in the emotional and social well-being domains of the SF-36. SP (P Conclusion Women with depression experienced pain more frequently than controls, had a lower quality of life, and complained more of daily stressors

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  2. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsinejad-Marj, Maryam; Talebi, Shokufeh; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Mediterranean diet (MD) has long been suspected to impact on health promotion. Epidemiologic studies reveal the protective role of adherence to this dietary pattern on cancer incidence. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern influence on breast cancer risk in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. We performed an electronic search of published studies earlier than Apr 2015 using Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Scopus databases. The search terms included: breast neoplasm, breast tumors, mammary carcinoma, mammary neoplasm, breast cancer, and Mediterranean diet. Study inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English; 2) with a study arm of MD intervention or MD style assessment; 3) reported the BC risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We summarized the findings of 8 studies in this review, including five cohorts and three case-control studies. Although, cohort studies reported controversial results in this field, case-control studies resulted inverse relation between this Mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in pre or/and postmenopausal women. It seems that there is no sufficient data to reach a conclusion about the effect of MD on breast cancer risk in pre and postmenopausal, but there are some evidences suggesting the protective association. More cohort studies in different parts of the world are needed to confirm these results.

  3. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Estrogen Metabolism in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alma J.; Phipps, William R.; Thomas, William; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well accepted that exercise can decrease breast cancer risk. Limited clinical evidence suggests that this risk could be mediated through changes in estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Our objective was to investigate the effects of exercise on premenopausal estrogen metabolism pertinent to breast cancer risk. Methods Sedentary, healthy, young eumenorrheic women were randomized into an intervention of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise 5 times a week for approximately 16 weeks (n = 212), or into a usual-lifestyle sedentary control group (n = 179). Urinary levels of estrogens (estrone [E1], estradiol, and estriol) and nine estrogen metabolites were measured at baseline and at study end by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The ratios of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1/16α-OHE1) and 2-OHE1 to 4-hydroxyestrone (2- OHE1/4-OHE1) were also calculated. Results The exercise intervention resulted in significant increases in aerobic fitness and lean body mass, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. For exercisers who completed the study (n = 165), 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 increased significantly (P = 0.043), while E1 decreased significantly (P = 0.030) in control participants (n = 153). The change from baseline in 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 was significantly different between groups (P = 0.045), even after adjustment for baseline values. Conclusions The exercise intervention resulted in a significant increase in the 2-OHE1/16α-OHE1 ratio, but no differences in other estrogen metabolites or ratios. Impact Our results suggest that changes in premenopausal estrogen metabolism may be a mechanism by which increased physical activity lowers breast cancer risk. PMID:23652373

  4. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dupuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  5. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  6. Sarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Marianne C; Hunter, Gary R; Livingstone, Margaret Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the decline of muscle mass with age, causes impaired gait, disability and falls. It may therefore increase the risk of fracture for osteoporotic women. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in osteopenic and osteoporotic women, and to determine if hormone replacement therapy (HRT), diet, or physical activity (PA) has a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. One hundred and thirty-one premenopausal and 82 postmenopausal (54 taking HRT) healthy women (17-77 years) volunteered for the study. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI) (appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height) below 5.45 kg/m2. Osteopenia was defined by a densitometric t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) below -1.0 and osteoporosis by a t-score below -2.5. Nutrient intake was assessed using 3-day food records and physical activity (PA) was measured using the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pearson chi-squared, independent t-tests, simple correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In premenopausal osteopenic women the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.5%. In postmenopausal women it was 25% for those with osteopenia, and 50% for those with osteoporosis. PA was independently related to RSMI (beta=0.222, p=0.0001), but diet and HRT were not. After adjusting for PA, RSMI was not significantly related to BMD. These data suggest that the relationship between RSMI, BMD and risk of osteoporosis may largely be mediated through participation in PA. Sarcopenia screening simultaneous to BMD examinations by DXA, may be of value in identifying osteoporotic women with sarcopenia, a group that may be most in need of exercise interventions to increase muscle and BMD.

  7. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  8. Relationship between BMI and skinfold thicknesses to risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Tatjana; Mikalacki, Milena; Matić, Radenko; Korovljev, Darinka; Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Vujkov, Sandra; Srdić, Biljana; Sakac, Dejan

    2013-05-01

    Studies conducted on children and adults have pointed to the correlation of BMI (kg/m2) with risk factors for certain diseases. Other studies have stressed a more intense correlation between the risk factors and indicators of subcutaneous fat obtained in other ways. The aim Of the study was to compare the intensity of correlation between the risk factors and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness in relation to BMI. The study included 53 postmenopausal and 107 premenopausal women, the risk factors were assessed upon systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose concentration, triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Statistically significant differences were established in almost all variables referring to premenopausal and postmenopausal women, except in body height, subscapular skinfold thickness and tryglyceride concentration. Significant correlation with the risk factors was detected in BMI and both skinfold thicknesses, while the subscapular thickness correlates more intensively with the risk factors than it is the case with the triceps thickness. The results indicate that BMI equally correlates with risk factors as well as skinfold thickness.

  9. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  10. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women.

  11. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  12. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  13. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality.

  14. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  15. The influence of a physical activity program on the body and the cardio vascular parameters of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the life cycle of a woman's body figure is changed gradually, but on reaching middle age, as a result of follicular loss of ovarian function among others, are emphasized the physiological changes and increase health risk and welfare. Androgyny in association with obesity increases the risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, osteoarthritis, arthritis, cancers and other disorders of female middle age. Physical activity has gained importance increasing in therapy in the climacteric. It has demonstrated the positive effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease and weight maintenance. This study investigates the influence of a physical activity program for five months on cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure and body composition in premenopausal women. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10, and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of blood pressure and body composition before and after an aerobic training. Results indicate greater extent in reducing diastolic blood pressure and body fat in over 35 years premenopausal women. Therefore, performing aerobics, step and toning improves factors cardiovascular risk as high blood pressure and body composition in over 35 premenopausal women.

  16. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies...... the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry...... have been inconclusive. AIM: To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed...

  17. The Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Gut Microbiota Composition in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota composition in premenopausal women. The participants consisted of 71 premenopausal Finnish women (aged 19–49 years. Gut microbiota were analyzed using flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene hybridization and DNA-staining. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max was assessed by respiratory gas analyzer and body composition by Bioimpdance. We found that participants with low VO2max had lower Bacteroides, but higher Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides than the high VO2max group (p < 0.05 for all. VO2max was inversely associated with EreC (r = −0.309, p = 0.01 but not with other bacteria. VO2max also negatively correlated with fat% (r = −0.755, p < 0.001, triglycerides (r = −0.274, p = 0.021 and leptin (r = −0.574, p < 0.001. By contrast, EreC was positively associated with fat% (r = 0.382, p = 0.002, dietary fat intake (r = 0.258, p = 0.034, triglycerides (r = 0.390, p = 0.002 and leptin (r = 0.424, p = 0.001, but negatively with carbohydrate intake (r = −0.252, p = 0.034 and HDL (r = −0.26, p = 0.028. After adjusting for age and dietary intake, all the significant associations remained. However, after adjusting for fat%, the associations between VO2max and EreC disappeared. Our results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with gut microbiota composition, independent of age and carbohydrate or fat intake. The association between VO2max and EreC, however, appears to be mediated by body fatness.

  18. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in the uterosacral ligaments of premenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Jong Sun

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: In the premenopausal state, higher BMI may be a stronger associate factor than vaginal birth for the development of POP. The higher mtDNA copy number, COL3α1, and MMP2 gene expressions are highly associated with POP in the UL of premenopausal women.

  19. Sociodemographic Factors Related to Quality of Life Among Premenopausal Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Akinyele, Isaac Olaoluwa

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) of premenopausal women (PW) was assessed using primary data collected between September and December 2011. A 26-item questionnaire (WHO-QoL BREF) was administered to 285 apparently healthy women selected from two local government areas in Ibadan. The scores were categorized into poor (≤ 79.53) and good (>79.53) QoL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study factors associated with QoL. The mean score for the overall QoL (OQoL) was 65.18 ± 11.35 (range = 81.25). The Cronbach's alpha for all domains as well as the OQoL were within an acceptable range. The proportion of women with good OQoL was significantly higher in the urban areas (18.2 percent) than in the rural areas (9.2 percent) (p WHO-QoL BREF is a reliable instrument for measuring QoL among PW in Nigeria. Younger PW and women in the urban areas were more likely to have good QoL.

  20. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  1. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    informed consent and to query participants on a number of potential risk factors, including medical history, family history of cancer, diet , physical...0.07) 0.99 (0.03) 0.07 Count (%) Count (%) Count (%) Count (%) Menopausal status 0.14 0.17 Premenopausal 337 (61.6) 263 (57.0) 235...associated with breast cancer risk (Table 2), but there were no associations in EA women for any haplotypes. Stratified analysis by menopausal

  2. An evidence-based approach to hormonal therapies for premenopausal women with fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethaby, Anne E; Vollenhoven, Beverley J

    2008-04-01

    Ovarian steroids, particularly oestrogen, are important factors for fibroid growth. This has provided a rationale for the investigation of hormonal therapies for women with fibroids. This chapter will assess the role of hormonal therapies for pre-menopausal women with fibroids. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2006. Twenty-nine relevant randomized controlled trials and two systematic reviews were found. The included studies assessed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) alone, GnRHa plus add-back (with either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene) and GnRHa given for at least 3 months prior to surgery for fibroids. Two trials assessed the effects of raloxifene alone. One trial assessed the effects of low-dose mifepristone, and a pilot study assessed the role of the selective progesterone receptor modulator, asoprisinil. GnRHa reduce fibroid and uterine volume and heavy bleeding but are associated with menopausal symptoms and bone loss, which limit long-term use. There is some evidence that add-back therapy, either progestagen, tibolone, combined oestrogen and progestagen, or raloxifene, can reduce the menopausal symptoms associated with GnRHa and/or loss of bone density, but there is insufficient good-quality research to make definitive conclusions. GnRHa given for at least 3 months before fibroid surgery improve pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, reduce uterine and pelvic symptoms, and reduce the rate of vertical incisions during laparotomy. Women undergoing hysterectomy are more likely to have a vaginal than an abdominal procedure. Limited evidence suggests that raloxifene may be useful in older premenopausal women with lower concentrations of background oestradiol. Limited short-term evidence of two progestogenic therapies indicates that low-dose mifepristone may improve quality of life and bleeding in the short term, and asoprisinil may improve bleeding

  3. Tooth counts do not predict bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Caucasian women. EPIC study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earnshaw, S A; Keating, N; Hosking, D J;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that poor dental status may be a suitable criterion for bone densitometry referral in early postmenopausal women. We evaluated this hypothesis in a cohort of 1365 Caucasian women aged between 45 and 59 years, who were enrolled into an international multi-centre t...... loss. Tooth counts therefore cannot be used to identify individuals at risk of osteoporosis....

  4. Identification of a linkage disequilibrium block in chromosome 1q associated with BMD in premenopausal white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L; Curry, Leah R; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F; Edenberg, Howard J; Hui, Siu L; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stage, 654 SNPs across the linked region were genotyped in a sample of 1309 premenopausal white women. The most significant evidence of association for lumbar spine (p = 1.3 x 10(-6)) was found with rs1127091 in the GATAD2B gene. In the second stage, 52 SNPs around this candidate gene were genotyped in an expanded sample of 1692 white women. Significant evidence of association with spinal BMD (p 2.5% of the variation in spinal BMD in these women. The 230-kb LD block contains 11 genes, but because of the extensive LD, the specific gene(s) contributing to the variation in BMD could not be determined. In conclusion, the significant association between spinal BMD and SNPs in the 230-kb LD block in chromosome 1q indicates that genetic factor(s) in this block plays an important role in peak spinal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women.

  5. Body size in relation to urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among premenopausal women during the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study II, we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (P (trend) = 0.01) and current BMI (P (trend) = 0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (P (trend) = 0.26). Six EMs were 18-27% lower in women with a height 68+ versus ≤62 in., primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (P (trend) = 0.04). Eight EMs were 18-50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings.

  6. Weight loss associated with reduced intake of carbohydrate reduces the atherogenicity of LDL in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Ingrid; Zern, Tosca; Herron, Kristin; West, Kristy; Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S; Shachter, Neil S; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a 3-tier intervention including dietary modifications (ie, moderate energy restriction, decreased carbohydrate, increased protein), increased physical activity, and the use of carnitine as a dietary supplement was evaluated on plasma lipids and the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in a population of overweight and obese premenopausal (aged 20-45 years) women. Carnitine or a placebo (cellulose) was randomly assigned to the participants using a double-blind design. Carnitine supplementation was postulated to enhance fat oxidation resulting in lower concentrations of plasma triglycerides. Seventy women completed the 10-week protocol, which followed a reduction in their energy intake by 15% and a macronutrient energy distribution of 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate. In addition, subjects increased the number of steps taken per day by 4500. As no differences were observed between the carnitine and placebo groups in all the measured parameters, all subjects were pooled together for statistical analysis. Participants decreased (Pweight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were decreased by 4.5%, 8.0%, 12.3%, and 19.2% (Pweight loss (weight) associated with reduced caloric intake, lower dietary carbohydrate, and increased physical activity impacts the atherogenicity of LDL.

  7. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  8. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C. Houghton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03 and 23.6% (p = 0.03 lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10 in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers, although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution; 17.1% difference (p = 0.001 for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index and 15.1% difference (p = 0.005 for waist-to-height ratio. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  9. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  10. The effect of exercise and estrogen on osteoprotegerin in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah L; Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are widely recognized, however physically active women can develop exercise associated menstrual cycle disturbances such as amenorrhea (i.e., estrogen deficiency) secondary to a chronic energy deficiency. To assess the effects of exercise status and estrogen deficiency on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its relationship to bone resorption in premenopausal exercising women. Cross-sectional study of serum OPG, urinary c-telopeptides (uCTX), urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G), urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (PdG) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured on multiple occasions in 67 women. Volunteers were retrospectively grouped: 1) sedentary menstruating group (SedMen n=8), 2) exercising menstruating group (ExMen, n=36), and 3) exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen, n=23). One-way ANOVAs were performed, and LSD post-hoc tests were performed when differences were detected. Subjects were similar with respect to age (24.2+/-1.0 years), weight (57.8+/-1.7 kg), and height (164.3+/-1.3 cm) (p>0.05). ExMen and ExAmen groups were more aerobically fit (p=0.003) and had less body fat (p=0.002) than the SedMen group. Resting energy expenditure/fat free mass was lowest (p=0.001) in the ExAmen groups. Mean E1G across the measurement period (peffect of exercise, and that suppressed OPG may play a role in the etiology of increased bone resorption observed in exercising women with chronic estrogen deficiency secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  11. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations and antioxidant and inflammatory status in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-07-14

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, seventy-two women were classified as low ( ≤ 4), 150 as moderate (5-6), and fifty-three as high adherers ( ≥ 7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0 and 1.7 mg/l for low, moderate and high adherers (P trend= 0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (P trend= 0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63 and 1.45 μg/ml (P trend= 0.02 before and P trend= 0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/ml) did not reach statistical significance (P trend= 0.18). In an analysis by BMI, overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (P trendadherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premen...

  13. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  14. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  15. Identification of a Linkage Disequilibrium Block in Chromosome 1q Associated With BMD in Premenopausal White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L.; Curry, Leah R.; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Hui, Siu L.; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stag...

  16. Effect of Yoga on Pain, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Serotonin in Premenopausal Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Moseon Lee; Woongjoon Moon; Jaehee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and...

  17. Association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-07-28

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, 3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  18. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  19. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with metabolic syndrome among premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-M; Zheng, Z-H; Li, T-F; Han, L-S; He, Y-J; Zhang, Y-L; Zeng, H-L; Liu, S-Y

    2017-04-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) and different MS components among premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in China. Patients and methods Altogether 113 premenopausal women with SLE and the age-matched healthy cohorts were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Clinical manifestations and laboratory data including serum 25(OH)D concentration were collected. A multivariable analysis was performed to analyze the association of 25(OH)D with MS and its components. Results The prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency (25(OH)D D, MS and its components demonstrated that the lower level of 25(OH)D was associated with increased MS prevalence (OR = 0.920, p = 0.012), a decreased level of high-density lipoprotein (OR = 1.059, p = 0.033) and a higher level of fasting glucose (OR = 0.810, p = 0.004). These associations were still detectible after adjustment for age, body mass index and SLE-related variables. Conclusion The level of 25(OH)D is associated with MS and its components in premenopausal women with SLE.

  20. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on metabolomic profiles in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M; Hashim, Y Z H-Y; Wingfield, M; Culliton, M; McAuliffe, F; Gibney, M J; Brennan, L

    2010-04-01

    Characterization of the normal degree of physiological variation in the metabolomic profiles of healthy humans is a necessary step in the development of metabolomics as both a clinical research and diagnostic tool. This study investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle on (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) derived metabolomic profiles of urine and plasma from healthy women. In this study, 34 healthy women were recruited and a first void urine and fasting blood sample were collected from each woman at four different time points during one menstrual cycle. Serum hormone levels were used in combination with the menstrual calendar to classify the urine and plasma samples into five different phases i.e. menstrual, follicular, periovulatory, luteal and premenstrual. The urine and plasma samples were analysed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and subsequent data were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis. PCA of the urine spectra showed no separation of samples based on the phases of the menstrual cycle. Multivariate analysis of the plasma spectra showed a separation of the menstrual phase and the luteal phase samples (R(2) = 0.61, Q(2) = 0.41). Subsequent analysis revealed a significant decrease in levels of glutamine, glycine, alanine, lysine, serine and creatinine and a significant increase in levels of acetoacetate and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL CH(2)) during the luteal phase. These results establish a need to control for metabolic changes that occur in plasma due to the menstrual cycle in the design of future metabolomic studies involving premenopausal women.

  1. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  2. Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre; Battegay, Edouard; Breymann, Christian; Furrer, Joerg; Schulthess, Georg

    2011-09-22

    This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of intravenous iron in treating fatigue in nonanemic patients with low serum ferritin concentration. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 90 premenopausal women presenting with fatigue, serum ferritin ≤ 50 ng/mL, and hemoglobin ≥ 120 g/L were randomized to receive either 800 mg of intravenous iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or intravenous placebo. Fatigue and serum iron status were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Median fatigue at baseline was 4.5 (on a 0-10 scale). Fatigue decreased during the initial 6 weeks by 1.1 in the iron group compared with 0.7 in the placebo group (P = .07). Efficacy of iron was bound to depleted iron stores: In patients with baseline serum ferritin ≤ 15 ng/mL, fatigue decreased by 1.8 in the iron group compared with 0.4 in the placebo group (P = .005), and 82% of iron-treated compared with 47% of placebo-treated patients reported improved fatigue (P = .03). Drug-associated adverse events were observed in 21% of iron-treated patients and in 7% of placebo-treated patients (P = .05); none of these events was serious. Intravenous administration of iron improved fatigue in iron-deficient, nonanemic women with a good safety and tolerability profile. The efficacy of intravenous iron was bound to a serum ferritin concentration ≤ 15 ng/mL. This study was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (www.isrctn.org) as ISRCTN78430425.

  3. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-03-16

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p HDL (HDL-C (r = -0.148, p HDL-C (r = -0.258, p HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age.

  4. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  5. Higher bone resorption excretion in South Asian women vs. White Caucasians and increased bone loss with higher seasonal cycling of vitamin D: Results from the D-FINES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Gossiel, F; Robertson, F; Hunt, J; Hill, T R; Johnsen, S; Berry, J L; Eastell, R; Vieth, R; Lanham-New, S A

    2017-05-01

    Few data exist on bone turnover in South Asian women and it is not well elucidated as to whether Western dwelling South Asian women have different bone resorption levels to that of women from European ethnic backgrounds. This study assessed bone resorption levels in UK dwelling South Asian and Caucasian women as well as evaluating whether seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with bone resorption in either ethnic group. Data for seasonal measures of urinary N-telopeptide of collagen (uNTX) and serum 25(OH)D were analysed from n=373 women (four groups; South Asian postmenopausal n=44, South Asian premenopausal n=50, Caucasian postmenopausal n=144, Caucasian premenopausal n=135) (mean (±SD) age 48 (14) years; age range 18-79years) who participated in the longitudinal D-FINES (Diet, Food Intake, Nutrition and Exposure to the Sun in Southern England) cohort study (2006-2007). A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA (n=192) showed a between subjects effect of the four groups (PD was predictive of uNTX, with estimate (SD)=0.213 (0.015) and 95% CI (0.182, 0.245; PD, adjusted for overall 25(OH)D concentration, showed increased levels of uNTX. Although the effect size was smaller than for the amplitude/mesor ratio, the mesor for 25(OH)D concentration was also predictive of uNTX, with estimate (SD)=-0.035 (0.004), and 95% CI (-0.043, -0.028; PD concentration showed an increased bone resorption, an association which was larger than that of the 25(OH)D yearly average, suggesting it may be as important clinically to ensure a stable and steady 25(OH)D concentration, as well as one that is high enough to be optimal for bone health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized trial of bilateral oophorectomy versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, J N; Krook, J E; Green, S J; Kubista, T P; Everson, L K; Ahmann, D L; Chang, M N; Bisel, H F; Windschitl, H E; Twito, D I

    1986-02-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy of bilateral oophorectomy with that of tamoxifen at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, and to examine the efficacy of each as a crossover treatment. Initial treatment responses were seen in ten of 27 patients (37%) treated with oophorectomy and seven of 26 patients (27%) treated with tamoxifen. The difference was not statistically significant. Crossover responses were seen in five of 15 patients (33%) treated with oophorectomy, including three responses in ten prior tamoxifen nonresponders; and two of 18 patients (11%) treated with tamoxifen. Time to progression distributions were not significantly different during initial treatment, and no significant differences in survival were noted. Thus, there was no overall disadvantage to the use of tamoxifen as opposed to oophorectomy as initial hormonal therapy, and a failure to respond to tamoxifen did not preclude a response to subsequent oophorectomy. Exploratory data analysis within subsets indicated consistent differential treatment effects in the visceral dominant patients. Of the 16 such patients treated with oophorectomy, eight (50%) experienced objective responses but there were no responses in the 14 patients treated with tamoxifen. In the nine visceral dominant crossover patients who had not responded to initial tamoxifen, three (33%) subsequently responded to oophorectomy. Time to progression distributions within the visceral dominant subset appeared to be better for the patients treated initially with oophorectomy. However, one must be very cautious in drawing conclusions from exploratory subset analyses, especially with the small sample size. Further studies would be required to test any hypothesis of differential organ site responsiveness.

  7. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M; Di Brezzo, R; Fort, I L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this 48-week exercise intervention was designed to examine the effects of power and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD). Premenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a power (N.=8) or resistance (N.=11) training group. The power exercises included jumping rope, skipping, hopping, and other power-type exercises. The resistance training group performed 8-10 whole-body strengthening exercises at 70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Before and after the exercise intervention, BMD was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the total-body, lumbar spine, left femoral neck, and left greater trochanter. Muscular strength was measured by hand grip dynamometer and 1RM of chest press and leg press. Muscular power was assessed by the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. There were no statistical differences between the two training groups for any of the BMD measurements. Chest press strength was different between the two groups, increasing 6.41 and 1.1kg for the resistance and power groups, respectively over the course of the training period (F[1.15]=9.44, P<0.01). There was a significant time effect for leg press 1RM (F[1.15]=6.04, P=0.03). The participants increased by 12.37kg after the 48-week intervention. Hand grip strength also increased after the study intervention (F[1.16]=46.32, P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that power and resistance training are comparable techniques for maintaining bone density.

  8. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and hip fracture in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, D B; Lopez-Ben, R; Morgan, S L; Rehder, D; Duke, J N; Fineberg, N; Pitt, M J

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on anteroposterior hip radiographs are more prevalent in patients that have had a hip fracture as compared to patients without a fracture. Ninety-two Caucasian women with a unilateral proximal femur fracture were retrospectively evaluated and randomly selected using radiology database records to comprise the investigational group. Ninety-eight age-matched Caucasian women without hip fracture were selected as a control group. Anteroposterior hip radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BBs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Chi-square tests were used to assess whether fractures were more prevalent in patients with BB than those without BB. The patient population was comprised Caucasian women with a mean age of 79.8 ± 6.4 years in the control group and 79.9 ± 6.6 years in the investigational group. Regardless of the reader, BB were identified in a significantly higher percentage of women with a fracture (75 versus 39%, p fracture. BB are associated with hip fracture. Their presence is a trigger for requesting a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to confirm or refute a diagnosis of low bone mineral density (BMD) and a subsequent increased risk of fracture. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  10. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  11. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area.

  12. Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Calderon-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05 bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05 was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  13. Dietary habits, nutrients and bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women: the contribution of fish to better bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-12-27

    The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5-7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  14. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  15. Relationship of leptin, resting metabolic rate, and body composition in premenopausal hispanic and non-Hispanic White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sarah E; King, George A; Dorgo, Sandor; Vella, Chantal A; Tomaka, Joe W; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between fasting serum leptin, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in premenopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (White) women. Participants were 67 Hispanic and 43 White women who arrived at the laboratory in a fasted state for measurement of RMR by indirect calorimetry, bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin levels were determined by EIA. Multiple regression analysis revealed that body mass and lean body mass were the best predictors of RMR. Leptin was not a significant predictor of RMR. Further research needs to be done to examine the role of leptin on metabolism, especially in ethnic groups predisposed to development of obesity and related disorders.

  16. Anthropometric and lifestyle associations of bone mass in healthy pre-menopausal Mexican and Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Yoo, Eun Jung; Hawkins, Steven A

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have established the lifestyle predictors of peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Mexican-American (MA) and Asian-American (AA) women. Pre-menopausal MA (n = 48) and AA (n = 58) women aged 30-45 years old were tested for BMD, body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscle function. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status, prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors, physical activity, and diet were determined via questionnaire. Pearson's correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the associations between various osteoporosis risk factors and BMD. Body composition, anthropometric, and BMD differences were noted between groups. Hip, but not spine BMD, remained significantly higher for the MA compared to the AA group after adjustment for age, BMI, income, and physical activity index. Lean body mass was a significant predictor of hip BMD for both groups and this relationship was stronger for the AA group. Lean body mass may explain ethnic differences in BMD.

  17. The contribution of body composition, substrates, and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J;

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range...... of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6...... circumference, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, and estradiol concentrations explained 49% of the variance in 24-h lipid oxidation. An obese subgroup of women (n = 27) had significantly higher 24-h energy expenditure, lipid, and carbohydrate oxidation rates than an age-matched normal weight group (n = 16...

  18. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  19. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-09-01

    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  20. Circulating hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: a randomized trial of low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Harriet; Bonanni, Bernardo; Gandini, Sara; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Serrano, Davide; Macis, Debora; Puccio, Antonella; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Gulisano, Marcella; Formelli, Franca; Decensi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Tamoxifen and fenretinide have been extensively studied and exhibit breast cancer-preventing activity. We aimed to assess their effect on sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and retinol, and their association with mammographic density (MD) and breast cancer events. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to tamoxifen 5 mg/day, fenretinide, both agents, or placebo for 2 years. We measured MD and circulating concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydro-epiandrosteronesulfate, prolactin, SHBG, and retinol at baseline and on yearly intervals. The associations with breast cancer events were evaluated through competing risk and Cox regression survival models. Low-dose tamoxifen markedly and enduringly increased SHBG, whereas the increases in testosterone, estradiol, and prolactin and reduction in LH weakened after 1 year. Fenretinide increased testosterone and androstenedione and decreased retinol. MD correlated directly with SHBG and inversely with retinol. After a median follow-up of 12 years, the 10-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer events was 37 % in women with SHBG ≤ 59.3 nmol/L, 22 % in women with SHBG between 59.3 and 101 nmol/L, and 19 % in women with SHBG > 101 nmol/L (P = 0.018). The difference among SHBG tertiles remained statistically significant at multivariable analysis: HR = 2.26 (95 % CI 1.04, 4.89) for the lowest versus the highest tertile. We conclude that low-dose tamoxifen or fenretinide exhibits favorable hormonal profiles as single agents, further supporting their administration for prevention of breast cancer in premenopause. Notably, SHBG levels were inversely associated with breast neoplastic events.

  1. The Proliferative Activity of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Normal Tissue Predicts Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Jin; Oh, Hannah; Peterson, Michael A; Almendro, Vanessa; Hu, Rong; Bowden, Michaela; Lis, Rosina L; Cotter, Maura B; Loda, Massimo; Barry, William T; Polyak, Kornelia; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and proliferative activity of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells are suggested to correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and the frequency of mammary epithelial cells expressing p27, estrogen receptor (ER), and Ki67 in normal breast tissue. We performed a nested case-control study of 302 women (69 breast cancer cases, 233 controls) who had been initially diagnosed with benign breast disease according to the Nurses' Health Studies. Immunofluorescence for p27, ER, and Ki67 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from benign biopsies containing normal mammary epithelium and scored by computational image analysis. We found that the frequency of Ki67(+) cells was positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women [OR = 10.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-48.0]. Conversely, the frequency of ER(+) or p27(+) cells was inversely, but not significantly, associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (ER(+): OR = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; p27(+): OR = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.45-1.75). Notably, high Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and high Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies were significantly associated with a 5-fold higher risk of breast cancer compared with low Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and low Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies, respectively, among premenopausal women (Ki67(hi)/p27(lo): OR = 5.08, 95% CI, 1.43-18.1; Ki67(hi)/ER(lo): OR = 4.68, 95% CI, 1.63-13.5). Taken together, our data suggest that the fraction of actively cycling cells in normal breast tissue may represent a marker for breast cancer risk assessment, which may therefore impact the frequency of screening procedures in at-risk women. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1926-34. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  3. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  4. Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Attas Omar S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested this association in type 2 diabetic women, categorized as obese, overweight and normal body weight groups based on BMI. Design and methods A total of 101 subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, C reactive protein, leptin, TGF-α, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Data were logarithmically transformed for variables not normally distributed. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni was applied to compare the data between the groups. Simple and partial correlation coefficients between the variables were determined and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between the variables of interest. Results Significantly increased levels of IL-6, C reactive protein, leptin and significantly decreased levels of adiponectin were found in obese group, while the levels of TNF-α and TGF-α were unaltered. A positive correlation between waist circumference and IL-6 was found in obese group. Similarly, C reactive protein, waist and hip circumferences were linearly correlated with BMI in obese group. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed several significant predictors for breast cancer risk. Conclusion Obesity and type 2 diabetes, owing to their effects on adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators, contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. This study emphasizes healthy life style and better management of these metabolic disorders to avoid the pathogenesis of breast cancer and of other chronic diseases.

  5. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups.

  6. Differences in mammographic density between Asian and Caucasian populations: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Nadia; Mariapun, Shivaani; Eriksson, Mikael; Tapia, Jose; Kwan, Pui Yoke; Ho, Weang Kee; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Czene, Kamila; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Hall, Per; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Mammographic density is a measurable and modifiable biomarker that is strongly and independently associated with breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, although Asian women have lower risk of breast cancer, studies of minority Asian women in predominantly Caucasian populations have found that Asian women have higher percent density. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of mammographic density for a matched cohort of Asian women from Malaysia and Caucasian women from Sweden, and determined if variations in mammographic density could be attributed to population differences in breast cancer risk factors. Volumetric mammographic density was compared for 1501 Malaysian and 4501 Swedish healthy women, matched on age and body mass index. We used multivariable log-linear regression to determine the risk factors associated with mammographic density and mediation analysis to identify factors that account for differences in mammographic density between the two cohorts. Compared to Caucasian women, percent density was 2.0% higher among Asian women (p density and risk to breast cancer may be accounted for by height, weight, and parity. Given that pre-menopausal Asian and Caucasian women have similar population risk to breast cancer but different dense volume, development of more appropriate biomarkers of risk in pre-menopausal women is required.

  7. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  8. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moseon; Moon, Woongjoon; Kim, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P yoga group (P yoga group (P yoga group, while it reduced (P yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain.

  9. Biomarker prediction of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea in premenopausal women with breast cancer participating in E5103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; O'Neill, Anne; Miller, Kathy D; Schneider, Bryan P; Baker, Emily; Sparano, Joseph A; Dang, Chau; Northfelt, Donald W; Sledge, George W; Partridge, Ann H

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pre-chemotherapy anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a biomarker for chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in breast cancer patients. A multicenter randomized controlled trial, ECOG5103, assigned patients with early stage breast cancer to standard doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with either placebo or one of two durations of bevacizumab therapy. Five hundred ninety-one patients were part of the decision-making/quality of life substudy, in which there were surveys from baseline through 18-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-four women were included in this analysis of menses data because they were premenopausal at enrollment, responded to the 12-month survey, had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy or ovarian function suppression before that survey, and had serum banked for research before chemotherapy. One hundred of the 124 also responded to the 18-month survey. Median age was 45 years (range 25-55), and median serum AMH level was 0.11 ng/mL (range 0.01-8.63) prior to treatment. Eighty-two percent had CRA at 12 months, and 81 % at 18 months. In multivariate analyses, older age (p = 0.0003) was the only statistically significant predictor of 12-month CRA, but at 18-months, lower pre-chemotherapy AMH (p = 0.04) and older age (p = 0.008) were both statistically significant predictors of CRA. Race, bevacizumab therapy, and tamoxifen use were not statistically significantly associated with CRA after adjustment for AMH and age. Pre-chemotherapy AMH level is a potential novel biomarker for CRA in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. Further research to evaluate the clinical utility of AMH testing is warranted.

  10. Comparison of the effects of two resistance training regimens on muscular and bone responses in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, A C; Meyer, F; da Veiga, A D R; Zanardo, V P S

    2010-09-01

    A 28-week resistance training with linear periodization was compared with an undulating model in 27 premenopausal women. In both groups, bone mineral density (BMD) was not changed but muscle strength increased, and there were changes in anthropometrical and muscle damage parameters, indicating that in this population, these models are similar concerning these variables. This study seeks to compare the effects of resistance training with undulating versus linear periodization on BMD, muscle strength, anthropometrical variables, and muscle damage parameters in premenopausal women. Twenty-seven females (39.6 +/- 0.41 years, mean +/- standard error), without osteopenia or osteoporosis and without calcium supplementation, were randomly assigned either to a linear periodization group (LPG, n = 14) or to an undulating periodization group (UPG, n = 13). The subjects were trained three times a week for 28 weeks. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal and submaximal dynamic muscle strengths were measured through the 1-RM and 20-RM tests, respectively. Anthropometrical (body mass, skinfolds, and perimeters) and muscle damage parameters were assessed through serum creatine kinase (CK) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). BMD remained unchanged in both groups, despite significant increases in maximal (LPG, 37-73%; UPG, 40-70%) and submaximal (LPG, 82-114%; UPG, 70-102%) muscle strength. The perimeter of the distal thigh was increased (about 1.7 cm) in both groups. CK and DOMS were greater in the first mesocycle than in the subsequent ones. After the 1st training session in each mesocycle, 24 and 48 h CK was increased as compared to pretraining values. The resistance training of 28 weeks increased muscle strength in both training groups with no difference in BMD or in the occurrence of muscle damage.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels.

  12. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Lomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition.

  13. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women.

  14. [Gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal ethnicity: high prevalence of fetal macrosomia in non-Caucasian women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Biagetti, Betina; Vinagre, Irene; Capel, Ismael; Ubeda, Justa; María, Miguel Ángel; García-Patterson, Apolonia; Adelantado, Juan María; Ginovart, Gemma; Corcoy, Rosa

    2013-09-21

    Differences in perinatal outcomes according to ethnicity have been described in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We analysed the relationship between ethnicity, maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with GDM. Retrospective analysis of women with GDM attended at the centre between 1986 and 2007. We studied 2,543 mother-infant pairs (8.9% multiple pregnancies, 2,480 Caucasian [C] and 63 non-Caucasian [NC] mothers). Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared according to maternal ethnicity and multivariable logistic regression analyses (backward method) were performed to predict perinatal outcomes. The groups (C vs NC) differed in previous pregnancies, obstetric history, pregestational body mass index, delay between diagnosis and clinic entry, fasting plasma glucose at diagnosis and both initial and third trimester glycated hemoglobin, with all of them being worse in NC group. As to perinatal outcomes, we also observed differences in the prevalence of macrosomic (4.3 vs 19.4%) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA) (9.5 vs 32.3%), all of them being higher in the NC group. In the logistic regression analyses, NC was an independent predictor of macrosomia, LGA and jaundice with odds ratio ranging from 2.767 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.257-6.091) for LGA and 3.629 (95% CI 0.972-13.548) for neonatal jaundice. NC-GDM patients had more adverse perinatal outcomes only partially explained by medical history, anthropometric data and maternal glycemic control. NC ethnicity was an independent predictor of poor perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women(∗): (∗)2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  16. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Susan K.; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipoly...

  17. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  18. Biological and psychological predictors of visceral pain sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, T E; Houtveen, J H; Doornen, L J P; Benson, S; Grigoleit, J-S; Cesko, E; Elsenbruch, S

    2014-04-01

    Factors that are associated with pain perception remain incompletely understood, especially in the visceral pain field. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate possible psychological and biological predictors of visceral pain sensitivity in healthy subjects. In a sample of 59 healthy premenopausal female subjects on hormonal contraceptives, measures of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in daily life, trait and state anxiety, depression, serum cortisol concentrations and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were obtained, followed by assessment of rectal distension pain sensitivity measures (i.e., rectal distension sensory threshold, pain threshold and pain ratings for discrete rectal distension stimuli). Regression analyses showed that more GI symptoms in daily life predicted a lower pain threshold. Higher levels of state anxiety predicted a lower pain threshold. Higher cortisol concentrations predicted lower pain ratings. IL-6 was positively related to GI symptoms but was a non-significant predictor of pain threshold in the multiple regression analysis. Similar to findings in patients with functional GI symptoms, we showed that subclinical GI symptoms predict visceral pain sensitivity. In line with somatic pain findings, state but not trait anxiety was found to predict visceral pain sensitivity. Our finding on serum cortisol as positive predictor of pain sensitivity might be interpreted in light of immunosuppressive effects of cortisol. Our finding on the role of IL-6 in GI symptoms is promising for understanding GI complaints in patients and needs further investigation. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  19. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  20. Correlation between insulin resistance and breast elasticity heterogeneity measured by shear wave elastography in premenopausal women - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=-0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=-0.59, p<0.001 and Rs=-0.60, p<0.001 respectively). The heterogeneity of fatty tissue but not glandular elasticity also correlated with body mass index. Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear.

  1. Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Ahola, Riikka; Guo, Hui; Korpelainen, Raija; Uchimaru, Jin; Vainionpää, Aki; Sato, Kyoko; Sakai, Aiko; Salo, Sinikka; Kishimoto, Koshi; Itoi, Eiji; Komatsu, Shoko; Jämsä, Timo; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, there are no previous studies to examine the effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise (HIE) on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of office-based HIE on BMD in healthy premenopausal Japanese women. Ninety-one healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive stretching exercise (SE) or HIE (stretching, along with up to 5 × 10 vertical and versatile jumps) for 12 months. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Several cardiovascular risk factors and leg strength also were assessed. An accelerometer-based recorder was used to measure daily impact loading in four 1-week samples. The progression of the HIE program was ensured by the accelerometer. Thirty-three women (71.7%) in the SE group and 34 (75.6%) in the HIE group completed the study. There was a significant difference in the change in the femoral neck BMD between the groups in favor of the HIE group [0.6% (95% CI: -0.4, 1.7) vs. -1.0% (95% CI: -2.2, 0.2)]. Adiponectin, LDL, HDL, and the leg strength of participants in both the groups improved during the intervention. These finding suggested that office-based brief HIE can be recommended for premenopausal women for preventing bone mineral loss.

  2. Correlation between body mass index and overactive bladder symptoms in pre-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Palma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between Overactive Bladder (OAB symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI in women aged 20-45. Methods: We interviewed 1.050 women aged 20-45 in the area of Campinas, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms. In this study, we used the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire (ICS standard, in its validated portuguese version and a specific questionnaire for the demographics, which includes information about BMI. Results: Overall, women with BMI ≥30 presented a significantly higher score than women with a lower BMI (18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0066. In the analysis of individual symptoms, no significant differences were found regarding urinary frequency (p=0.5469. Women with BMI ≥30 presented more nocturia than women with BMI ranging between 18.5 and 24.9 (p=0.0154. Women in the group of BMI 25 - 29.9 presented more urgency than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.0278. Significant difference was also found regarding urge-incontinence; women with BMI 25 - 29.9 presented a higher score than women in the group 18.5 - 24.9 (p= 0.0017. Analysis was also performed on the visual analogue scale regarding how much each symptom bothers the women (quality of life. There were no significant differences regarding frequency, nocturia or urgency but urgency incontinence bother was significant. Women with BMI 25 - 29.9 were more bothered by incontinence than women with BMI 18.5 - 24.9 (p=0.002. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reinforces the correlation between BMI and OAB symptoms. Obese women present more OAB symptoms than non-obese women.

  3. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  4. Neutrophilic inflammatory response and oxidative stress in premenopausal women chronically exposed to indoor air pollution from biomass burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    The possibility of inflammation and neutrophil activation in response to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use has been investigated. For this, 142 premenopausal, never-smoking women (median age, 34 years) who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 126 age-matched control women who cook with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. The neutrophil count in blood and sputum was significantly higher (p enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that they had 72%, 67%, and 54% higher plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, respectively, and doubled neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8. Immunocytochemical study revealed significantly higher percentage of airway neutrophils expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase, while the serum level of nitric oxide was doubled in women who cooked with biomass. Spectrophotometric analysis documented higher myeloperoxidase activity in circulating neutrophils of biomass users, suggesting neutrophil activation. Flow cytometry showed excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes of biomass-using women, whereas their erythrocytes contained a depleted level of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indoor air of biomass-using households had two to four times more particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) as measured by real-time laser photometer. After controlling potential confounders, rise in proinflammatory mediators among biomass users were positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) in indoor air, suggesting a close relationship between IAP and neutrophil activation. Besides, the levels of neutrophil activation and inflammation markers were positively associated with generation of ROS and negatively with SOD, indicating a role of oxidative stress in mediating neutrophilic inflammatory response following chronic inhalation of biomass smoke.

  5. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  6. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  7. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements.Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women.Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg...

  8. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyuan Wang; Peter Bua; Jillian Capodice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 ...

  9. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg ...

  10. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3, indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01. On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p

  11. Uncoupling protein-2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression during very-low-calorie diet in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, P; Millet, L; Larrouy, D; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Louvet, J P; Langin, D

    1998-07-01

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial protein expressed in a wide range of human tissues. By uncoupling respiration from ATP synthesis, UCP2 might be involved in the control of energy expenditure. We have investigated UCP2 gene expression in human adipose tissue. In eight subjects, we found a positive correlation (r = 0.91, P < 0.002) between subcutaneous and visceral fat depots UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, suggesting that UCP2 mRNA level in subcutaneous adipose tissue is a good index of UCP2 gene expression in whole body adipose tissues. The effect of a 25-day very-low-calorie diet un UCP2 mRNA level and resting metabolic rate was investigated in eight obese premenopausal women. There was no difference in UCP2 mRNA levels before and during the diet. After 25 days of hypocaloric diet, a positive correlation was found between adipose tissue UCP2 mRNA level and resting metabolic rate adjusted for lean body mass (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). These results show that very-low-calorie diet, unlike short-term fasting, is not associated with an induction in UCP2 mRNA expression, and that adipose tissue UCP2 mRNA levels may be related to variations in resting energy expenditure in humans.

  12. Effect of Yoga on Pain, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Serotonin in Premenopausal Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS, and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P<0.001, whereas it increased (P<0.05 in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P<0.01. Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P<0.01, whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P=0.05. Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P<0.01 in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P=0.07. Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain.

  13. The Transaction Between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Sexual Functioning: A Prospective Study of Premenopausal, Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    A number of studies have called attention to the problematic interplay between depression and anxiety symptoms and sexual difficulties. However, despite the bidirectional conceptualization of the association between affective and sexual problems, few studies have adequately examined temporal precedence or state-level fluctuations between these two constructs. Using Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression, the current study employed a repeated measures design to examine how weekly changes in affective symptoms were related to weekly changes in sexual functioning in a non-clinical sample of premenopausal women. First, we examined how general distress, anxious arousal, and anhedonia were concurrently related to various indices of sexual functioning. Next, we examined lagged effects of mood and anxiety symptoms predicting later levels of sexual functioning. Finally, we tested sexual functioning's influence on later reports of affective symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that, of the three symptom types tested, anhedonic depression was the most consistently related to sexual problems, and that these relations were more proximal than distal. The preponderance of data suggested temporal precedence of mood on sexual symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of prospective studies in the investigation of mental and sexual health.

  14. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. RESULTS: Physically active women had lower fat percentage...... were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score......PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...

  15. 25(OH) vitamin D levels in premenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakova, Adelina D; Gateva, Antoaneta T; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity play an important role in development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Current evidence suggests that vitamin D (VitD) deficiency may contribute to the disturbance in insulin metabolism and the development of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate VitD levels, measured as 25(OH)D, in Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. The study included 103 women, divided into three groups - group 1 Obese (n = 33); group 2 Nonobese PCOS (n = 50), and group 3 Obese PCOS (n = 20). 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Almost 2/3 of the women with PCOS and/or obesity appeared to be VitD-deficient. Women with obesity, especially visceral (with or without PCOS), had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to lean PCOS subjects. Women with and without metabolic syndrome however did not differ significantly in 25(OH)D levels. Women with normal body mass index (BMI) had higher 25(OH)D levels compared to overweight and obese (p = 0.028). There was no correlation between 25(OH)D levels and indices of glucose metabolism - fasting blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and after OGTT and HOMA index.

  16. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings.

  17. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  18. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  19. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Eisa, Marwa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB. PMID:28003825

  20. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Hussain, Sherif H; Hassanin, Alaa S; Khalaf, Waleed M; Etman, Mohamed K; Elsafty, Mohammed S E; Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Hasanien, Ahmad S; Sakna, Noha A; Taema, Mohammed; Mostafa, Mohammed H; Eisa, Marwa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS), and three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL) to detect endometrial polyps (EPs) in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33%) were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9%) had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P = 0.223; P = 0.06). 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  1. Endometrial Volume Measured by VOCAL Compared to Office Hysteroscopy for Diagnosis of Endometrial Polyps in Premenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Laban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to compare hysteroscopy, two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TVUS, and three-dimensional (3D Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis™ (VOCAL to detect endometrial polyps (EPs in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. This prospective study was done at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt, from March 5, 2015, to December 30, 2015, enrolling 118 premenopausal women with AUB. 2D TVUS, 3D VOCAL, and hysteroscopy were done. 109 patients reached final analysis. 36 women (33% were diagnosed with EP by 2D TVUS. 50 (45.9% had EP by hysteroscopy. Endometrial thickness was 10.1 mm by 2D TVUS and endometrial volume was 4.92 mL by VOCAL in women with EP by hysteroscopy compared to 9.9 mm and 3.50 mL in women with no EP, respectively (P=0.223; P=0.06. 2D TVUS has sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 54%, 84.7%, 75%, and 68.5%, respectively. Endometrial thickness of >7.5 mm has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 82%, 37.3%, 52.6%, 71%, and 57.8%, respectively. Endometrial volume of >1.2 mL has sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of 90%, 42.4%, 57%, 83.3%, and 64.2%, respectively. 3D VOCAL may be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EP in premenopausal women with AUB.

  2. Changes in tissue composition of the vaginal wall of premenopausal women with prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.H.; Ruiz-Zapata, A.M.; Bril, H.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Belien, J.A.M.; Stoop, R.; Helder, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare histological and biochemical features of the (normal) precervical anterior vaginal wall and the prolapsed anterior vaginal wall of women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). These data were compared to tissue of the precervical anterior vaginal wall

  3. The impact of gastric bypass surgery on sex hormones and menstrual cycles in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Mandrup; Madsbad, Sten; Hougaard, David M;

    2016-01-01

    postoperative months. SHBG increased progressively and was doubled after 12 months. In contrast, total and free androgens and DHEA declined about 50% during the first three postoperative months and remained fairly constant hereafter. One year after surgery, 85% (11/13) of the women with oligo-/amenorrhea gained...

  4. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (Ppost-menopausal women.

  5. Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynberg, J; Brewer, S

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of an alternative to chemical medication in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in healthy women. The efficacy of a unique herbal formulation of Muira puama and Ginkgo biloba (Herbal vX) was assessed in 202 healthy women complaining of low sex drive. Various aspects of their sex life were rated before and after 1 month of treatment. Responses to self-assessment questionnaires showed significantly higher average total scores from baseline in 65% of the sample after taking the supplement. Statistically significant improvements occurred in frequency of sexual desires, sexual intercourse, and sexual fantasies, as well as in satisfaction with sex life, intensity of sexual desires, excitement of fantasies, ability to reach orgasm, and intensity of orgasm. Reported compliance and tolerability were good. These initial findings support the strong anecdotal evidence for the benefits of Herbal vX on the female sex drive. A double-blind study is planned to further research these results.

  6. Fat/Fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which diet affects breast cancer (BC) risk are poorly understood but a positive relationship between fat and a negative association with fiber intake and BC risk have been demonstrated. Here we study the association between dietary fat/fiber ratio and estrogen metabolism. Fifty women were recruited, 22 were included in the low fat/high fiber and 22 were in the high fat/low fiber and 6 did not meet our criteria. Estrogens (determined in plasma, urine and feces) and dietary re...

  7. Postoperative Quality of Life and Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women Undergoing Laparoscopic Myomectomy for Symptomatic Fibroids: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Julia Caroline; Radosa, Christoph Georg; Mavrova, Russalina; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Hamza, Amr; Joukhadar, Ralf; Baum, Sascha; Karsten, Maria; Juhasz-Boess, Ingolf; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Radosa, Marc Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign gynecologic tumors. To date laparoscopy myomectomy is the gold standard for treatment of symptomatic fibroids in reproductive-aged women. Detailed counseling about the effects of this procedure on postoperative sexuality and quality of life is important in these patients. However, available data on these subjects are limited and contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess sexual function and quality of life in premenopausal women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Material and Methods All premenopausal women who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids between April 2012 and August 2014 at a tertiary university center were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. Sexual function and quality of life were assessed for the pre- and postoperative (six months post-operatively) state using two validated questionnaires, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the European Quality of Life Five-Dimension Scale (EQ-5D). Results Ninety-five of the 115 (83%) eligible patients completed the study. Overall a significant improvement in quality of life and sexual function was observed in the study cohort: Median FSFI (28 (18.7–35.2)) and EQ-5D scores (1 (0.61–1) after laparoscopic myomectomy were significantly higher than preoperative scores (21.2 (5.2–33.5); 0.9 (0.2–1); p ≤ 0.01). The number, position and localization of the largest fibroids were not correlated with pre- or postoperative sexual function or quality of life. Conclusion Laparoscopic myomectomy might have positive short-term effects on postoperative quality of life and sexual function in premenopausal women suffering from symptomatic fibroids. PMID:27898669

  8. Effect of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on markers of cardiovascular risk among premenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraker, Randi E; Pennell, Michael; Sprangers, Peter; Vitolins, Mara Z; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-08-01

    Low-fat and low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets can have a beneficial effect on longitudinal measures of blood pressure and blood lipids. We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in blood pressure and blood lipids in a population of premenopausal women. We hypothesized that results may differ by level of adherence to the respective diet protocol and baseline presence of hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomized to a low-fat (n=41) or low-carbohydrate (n=38) diet. As part of the 52-week Lifestyle Eating and Fitness (LEAF) intervention trial, we fit linear mixed models to determine whether a change in outcome differed by treatment arm. Within-group trends in blood pressure and blood lipids did not differ (p>0.30). Across study arms, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP, 3 mm Hg, p=0.01) over time, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not change significantly over the course of the study. Blood lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoproteins [LDL], and high-density lipoproteins [HDL]) all exhibited nonlinear trends over time (p0.20). We observed a decline in SBP among women who were hypertensive at baseline (p0.40). Our results support that dietary interventions may be efficacious for lowering blood pressure and blood lipids among overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, a decrease in SBP was the only favorable change that was sustained in this study population. These changes can be maintained over the course of a 1-year intervention, yet changes in blood lipids may be less sustainable.

  9. Failure to Consider the Menstrual Cycle Phase May Cause Misinterpretation of Clinical and Research Findings of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker assessment plays a critical role in the study and prevention of disease. However, variation in biomarkers attributable to the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women may impair understanding the role of certain biomarkers in disease development and progression. Thus, in light of the recently increasing evidence of menstrual cycle variability in multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers, a reexamination of approaches for appropriately studying and diagnosing cardiovascular disease in premenopausal women is warranted. We reviewed studies (from 1934 through 2012) evaluating changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers across phases of the menstrual cycle, including markers of oxidative stress, lipids, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. Each was observed to vary significantly during the menstrual cycle. For example, nearly twice as many women had elevated cholesterol levels warranting therapy (≥200 mg/dL) during the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (14.3% vs. 7.9%), with only 3% having consistently high levels during all phases of the cycle. Similarly, nearly twice as many women were classified as being at an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (high sensitivity C-reactive protein >3 mg/L) during menses compared with other phases (12.3% vs. 7.4%). Menstrual cycle–associated variability in cardiometabolic biomarkers is an important source of variability that should be accounted for in both research and clinical settings. PMID:24042431

  10. Utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen YW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Wei Shen,1 Xiao-Man Zhang,1 Meng Lv,1 Ling Chen,1 Tian-Jie Qin,1 Fan Wang,1 Jiao Yang,1 Pei-Jun Liu,2 Jin Yang1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy are major concerns for premenopausal women with breast cancer. A potential ovarian function preservation strategy is administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists during adjuvant chemotherapy; however, studies of the clinical efficacy of GnRH agonists to protect chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage have shown mixed results. Objective: This meta-analysis study was designed to estimate the efficacy of GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods: Electronic literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases searching, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and the Wanfang Data were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs published until September 2015. Only RCTs that examined the effect of GnRH agonists for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The rate of spontaneous resumption of menses and spontaneous pregnancy were collected. All data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark and Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA. Results: Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,062 participants (GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy, n=541; chemotherapy alone, n=521 were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly greater number of women treated with GnRH agonist experienced spontaneous resumption of menses after the adjuvant chemotherapy, yielding a pooled odds ratio of 2.57 (versus chemotherapy alone, 95

  11. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  12. Vitamin D status and its correlation with blood pressure in premenopausal Saudi women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Al Mazeedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a major health problem in the Saudi population. A negative association between blood pressure and vitamin D level has been suggested in several clinical and epidemiological studies and evidence for an effect of vitamin D in lowering blood pressure was reported. These findings indicate that 1,25(OH2D3 deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension through its effect on the renin-angiotensin system. We are the first to investigate the correlation between blood pressure or renin concentration and vitamin D status in the Saudi population METHODS: we included 201 healthy Saudi premenopausal females (20-45 years old. Blood pressure was measured by a standardized method using an automated blood pressure monitor (BPTru. Fasting blood samples were collected from each participant after 20 minutes of rest in the seated position. Serum cholicalciferol, PTH and renin concentration were measured by sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassaymethod (DiaSorin, Italy. RESULTS: The analysis included 192 subjects who were normotensive (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg.  A total of  34% of women had a severe deficiency (vitamin D ≤ 12.5 nmol/L; 41% had moderate deficiency (vitamin D levels between 12.5 - 25 nmol/L;  23% had mild deficiency (vitamin D level ≥ 25 - < 50 nmol/L; and 2% had insufficiency (vitamin D level  ≥ 50 - ≤ 75 nmol/L. None had a sufficient level of ≥75 nmol/L.  The systolic blood pressure ranged from 79-130.5mmHg and the diastolic from 48.5-85.5 mmHg.  Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in women that were in the lower 2 quartiles of vitamin D.  However, linear regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders showed that 25(OHD level was not a predictor of either systolic or diastolic blood pressures.  A negative correlation (although not significant was found between vitamin D level and plasma renin concentration in this study group. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D

  13. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  14. Risks and protective factors associated with symptoms of depression in low-income African American and Caucasian women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, D Elizabeth; Walcott-McQuigg, Jacqueline; Mariella, Anne; Swanson, Melvin S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the risks and protective factors for symptoms of depression in pregnancy among low-income African American and Caucasian women. Data were collected from 130 women who were between 16 and 28 weeks' gestation and enrolled in an urban prenatal clinic. The questionnaires used in the face-to-face interviews consisted of sociodemographic items, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP), 3 items from the Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale, and 4 items on health risk behaviors. Twenty-seven percent of the women reported depressive symptoms at levels indicating risk for clinical depression. However, there were no significant differences between African American and Caucasian women. Sociodemographic factors accounted for 13% of the variance (P self-esteem and social support, and higher religiosity had a significant relationship with more symptoms of depression. This supports the need to routinely screen for and to assess factors associated with depressive symptoms in pregnant low-income women.

  15. Daily environmental differences in blood pressure and heart rate variability in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2015-01-01

    As daily environments change, behavior and activity also change and as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are allostatically tied to these factors, one might expect that environments that elicit the greatest behavioral/activity variation should also evince the highest BP and HR variability [standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV)]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this premise. Two hundred and six women (age = 37.6 ± 9.1 years) wore an ambulatory BP monitor on a midweek workday. All worked in clerical, technical, or professional positions. Ambulatory BP and HR Means, SDs and CVs at work (11 AM-3 PM), home (∼6-10 PM) and during sleep (∼10 PM-6 AM) were compared using repeated measures ANCOVA. Mean BP and HR decreased from work and home to sleep [121 ± 11, 120 ± 11 vs. 107 ± 12 systolic; 82 ± 10, 80 ± 11 vs. 66 ± 11 diastolic; 79 ± 12, 80 ± 12 vs. 68 ± 11 HR (all P < 0.001)], while the CV of systolic and diastolic BP increased [0.06 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03 systolic; 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 diastolic (P < 0.001)]. The HR SD decreased during sleep [8.1 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 3.8 vs. 6.9 ± 3.2 (P < 0.001)]. HR variability follows the expected variability pattern with behavior and activity, whereas BP does not. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  17. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  18. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Ming, Moy Foong; Chinna, Karuthan; Suboh, Suhaili; Pendek, Rokiah

    2014-01-01

    Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (supplementation on HOMA-IR, serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (all p>0.05) between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374) and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897.

  19. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiometabolic Risks and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Premenopausal Women in a Tropical Country – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Ming, Moy Foong; Chinna, Karuthan; Suboh, Suhaili; Pendek, Rokiah

    2014-01-01

    Background Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. Aim To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Design A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (supplementation on HOMA-IR, serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (all p>0.05) between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374) and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. Conclusion Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897 PMID:25350669

  20. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  1. Overweight, obesity and risk of premenopausal breast cancer according to ethnicity: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, A; Ferrari, P; Muwonge, R; Moskal, A; Biessy, C; Romieu, I; Hainaut, P

    2013-08-01

    The association of overweight and obesity with premenopausal breast cancer remained unclear, ethnicity could play a role. A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of all studies on obesity and premenopausal breast cancer published from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. Dose-response meta-analysis was used to determine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer associated with different anthropometric measurements in different ethnic groups. For body mass index (BMI), each 5 kg m(-2) increase was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.97). After stratification by ethnicity, the inverse association remained significant only among Africans (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98) and Caucasians (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.95). In contrast, among Asian women, a significant positive association was observed. For waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), each 0.1 unit increase was positively associated with premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16); the largest effect was detected in Asian women (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.24), while small effects of 5% and 6% were observed in African and Caucasian women, respectively. Our results suggest the importance of considering both fat distribution and ethnicity when studying premenopausal breast cancer. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Dietary phosphorus intake is negatively associated with bone formation among women and positively associated with some bone traits among men-a cross-sectional study in middle-aged Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Rita, Hannu J; Saarnio, Elisa M; Kemi, Virpi E; Karp, Heini J; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Pekkinen, Minna H; Laitinen, E Kalevi; Risteli, Juha; Koivula, Marja-Kaisa; Sievänen, Harri; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2017-01-01

    High dietary phosphorus (P) intake has acute negative effects on calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism, but long-term clinical data are contradictory. We hypothesized that high P intake is associated with impaired bone health as suggested by earlier short-term studies on bone metabolism. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated associations between dietary P intake, bone traits in the radius and tibia, and bone turnover in a population-based sample of 37- to 47-year-old Caucasian premenopausal women (n=333) and men (n=179) living in Southern Finland (60°N). We used various regression models in an "elaboration approach" to elucidate the role of P intake in bone traits and turnover. The addition of relevant covariates to the models mainly removed the significance of P intake as a determinant of bone traits. In the final regression model (P intake, weight, height, age, Ca intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, physical activity, smoking, contraceptive use in women), P intake was slightly positively associated only with bone mineral content and cross-sectional cortical bone area in the tibia of men. Among women, inclusion of Ca removed all existing significance in the crude models for any bone trait. In women P intake was negatively associated with the bone formation marker serum intact pro-collagen type I amino-terminal propeptide, whereas no association was present between P intake and bone turnover in men. In conclusion, these findings disagree with the hypothesis; P intake was not deleteriously associated with bone traits; however, P intake may negatively contribute to bone formation among women.

  3. Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Patterns among African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ailee; Williams, Oliver

    1993-01-01

    Used 13 scenarios to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American elderly women. Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to six scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive given…

  4. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country -- a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Mazliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Pendek, Rokiah; Suboh, Suhaili; Tan Tong Boon, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out.The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the role of vitamin D

  5. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out. The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods/design Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. Discussion This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body

  6. Progressive high-intensity resistance training and bone mineral density changes among premenopausal women: evidence of discordant site-specific skeletal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Carroll, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Regular weight-bearing physical activity has been widely recommended for adult women and may be beneficial in preserving bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented on the effects of progressive high-intensity resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Structured computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews Multifile were undertaken along with hand-searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to September 2004. Criteria for included studies were published controlled studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of progressive, high-intensity resistance training studies on BMD in premenopausal women. Two authors reached consensus on all included and excluded studies. Study outcomes for analysis were radiographic BMD assessment from first follow-up at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Primary outcomes for analysis were absolute changes in BMD g/cm(2) at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Relative changes (percentage change) in BMD at lumbar spine were also assessed. Data were extracted from studies including study design, participant characteristics and treatment mode, intensity and duration, using electronic data extraction forms. Where necessary, relevant information was obtained by contacting study authors. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using a well recognised three-question instrument designed to assess bias. Informal assessment for small sample study effects and potential bias was undertaken through visual inspection of funnel plots. The weighted mean difference method (inverse of the variances) was used for combining study group estimates. Quantification of the effect of heterogeneity among study outcomes was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Random

  7. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  8. CYP19 Genetic Polymorphism Haplotype AASA Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Premenopausal Women with Lymph Node-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN- negative, hormone receptor- (HR- positive early breast cancers. Genotyping for the CYP19 polymorphisms rs4646 (A/C, rs1065779 (A/C, CYP19 (TTTAn (short allele/long (S/L allele using the 7 TTTA repeat polymorphism as the cut-off, and rs1870050 (A/C was performed on 296 patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers. All patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Associations were examined between these 4 genotypes and 6 common haplotypes of CYP19 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Patients were divided into the 6 subhaplotypes of CCLA (41.1%, AASA (17.1%, CASA (11.9%, CCLC (8.9%, CCSA (7.5%, AASC (8.9%, and others (4.6%. In premenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was significantly associated with a poor DDFS (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 3.3; P=0.001, DFS (aHR, 2.5; P=0.0008, and OS (aHR, 2.9; P=0.0004 after adjusting for age, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, chemotherapy, pathology, adjuvant hormone therapy, menopausal status, and radiotherapy. Furthermore, haplotype AASA remained a negative prognostic factor for premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of DDFS (aHR, 4.5; P=0.0005, DFS (HR, 3.2; P=0.003, and OS (HR, 6.4; P=0.0009. However, in postmenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was not associated with a poor prognosis, whereas the AASC haplotype was significantly associated with a poor DFS (aHR, 3.1; P=0.03 and OS (aHR, 4.4; P=0.01. Our results indicate that, in patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers, genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with poor survival of premenopausal women but does not affect survival of postmenopausal women.

  9. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Susan K; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2010-05-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipolysis (presence of adenosine deaminase) per unit adipocyte surface area was similar in Abd and Glt and in AA and C. However, rates of 'basal' [submaximal phenylisopropyl adenosine (PIA)-suppressed] and insulin-suppressed lipolysis were higher in Abd of AA compared with C women even after adjustment for percent fat and visceral fat area. The race difference in rates of PIA- and insulin-suppressed lipolysis in AA were correlated with their hyperinsulinemia, but AA race, independent of fasting insulin, was associated with lower responsiveness (percent suppression) to submaximal insulin concentrations, although sensitivity (ED50) was not affected. Overall, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that decreased responsiveness of Abd adipocytes to antilipolytic effectors may contribute to higher FA availability and thereby to racial differences in insulin resistance.

  10. Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Stepanian

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260, where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037 were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2-3.8] (p = 0.007 and 2.3 [1.5-3.5] (p = 1.3 × 10(-4, respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8-6.6], p = 1.1 × 10(-4; odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7-5.8], p = 2.1 × 10(-4, for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r(2 = 0.93. No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface.

  11. Genetic and environmental determinants on bone loss in postmenopausal Caucasian women: a 14-year longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, G; Andrew, T; Kato, B S; Blake, G M; Spector, T D

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal twin study documented that genetic factors explain 44-56% of the between-individual variance in bone loss at femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm in postmenopausal Caucasian women, providing a rationale for identifying the specific genes involved. Although there is a significant genetic effect on peak BMD, until recently, no substantive studies on heritability of bone loss in human were available. The aim of the study was to estimate the heritability of the bone loss at multiple sites in postmenopausal Caucasian women. Postmenopausal female monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 40 or above at baseline were selected from the TwinsUK registry and followed up for an average of 8 years (range 5-14 years). All twins were noncurrent hormone replacement therapy users and not on any osteoporosis treatment. They had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of their hip, lumbar spine, and forearm several times (range 2-9) during the follow-up period. Individual bone losses at femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm were estimated by linear regression modeling. Structural equation modeling was utilized to estimate the heritability of the bone loss. A total of 712 postmenopausal Caucasian female twins (152 MZ and 204 DZ pairs) were included. MZ twins were older and had slightly lower BMD at all sites than DZ twins. DZ twins had slightly higher bone loss at lumbar spine, but similar at femoral neck and forearm compared to MZ twins. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the bone loss at all sites were significantly higher in MZ than DZ twin pairs (p = 0.0045, 0.0003, and 0.0007 for femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm, respectively), indicating a significant genetic influence on bone loss at these sites. After adjustment for age at baseline and weight change during the follow-up, the heritability estimate was 47% (95% CI 27-63%) for bone loss at femoral neck, 44% (95% CI 27-58%) for lumbar spine, and 56% (95% CI 44-65%) for forearm

  12. The relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index in North European Caucasian and East Asian women with anorexia nervosa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa L; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Ung, Ken E K; Walter, Garry

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) in North European Caucasian and East Asian young women with and without anorexia nervosa (AN) in two countries. Height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 137 young women with and without AN, in Australia and Singapore. The relationship between BMI and the sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest skinfolds was analysed with clinical status, ethnicity, age and country of residence as covariates. For the same BMI, women with AN had significantly smaller sums of skinfolds than women without AN. East Asian women both with and without AN had significantly greater skinfold sums than their North European Caucasian counterparts after adjusting for BMI. Lower BMI goals may be appropriate when managing AN patients of East Asian ancestry and the weight for height diagnostic criterion should be reconsidered for this group.

  13. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has…

  14. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has…

  15. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has emerged…

  16. Indoor air pollution from biomass burning activates Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study among premenopausal women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan K; Roy, Amrita; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. The authors investigated in this study whether cumulative exposures to biomass smoke cause activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). For this, the authors enrolled 87 premenopausal (median age 34 years), nonsmoking women who used to cook with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 85 age-matched control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated forms of Akt protein (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) in PBL, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils in sputum of biomass-using women than control. Akt activation in biomass users was associated with marked rise in generation of reactive oxygen species and concomitant depletion of superoxide dismutase. Measurement of particulate matter having a diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 µm in indoor air by real-time aerosol monitor showed 2 to 4 times more particulate pollution in biomass-using households, and Akt activation was positively associated with particulate pollution after controlling potential confounders. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to biomass smoke activates Akt, possibly via generation of oxidative stress.

  17. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  18. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    the baseline examination of 1367 Caucasian and 162 Asian women enrolled in the 1609-subject Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort (EPIC) study. After adjusting for age, study site, years postmenopause, and years of estrogen use, BMD was approximately 4-6% lower (P ... lower BMD only for the lateral spine (-4.4%; P P P P

  19. A specific haplotype in the 3' end of estrogen-receptor alpha gene is associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Chanprasertyothin, S; Saetung, S; Rajatanavin, R

    2005-10-01

    It is well established that the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis is under genetic influence. We have recently identified a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 8 of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) gene in the vicinity of the stop codon (G2014A) that is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, we attempted to locate SNPs in the 3'-unstranslated region (3'UTR) of the ERalpha gene that are in linkage disequilibrium with the exon 8 SNP and assessed their utilization in the risk assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 352 Thai postmenopausal women. The association with bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women was also investigated in 202 premenopausal women. A C to A SNP 1,748 nucleotides distal to the end of the stop codon (C3768A) was identified. The C3768A SNP was not overrepresented in subjects with osteoporosis. However, the presence of the A-C haplotype allele based on the A2014 and C3768 alleles was significantly related to the risk of osteoporosis independently of age, body weight, the G2014A and C3768A SNPs (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.42-3.91). Moreover, the presence of the A-C haplotype allele was associated with lower femoral neck BMD in premenopausal women ( P =0.05). We concluded that a specific haplotype in the 3' end of the ERalpha gene is associated with lower BMD in premenopausal women and is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is likely that the haplotype allele exerts its influence on bone as early as during young adulthood to increase the risk of osteoporosis later in life.

  20. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  1. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibola, Christine F

    2004-08-04

    Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack), as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17beta-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 +/- 91 to 164 +/- 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04) following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 +/- 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03) with the 1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 +/- 0.14 to 8.4 +/- 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1), which increased further to 16.8 +/- 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002). These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these preliminary findings.

  2. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  3. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  4. Decreased luteinizing hormone pulse frequency is associated with elevated 24-hour ghrelin after calorie restriction and exercise in premenopausal women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane; Hill, Brenna R; Leidy, Heather J; Williams, Nancy I

    2013-01-01

    ...) pulsatility in Rhesus monkeys, rats, men, and recently women. We previously reported that 24-h ghrelin concentrations are elevated in women following a 3-mo exercise and diet program leading to weight loss...

  5. Randomized Double-Blind 2 × 2 Trial of Low-Dose Tamoxifen and Fenretinide for Breast Cancer Prevention in High-Risk Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decensi, Andrea; Robertson, Chris; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Mora, Serena; Gulisano, Marcella; Johansson, Harriet; Galimberti, Viviana; Cassano, Enrico; Moroni, Simona M.; Formelli, Franca; Lien, Ernst A.; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Johnson, Karen A.; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tamoxifen and fenretinide are active in reducing premenopausal breast cancer risk and work synergistically in preclinical models. The authors assessed their combination in a two-by-two biomarker trial. Patients and Methods A total of 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN, n = 160), or 5-year Gail risk ≥ 1.3% (n = 54) were randomly allocated to either tamoxifen 5 mg/d, fenretinide 200 mg/d, their combination, or placebo. We report data for plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), mammographic density, uterine effects, and breast neoplastic events after 5.5 years. Results During the 2-year intervention, tamoxifen significantly lowered IGF-I and mammographic density by 12% and 20%, respectively, fenretinide by 4% and 10% (not significantly), their combination by 20% and 22%, with no evidence for a synergistic interaction. Tamoxifen increased endometrial thickness principally in women becoming postmenopausal, whereas fenretinide decreased endometrial thickness significantly. The annual rate of breast neoplasms (n = 48) was 3.5% ± 1.0%, 2.1% ± 0.8%, 4.7% ± 1.3%, and 5.2% ± 1.3% in the tamoxifen, fenretinide, combination, and placebo arms, respectively, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.32 to 1.52), 0.38 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.90), and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.46 to 1.99) relative to placebo (tamoxifen × fenretinide adverse interaction P = .03). There was no clear association with tumor receptor type. Baseline IGF-I and mammographic density did not predict breast neoplastic events, nor did change in mammographic density. Conclusion Despite favorable effects on plasma IGF-I levels and mammographic density, the combination of low-dose tamoxifen plus fenretinide did not reduce breast neoplastic events compared to placebo, whereas both single agents, particularly fenretinide, showed numerical reduction in annual odds of breast neoplasms. Further follow-up is indicated. PMID:19597031

  6. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  7. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  8. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women LOS EFECTOS DE UN PROGRAMA DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA AERÓBICA SOBRE EL ESTADO DE ÁNIMO EN MUJERES PREMENOPÁUSICAS [The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

    La relación entre ejercicio físico y estado de ánimo es cada vez más importante en las investigaciones. La mayoría informa de los beneficios del ejercicio sobre la salud física, y no sobre el estado de ánimo. Este estudio pretende conocer los cambios que provoca un programa de actividad física aeróbica sobre el estado de ánimo en mujeres premenopáusicas. Participaron 20 mujeres premenopáusicas, separadas en 2 grupos: menores de 35 años (n=10 y mayores de 35 años (n=10. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a una valoración del estado de ánimo antes y al final del programa. El programa de intervención duró 5 meses, con una frecuencia de 3 sesiones por semana y una duración de 60 minutos por sesión. La intensidad del ejercicio fue del 60 - 70% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima de reserva. Los resultados indican mejoras en el vigor y en la angustia en mujeres

  9. A controlled comparison of ovarian response to controlled stimulation in first generation Asian women compared with white Caucasians undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashen, H; Afnan, M; Sharif, K

    1999-05-01

    To compare ovarian response to controlled stimulation among Asian women from the Indian sub-continent and white Caucasian women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Nested case-control study. Assisted Conception Unit, Birmingham Women's Hospital. One hundred and eight first generation Asian patients (born in the Indian sub-continent) and 216 white Caucasian controls, all of whom received IVF treatment in the period 1994 to 1997, were selected for the study. The two groups were matched for age to within one year, early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone, indication for treatment, gonadotrophin dose and year of treatment. The outcome of treatment was not known when the controls were selected. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the duration of stimulation, egg number, number of embryos produced, fertilisation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, cycle cancellation rate and implantation rate. Under the same IVF protocol Asian women's response to controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF outcome are comparable to their white Caucasian peers.

  10. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  11. Pectineal Ligament Hysteropexy for Uterine Prolapse in Premenopausal Women by Open and Laparoscopic Approach in Indian Urban and Rural Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vivek Madhusudan; Otiv, Suhas R; Dagade, Vasant B; Borse, Mahindra; Majumder, Rabin N; Shrivastava, Maneesha; Shelmohkar, Ravindra; Bijwe, Smita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate (a) the surgical outcomes of pectineal ligament hysteropexy (PLH) for uterine prolapse by laparotomy and (b) the feasibility and safety of the procedure by laparoscopic route. This is a retrospective consecutive case series of women who underwent PLH from January 1998 to December 2011. The prolapsed uterus was suspended with polyester tape to pectineal ligament on either side through a Cherney incision or laparoscopically at 3 urban and 3 rural hospitals in India. In 194 women who underwent PLH (176 open and 18 laparoscopic), there were no intraoperative complications. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 0.5-12 years) for open method and 1 year (range, 0.5-2 years) for laparoscopic approach. There were 46 births in 40 women after the procedure including 32 vaginal and 14 cesarean deliveries. Overall, 10 women (5.1%) had uterine prolapse recurrence; 7 of these occurred after vaginal delivery. One woman had tape erosion into the bladder because of pelvic tuberculosis. At follow-up, 12 women developed cystocele, and 7 women developed portio vaginalis elongation. There were no postoperative enteroceles. Overall reoperation rate was 14.9%. Laparoscopic PLH had minimal morbidity with no recurrence over 2 years. Open PLH for uterine prolapse may be safely performed and gives durable support to the prolapsed uterus with low recurrence risk.

  12. Efficacy of goserelin plus anastrozole in premenopausal women with advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue with tamoxifen: results of the JMTO BC08-01 phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Anan, Keisei; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Higaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Maki; Shibuta, Kenji; Sagara, Yasuaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tsuyuki, Shigeru; Mase, Takahiro; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety. Between September 2008 and November 2010, 37 patients were enrolled. Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had ER-positive tumors, and 36 (97.3%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative tumors. Thirty-six (97.3%) had measurable lesions and 1 (2.7%) had only bone metastasis. The ORR was 18.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.0-35.2%], the CBR was 62.2% (95% CI, 44.8-77.5%) and the median PFS was 7.3 months. Eight patients had adverse drug reactions but none resulted in discontinuation of treatment. GOS plus ANA is a safe effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, recurrent or advanced breast cancer. The treatment may become viable treatment in the future, particularly when TAM is ineffective or contraindicated. Further studies and discussion are warranted.

  13. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    . Design, Setting, and Subjects: In a population study, we included Danish women with new autoimmune overt hypothyroidism not diagnosed within the first year after a pregnancy (n = 117; median age 53.0 y) and age-andregion-matched euthyroid controls from the same population (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures......: In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...... births and induced abortions were major risk factors for the development of autoimmune overt hypothyroidism in women aged up to 55 years. The increased risk for hypothyroidism after giving birth extends longer than just to the 1-year postpartum period, and numbers of previous pregnancies should be taken...

  14. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    skeletal sites, but there was no significant difference for wrist or forearm BMD. Adding height, lean body mass, fat mass, and/or quadriceps muscle strength to the regression models reduced the racial differences at most skeletal sites; after these additional adjustments, Asian women had significantly......We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...

  15. Estudo da atividade hormonal de mulheres tratadas com tamoxifeno no menacme A study of hormone activity in premenopausal tamoxifen-treated women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Roberto de M. Bernardes Jr

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do tamoxifeno nos níveis séricos de progesterona, estradiol, prolactina, hormônio luteinizante (LH, hormônio folículo-estimulante (FSH e da globulina transportadora dos hormônios sexuais (SHBG, quando administrado a mulheres no menacme, nas doses de 10 e 20 mg/dia por 22 dias. Métodos: Estudo aleatório e duplo-cego. Foram incluídas 43 mulheres pré-menopausadas e eumenorréicas. Foram distribuídas em 3 grupos: A (N = 15; placebo, B (N = 15; 10 mg/dia e C (N = 13; 20 mg/dia. Foram realizadas duas dosagens hormonais, sendo a primeira no 22º dia do ciclo menstrual que precedeu o uso da droga e a segunda após 22 dias de uso do medicamento. Utilizaram-se os testes de Levene e t-pareado para avaliar a homogeneidade da amostra e a variação das dosagens hormonais, respectivamente. Resultados: As concentrações séricas de estradiol, progesterona e SHBG aumentaram significantemente nos grupos B e C. No grupo C, observou-se ainda elevação no nível sérico de FSH (p Purpose: to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen (TAM on plasma levels of estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG when given to premenopausal women in the doses of 10 and 20 mg/day for 22 days. Patients and Methods: a randomized double-blind study was performed with 43 premenopausal eumenorrheic women. The patients were divided into three groups: A (N = 15, placebo; B (N = 15, TAM 10 mg/day and C (N = 13, 20 mg/day. They started taking an oral dose of TAM or placebo on the very first day of the menstrual cycle. Two hormone determinations were performed, both on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle: the first in the cycle that preceded the use of the drug and the second, in the following cycle, after 22 days of using the medication. We used the Levine and Student tests in order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample and the variation of the hormone

  16. Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Wang, Christina; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of environmental chemicals, may interfere with typical reproductive hormone production both in utero and in adulthood. Although they are best known as anti-androgens, increasingly, evidence suggests that phthalates, particularly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), may also suppress estrogen production. Given that both androgens and estrogens are essential for sexual function, particularly sexual interest, it is plausible that adult exposure to phthalates alters sexual function. To this end, we used data from 360 women participating in a pregnancy cohort study (the Study for Future Families) to examine whether urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with two dimensions of self-reported sexual dysfunction in the months prior to conception: lack of sexual interest and vaginal dryness. Women in the highest quartile of urinary concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, a DEHP metabolite, had 2.58 (95% CI 1.33, 5.00) times the adjusted odds of reporting that they almost always or often lacked interest in sexual activity, and results were similar for mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.32, 4.95), another DEHP metabolite. Self-reported vaginal dryness was not associated with any phthalate metabolite concentration. This study is novel in its focus on sexual function in relation to environmentally relevant (rather than occupational) exposure to phthalates in adult women and these preliminary findings merit replication in a large, prospective study. Better understanding how adult exposure to phthalates may affect reproductive health, including sexual function, is of public health interest given that virtually all Westerners are exposed to phthalates.

  17. The influence of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in premenopausal women with anorexia nervosa and amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebow, Jocelyn; Sim, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density is one of the primary risks of chronic amenorrhea, and the effects of potentially long-term menstrual disruption on bone mass are serious concerns for individuals with a past or current anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. As such, estrogen therapies are frequently used to address amenorrhea associated with AN. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the effectiveness of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in women with amenorrhea. Data regarding the effectiveness of oral contraceptives were of low quality and mixed, with the majority of studies finding no benefit of these treatments on bone mineral density. Hormone replacement therapy findings were also mixed, though promising results were found in a study comparing transdermal administration of physiologic estrogen, delivered in developmentally sensitive incremental doses to placebo controls. Though this study suggests a possible role for estrogen therapies in addressing bone density loss in women with AN, in general, more studies are needed. Clinical drawbacks of using these therapies in the treatment of AN, including the loss of menses resumption as a clinical marker for weight and nutritional rehabilitation, must be considered in the decision to use estrogen therapies, particularly given the uncertain effectiveness of most of these treatments.

  18. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age, calcium, smoking, and physical activity on appendicular and axial bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a 2-y study of 200-300 healthy young women aged 20-39 y. There was no cross-sectional change of BMD with age or longitudinal change with bone loss. No effect of birth-control pills on BMD was seen. There also was no association of calcium intake with BMD and/or with BMD changes. Current calcium intake was not a significant influence on BMD in this age group. Daily activity had no effect on BMD and there was no apparent additive interaction of activity and calcium intake on BMD. Smokers had significantly lower spine BMD and a tendency for lower BMD at other sites. Body weight was a better predictor of BMD than was any other factor. There was no association of BMD or BMD changes with both urinary calcium and hydroxyproline normalized for creatinine.

  19. Susceptibility loci for polycystic ovary syndrome on chromosome 2p16.3, 2p21, and 9q33.3 in a cohort of Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, E; Trummer, O; Giuliani, A; Gruber, H-J; Pieber, T R; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2011-10-01

    In a recent genome-wide association study investigating Han Chinese PCOS women 3 loci that are strongly associated with PCOS were identified on chromosome 2p16.3 (rs13405728), 2p21 (rs13429458), and 9q33.3 (rs2479106). The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of rs13405728, rs13429458, and rs2479106 variants on PCOS susceptibility in a Caucasian cohort of PCOS and control women. Metabolic, endocrine, and anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 545 PCOS and 317 control women. The rs13405728, rs13429458, and rs2479106 polymorphisms were genotyped. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies of rs13405728 and rs13429458 variants between PCOS and controls. There was a trend towards an association of the rs2479106 variant with PCOS susceptibility (p=0.053). PCOS women with the rs2479106 GG genotype had significantly higher WHR than PCOS women carrying the AG and AA genotype (p=0.034 and p=0.020, respectively). Moreover, QChol/HDL and LDL levels were significantly higher in PCOS women carrying the rs2479106 GG genotype when compared to those carrying the AA genotype (p=0.024 and p=0.035, respectively). PCOS women carrying the G allele of rs13405728 had significantly higher AUCgluc, glucose-30 min, and AUCins levels than those carrying the AA genotype (p=0.039, p=0.047, and p=0.044, respectively). In PCOS women, rs13405728 genotypes are associated with glucose and insulin metabolism. Moreover, rs2479106 genotypes were associated with increased WHR levels and an adverse serum lipid profile. Further, we observed a trend towards decreased PCOS susceptibility within carriers of the rs2479106 G-allele. Further studies in large Caucasian PCOS cohorts are warranted to confirm our findings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E

    2015-07-15

    Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes) and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR) age 22.1 (18.1-29.1) years, BMI 22.9 (18.5-31.9) kg/m2) were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia). Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites) using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017) were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004) were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted.

  1. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Pezdirc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR age 22.1 (18.1–29.1 years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9 kg/m2 were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia. Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017 were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004 were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted.

  2. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  3. Effects of lycopene on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in premenopausal breast cancer survivors and women at high familial breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Dorien W.; Vrieling, Alina; Korse, Catharina M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.; van Doorn, Jaap; Kaas, Reinie; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial to evaluate whether tomato-derived lycopene supplementation (30 mg/day for 2 mo) decreases se

  4. Association of collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1) Sp1 polymorphism with osteoporotic fracture in Caucasian post-menopausal women: a meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ji, G-R

    2012-01-06

    This study was designed to summarize quantitatively the evidence for a relationship between collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1) Sp1 polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture risk in Caucasian post-menopausal women. This meta-analysis included 16 studies, which analysed 2294 patients with fractures and 10 285 controls. The combined results showed that there was a significant difference in genotype distribution (SS odds ratio [OR] 0.72; Ss OR 1.18; ss OR 1.97) between patients with fractures and controls. When stratifying by the fracture site, it was found that: (i) patients with vertebral fractures had a significantly higher frequency of the Ss genotype and a lower frequency of the SS genotype than controls; and (ii) patients with non-vertebral fractures had a significantly higher frequency of the ss genotype and a lower frequency of the SS genotype than controls. This meta-analysis suggests that the COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism may be associated with osteoporotic fracture in Caucasian post-menopausal women.

  5. The prognostic value of four interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms in caucasian women with breast cancer – a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Although IL-1 gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, their influence on survival of Caucasian breast cancer patients remains to be shown. Methods We studied the influence of four common gene polymorphisms (IL1A -889C/T, IL1B -511C/T, IL1B +3953E1/E2, and IL1RN long/2) of the IL-1 family on survival in 262 Caucasian patients with breast cancer by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The combined effect of the four gene polymorphisms on overall survival was studied by haplotype analysis. Results In the present study 38 cases of cancer related death and a median time of follow-up (range) of 55.3 (0.4–175.8) months was observed. IL1RN 2/2 (homozygous mutant) gene polymorphism was associated with shortened disease free and overall survival in a univariate (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.002, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 3.6 [1.6–8.0] and p = 0.05, Odds Ratio = 3.0 [1.1–9.3], respectively). Presence of the homozygous mutant genotype of the IL1A -889 and IL1B +3953 gene polymorphism was associated with overall survival in the univariate (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively), but not in the multivariate analysis. No association was observed between all possible haplotype combinations and overall survival. Conclusion Carriage of the mutant alleles of IL1RN was independently associated with shortened disease free and overall survival rates in Caucasian patients with breast cancer. PMID:19267917

  6. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 围绝经期妇女生殖激素水平与情绪障碍的相关性%Correlation between reproductive hormones and mood disorders of premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全华; 吴玲萍; 杨佩文; 杜晓东

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the correlation between reproductive hormones and mood disorders of premenopausal women.Methods:95 premenopausal patients from April 201 2 to February 201 4 in our hospital were selected.According to the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scale,patient’s mood was assessed.According to the results of the assessment,the patients were divided into control group,anxiety group,depression group and anxiety and depression group.Differences of estuarial (E2),luteinizing hormone (LH),progesterone (P),follicle stimu-lating hormone (FSH)and testosterone (T)of four groups were observed and compared.Results:The estuarial level of anxiety group was higher than that of depression group.The estuarial level of depression group was signifi-cantly lower than that of control group.The difference was statistically significant (P  关性(P<0.05)。结论:围绝经期妇女的生殖激素水平同情绪障碍密切相关,临床应给予足够重视。

  8. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Monica; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Walsh, Mary Norine; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Allen, Larry A; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dickinson, Michael G; Dries, Daniel L; Ewald, Gregory A; Fang, James C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Whellan, David J; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    The presentation, natural history, clinical outcomes, and response to therapy in patients with heart failure differ in some ways across populations. Women, older adults, and non-Caucasian racial or ethnic groups compose a substantial proportion of the overall heart failure population, but they have typically been underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, uncertainty exists about the efficacy of some guideline-directed medical therapies and devices in specific populations, which may result in the under- or overtreatment of these patients. Even when guideline-based treatments are prescribed, socioeconomic, physical, or psychologic factors may affect non-Caucasian and older adult patient groups to a different extent and affect the application, effectiveness, and tolerability of these therapies. Individualized therapy based on tailored biology (genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), socioeconomic and cultural considerations, and individual goals and preferences may be the optimal approach for managing diverse patients. This comprehensive approach to personalized medicine is evolving, but in the interim, the scientific community should continue efforts focused on intensifying research in special populations, prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy unless contraindicated, and implementing evidence-based strategies including patient and family education and multidisciplinary team care in the management of patients.

  9. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  10. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Poskiene, Lina; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Pranys, Darius; Norkute, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28–90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.41) in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38–2.55) in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84–4.25) in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97–1.66) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87–3.74) times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend receptor-positive breast cancer did not differ from that with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (Pheterogeneity > 0.05). There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02) and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women. PMID:28151962

  11. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  12. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  13. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  14. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kiazand, Alexandre; Alhassan, Sofiya; Kim, Soowon; Stafford, Randall S; Balise, Raymond R; Kraemer, Helena C; King, Abby C

    2007-03-07

    Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately. To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables. Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up. Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing. Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (PZone, -1.6 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.4 kg), LEARN, -2.6 kg (-3.8 to -1.3 kg), and Ornish, -2.2 kg (-3.6 to -0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups. In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic

  15. Strong effect of SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene on bone phenotype of Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Tóbiás, Bálint; Szili, Balázs; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Győri, Gabriella; Kató, Karina; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the Wnt pathway and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. We chose this pathway due to its importance in bone metabolism that was underlined in several studies. DNA samples of 932 Hungarian postmenopausal women were studied. First, their BMD values at different sites (spine, total hip) were measured, using a Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Thereafter, T-score values and the patients' body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated, while information about the fracture history of the sample population was also collected. We genotyped nine SNPs of the following three genes: LRP5, GPR177, and SP7, using a Sequenom MassARRAY Analyzer 4 instrument. The genomic DNA samples used for genotyping were extracted from the buccal mucosa of the subjects. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21 and R package. The results of this analysis showed a significant association between SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and total hip BMD values. We could not reveal any associations between the markers of GPR177, SP7, and bone phenotypes. We found no effect of these genotypes on fracture risk. We could demonstrate a significant gene-gene interaction between two SNPs of LRP5 (rs4988300 and rs634008, p = 0.009) which was lost after Bonferroni correction. We could firmly demonstrate a significant association between rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and bone density of the hip on the largest homogeneous postmenopausal study group analyzed to date. Our finding corroborates the relationship between LRP5 genotype and bone phenotype in postmenopausal women, however, the complete mechanism of this relationship requires further investigations.

  16. Expressão da proteína Bax no tecido mamário normal de mulheres no menacme tratadas com raloxifeno Expression of Bax protein in normal tissue of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Furtado-Veloso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a expressão do antígeno Bax no epitélio mamário normal de mulheres na pré-menopausa tratadas com raloxifeno. MÉTODOS: estudo randomizado duplo-cego, envolvendo 33 mulheres pré-menopáusicas com fibroadenoma. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: Placebo, (n=18 e Raloxifeno 60 mg, (n=15. A medicação foi usada durante 22 dias, começando no primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual. Uma biópsia foi realizada no 23º dia do ciclo menstrual, durante a qual uma amostra do tecido mamário normal adjacente ao fibroadenoma foi coletada e submetida a estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizando o anticorpo policlonal anti-Bax para avaliar a expressão da proteína Bax. A imunorreação para a proteína Bax foi avaliada, levando-se em consideração a intensidade e a fração de células coradas, cuja combinação resultou em um escore final de 0 a 6. Os casos com escore final >3 foram classificados como positivos para proteína Bax. O teste do c2 foi usado para análise estatística dos dados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the expression of Bax antigen in the normal mammary epithelium of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene. METHODS: a randomized double-blind study was conducted in 33 ovulatory premenopausal women with fibroadenoma. Patients were divided into two groups: Placebo, (n=18 and Raloxifene 60 mg, (n=15. The medication was used for 22 days, beginning on the first day of the menstrual cycle. An excisional biopsy was carried out on the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle and a sample of normal breast tissue adjacent to the fibroadenoma was collected and submitted to immunohistochemical study using anti-Bax polyclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of Bax protein. Immunoreaction for Bax was evaluated taking into consideration intensity and fraction of stained cells, whose combination resulted in a final score ranging from 0 to 6. Cases with a final score >3 were classified as positive for Bax. The c2 test was used for statistical

  17. Plasma Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Risk of Breast Cancer among Premenopausal Women%血浆性激素水平和绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞兰; 张海琛; 李国权; 徐晓颖; 邹丽娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of plasma sex steroid hormone levels with risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.Methods By use of case-control study,levels of plasma estradiol (E3),testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) were measured in 75 premenopausal women with breast cancer patients and 78 matched control subjects by radioimmunoassay during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles.Conditional logistic regression models,controlling for breast cancer risk factors,were used to examine their associations with breast cancer risk.All statistical tests were two-sided.Results (1)The plasma levcls of E2 and T of case group were significantly higher than those of control group.The plasrna level of P was lower than that of the control group,but the resuts as not statistically significant.(2)Increased risks of breast cancer were positively associated with elevated plasma concentration of testosterone(adjusted odds ratio[OR] for highest versus lowest quartile=3.63,95% confidence interval[95%CI] =1.82-7.45,Ptrend =0.015).Elevated serum progesterone concentrations was associated with a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer risk(adjusted OR =0.43,95%CI=0.20-0.85,Ptrend =0.023).Higher level of estradiol was associated with modest,non-statistically significant increase in risk of breast cancer(adjusted OR =2.48,95 % CI =1.27-5.14,Ptrend =0.270).Conclusion Results suggested that high plasma level of testosterone was positively associated with breast cancer risk,while high plasma level of progesterone was negatively associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.%目的 评价血浆类固醇性激素水平与绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系.方法 采用放射免疫法测定75例绝经前女性乳腺癌病例和78例匹配对照的血浆雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)及睾酮(T)水平,并应用条件Logistic回归分析绝经前女性血浆E2、P、T水平与患乳腺癌危险性的关系.结果 (1)病例组血浆E2

  18. Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K Kyongo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. METHODS: Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17 expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10 CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity

  19. [Depression-anxiety and disability in the premenopausal and postmenopausal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezircioğlu, Incim; Gülseren, Leyla; Oniz, Adile; Kindiroğlu, Neşe

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare levels of depression-anxiety and disability in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The study was carried out with women between 45-55 years of age, living in the service area of a Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center. Women who did not have a menstruation at least for one year were accepted as postmenopausal. The premenopausal group was consisted of women having menstruation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were applied to the women. Four hundred and ninety four women were recruited to the study. There were 214 women in the premenopausal period and 280 women in the postmenopausal period. In premenopausal women the level of education was higher and smoking was more prevalent; whereas in postmenopausal women the prevalence rates of being housewife and having continuous drug therapy due to chronic physical diseases were higher. In postmenopausal women, levels of depression and disability were significantly higher. In this group, the predictive factors for having a high HAD score were disability, education having a previous psychiatric disorder having drug therapy due to chronic physical diseases, diabetes mellitus, low level, menopause before the age of 40, not having any counselling for menopause, and not having routine laboratory tests. Having a previous psychiatric disorder and not having any counselling were also predicting disability. None of the variables predicted a high HAD score psychiatric disorder and not having any counselling were also predicting disability and disability in the premenopausal women. The postmenopausal period seems to predispose women to depressive symptoms and disability compared to the premenopausal period.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a Prototype Formulation of Sublingual Testosterone and a Buspirone Tablet, Versus an Advanced Combination Tablet of Testosterone and Buspirone in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, Kim; De Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a prototype formulation of sublingual testosterone and a buspirone tablet, versus an advanced combination tablet of testosterone and buspirone in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  2. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Wiklund

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of a prototype formulation of sublingual testosterone and a buspirone tablet, versus an advanced combination tablet of testosterone and buspirone in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  4. Assessing the thickness of the vaginal wall and vaginal mucosa in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal women by transabdominal ultrasound: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balica, Adrian; Wald-Spielman, Daniella; Schertz, Katherine; Egan, Susan; Bachmann, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    As life expectancy increases, the number of women reporting adverse genito-urinary symptoms (genitourinary syndrome of menopause; GSM) from menopause, including vaginal dryness and sexual pain, also will increase. Current objective measurements of vaginal atrophy such as maturation index require vaginal swabs and are invasive; at present, no minimally invasive measurements exist. The purpose of this study was to assess whether total vaginal wall thickness (TVT) and total vaginal mucosa thickness (TMT) as measured by transabdominal ultrasound could qualify as additional objective markers of vaginal wall thinning which could be related to menopausal status. Women presenting for pelvic ultrasound had a transabdominal ultrasound scan performed to measure TVT and TMT at the level of the bladder trigone. In addition, a transvaginal endometrial lining thickness was measured. The ultrasound measurement data from 76 participants showed that there was a significant difference in the mean value for TVT and endometrial lining between pre- and post-menopausal women. The same difference in mean was not observed for TMT. TVT may be a reliable measure of vaginal thinning, which worsens with estrogen decline. These preliminary data also suggest that TMT does not have the same correlation as the TVT measurement. A larger sample is needed to further assess the usefulness and sensitivity of these measures and whether there is clinical and/or research usefulness in obtaining vaginal wall measurements by transabdominal ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of endurance training on the relationships between sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein A1 and physical fitness in pre-menopausal women with mild obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, S; Shono, N; Kondo, Y; Nishizumi, M

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with changes in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), physical fitness and spontaneous dietary intake before and after endurance training. Ten pre-menopausal obese women (32 to 49 years) who had never smoked or regularly drunk alcohol participated in this study. Physical training at an intensity of lactate threshold was performed for six months at a frequency of three times per week for 60 minutes using a cycle ergometer. Together with a reduction in body weight (-4.1 kg; P < 0.05) and with increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max = +3.4 ml/kg/min or +0.09 l/min; P < 0.05), the training induced some changes in both plasma lipid and lipoprotein. Although the total cholesterol (total-C), triglyceride, HDL2-C and apoprotein A1 (Apo A1) levels did not change, significant increases in HDL-C and HDL3-C, and significant reductions in Apo B, total-C/HDL-C ratio and fasting insulin concentrations were found after training. SHBG levels tended to increase after endurance training, but the changes were not significant. No alteration was observed in spontaneous dietary intake after training. A significant correlation (r = 0.648) was observed between the change in VO2 max(l/min) and the change in SHBG. In addition, changes in both VO2 max(l/min) and SHBG were significantly associated with changes in HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1. The changes in dietary intake did not correlate with the changes in SHBG, VO2max, HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Sexual function in premenopausal women before and after renal transplantation%肾移植前后绝经期前成年女性性功能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立新; 夏仁飞; 周敏捷

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究绝经期前成年女性肾移植前、后的性功能改变.方法 42例成年已婚女性、透析治疗超过6个月、肾移植术后肾功能恢复正常超过6个月的女性肾移植受者纳入研究.统计肾移植前后月经周期情况、检验患者手术前后性激素水平.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)量表分别评估术前、术后患者的性功能.结果 肾移植前闭经、月经稀发、月经频发及月经正常的患者分别有18例(42.9%)、10例(23.8%)、5例(11.9%)、9例(21.4%),移植后分别为7例(16.7%)、5例(11.9%)、6例(14.3%)、24例(57.1%).肾移植后催乳素(PRL)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)及黄体生成素(LH)较肾移植术前明显降低,而雌二醇(E2)和孕酮(P)较术前升高(P<0.001).移植前19例(45.2%)、术后36例(85.7%)受者有性生活(P<0.001).肾移植前、后女性性功能障碍(FSD)的总发病率分别为90.5%、40.5%(P<0.001).肾移植前FSFI评分中性欲、性唤起、阴道润滑、性满意度、性高潮及性交痛领域的分值显著低于肾移植后(P<0.001).结论 肾移植术后肾功能恢复正常后成年女性受者的性功能能够明显改善.%Objective To study the changes in sexual function in premenopausal women after renal transplantation.Methods Forty-two married premenopausal women receiving dialysis therapy for at least 6 months with normal renal function for 6 months after renal transplantation were examined for hormonal profiles and menstrual cydes.The sexual functions of the patients were evaluated using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) before and 6 months after the transplantation.Results Before renal transplantation,amenorrhea,oligomenorrhea,polimenorrhea,and eumenorrhea were found in 18 cases (42.9%),10 cases (23.8%),5 cases (11.9%) and 9 cases (21.4%),as compared to 7 cases (16.7%),5 cases (11.9%),6 cases (14.3%) and 24 cases (57.1%) after the transplantation,respectively.Prolactin (PRL

  7. Status of trace elements and antioxidants in premenopausal and postmenopausal phase of life: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Sabah; Alhefdhi, Tayef; Aleem, Ansari M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the extent of free radical damage in the form of oxidative stress, the antioxidant status and correlate with trace element levels in postmenopausal females as compared to premenopausal females. Participants between the ages of 30-60 years were recruited for the study and status of antioxidant enzymes and trace metals level was determined. The serum Calcium (Ca) levels after menopause was higher than that of the premenopausal group (P0.05). In postmenopausal women, antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) significantly decreased (P<0.001) in postmenopausal women showing oxidative stress in the cells. Concentrations of vitamin-C pointed out a significant decrease (P<0.05) in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women.

  8. Bioequivalence studies of tibolone in premenopausal women and effects on expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzyme AKR1C (aldo-keto reductase) family caused by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon W; Kim, Yoon G

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of a test formulation of tibolone with the marketed reference formulation in 24 young healthy female volunteers. Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone for menopausal women. Volunteers were treated with the 2 formulations of tibolone (total dose of active ingredient 2.5 mg) according to a 2 x 2 crossover design with a 1-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxytibolone, which are major metabolites of tibolone, were assayed in timed samples over a 24-hour period with a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The reference and test formulations gave a mean 3alpha-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 5.0 and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively, and a mean 3beta-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 16.4 and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. The mean AUC(t) of 3alpha-hydroxytibolone was 24.7 and 24.3 ng h/mL, whereas the mean AUC(t) of 3beta-hydroxytibolone was 57.6 and 54.8 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The authors did not find significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the 2 formulations, but metabolite formation was different from reports in postmenopausal women. The authors therefore measured the effects of estradiol on the expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzymes, from the aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) family, using HepG2 cell (human hepatoma cells) and MCF-7 cell (human breast cancer cells). Estradiol increased mRNA levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C3 and protein levels of total AKR1C in HepG2 cells. Estradiol selectively enhanced levels of AKR1C2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Thus, changes in the major metabolites of tibolone might result from changes in AKR1C family expression by patient estrogen status.

  9. Micronucleus formation, DNA damage and repair in premenopausal women chronically exposed to high level of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2010-03-29

    Genotoxicity of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been examined in 132 biomass users (median age 34 years) and 85 age-matched control women from eastern India who used the cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to cook. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was evaluated in buccal (BEC) and airway epithelial cells (AEC); DNA damage was examined by comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); and expressions of gamma-H2AX, Mre11 and Ku70 proteins were localized in AEC and PBL by immunocytochemistry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in blood were measured by spectrophotometry. Real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure particulate pollutants in indoor air. Compared with controls, biomass users had increased frequencies of micronucleated cells in BEC (3.5 vs. 1.7, pair, and MN frequency and comet tail % DNA were positively associated with these pollutants after controlling potential confounders. Thus, chronic exposure to biomass smoke causes chromosomal and DNA damage and upregulation of DNA repair mechanism.

  10. Neighborhood Social Environment and Health Communication at Prepregnancy and Maternal Stages among Caucasian and Asian Women: Findings from the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We study whether the relationship between neighborhood social environment and maternal communication with healthcare providers differs between Asians and Caucasians. Method and Materials. Using the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB survey, we measure new mother’s neighborhood social environment by four key variables: (1 instrumental/emotional support during pregnancy, (2 neighborhood social cohesion, (3 neighborhood social exchange, and (4 neighborhood services. Logistic regressions were applied for data analysis. Neighborhood social exchange predicts less chance of lacking communication about sensitive issues in preconception visits among Caucasians (logged odds: −0.045; P<0.01 and Asians (L.O.: −0.081; P<0.001 and predicts less chance of lacking communication during preconception visits among Asians (L.O.: −0.092; P<0.05. Neighborhood social cohesion predicts more chance for lacking communication about preparation for pregnancy only among Asians (L.O.: 0.065; P<0.05. Neighborhood services predict less chance of lacking communication about stigmatized issues in the prenatal visit among Asians (L.O.: −0.036; P<0.05. Discussion. Caucasians and Asians with more neighborhood social exchange are more likely to discuss sensitive issues during preconception visits. Neighborhood service significantly predicts maternal discussion of stigmatized issues with health care providers, but only among Asians.

  11. Clinical manifestations of premenopausal women with coronary arterial disease%未绝经女性患者冠状动脉事件临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田然; 方全; 张抒扬; 田庄; 谢洪智; 刘震宇; 金晓峰; 王崇慧; 严晓伟; 朱文玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical characteristics among premenopansal women with coronary arterial disease(CAD)with or without atherosclerosis(AS)and postmenopausal women with CAD.Methods The clinical and coronary angiographic data,traditional risk factors(age,smoking,blood pressure,lipid profile,blood glucose,BMI,family history)were compared among premenopause(Pre-M,n=42)and post-menopause(Post-M,n=172)women with CAD as well as Pre-M patients with non-AS CAD(non-AS CAD,n=18).Results Compared with the Post-M patients with CAD,Pre-M CAD patients had significantly fewer traditional risk factors,such as hypertension,diabetes and hypercholesterolemia,significantly more acute coronary syndrome and fewer previous history of chest pain,significantly more single vessel lesion and lower Gessini score(all P0.05).Conclusions Pre-M CAD patients had less traditional risk factors and lower coronary lesion score compared to post-M CAD patients. Obesity is an independent risk factor for Pre-M CAD. Non-AS coronary artery disease is also an important reason for the development of coronary arterial events in premenopausal women.%目的 分析未绝经女性患者冠状动脉事件的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析1995-2007年间于北京协和医院接受诊治的未绝经女性冠心病患者47例,已绝经女性冠心病患者172例和未绝经非动脉粥样硬化性冠状动脉疾病女性患者(non-AS CAD组)18例的临床表现.结果 (1)与已绝经冠心病组比较:未绝经冠心病组的高血压、糖尿病、高脂血症的发生率较低(均P<0.01),既往发生胸痛较少(14.9%比82.6%,P<0.01),冠心病危险因素个数较少(1.04±0.98比2.21±0.10,P<0.01),急性冠状动脉综合征(ACS)较多(83.0%比48.8%,P<0.01);冠状动脉造影显示以单支病变为主(70.2%比29.1%,P<0.01),冠状动脉病变积分(Gensini评分)较低(10.5±7.2比56.5+27.0,P<0.01);logstic回归发现,肥胖是未绝经女性冠心病患者独立的危险因素(OR =3.655,95%CI:1.15~11.59,P

  12. Factors related to variation in premenopausal bone mineral status: a health promotion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, C; McColl, R S

    2000-01-01

    Bone loss prior to menopause may contribute to later risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Women may be able to optimize premenopausal bone mass and/or prevent losses. Heredity, and possibly age at menarche (retrospectively determined), are unmodifiable risk factors and attention should therefore be directed to more amenable factors. Amenorrhea, low body weight, disordered eating, and smoking are modifiable risk factors. Vitamin D is not a factor for premenopausal women who receive incidental sun exposure and consume fortified foods, but supplementation should be considered for others, especially during the winter months. Protective factors include a higher body weight (especially due to increased muscularity), calcium supplementation, and purposeful load-bearing exercise. Positive effects of oral contraceptives are most apparent in women with menstrual irregularities. Reproductive history (parity), lactation, moderate intakes of alcohol and caffeine, and the appropriate treatment of endometriosis have no apparent effect on premenopausal bone.

  13. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  14. Breast Cancer in Elderly Caucasian Women-An Institution-Based Study of Correlation between Breast Cancer Prognostic Markers, TNM Stage, and Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orucevic, Amila; Curzon, Matthew; Curzon, Christina; Heidel, Robert E; McLoughlin, James M; Panella, Timothy; Bell, John

    2015-07-31

    There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly Caucasian female patients (≥70 year old (y/o)) from our institution over a ten-year interval (January 1998-July 2008). Five ER/PR/HER2 BC subtypes classified per 2011 St. Gallen International Expert Consensus recommendations were further subclassified into three subtypes (traditionally considered "favorable" subtype-ER+/PR+/HER2-, and traditionally considered "unfavorable" BC subtypes: HER2+ and triple negative). OS was measured comparing these categories using Kaplan Meier curves and Cox regression analysis, when controlled for TNM stage. The majority of our patients (178/232 = 76.8%) were of the "favorable" BC subtype; 23.2% patients were with "unfavorable" subtype (HER2+ = 12% (28/232) and triple negative = 11.2% (26/232)). Although a trend for better OS was noted in HER2+ patients (68%) vs. 56% in ER+/PR+ HER2- or 58% in triple negative patients, "favorable" BC subtype was not significantly predictive of better OS (p = 0.285). TNM stage was predictive of OS (p < 0.001). These results are similar to our published studies on Caucasian BC patients of all ages in which ER/PR/HER2 status was not predictive of OS, irrespective of classification system used.

  15. 未绝经女性与同年龄段男性冠心病患者临床特点及冠状动脉病变的对比分析%Clinical characterization of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women and age-matched men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱定君; 陈志强; 夏鸿莉; 李新花

    2011-01-01

    目的 雌激素对女性心血管有保护作用.文中旨在通过与同年龄男性冠心病患者比较,探讨未绝经女性冠心病患者的临床和冠状动脉病变特点.方法 选择120例在我院经冠状动脉造影确诊的未绝经女性冠心病患者为研究组,同期在我院经冠状动脉造影确诊的136例年龄匹配的男性冠心病患者为对照组.分别对其临床特点及冠状动脉病变的的特征进行比较.结果 未绝经女性组高脂血症、糖尿病比例显著高于对照组,吸烟史显著低于对照组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05);2组高血压、家族史比例无统计学差异(P>0.05).未绝经女性组临床表现以心绞痛为主,对照组以急性心肌梗死为主.2组均以单支病变为主,但病变支数无论是单支,还是双支及3支均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 未绝经女性冠心病患者危险因素相对较多,临床表现以心绞痛为主,急性心肌梗死较少.%Objective It is known that estrogen exerts multifaceted effects on the heart and blood vessels of females. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of premenopausal women with coronary heart disease ( CHD). Methods We included 120 premenopausal women with CHD in a study group and 136 age-matched men with CHD in a control group, and compared the coronary risk factors, clinical symptoms and angiographic characteristics between the two groups. Results Compared with the male controls, the premenopausal women had higher incidences of diabetes and dyslipidemia and a lower rate of smoking (P 0. 05). Angina was the main clinical manifestation in the premenopausal women, while acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was more prevalent among the male controls, and both were more likely to have single-vessel disease and less likely to have three-vessel disease. No significant differences were observed in the characteristics of their coronary lesions (P>0.05). Conclusion Premenopausal women with CHD have

  16. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N; McClain, Kathleen M; Jones, Michael E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Blot, William J; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A Heather; Giles, Graham G; Gram, Inger T; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kitahara, Cari M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A; Milne, Roger L; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R; Peeters, Petra H; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  18. Analysis of plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels in premenopausal women with breast cancer Análisis de los niveles de zinc en plasma y eritrocitos en mujeres premenopáusicas con cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Tinoco-Veras

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc deficiency has been associated with damage and oxidative changes in DNA that may increase an individual's risk of cancer. Furthermore, zinc metabolism may be affected in cancer patients, leading to alterations in its distribution that would favor carcinogenesis. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels in women with breast cancer were evaluated in this cross-sectional, controlled study. Material and methods: Fifty-five premenopausal women of 25 to 49 years of age with and without breast cancer were divided into two groups: Group A, composed of women without breast cancer (controls, n = 26 and Group B, composed of women with breast cancer (cases, n = 29. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry at γ = 213.9 nm. Diet was assessed using the 3-day diet recall method and analyzed using the NutWin software program, version 1.5. Student's t-test was used to compare means and significance was established at p = 0.05. Results: Mean plasma zinc levels were 69.69 ± 9.00 g/dL in the breast cancer patients and 65.93 ± 12.44 g/dL in the controls (p = 0.201. Mean erythrocyte zinc level was 41.86 ± 8.28 μgZn/gHb in the cases and 47.93 ± 7.00 μgZn/gHb in the controls (p Introducción: La deficiencia de zinc se relacionada con daños y modificaciones oxidativas del DNA, lo que puede favorecer el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, en pacientes con cáncer, puede haber alteraciones en el metabolismo del zinc con alteración en su distribución, favoreciendo la cancinogénesis. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas y eritrocitarias de zinc en mujeres con cáncer de mama. Material y métodos: estudio de naturaleza transversal, del tipo caso y control llevado a cabo en 55 mujeres pre-menospáusicas con y sin cáncer de mama con un rango de edades situado entre 25 y 49 años. Las pacientes fueron distribuidas en dos grupos: Grupo A, sin cáncer de mama

  19. [The secretion of the main ovarian steroids during bleeding in the premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E; Kŭnchev, L; Stankov, B

    1989-01-01

    The authors study the secretion of the basic ovarian steroids (estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) during dysfunctional bleedings in 46 women at the premenopausal phase of climacteric (mean age of 47.02 years). The results show that the premenopausal bleeding occurs on the background of manifested hypoestradiolemia (2.5 times lower than that at the early follicular phase), hypoprogesteronemia (relatively higher that at the early follicular early follicular phase) and relatively high testosteronemia. Determination of the hormones during three successive days show lack of definite dynamics in the secretion of these ovarian steroids. Considerable individual differences are described.

  20. Relation between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in caucasian adult women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, S; Tete, S; Festa, F

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and surface electromyographic recordings (sEMG) of head and neck muscles. The sample comprised 40 Caucasian adult females, average age 26.8 (20-48); lateral skull radiographs were obtained in natural head position (mirror position). sEMG activity was bilaterally investigated for the following muscles: masseter, anterior temporalis, digastric, posterior cervical, sternocleidomastoid and upper and lower trapezius. All muscles were monitored at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). A Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed significant correlations (P cervical angulations and sEMG activity of masseter, digastric, lower trapezius, during MVC and anterior temporalis at rest. Significant correlations (P cervical lordosis angle and sEMG activity of masseter (during MVC) and lower trapezius (at rest). In view of transversal method, no conclusion was possible about the mechanism concerning these results. Future longitudinal studies should be directed to understand the extent of environmental and genotype influences by masticatory muscle activity on cervical posture.

  1. Major depression during and after the menopausal transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, J T; Kravitz, H M; Chang, Y-F; Cyranowski, J M; Brown, C; Matthews, K A

    2011-09-01

    It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to pre-menopause. We aimed to examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were peri- or post-menopausal compared to when they were pre-menopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms (VMS), serum levels of, or changes in, estradiol (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone (T) and relevant confounders. Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42-52 years, who were pre-menopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual and current major depression at baseline and at annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones, were obtained annually. Women were two to four times more likely to experience a major depressive episode (MDE) when they were peri-menopausal or early post-menopausal. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, VMS and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are pre-menopausal.

  2. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette B; Brusgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women.......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women....

  3. [Single-hormone prophylaxis of uterine hemorrhages in the premenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E

    1989-01-01

    Single-hormone prophylaxis with gestagen (Primolut nor) was carried out on 62 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopause of climacteric at mean age of 46.8 years. A ten-day scheme with application of 5 mg of gestagen daily from 16 to 25 day of the cycle for a period of 6 months was used. The treatment provided stable clinical characteristic of the successive pseudomenstrual cycles could continue for a considerable time practically till disappearance of pseudo-menstruation and transition of the woman in postmenopause. Primolut nor was a convenient drug also in women under continuous anticoagulant treatment. However it was effective and could not be used for treatment of accompanied climacteric symptoms.

  4. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: A study of 498 urban women from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Results: Prevalence of MS amongst postmenopausal women was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that in premenopausal women by both, IDF (premenopausal 45% and postmenopausal 55% and H_MS criteria (premenopausal 44% and postmenopausal 56%. However, this significance disappeared when data was adjusted for the confounding variable of age.

  5. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  6. Osteoporosis and prevention. Assessment of mineral density, geometry and biomechanics of bone by means of peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) in premenopausal women assuming phytoestrogens; Osteoporosi e fitoestrogeni: valutazione della densita' minerale ossea mediante tomografia computerizzata quantitativa periferica nelle donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, C.; Tarolo, G.L.; Bestetti, A.; Tagliabue, L.; Del Sole, A.; Alberti, G. [Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Cestaro, B. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Cattedra e Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Nucleare; Pepe, L. [ACN-L' Accessorio Nucleare, Cerro Maggiore, MI (Italy). Lab. Nucleari

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the work was to describe the noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biochemical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with Mediterranean dietary intake lacking in these substances. Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius of the non dominant forearm. pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di studiare in modo non-invasivo la densita' minerale, le caratteristiche geometriche e biomeccaniche dell'osso in donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa che assumevano con la dieta fitoestrogeni e confrontare questi dati con quelli di donne anch'esse in premenopausa, con dieta di tipo mediterraneo assolutamente priva di questi elementi con azione simil-ormonale. La densita' minerale, le proprieta' geometriche meccaniche dell'osso sono state valutate a livello del radio ultradistale non dominante mediante tomografia computerizzata (TC) quantitativa periferica, che nelle donne in premenopausa con dieta ricca di fitoestrogeni ha evidenziato valori della densita' minerale ossea totale, trabecolare e di resistenza ossea piu' elevati, anche se in modo non significativo, rispetto a quelli dei controlli con dieta mediterranea. Questi risultati preliminari suggerirebbero come l'assunzione quotidiana di fitoestrogeni

  7. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  8. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: primary or secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Description of a clinical case of avitaminosis D in premenopausal woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been described in obese individuals and in some autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS). In particular, more than 50% of premenopausal women with pAPS have hypovitaminosis D. In this issue we report a case of an obese, premenopausal, and hypertensive woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome, affected by deep venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism after rib fracture who presented hypovitamino...

  9. Breast cancers from black women exhibit higher numbers of immunosuppressive macrophages with proliferative activity and of crown-like structures associated with lower survival compared to non-black Latinas and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Santander, Ana M; Miao, Feng; Sanchez, Lidia G; Jorda, Merce; Glück, Stefan; Ince, Tan A; Nadji, Mehrad; Chen, Zhibin; Penichet, Manuel L; Cleary, Margot P; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome are a major health care challenge. Patients in the black race group more likely present with an early onset and more aggressive disease. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid malignancies. Macrophages are observed in adipose tissues surrounding dead adipocytes in "crown-like structures" (CLS). Here we investigated whether the numbers of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and/or CD163+ CLS are associated with patient survival and whether there are significant differences across blacks, non-black Latinas, and Caucasians. Our findings confirm that race is statistically significantly associated with the numbers of TAMs and CLS in breast cancer, and demonstrate that the highest numbers of CD163+ TAM/CLS are found in black breast cancer patients. Our results reveal that the density of CD206 (M2) macrophages is a significant predictor of progression-free survival univariately and is also significant after adjusting for race and for HER2, respectively. We examined whether the high numbers of TAMs detected in tumors from black women were associated with macrophage proliferation, using the Ki-67 nuclear proliferation marker. Our results reveal that TAMs actively divide when in contact with tumor cells. There is a higher ratio of proliferating macrophages in tumors from black patients. These findings suggest that interventions based on targeting TAMs may not only benefit breast cancer patients in general but also serve as an approach to remedy racial disparity resulting in better prognosis patients from minority racial groups.

  10. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  11. Effects of lifestyle exercise on premenopausal bone health: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Opeyemi; Forsyth, Jacky

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis, a slowly evolving public health epidemic, often with an insidious presentation is largely preventable but the optimal dimensions of exercise that may be prescribed for enhancing bone-health among premenopausal adults are yet to be elucidated. Hence, the escalating incidence and burden of prevalence of osteoporosis is yet unabated. Considering that exogenous hormones in the form of hormonal contraception are known to modulate bone mass, investigations of their possible influence on the translation of exercise-induced osteogenic stimuli on the mature bone is pertinent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of specified lifestyle exercise on bone-health of premenopausal women. Premenopausal women (n = 96, mean age: 22.25 ± 3.5 years; mean BMI: 23.43 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month randomised controlled trial involving home-based rest-interspersed bouts of high-impact exercise for the intervention group and sham exercise for the control group. Approximately half (47) of the participants (24-exercise, 23-control) were on hormonal-based contraception while the other half (49: 24-exercise, 25-control) were not on hormonal contraception. The regime led to a significant 3.7 % increase in broadband ultrasound attenuation of exercisers compared to controls; hormonal contraceptive use did not appear to potentiate the osteogenic effects of the lifestyle exercise regime. The research highlights that short, discrete bouts of high-impact exercise may be a potential public health prescription for enhancing premenopausal bone-health regardless of hormonal contraceptive use.

  12. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  13. Birth size in the most recent pregnancy and maternal mortality in premenopausal breast cancer by tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ahlgren, Johan; Adolfsson, Jan; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between measures of offspring size at birth in the most recent pregnancy before premenopausal breast cancer diagnosis and the risks of maternal breast cancer mortality, taking tumor characteristics into account. We also aimed to investigate if these associations are modified by age at childbirth, time since childbirth, parity, and age at diagnosis. We followed 6,019 women from their date of premenopausal breast cancer (diagnosed from 1992 to 2008) until emigration, death or December 31st, 2009, whichever occurred first. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for parity, age at diagnosis, and education level, to estimate associations between women pregnancy, cancer characteristics and offspring birth characteristics, and mothers' mortality risk. In stratified analyses, mortality risks were estimated by tumor stage, ER or PR status. There was no association between offspring birth weight (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.99-1.01, when used as a continuous variable), birth weight for gestational age or ponderal index, and premenopausal breast cancer mortality. Similarly, in analyses stratified by tumor stage, receptor status, and time difference between last pregnancy and date of diagnosis, we found no associations between birth size and breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that "premenopausal breast cancer mortality is associated with offspring birth characteristics in the most recent pregnancy before the diagnosis" may not be valid. In addition, these associations are not modified by tumor characteristics.

  14. 绝经前超重女性躯干脂肪或下肢瘦组织与代谢综合征关联性分析%Relationship between change of trunk fat/lean muscle and metabolic syndrome or its component in overweight premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永泽; 张雅萍; 沈喜妹; 卢娟娟; 黄凌宁; 杨立勇; 张松菁; 严孙杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between trunk fat/lean tissue and metabolic syndrome in over weight or obese premenopausal women.Methods 136 premenopausal overweight or obese women (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2) was enrolled from our outpatients from January 2006 to December 2012.Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure fat,muscle mass,and calculated trunk fat content (% TF),leg muscle content (% LM),and trunk/leg muscle ratio (TMR).Then they were divided into 4 groups,according to quartile of % TF,% LM,TMR.Metabolic syndrome was in the diagnosis of criteria as Chinese Diabetes Society recommended.The relevance ratio of hypertension,hyperglycemia,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome were compared by chi-square test,trends analyzed by the chi-square test for linear trend and the influence that they have on metabolic syndrome were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Spearman rank correlation was used in evaluating of the relationship.Results (1) the detection rate of hypertension increases with % TF (x2total =9.042,x2trend =6.147 ; P < 0.05) ; with the increasing of TMR,the detection rate of hypertension and dyslipidemia and 3 metabolic disorder components were increasing gradually (x2total =8.628,9.890,9.589; x2trend =7.556,9.017,6.445; P < 0.05 all above).And all of them make no difference with increasing of % LM (P > 0.05 all above).(2) The results of logistic regression analysis showed that both % TF and TMR entered the regression equation for hypertension,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome,and TMR also entered the regression equation for hyperglycemia.(3) Hypertension,dyslipidemia,hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome were all positively correlated with TMR (r =0.218,0.218,0.209,0.204,P < 0.05 all above).% LM was not correlated with all of them (P > 0.05).Hypertension,dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome were all positively correlated with % TF (r =0.174,0.171,0.175,P < 0.05 all above).Conclusion Abnormal

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir

    2013-05-01

    Contexte : Les saignements utérins anormaux sont directement à l’origine d’un fardeau considérable imposé aux femmes, à leur famille et à la société tout entière en matière de soins de santé. Jusqu’à 30 % des femmes chercheront à obtenir l’aide d’un médecin pour contrer ce problème au cours de leurs années de fertilité. La présente directive clinique remplace les directives cliniques précédentes sur le sujet et a pour but d’outiller les fournisseurs de soins de santé pour qu’ils puissent offrir des soins reposant sur les toutes dernières données probantes au moment de procéder au diagnostic de ce problème courant, et d’en assurer la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale. Objectif : Fournir une directive clinique factuelle à jour pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge des saignements utérins anormaux (SUA) chez les femmes en âge de procréer. Issues : Parmi les issues évaluées, on trouve les effets des SUA sur la qualité de vie et les résultats des interventions (y compris la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA). Méthodes : Les membres du comité sur la directive clinique ont été sélectionnés en fonction de leurs spécialisations respectives en vue de représenter une gamme d’expériences pratiques et universitaires : le milieu de pratique au Canada, le type de pratique, la sous-spécialité et les antécédents généraux en gynécologie ont donc été pris en considération. Le comité a analysé les données pertinentes issues de la littérature médicale anglophone (y compris les lignes directrices publiées). Les recommandations ont été formulées sous forme de déclarations de consensus. Le document final a été analysé et approuvé par le comité exécutif et le Conseil de la SOGC. Résultats : Le présent document offre un résumé des dernières données quant au diagnostic, aux explorations et à la prise en charge médicale et chirurgicale des SUA. Les recommandations qui y sont formulées peuvent être adaptées par les professionnels de la santé qui offrent leurs services aux femmes qui présentent de tels saignements. Conclusions : Les saignements utérins anormaux constituent un trouble courant et parfois débilitant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer. La mise en œuvre d’une standardisation de la terminologie connexe, d’une approche systématique en matière de diagnostic et d’exploration, et d’une approche par étapes pour ce qui est de l’intervention s’avère nécessaire. Toutes les interventions thérapeutiques ont pour objectif absolu de débuter le traitement au moyen de modalités thérapeutiques médicales, pour ensuite avoir recours aux modalités chirurgicales les moins effractives possibles, le tout en vue de permettre à la patiente d’obtenir des résultats satisfaisants. Données : Des recherches ont été menées en mars 2011 dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane afin d’en tirer les articles publiés en anglais, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine hemorrhage », « menorrhagia ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « menorrhagia », « heavy menstrual bleeding », « abnormal uterine bleeding »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais entre janvier 1999 et mars 2011. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en février 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Avantages, désavantages et coûts : La mise en œuvre des recommandations de la présente directive clinique entraînera l’amélioration de la santé et du bien-être des femmes qui présentent des saignements utérins anormaux, de leur famille et de la société. Les coûts économiques de la mise en œuvre de la présente directive clinique au sein du système de santé canadien n’ont pas été pris en considération. Déclarations sommaires 1. Les SUA constituent un trouble courant qui affecte les femmes en âge de procréer et qui exerce des effets considérables sur les plans social et économique. (II-2) 2. La terminologie contemporaine utilisée pour décrire les SUA chez les femmes en âge de procréer vise à simplifier les définitions et à fournir des descriptions standard en ce qui concerne les symptômes présentés par la patiente. (III) 3. Les conséquences des SUA sur la santé globale d’une femme déterminent le degré d’intervention pouvant s’avérer requis. (II-2) 4. Une anamnèse et un examen physique exhaustifs indiqueront souvent la cause des SUA, et détermineront la nécessité de procéder à d’autres explorations et de mettre en œuvre d’autres traitements. (III) 5. L’imagerie et l’hystéroscopie offrent au clinicien des renseignements additionnels qui contribuent à l’évaluation et au traitement de la patiente, lorsque les circonstances le permettent. (I) 6. Une fois que la présence d’une tumeur maligne ou d’une pathologie pelvienne significative a été écartée, la mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical constitue une option thérapeutique de première intention efficace pour ce qui est des saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 7. La mise en œuvre d’un traitement médical adapté aux objectifs thérapeutiques, aux souhaits en matière de contraception, aux pathologies médicales sous-jacentes et à la tolérance quant aux effets indésirables d’une patiente donnée permettra de favoriser l’observance et de maximiser la probabilité de réussite du traitement. (III) 8. Les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques offrent, en matière de satisfaction de la patiente, des résultats semblables à ceux de l’ablation hystéroscopique traditionnelle, en plus de compter moins de risques de complication et de nécessiter une anesthésie moindre. (I) 9. L’hystérectomie constitue un traitement définitif contre les saignements utérins anormaux. (I) 10. Les saignements utérins anormaux attribuables à des fibromes sous-muqueux peuvent être pris en charge au moyen d’une myomectomie hystéroscopique. (I) 11. Les troubles hémostatiques héréditaires peuvent constituer une cause sous-jacente de saignements utérins anormaux, la maladie de von Willebrand étant présente dans la majorité de ces cas. (II-2) 12. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus peuvent donner lieu à une anémie significative et nécessiter des soins de première urgence. (III) 13. Chez les adolescentes, les SUA découlent plus souvent qu’autrement d’une dysfonction ovulatoire associée à l’immaturité de l’axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-ovarien. (II-2) Recommandations 1. L’adoption d’une terminologie internationale standardisée devrait être envisagée pour ce qui est des SUA. (III-C) 2. La tenue d’un hémogramme complet est recommandée chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements abondants ou prolongés. (II-2A) 3. En présence de toute possibilité de grossesse, une analyse d’urine sensible ou un test sérique de grossesse devrait être mené. (III-C) 4. Le dépistage des troubles de la coagulation ne devrait être envisagé que chez les femmes qui présentent des antécédents de saignements menstruels abondants remontant à la ménarche ou des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de saignements anormaux. (II-2B) 5. Le tenue de tests de la fonction thyroïdienne n’est pas indiquée, sauf en présence de constatations cliniques laissant entrevoir un possible indice de suspicion de maladie thyroïdienne. (II-2D) 6. Lorsque la tenue d’une imagerie s’avère indiquée, l’échographie transvaginale devrait constituer la modalité de première intention dans le cas des SUA. (I-A) 7. L’échohystérographie avec injection de liquide intra-utérin et l’hystéroscopie diagnostique devraient être utilisées aux fins du diagnostic et de la caractérisation des anomalies intra-utérines discrètes (telles que les fibromes sous-muqueux). (I-A) 8. Le recours à la biopsie endométriale devrait être envisagé chez les femmes de plus de 40 ans qui présentent des saignements ou chez les femmes dont les saignements ne réagissent pas au traitement médical, ainsi que chez les jeunes femmes qui présentent des facteurs de risque de cancer de l’endomètre. (II-2A) 9. La biopsie endométriale menée en cabinet devrait remplacer la dilatation-curetage de l’utérus à titre de modalité initiale d’évaluation de l’endomètre chez ces femmes. (II-2A) 10. Les lésions focales de l’endomètre qui nécessitent une biopsie devraient être prises en charge au moyen d’une évaluation guidée par hystéroscopie. (II-2A) 11. Des options non hormonales, telles que les AINS et les antifibrinolytiques, peuvent être utilisées efficacement pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants dont la manifestation est principalement cyclique ou prévisible. (I-A) 12. Les contraceptifs oraux combinés, l’acétate de médroxyprogestérone-retard et le système intra-utérin à libération de lévonorgestrel permettent une diminution considérable des saignements menstruels et devraient être utilisés pour traiter les femmes présentant des saignements utérins anormaux qui souhaitent obtenir une contraception efficace. (I-A) 13. Les progestatifs cycliques administrés pendant la phase lutéale ne permettent pas une diminution efficace de la perte sanguine; ainsi, ils ne devraient pas être utilisés à titre de traitement visant particulièrement les saignements menstruels abondants. (I-E) 14. Le danazol et les agonistes de la GnRH permettront une diminution efficace des saignements menstruels, et pourraient être utilisés en présence de scénarios dans le cadre desquels l’utilisation d’autres traitements médicaux ou chirurgicaux a échoué ou est contre-indiquée. (I-C) 15. Les patientes qui prennent un agoniste de la GnRH pendant plus de six mois devraient se voir prescrire une hormonothérapie de compensation, lorsque celle-ci n’a pas déjà été mise en œuvre au début du traitement à l’agoniste de la GnRH. (I-A) 16. Le SIU à libération d’un progestatif donne lieu à l’obtention d’issues semblables à celles de l’ablation de l’endomètre chez les femmes qui présentent des saignements menstruels abondants; ainsi, son utilisation pourrait être prise en considération avant d’avoir recours à une intervention chirurgicale. (I-A) 17. Chez des candidates appropriées, les techniques d’ablation non hystéroscopiques devraient être les méthodes d’ablation à privilégier, et ce, en raison de leur efficacité et de leur innocuité supérieures, par comparaison avec les techniques hystéroscopiques. (I-A) 18. À l’exception des AINS, les mêmes agents médicaux qui sont utilisés pour assurer la prise en charge des saignements menstruels abondants chez les femmes présentant une coagulation normale peuvent être efficacement utilisés chez les femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (II-1B) 19. Le recours à une approche multidisciplinaire constitue la meilleure façon d’assurer la prise en charge des femmes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires qui connaissent des saignements menstruels considérablement abondants ou chez lesquelles le traitement médical conventionnel a échoué. (III-C) 20. La planification de l’hystérectomie ou la mise en œuvre d’un traitement faisant appel à des produits sanguins devraient être menées en consultation avec un hématologue dans le cas des patientes atteintes de troubles hémostatiques héréditaires. (III-C) 21. Les saignements menstruels abondants aigus devraient faire l’objet d’une prise en charge sans délai et de façon systématique, et ce, afin de minimiser la morbidité chez la patiente et la nécessité d’avoir recours à une transfusion sanguine. (III-C) 22. Les œstrogènes à forte dose et l’acide tranexamique peuvent contribuer à atténuer ou à juguler les saignements menstruels abondants aigus. (III-C) 23. Chez les adolescentes qui connaissent des saignements menstruels abondants à la ménarche ou peu après, l’anamnèse et les explorations devraient comprendre une évaluation visant à déterminer la présence d’un trouble hémostatique sous-jacent. (II-2A).

  16. Sexual Dysfunction in Premenopausal Women Treated for Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    femininity and sexuality, may negatively impact her body-image. Chemotherapy may ... traitement adjuvant ont contribué à une augmentation du nombre de jeunes survivants. .... problems concentrating on her work as a sales executive at a ...

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and T-regulatory cells in premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Cesta, Alisia; Recchia, Laura; Rea, Silvio

    2013-04-01

    Estradiol (E2) plays a key role in human reproduction through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and T-regulatory cells (T-Regs), which are also important in breast cancer (BC) growth. The primary endpoint of the present study was the investigation of whether E2 suppression, chemotherapy and radiation therapy decreased the levels of VEGF and T-Regs of premenopausal patients with high-risk early BC. The secondary endpoints were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Between April 2003 and July 2008, 100 premenopausal women with early, high-risk BC were entered into the study. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: median age, 43 years (range, 26-45); median number of positive axillary nodes, 3.3; median Ki-67, 33%. Plasma E2, VEGF and T-Reg were measured at baseline and every year. Treatment comprised luteneizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, tailored chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) tumours. At 4 years, a statistically significant decrease in E2, VEGF and T-Reg levels was observed; the PFS and OS rates were 94 and 98%, respectively. Hot flushes and G1 osteopenia occurred following LH-RH analogue administration, while no unexpected toxicity was observed following chemotherapy. E2 deprivation with an LH-RH analogue, tailored chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in ER(+) tumours decreased plasma VEGF levels and T-Regs numbers in premenopausal high-risk ER(+) and ER- BC patients. In addition, a favorable impact on PFS and OS was observed.

  18. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women.

  19. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Syed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years. The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%; physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%; and sleeping problems (52.2%. Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%; irritability (37.9%; dryness of vagina (37.9%; anxiety (36.5%; depressive mood (32.6%. Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%; bladder problem (13.8% and heart discomfort (18.3%. Perimenopausal women (n = 141 experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82 and postmenopausal (n = 133 women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.

  20. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  1. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and M

  2. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and

  3. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  4. Prolactina, estradiol e anticorpos anticardiolipina em amostra de mulheres pré-menopáusicas com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico: estudo-piloto Prolactin, estradiol and anticardiolipin antibodies in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Tiskievicz

    2011-10-01

    . Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA are associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS, but can be found in patients with SLE without APLS, and relate to cardiovascular risk and nephrite. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing whether the presence of ACA is associated with hormonal changes in a sample of women with SLE. METHODS: Forty-seven women diagnosed with SLE according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, aged 30.8 ± 8.12 years, were evaluated. None was on hormonal contraception, and their SLE activity was estimated using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI. Patients were stratified, according to the presence or absence of ACA, and estradiol and prolactin levels were measured. RESULTS: Nine (19.1% of 47 patients were positive for ACA. No differences were found between groups concerning age, duration of disease, and SLEDAI. In contrast, the median estradiol level was lower in the ACA-positive group [46.8 (21.0-72.1 pg/mL] than in the ACA-negative group [122.3 (64.8-172.7 pg/mL, P = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: These results suggest, for the first time, an inverse association between ACA and estradiol levels in premenopausal SLE patients. Considering that both lower endogenous estradiol levels and ACA positivity are related to atherosclerosis, our finding may be clinically relevant in predicting cardiovascular risk and/or APLS development in SLE.

  5. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  6. Bioactive oat β-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolever Thomas MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing global acceptance that viscous soluble fibers lower serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, but most evidence for this comes from studies in Caucasians. To see if oat β-glucan lowers LDL-C in Caucasians and non-Caucasians we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial whose primary aim was to determine if molecular-weight (MW influenced the LDL-C-lowering effect of oat β-glucan. Results Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects with LDL-C-C ≥ 3.0 and ≤ 5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 randomized, n = 345 completed, n = 1 excluded for missing ethnicity were randomly assigned to consume cereal containing wheat-fiber (Control, n = 74:13 Caucasian:non-Caucasian or 3 g high-MW (3H, 2,250,000 g/mol, n = 67:19, 4 g medium-MW (4 M, 850,000 g/mol, n = 50:17, 3 g medium-MW (3M, 530,000 g/mol, n = 54:9 or 4 g low-MW (4 L, 210,000 g/mol, n = 51:12 oat β-glucan daily for 4 weeks. LDL-C after 4 weeks was influenced by baseline LDL-C (p Conclusion We conclude that oat β-glucan reduces LDL-C in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians; there was insufficient power to determine if the magnitude of LDL-C-lowering differed by ethnicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981981

  7. Endometrial polyp surveillance in premenopausal breast cancer patients using tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use that had undergone a gynecological examination. Results Among 120 patients, 44.2% (n=53) were asymptomatic with an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of the patients that reported abnormal uterine bleeding, 5% (n=6) had an endometrial thickness <5 mm and 20% (n=24) had an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. The final group of patients were asymptomatic, but showed an abnormal endometrial lesion, such as an endometrial polyp, by transvaginal ultrasonography (30.8%, n=37). Of the 56 benign lesions that were histologically reviewed, 50 (41.7%) were endometrial polyps, 3 (2.5%) were submucosal myomas, 2 (1.7%) were endometrial hyperplasias, and 1 (0.8%) was chronic endometritis. There were 64 (53.3%) other non-pathologic conditions, including secreting, proliferative, and atrophic endometrium, or in some cases, there was insufficient material for diagnosis. In our data, only one case was reported as a complex hyperplasia without atypia arising from an endometrial polyp, and one patient was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use, the majority of the patients were asymptomatic, and endometrial polyps were the most common endometrial pathology observed. Therefore, we believe that endometrial assessment before starting TMX treatment, and regular endometrial screening throughout TMX treatment, are reasonable suggestions for premenopausal breast cancer patients. PMID:28217668

  8. BMI and BAI as Markers of Obesity in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zwierzchowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: BMI is known to have limited accuracy, which is different for males and females with similar body fat content. That is why Bergman et al. (Obesity 2011;19:1083-1089 introduced an alternative variable of obesity, called the body adiposity index (BAI. Their primary research was conducted in samples of Mexican-American and African-American populations. The objective of our research was to investigate the sex-specific relationship between both BMI and BAI and body fat content in a healthy Caucasian population. The accuracy of both indexes was compared. Methods: 684 women and 528 men aged 20-22 years with Caucasian origin only participated in the study. Participants were students of universities in southern Poland. They had no indication of cardiometabolic problems, as evaluated by interview. Results: The study revealed that BAI is a more sensitive method in assessing obesity in Caucasian males rather than BMI. In the population of Caucasian women BAI results indicate a significant underestimation of obesity. Conclusion: The fact that there is a high statistical correlation between BAI and % fat mass among obese and overweight men and women suggests that BAI could be highly specific provided that the BAI cutoffs will be adapted to the European population.

  9. Tamoxifen with ovarian function suppression versus tamoxifen alone as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shunchao; Li, Kai; Jiao, Xin; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian function suppression (OFS) significantly downregulates the concentration of plasma estrogens. However, it is unclear whether it offers any survival benefits if combined with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in premenopausal women. This meta-analysis was designed to assess data from previous studies involving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment plus OFS in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials published prior to February 1, 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared tamoxifen alone with tamoxifen plus OFS for premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The evaluated endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results Four randomized controlled trials comprising 6,279 patients (OFS combination, n=3,133; tamoxifen alone, n=3,146) were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant improvement in disease-free survival or overall survival with addition of OFS in either the whole population or the hormone receptor-positive subgroup. The risk of distant recurrence was not reduced with the addition of OFS in the whole population. A subgroup analysis showed that addition of OFS significantly improved overall survival in patients who were administered chemotherapy. Conclusion Based on the available studies, concurrent administration of OFS and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for premenopausal women with breast cancer has no effect on prolonging disease-free survival and overall survival, excluding patients who were administered chemotherapy. It should not be widely recommended, except perhaps for women who were hormone-receptor positive and who were also administered adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26109867

  10. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ≥38 cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, Pmetabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  11. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.

  13. Validity of resting energy expenditure predictive equations before and after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan R Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the validity of REE predictive equations before and after 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in Spanish obese (30 kg/m(2>BMI<40 kg/m(2 women. METHODS: We measured REE (indirect calorimetry, body weight, height, and fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM, dual X-ray absorptiometry in 86 obese Caucasian premenopausal women aged 36.7±7.2 y, before and after (n = 78 women the intervention. We investigated the accuracy of ten REE predictive equations using weight, height, age, FFM and FM. RESULTS: At baseline, the most accurate equation was the Mifflin et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 241-247 when using weight (bias:-0.2%, P = 0.982, 74% of accurate predictions. This level of accuracy was not reached after the diet intervention (24% accurate prediction. After the intervention, the lowest bias was found with the Owen et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 1-19 equation when using weight (bias:-1.7%, P = 0.044, 81% accurate prediction, yet it provided 53% accurate predictions at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid obese women. The results acquire especial relevance in the context of the challenging weight regain phenomenon for the overweight/obese population.

  14. Two cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults in a sexual health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Susan; Morgan, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of group A streptococcus (GAS) causing vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults are described. A review of the literature of genital GAS is made, as this is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults. Contrasts are made between anogenital carriage of GAS and group B streptococcus (GBS) to highlight the differences in anogenital carriage between these two organisms.

  15. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  16. Premenopausal Obesity and Breast Cancer Growth Rates in a Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Shawna B; McGinley, John N; Neil, Elizabeth S; Thompson, Henry J

    2016-04-11

    Obese premenopausal women with breast cancer have poorer prognosis for long term survival, in part because their tumors are larger at the time of diagnosis than are found in normal weight women. Whether larger tumor mass is due to obesity-related barriers to detection or to effects on tumor biology is not known. This study used polygenic models for obesity and breast cancer to deconstruct this question with the objective of determining whether cell autonomous mechanisms contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer burden. Assessment of the growth rates of 259 chemically induced mammary carcinomas from rats sensitive to dietary induced obesity (DS) and of 143 carcinomas from rats resistant (DR) to dietary induced obesity revealed that tumors in DS rats grew 1.8 times faster than in DR rats. This difference may be attributed to alterations in cell cycle machinery that permit more rapid tumor cell accumulation. DS tumors displayed protein expression patterns consistent with reduced G1/S checkpoint inhibition and a higher threshold of factors required for execution of the apoptotic cell death pathway. These mechanistic insights identify regulatory targets for life style modifications or pharmacological interventions designed to disrupt the linkage between obesity and tumor burden.

  17. DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE CAUCASIANS OF SOUTH IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharif Kamali

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral finger and palm prints of 500 males and 500 females of the Caucasian origin in South Iran have been collected and analyzed for both qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyhic features. Results show that most of the qualitative features on bilateral and bisexual differences are not significant. However, quantitative features frequently showed significant differences both bilaterally and bisexually. These results, when, compared with some Indian groups revealed insignificant differences in qualitative dermatoglyphics, while, the quantitative features frequently showed significant differences. The importance of quantitative dermatoglyphic features in population studies has been discussed.

  18. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Disorder Diagnostic Scale [23] is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder...for Bulimia , and 93% for Binge Eating Disorder. There is also evidence of internal consistency across items (alpha = .89) [23]. The Beck...Diagnostic Scale revealed that only 24% of the total sample met criteria for Bulimia Nervosa or Binge Eating Disordered behavior (sub- or threshold

  19. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...

  20. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  1. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  2. Premenopausal mammographic density in relation to cyclic variations in endogenous sex hormone levels, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Coupland, Ben; McCormack, Valerie A; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lorna; Hillier, Stephen G; Holly, Jeff M; Moss, Sue; Dowsett, Mitchell; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2009-08-15

    Mammographic density is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, and endogenous hormones, which are risk factors for breast cancer, may be involved in the mechanism. This cross-sectional study of 494 premenopausal women is the first to account for cyclic variations in estrogen levels, by measuring urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) in the periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and to assess the role of androgens. Computer-assisted density readings were obtained from digitized mammograms. Mean ovulatory E1G level and daily E1G load were both positively associated with percent density before adjustment for body mass index (BMI), with women in the top fourth having 10.2% (95% CI: 2.9%, 18.1%) and 8.9% (1.7%, 16.7%), respectively, higher density than those in the bottom fourth (Ptrend before/after BMI adjustment=0.006/0.11 and 0.01/0.13, respectively). Neither the peak nor luteal E1G levels were predictive of density after adjustment for E1G levels at other points in the cycle. The plasma androgens testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were negatively associated with density. In mutually adjusted analyses, density was positively associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and negatively with IGF-II (Ptrend=0.006 for both) but not with IGF binding protein-3. There was also weak evidence of a positive association of prolactin with density. The study supports the hypothesis that endogenous hormones affect density in premenopausal women; in particular, it shows a positive association between estrogen levels and density and suggests that the mean level throughout the cycle is the most biologically relevant measure. Most of these hormone-density associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI.

  3. CLITORAL ANATOMY IN NULLIPAROUS, HEALTHY, PREMENOPAUSAL VOLUNTEERS USING UNENHANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’CONNELL, HELEN E.; DeLANCEY, JOHN O. L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose We determined the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of normal clitoral anatomy. Materials and Methods A series of MRI studies of 10 healthy, nulliparous volunteers with no prior surgery and normal pelvic examination was studied and the key characteristics of clitoral anatomy were determined. A range of different magnetic resonance sequences was used without any contrast agent. Results The axial plane best revealed the clitoral body and its proximal continuation as the paired crura. The glans was seen more caudal than the body of the clitoris. The bulbs of the clitoris had the same signal as the rest of the clitoris in the axial plane and they related consistently to the other erectile structures. The bulbs, body and crura formed an erectile tissue cluster, namely the clitoris. In turn, the clitoris partially surrounded the urethra and vagina, forming a consistently observed tissue complex. Midline sagittal section revealed the shape of the body, although in this plane the rest of the clitoris was poorly displayed. The coronal plane revealed the relationship between the clitoral body and labia. The axial section cephalad to the clitoral body best revealed the vascular component of the neurovascular bundle to the clitoris. The fat saturation sequence particularly highlighted clitoral anatomy in healthy, premenopausal, nulliparous women. Conclusions Normal clitoral anatomy has been clearly demonstrated using noncontrast pelvic MRI. PMID:15879834

  4. Spacing and crowding among African and Caucasian children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Eskeli, R.; Laine-Alava, M.T.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine spacing and crowding according to ethnic group, gender and dental emergence stage among Tanzanian African and Caucasian children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological clinical study. SETTING: A total of 869 African (428 boys, 441 girls) and 706 Caucasian (319 boys, 387 gir

  5. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  6. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian woman: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellani Debora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient LV regional wall motion abnormalities (with peculiar apical ballooning appearance, chest pain or dyspnea, ST-segment elevation and minor elevations of cardiac enzyme levels Case presentation A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department because of sudden onset chest pain occurred while transferring her daughter, who had earlier suffered a major seizure, to the hospital. The EKG showed sinus tachycardia with ST-segment elevation in leads V2–V3 and ST-segment depression in leads V5–V6, she was, thus, referred for emergency coronary angiography. A pre-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram revealed regional systolic dysfunction of the LV walls with hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Coronary angiography showed patent epicardial coronary arteries; LV angiography demonstrated the characteristic morphology of apical ballooning with hyperkinesis of the basal segments and hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments. The post-procedural course was uneventful; on day 5 after admission the echocardiogram revealed full recovery of apical and mid-ventricular regional wall-motion abnormalities. Conclusion Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare, unique entity that has only recently been widely appreciated. Acute stress has been indicated as a common trigger for the transient LV apical ballooning syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women. The present report is a typical example of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian postmenopausal woman.

  7. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  8. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  9. Heart rate variability characteristics in sedentary postmenopausal women following six months of exercise training: the DREW study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P Earnest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Overall, postmenopausal women have lower levels of HRV than premenopausal women, which may be additionally complicated by lifestyle related behaviors such as physical inactivity and obesity. Though cardiorespiratory exercise training increases HRV, little is known regarding the exercise dose necessary to promote this improvement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our primary aim was to measure HRV in post-menopausal women following 6-months of exercise training. We examined supine resting HRV in 373 post-menopausal women (45-75 y after 6-months of randomly assigned and double-blinded administered exercise training exercise training at 50%, 100% and 150% of the NIH Consensus Development Panel's recommended minimal physical activity level. This corresponded to 4, 8, or 12 kcal/kg per week (KKW of energy expenditure. At baseline, we observed no significant differences in HRV or hormone replacement use between treatment groups. However, we did observe that Caucasian women and those taking antidepressant medications had lower levels of baseline HRV. After 6-months of exercise intervention, we observed a dose dependent increase in all parasympathetically derived time and frequency domain measurements across exercise groups after adjustment for age, ethnicity, antidepressants, and baseline rMSSD (all, P<0.001. For example, the parasympathetic index rMSSD was greater than control (23.19+/-1.0 for the 4-KKW (25.98+/-0.8; P = 0.14, 8-KKW (27.66+/-1.0; P<0.05, and 12-KKW (27.40+/-0.0; P<0.05 groups at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Moderate intensity exercise training exercise is sufficient to improve HRV in previously sedentary postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, as 4-KKW is insufficient to improve parasympathetic indices of HRV, while 12-KKW conferred no greater improvement than 8-KKW. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00011193.

  10. Alcohol Drinking Patterns among Asian and Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This article suggests that there are genetic and cultural factors which account for the difference in drinking patterns between Caucasian and Asian Americans. It is also suggested that Asian acculturation has an influence on this difference. (EB)

  11. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  12. Leukocyte telomere length dynamics in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Benetos, Athanase; Verhulst, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period. METHODS: To test this premise we performed a longitudinal study (an average follow-up of 12...

  13. What is a Caucasian 'fine' hair? Comparing instrumental measurements, self-perceptions and assessments from hair experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabbache, S; Galliano, A; Littaye, P; Leportier, M; Pouradier, F; Gillot, E; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine the various factors contributing to what Caucasian women describe as 'fine hair'. Three complementary approaches were used, namely self-evaluation by the volunteer, assessment by a sensorial expert and instrumental measurements, in order to determine some of the possible parameters taken into account by Caucasian women when they describe the notion of fine hair. One hundred fifty one women of Caucasian origin participated in the study. They varied in age, and varied in that some considered themselves as having fine hair, and others not. The instrumental measurements carried out included hair diameter measurements, hair density measurements, hair breakage force, hair flexibility and scalp sebum levels. From six parameters defined initially, four parameters were found to be in common with the three approaches: hair abundance (density), hair thickness, hair resistance and the volume of the hair on the head. The commonly used term 'body' was only common to self and expert evaluation, whereas the influence of curliness was only common to expert evaluation and instrumental measurements. This study has shown close agreement between sensorial and instrumental findings, and also illustrates how the women participating can subtly and adequately describe their own hair. It is important to note that the words 'fine hair' describes a lot more than just physically thin hair fibres. Ageing is an additional factor that clearly impacts certain parameters associated with 'fine hair' among the volunteers. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Swora-Cwynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. Material and methods. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM, for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Results. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The con- centrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. Conclusion. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial e

  15. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Cordasco Giancarlo; Pagnoni Mario; Polimeni Antonella; Nucera Riccardo; Saccucci Matteo; Tecco Simona; Festa Felice; Iannetti Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, ...

  16. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  17. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  18. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: primary or secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Description of a clinical case of avitaminosis D in premenopausal woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Turrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels have been described in obese individuals and in some autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS. In particular, more than 50% of premenopausal women with pAPS have hypovitaminosis D. In this issue we report a case of an obese, premenopausal, and hypertensive woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome, affected by deep venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism after rib fracture who presented hypovitaminosis D. 7 years before, diagnosis of pAPS had been made after the detection of thrombocytopenia (present at a young age and arterial ischemia of a lower limb. For seven years she was treated with acetylsalicylic acid without complications. We found positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, a triple antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL positivity and levels of vitamin D < 4 µg/l. The case report arises some questions: is vitamin D deficiency due to obesity or APS? Is the positivity of anti-dsDNA indicative of progression to SLE? Is preventive therapy with hydroxychloroquine indicated? Does the high-risk aPL profile justify a high-intensity and life-long anticoagulation regimen?http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i2.912

  19. Combination goserelin and tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a multicentre study by the ITMO group. Italian Trials in Medical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, R.; Biganzoli, L.; Bajetta, E.; Celio, L.; Fornasiero, A.; Mariani, L.; Zilembo, N.; Di Bartolomeo, M.; Di Leo, A.; Arcangeli, G.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that tamoxifen may improve the efficacy of medical castration with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues, but very few data have so far been published concerning the clinical and endocrinological activity of this therapeutic modality. In this phase II multicentre trial conducted by the Italian Trials in Medical Oncology group (ITMO), 64 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive or unknown breast cancer were treated with monthly s.c. injections of goserelin 3.6 mg, in association with a tamoxifen daily dose of 20 mg, as first-line therapy for their advanced disease. All of the patients were evaluable for efficacy and there was an overall response rate of 41% (95% confidence interval 28-52%), with 7 of the 26 responders achieving complete remission. The median time to response was 4 months (range 2-17), and the median response duration was 13 months (range 6-37 +). Better responses were observed in soft tissues (51%); the response in visceral and bone metastases was respectively 19% and 37%. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and oestradiol were significantly decreased by the treatment, oestrogen levels being constantly suppressed to within the range observed in post-menopausal women. No significant change was detected in serum testosterone levels. In our experience, although it was not associated with any increased clinical efficacy, the concurrent use of goserelin and tamoxifen proved to be a feasible approach in the management of premenopausal advanced breast cancer. PMID:7734310

  20. Relationship between oxidative stress and diabetic osteopenia in premenopausal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense and diabetic osteopenia remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship among lipid peroxidation index, antioxidant defense parameters and bone metabolism in a premenopausal diabetic model using measures including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentration (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH content in brain homogenates, histomorphometric analysis, biomechanical testing and bone mineral density (BMD. Female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycle were divided into two groups: Group 1: control rats (n = 15 and Group 2: diabetic rats (n = 15. Diabetes was induced by alloxan and confirmed by glycemia >250 mg/dL. The lipid peroxidation index, measured by TBARS concentration, showed a significant increase (pA relação entre peroxidação lipídica, defesa antioxidante e osteopenia diabética permanece obscura. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre índice de peroxidação lipídica, parâmetro de defesa antioxidante e metabolismo ósseo em um modelo diabético pré-menopausa através de medidas como a concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (SRAT e conteúdo de glutationa reduzida (GSH no homogenato cerebral, análises histomorfométricas, teste biomecânico e densidade mineral óssea (DMO. Ratos Wistar fêmeas com ciclo estral regular foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 - ratas controle (n = 15 e Grupo 2 - ratas diabéticas (n = 15. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana e confirmado pela glicemia >250 mg/dL. O índice de peroxidação lipídica, medido pela concentração de SRAT, demonstrou um aumento significativo (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos, em relação aos animais controle. Entretanto, o parâmetro de defesa antioxidante, mensurado pelo conteúdo de GSH, foi reduzido significativamente (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos. As análises histomorfométricas mostraram um aumento significativo (p<0.05 da separação trabecular do f

  1. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  2. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  3. Perceived Counselor Acculturation Levels: Their Pertinence to Caucasian Client Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Chung Scott; Schneider, Lawrence J.

    After reading 1 of 4 randomly-assigned written descriptions of a counselor, a group of 257 Caucasian undergraduates completed the Expectations sbout Counseling: Brief Form (Tinsley, 1982), Confidence Rating scales and Willingness items to examine how the perceived levels of acculturation of the counselor influenced client's perceptions of the…

  4. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (pplatinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  5. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

  6. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle......AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other...... potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  8. Investigation of the Roles of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Galectin-3 Expression in the Pathogenesis of Premenopausal Endometrial Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Kasap

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis and etiology of endometrial polyps has not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial polyp development using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of galectin-3 and cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2 during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women with endometrial polyps or normal endometrium. Methods Thirty-one patients with endometrial polyps and 50 healthy control patients were included in this study. The levels of expression of COX-2 and galectin-3 were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: The percentage of COX-2–positive cells and the intensity of COX-2 staining in the endometrium did not vary during the menstrual cycle either in the control group or in patients with endometrial polyps. However, expression of galectin-3 was significantly lower in endometrial polyps and during the proliferative phase of the endometrium compared with the secretory phase. Conclusions: Our data suggests that the pathogenesis of endometrial polyps does not involve expression of COX-2 or galectin-3.

  9. Effect of body mass index on breast cancer during premenopausal and postmenopausal periods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Cheraghi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and breast cancer. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall effect of overweight and obesity on breast cancer risk during pre- and post-menopausal period. DATA SOURCES: All major electronic databases were searched until April 2012 including Web of Knowledge, Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Furthermore, the reference lists and related scientific conference databases were searched. REVIEW METHODS: All prospective cohort and case-control studies investigating the association between BMI and breast cancer were retrieved irrespective of publication date and language. Women were assessed irrespective of age, race and marital status. The exposure of interest was BMI. The primary outcome of interest was all kinds of breast cancers confirmed pathologically. Study quality was assessed using the checklist of STROBE. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two authors separately. The effect measure of choice was risk ratio (RR(i and rate ratio (RR(a for cohort studies and odds ratio (OR in case-control studies. RESULTS: Of 9163 retrieved studies, 50 studies were included in meta-analysis including 15 cohort studies involving 2,104,203 subjects and 3,414,806 person-years and 35 case-control studies involving 71,216 subjects. There was an inverse but non-significant correlation between BMI and breast cancer risk during premenopausal period: OR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86, 1.02; RR(i = 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.16; and RR(a = 0.99 (95% CI 0.94, 1.05, but a direct and significant correlation during postmenopausal period: OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.07, 1.24; RR(i = 1.16 (95% CI 1.08, 1.25; and RR(a = 0.98 (95% CI 0.88, 1.09. CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis showed that body mass index has no significant effect on the incidence of breast cancer during premenopausal period. On the other hand, overweight and obesity may have a minimal effect on

  10. Low-to-moderate alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, M; Holman, C D J

    2011-01-01

    ... in premenopausal women (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Thus, the effect of low-to-moderate alcohol intake on breast cancer risk remains contentious.Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women, a population that consumes alcohol at very low levels (). WHO reported that the lifetime prevalence of abstainer...

  11. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  12. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  13. Evaluation of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis patients: its correlation with disease activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A Esaily

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Serum level of ucOC (which is a mirror of vitamin K deficiency was found to be higher in premenopausal RA patients than controls and correlated positively with disease activity and inversely with BMD measurement.

  14. A comparative study of circulating plasma lipid components and superoxide dismutase activity in pre and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhari

    2016-09-01

    Results: Mean serum SOD level in premenopausal women was 4.80+/-1.73 U/ml and in postmenopausal was 1.35+/-0.58 U/ml. This variation was found to be extremely significant (p <0.0001. Changes in lipid components in pre and postmenopausal women showed that total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal participants. These variations were also significant (p = 0.0003. Levels of HDL-C were lower in postmenopausal women than pre-menopausal group with a mean+/-SD of 51.5+/-12.20 mg/dl and 54.05+/-14.03mg/dl respectively. Conclusions: Findings of this study corroborate the hypothesis that gradual loss of ovarian function is associated with a decrease in antioxidant status. Menopause also leads to changes in lipid components, which can predispose women to cardiovascular diseases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3801-3805

  15. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improves Cognition of Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Folic acid, vitamin B12 , pyridoxine, and homocystine are being measured in blood before and after treatment to determine effects of repletion of...34extracted" and "nonextracted" specimens. From such rigid analyses the evidence of lack of contamination can be easily verified. 56 Appendix III...iron and zinc status we are now targeting ads at vegetarians . e. We shared our concerns about recruitment with the contracting officer and proposed

  16. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Aagaard, Per; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    The present intervention was designed to investigate whether a 14-week period of regular recreational association football (F) or endurance running (R) has an effect on the risk of falls and bone fractures due to gains in muscle function and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). Fifty healthy u...

  17. Genetic and environmental factors affecting peak bone mass in premenopausal Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Yoshika; Yanagi, Hisako; Hara, Shuichi; Amagai, Hitoshi; Endo, Kazue; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Tomura, Shigeo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between peak bone mass and genetic and environmental factors. We measured whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine BMD, and radius BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and analyzed eight genetic factors: vitamin D receptor (VDR)-3′, VDR-5′, estrogen receptor (ER), calcitonin receptor (CTR), parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) allelic polym...

  18. C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1 in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M Olama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion We found a significant increase in serum CTX-1 in FMS patients compared with controls, and this was correlated with the disease severity. Increased CTX-1 may lead to the early development of osteoporosis. More comprehensive and detailed studies are needed to determine the exact role of CTX-1 in FMS.

  19. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease and with a mean age difference between groups of only 4 years were studied. Cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function were determined by transthoracic echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging and 2-dimensional speckle tracking. Measurements were performed at baseline...

  20. Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Shereem Mohamed; Senna, Mohammed K; Elarman, Mohammed Mohamed; Elhawary, Galal

    2013-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have impaired mobility and therefore get less sunlight exposure, we postulated that they may be at increased risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). The aim of this study was to assess and compare serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density (BMD) value in patients with primary FMS (PFMS) and healthy controls. A total of 50 patients with PFMS participated in this case-control study, and 50 healthy females who were age-matched to the patients were used as the control group. Venous blood samples collected from all subjects were used to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposterior, femoral neck and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients with PFMS had significantly lower serum 25-OHD than controls (15.1 ± 6.1 and 18.8 ± 5.4 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.0018). Apart from the BMD in the lumbar spine, which was significantly lower in the PFMS patients compared with controls (p = 0.0012), no significant difference was found in other measures of BMD. Compared to PFMS patients who had serum level of the 25-OHD >20 ng/ml, the patients with 25-OHD ≤20 ng/ml are more likely to have impaired short memory (46.4 vs. 13.6%, respectively, p = 0.0136), confusion (50 vs. 18.2%, respectively, p = 0.0199), mood disturbance (60.7 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0185), sleep disturbance (53.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, p = 0.0271), restless leg syndrome (57.1 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0346) and palpitation (67.9 vs. 36.4%, respectively, p = 0.0265). Serum level of the 25-OHD is inversely correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain (p = 0.016), Beck score for depression (p = 0.020) and BMD at lumbar spine (p = 0.012). The lumbar BMD inversely correlated with VAS of pain (p = 0.013) and Beck score for depression (p = 0.016). This study confirmed high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among in patients with PFMS. This study confirmed the concept that FMS is a risk factor for OP. Based on this, an early nutrition program rich in calcium and vitamin D, appropriate exercise protocols, and medical treatment should be considered in these patients in terms of preventing OP development.

  1. [A short-term training program reduced acute phase proteins in premenopausal women with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fornieles, Gabriel; Camacho-Molina, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Díaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Pareja, Antonia; Ordonez, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: Actualmente se acepta la importancia del estatus proinflamatorio en la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico. De hecho, ha sido propuesto como diana terapéutica en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes. Por consiguiente este estudio pretende reducir los niveles plasmáticos de reactantes de fase aguda en mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante un corto programa de entrenamiento. Material y método: Un total de 135 mujeres jóvenes adultas (38,4 ± 3,3 años) con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. El grupo de intervención se sometió a un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico de 12 semanas, con 3 sesiones/ semana en el que duración e intensidad de la parte principal se incrementaron progresivamente. Los niveles plasmáticos de proteína C-reactiva (PCR) y fibrinógeno se determinaron mediante nefelometría y HPLC respectivamente. También se evaluaron el fitness cardiovascular mediante prueba de esfuerzo máxima e índices de distribución de masa grasa. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética Institucional. Resultados: Tras completar el programa, se observo una mejora significativa del fitness cardiovascular además de una reducción también significativa de los niveles de fibrinógeno y PCR. Asimismo, se encontraron correlaciones entre niveles de reactantes e índices de distribución de masa grasa, siendo la de mayor fuerza de asociación la establecida entre PCR y perímetro cintura. Conclusión: Un programa de 12 semanas consiguió reducir los niveles de reactantes de fase aguda en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Futuros estudios longitudinales son necesarios para conocer el impacto del efecto anti-inflamatorio del ejercicio en el manejo de estos pacientes a medio/largo plazo.

  2. NSAIDS and the Osteogenic Response to Mechanical Stress in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (selective and non-selective) on the treatment of periodontal diseases . Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11:1757...treatment groups. Diet record collection and analysis was performed through the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) bionutrition core. During the final

  3. Functional characteristics of vaginal fibroblastic cells from premenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Zapata, A.M.; Kerkhof, M.H.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Smit, T.H.; Helder, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) remains a great therapeutic challenge with no optimal treatment available. Tissue maintenance and remodelling are performed by fibroblasts, therefore altered cellular functionality may influence tissue quality. In this study, we evaluated functional characteristics of fib

  4. Longitudinal differences in sleep duration in Hispanic and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-02-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with significant negative consequences, including poor school performance, behavioral problems, obesity, and hypertension. There is prior evidence that there are disparities in sleep duration related to ethnicity; however, there are no specific data on Hispanic children. We aimed to test the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in parent-reported sleep duration in a community-based cohort of Hispanic and Caucasian children. We examined the parent-reported sleep patterns of a community-based prospective cohort (Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study [TuCASA]) involving 338 Hispanic and Caucasian children at two time points approximately five years apart. In the initial phase of the TuCASA study with a cohort median age of 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 7.6-10.1 years), parent-reported sleep duration during weekdays was shorter in Hispanic (median, 9.5 h; IQR, 9.0, 10.0 years) than in Caucasian children (10 h; IQR, 9.5, 10.0 h; p Hispanic children had a significantly later bedtime at both time points (p Hispanic than in Caucasian children (p = 0.06). Short sleep duration in Hispanic children may contribute to health disparities. Our research suggests that in Hispanic children, behavioral interventions toward improving sleep duration accomplished by earlier bedtimes or delayed school start times and mechanistic studies to unravel any inherent tendency toward a delayed sleep phase are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA): the first report outside the Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerknecht, Ingo; Plümpe, Nina; Edwards, Steve; Raman, Rajiva

    2007-01-01

    Prosopagnosia (PA) or face blindness is characterized by a deficiency in identifying familiar faces. Almost all reports are single cases or collections of unrelated patients who acquired prosopagnosia after brain injuries, strokes or atrophy of at least the right occipito-temporal cortex. Until 2001, the inborn form - in the absence of any brain lesions - was described in fewer than 20 probands exclusively of Caucasian origin. We recently found that in the German Caucasian population, congenital prosopagnosia has a very high prevalence of at least 2.5% and that it is genetically determined. It is best described by autosomal-dominant inheritance in the more than 50 families investigated. We therefore introduced the term non-syndromic hereditary PA for the congenital form of a monosymptomatic or isolated PA. This surprisingly high frequency in the Caucasian population prompted us to extend our search to other ethnic groups. We performed a questionnaire-based screening among 198 native Indian students at Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi. In a then selected subset, we found after further detailed diagnostic interviews one Bengali female student with visual agnosia for face recognition only. Several other members of her large family reported the same impairment of face recognition. The segregation pattern of PA in this family is also compatible with autosomal-dominant inheritance.

  6. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  7. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  8. The prevalence of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer in an unselected Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Høgdall, Estrid; Clementsen, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    EGFR mutation frequencies in unselected Caucasian populations are unknown. This study assesses the prevalence of EGFR mutations in an unselected population-based cohort, and the correlation between mutation and gender, age, ethnicity, smoking habits, and pathological data. NSCLC patients diagnosed...... in a well-defined Danish population were included. The type of the diagnostic material, and data on smoking were registered. The mutation analyses were investigated by Therascreen EGFR RGQ-PCR Kit or Sanger sequencing. A total of 658 men and 598 women were included. 6.2% were never smokers, 38.9% were ex...

  9. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Leenen, R.; Seidell, J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in healthy, obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, 25 men and 25 premenopausal women, aged between 26 and 49 years, with an

  10. Activity Patterns And Perceptions Of Goods, Services, And Eco-Cultural Attributes By Ethnicity And Gender For Native Americans And Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Managing ecosystems requires understanding how people use and value them. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in resource use and perceptions of environmental quality in Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in East-central Idaho. More men than women engaged in consumptive activities, but there were no differences for non-consumptive or religious/spiritual. More Caucasian males engaged in hunting, and more females engaged in collecting herb and, berries, and bird-watching. More Native American males engaged in hunting and fishing, and more females engaged in picnics and walking/running. Women had higher rates of hike, walk and bike than did men, and there were no ethnic differences. The data indicate that both the percent participation and the frequency of participation varied both ethnically and by gender.

  11. Association of Caucasian-identified variants with colorectal cancer risk in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Fun Thean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS in Caucasians have identified fourteen index single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs that influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk. METHODS: We investigated the role of eleven iSNPs or surrogate SNPs (sSNPs, in high linkage disequilibrium (LD, r(2≥ 0.8 and within 100 kb vicinity of iSNPs, in 2,000 age- and gender-matched Singapore Chinese (SCH cases and controls. RESULTS: Only iSNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 and sSNPs rs6695584, rs11986063, rs3087967, rs2059254, and rs7226855 at 1q41, 8q23.3, 11q23.1, 16q22.1 and 18q21.1 respectively showed evidence of association with CRC risk, with odds ratios (OR ranging from 1.13 to 1.40. sSNP rs827401 at 10p14 was associated with rectal cancer risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88 but not disease prognosis (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.69-1.20. Interestingly, sSNP rs3087967 at 11q23.1 was associated with CRC risk in men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.58 but not women (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88-1.29, suggesting a gender-specific role. Half of the Caucasian-identified variants, including the recently fine-mapped BMP pathway loci, BMP4, GREM1, BMP2 and LAMA 5, did not show any evidence for association with CRC in SCH (OR ~1; p-value >0.1. Comparing the results of this study with that of the Northern and Hong Kong Chinese, only variants at chromosomes 8q24.21, 10p14, 11q23.1 and 18q21.1 were replicated in at least two out of the three Chinese studies. CONCLUSIONS: The contrasting results between Caucasians and Chinese could be due to different LD patterns and allelic frequencies or genetic heterogeneity. The results suggest that additional common variants contributing to CRC predisposition remained to be identified.

  12. Late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in a Caucasian woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dharmesh R; Knepper, Laurie; Jones, H Royden

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of an evolving amyotrophy confined to her dominant right arm and hand. Although this atypical case of a late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in some respects mimics Hirayama disease or O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, it does not conform precisely with either of those disorders. We compare this individual's difficulties and clinical temporal profile to other disorders considered in the differential diagnoses with regard to her evolving clinical setting.

  13. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  14. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasinato, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture, 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching, 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance, domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique under local anesthesia Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose.

  15. Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, J A; Azizia, M. M.; Hardiman, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting ∼8% of women. The objective of the present study was to quantify separately the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women with PCOS compared with non-PCOS controls, and quantify separately the risk to women of all ages as well as the risk to premenopausal women. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Studies were eligible for inclusion if th...

  16. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  17. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yansong; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L

    2016-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.

  18. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk : Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environme

  19. Neoadjuvant anastrozole versus tamoxifen in patients receiving goserelin for premenopausal breast cancer (STAGE): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Norikazu; Sagara, Yasuaki; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Iwata, Hiroji; Nakamura, Seigo; Yanagita, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Reiki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Kamigaki, Shunji; Takei, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2012-04-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have shown increased efficacy compared with tamoxifen in postmenopausal early breast cancer. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of anastrozole versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women receiving goserelin for early breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study, we enrolled premenopausal women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative, operable breast cancer with WHO performance status of 2 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive goserelin 3·6 mg/month plus either anastrozole 1 mg per day and tamoxifen placebo or tamoxifen 20 mg per day and anastrozole placebo for 24 weeks before surgery. Patients were randomised sequentially, stratified by centre, with randomisation codes. All study personnel were masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was best overall tumour response (complete response or partial response), assessed by callipers, during the 24-week neoadjuvant treatment period for the intention-to-treat population. The primary endpoint was analysed for non-inferiority (with non-inferiority defined as the lower limit of the 95% CI for the difference in overall response rates between groups being 10% or less); in the event of non-inferiority, we assessed the superiority of the anastrozole group versus the tamoxifen group. We included all patients who received study medication at least once in the safety analysis set. We report the primary analysis; treatment will also continue in the adjuvant setting for 5 years. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00605267. Between Oct 2, 2007, and May 29, 2009, 204 patients were enrolled. 197 patients were randomly assigned to anastrozole (n=98) or tamoxifen (n=99), and 185 patients completed the 24-week neoadjuvant treatment period and had breast surgery (95 in the anastrazole group, 90 in the tamoxifen group). More patients in the anastrozole group had a complete or

  20. Insulin Resistance Is Not Conserved in Myotubes Established from Women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette; Pørneki, Ann Dorte; Skov, Vibe

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among premenopausal women, who often develop insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an intrinsic defect, by investigating...

  1. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  2. Clinical and radiographic features of sarcoidosis in menopausal women: The impact on therapeutic approach and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošković Vladana R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The aim of the study was to determine are there significant differences in clinical manifestations, radiographic and lung function findings and therapeutic approach in menopausal female sarcoidosis patients compared to premenopausal ones. Methods. Seventy seven Caucasian women (average age 43.71 years, range 38- 54 with sarcoidosis diagnosed at the University Hospital from January to October 2006, were included in the study. They were divided into two groups according to their menstrual period status. The group I included 42 women with normal menstrual cycle, while the group II included 35 menopausal women (either spontaneous or after hysterectomy. The patients were not under hormonal therapy. Results. We found significantly higher proportion of the first radiographic stage (66.7% vs 34.2%, p < 0.05 and acute form of sarcoidosis (57.2% vs 17.1%; p < 0.01 in the group I in relation to the group II. Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis was more frequent in the group II than in the group I (p < 0.01. Disturbances of lung ventilation were registered in 50.8% of all the patients, and decrease of one or both of diffusion parameters was found in 63.6%, but without significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05. Hypercalciuria was found in 19.1% of the patients in the group I and 42.8% of the patient in the group II (p < 0.05. A difference in the therapy approach was also found to be significant with methotrexate more frequently applied in the group II than in the group I (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Menopausal women with sarcoidosis may represent a group of patients that requires special attention in diagnostic procedure, therapeutic approach and follow-up, to prevent unfavourable course of the disease. Attention should be particularly focused on the detection of extrapulmonary sites involvement in this group of the patients. Further prospective studies are needed to reveal

  3. Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva collection was performed on 198 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin of which 55 were premenopausal women (PMW and 143 menopausal women (MW. Student’s t test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between salivary pH and MetS components. Results The salivary pH level was significantly correlated with several MetS covariates, namely triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein B (apo B and plasma glucose concentrations as well as waist circumference and the number of MetS components present in the whole sample and PMW only. Mean pH levels decreased as the number of MetS components increased (p = 0.004. The correlations between salivary pH and variables associated with MetS components tended to be stronger in PMW. The proportion of the variance (R2 of salivary pH explained by MetS-related variables in PMW, MW and the whole sample was 23.6% (p = 0.041, 18.1% and 17.0% (p  Conclusions The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for the development of new technologies to more easily monitor health status without increasing the burden of healthcare costs. As such, the salivary pH could be an inexpensive screening tool. These exploratory data suggest that salivary pH may be a significant correlate of the expression of MetS components. However, other studies with different populations are needed to confirm these findings before our observations lead to practical use in clinical settings.

  4. Effect of hormone therapy on exercise capacity in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Saiu, Francesca; Deidda, Martino; Mercuro, Silvia; Vitale, Cristiana; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2007-10-01

    To compare the exercise capacity of postmenopausal women with matched premenopausal controls, as well as postmenopausal women before and after 3 months of hormone therapy (HT). This study examined the response to strenuous isotonic exercise in 30 women with recently developed menopause (age, mean+/-standard deviation, 50.6+/-1.1 years) without cardiovascular risk factors or diseases. Thirty premenopausal subjects, matched one-to-one for age and biophysical characteristics, were the control group. Postmenopausal women underwent examination before (T(0)) and 3 months after (T(1)) HT (oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day) with high-resolution ultrasound determination of peripheral flow-mediated vasodilation and an integrative cardiopulmonary test. Postmenopausal women showed an impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation (Pexercise intolerance, and there are benefits in introducing HT.

  5. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (Prisk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (PDecreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors.

  6. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  7. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise on urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Gil, María Concepción; Timón, R; Toribio, A F; Muñoz, D; Maynar, J I; Caballero, M J; Maynar, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of 6 months of aerobic exercise on urinary excretion of female steroid hormones in pre and postmenopausal women and to check the basal values of urinary steroid. To this end, 20 premenopausal (age 45.56 ± 4.06 years) and 20 postmenopausal (age 52.27 ± 3.80 years) women, all sedentary, were studied before and after a supervised 6-month exercise training program (at 60-70% of maximal heart rate, 60 min/day, 3 days/week), based on aerobic dance. The exercise included standing on one leg, squatting, walking, and touching their heels. Before and after the program, anthropometric data and VO(2max) were measured and urine samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/Q-MS). Both, pre and postmenopausal women, improved their VO(2max) after the aerobic exercise program. Regarding the urinary steroids, on the one hand, important differences were observed between urinary estrogens and progestagens in pre and postmenopausal women in basal values. Estrone (P exercise program did not affect postmenopausal women in the same way as premenopausal women. After the exercise program, no changes in urinary steroid levels were observed in premenopausal women. However, the aerobic exercise program caused an increase in urinary excretion of pregnanediol (P < 0.05) and pregnanetriol (P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women.

  9. Dietary Carbohydrate, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Breast Cancer Risk Among Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Amina; Degoul, Julie; Hainaut, Pierre; Chajes, Veronique; Biessy, Carine; Torres Mejia, Gabriela; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno Macia, Hortensia; Ortega, Caro; Angeles-Llerenas, Anjélica; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Very few studies have focused on the relationship among dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and breast cancer risk in Latin American women. Our objective was to assess the associations among dietary carbohydrate, GI, GL, and risk of breast cancer, and to further investigate these associations by levels of overweight/obesity and physical activity. We used data from a Mexican population-based case-control study. We recruited a 1,000 women with incident breast cancer and 1,074 matched control women ages 35 to 69 years between 2004 and 2007. We used conditional logistic regression models and energy-adjusted carbohydrates, GI, and GL using the residual method. Total carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The odds ratio in the highest versus the lowest quartile was 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7; P trend = 0.03). In stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI), the positive association between carbohydrate and risk of premenopausal breast cancer was only observed among overweight women. The odds ratio comparing the top with the bottom quartile was 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.0; P trend = 0.01) among women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m. No association was observed among women with BMI carbohydrate diets are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal Mexican women.

  10. Relationship Of FEF25-75, PEFR And SVC With Estrogen And Progesterone Level In Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Begum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deterioration of lung function is common in women after menopause, which may be related to very low estrogen and progesterone level.Objective: To observe FEF25-75, PEFR and SVC (slow vital capacity values in apparently healthy postmenopausal women to find out their relationships with serum estrogen and progesterone.Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology in BSMMU, Dhaka in the year 2007. 30 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 60 years and 30 healthy premenopausal women aged 20 to 30 years during their different phases of menstrual cycle were studied. Postmenopausal women were residents of Dhaka city and premenopausal subjects were medical students. FEF25-75, PEFR and SVC of all subjects were measured by a digital micro spirometer. Their estrogen and progesterone levels were estimated by Micro particle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA method. Data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, one way ANOVA and unpaired‘t’ testResults: The mean percentage of predicted values of FEF25-75 and PEFR were lower in postmenopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women but it was not significant. Measured values of SVC was Significantly (p<.001 lower in postmenopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women. Again Mean serum estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly (p<.001 lower in post menopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women. In post menopausal women, FEF25-75 was positively, PEFR and SVC were negatively correlated with progesterone level. PEFR and SVC showed positive correlattion and FEF25-75 showed negative correlation with serum estrogen level. All these correlations were statistically non significant. In premenopausal women FEF25-75 and PEFR showed positive correlation and SVC showed negative correlation with serum progesterone level. The relationships were

  11. Impact of serum nutritional status on physical function in african american and caucasian stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E; Ivey, Frederick M; Macko, Richard F; Ryan, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is to compare serum nutritional profiles in chronic stroke survivors to a representative sample of US Adults (NHANESIII) and determine whether these serum markers differed by race and impact physical function in stroke. Methods. Fasting serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids, uric acid, and albumin in 145 African American (AA) and 111 Caucasian (C) stroke survivors (age: 60 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]). A six-minute walk was performed in a subset of stroke survivors (N = 134). Results. Triglycerides were higher and HDL-cholesterol and albumin lower in C than AA women stroke survivors (Ps stroke survivors (P stroke (Ps stroke survivors (P stroke, racial differences exist with regard to serum nutritional risk, but these differences are similar to that observed in the general population. Regardless of race, nutritional risk appears elevated above that of the general population with regard to many of the serum markers. As a modifiable biomarker, uric acid should be monitored closely as it may provide insight into the functional risk of stroke survivors.

  12. Association between EGF +61A/G polymorphism and gastric cancer in Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Paula Araújo; Bruno M Costa; Ana L Pinto-Correia; Maria Fragoso; Paula Ferreira; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro; Sandra Costa; Rui M Reis; Rui Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF ) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to genotype EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian. RESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that males who were A carriers for EGF +61 had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. This result may be explained by the suggestion that women secrete less gastric acid than men.

  13. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, L E H; Boon, M R; Annema, W; Dikkers, A; van Eyk, H J; Verhoeven, A; Mayboroda, O A; Jukema, J W; Havekes, L M; Meinders, A E; Willems van Dijk, K; Jazet, I M; Tietge, U J F; Rensen, P C N

    2016-08-01

    South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. HDL functionality with respect to cholesterol efflux, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation was determined using fasting, apoB-depleted, plasma samples from South Asian and white Caucasian neonates (n = 14 each), adolescent healthy men (n = 12 each, 18-25 y), and adult overweight men (n = 12 each, 40-50 y). Adolescents were subjected to a 5-day high fat high calorie diet (HCD) and adults to an 8-day very low calorie diet (LCD). Additionally, HDL composition was measured in adolescents and adults using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Anti-oxidative capacity was lower in South Asian adults before LCD (19.4 ± 2.1 vs. 25.8 ± 1.2%, p = 0.045, 95%-CI = [0.1; 12.7]) and after LCD (16.4 ± 2.4 vs. 27.6 ± 2.7%, p = 0.001, 95%-CI = [4.9; 17.5]). Anti-inflammatory capacity was reduced in South Asian neonates (23.8 ± 1.2 vs. 34.9 ± 1.3%, p = 0.000001, 95%-CI = [-14.6; -7.5]), and was negatively affected by an 8-day LCD only in South Asian adults (-12.2 ± 4.3%, p = 0.005, 95%-CI = [-5.9; -1.2]). Cholesterol efflux capacity was increased in response to HCD in adolescents (South Asians: +6.3 ± 2.9%, p = 0.073, 95%-CI = [-0.02; 0.46], Caucasians: +11.8 ± 3.4%, p = 0.002, 95%-CI = [0.17;0.65]) and decreased after LCD in adults (South Asians: -10.3 ± 2.4%, p HDL showed no differences between ethnicities, cholesterol efflux correlated best with cholesterol and phospholipid within small HDL compared to other HDL subclasses and constituents. Impaired HDL functionality in South Asians may be a contributing factor to their high CVD risk. NTR 2473 (URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/). Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of

  14. African American women exhibit similar adherence to intervention but lose less weight due to lower energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLany, J P; Jakicic, J M; Lowery, J B; Hames, K C; Kelley, D E; Goodpaster, B H

    2014-09-01

    African American (AA) women have been shown to lose less weight than Caucasian women in response to behavioral interventions. Our objective was to examine adherence to intervention and metabolic factors that may explain this difference. We examined longitudinal changes in body weight and energy expenditure (EE), and objective assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy intake (EI) during 6 months of a weight-loss intervention program, including prescribed calorie restriction and increased PA in 66 Caucasian and 39 AA severely obese women. Comparisons were also made in 25 Caucasian and 25 AA women matched for initial body weight. The AA women lost 3.6 kg less weight than Caucasian women. Total daily EE (TDEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) were significantly lower in the AA women, whereas the decrease in RMR in response to weight loss was greater in Caucasian women. Adherence to the prescribed PA and change in PA in response to intervention were similar in AA and Caucasian women. Prescribed EI (1794±153 and 1806±153 kcal per day) and measured EI during intervention (2591±371 vs 2630±442 kcal per day) were nearly identical in matched AA and Caucasian women. However, the AA women lost significantly less body weight due to lower energy requirements (2924±279 vs 3116±340 kcal per day; Pweight loss. Therefore, to achieve similar weight loss in AA women, the prescribed caloric restriction cannot be based on weight alone, but must be lower than in Caucasians, to account for lower energy requirements.

  15. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and serum total adiponectin concentrations. Relationships between variables were assessed using Student's t-tests, Pearson's and Spearman's Rho correlations, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hispanic women had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than NHW women, even after controlling for body fat (%) (P women combined and for NHW women (P ≤ 0.04), but not for Hispanic women. Insulin resistance was inversely related to adiponectin for all women and for NHW women (P women. Adiponectin concentration was not significantly associated with number of CVD risk factors for these women. While adiponectin was associated with markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance for all women of this study and despite lower adiponectin concentrations for Hispanic women than NHW women, the role of adiponectin to these conditions among Hispanics remains unclear. There was no significant association between adiponectin and CVD risk for these women. Future research should focus on understanding mechanisms for up-regulating adiponectin secretion and if ethnicity affects adiponectin gene expression and secretion given the beneficial effects derived from elevated adiponectin levels.

  16. Anthropometric study of the caucasian nose in the city of Curitiba: relevance of population evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Carvalho, Bettina; Dolci, José Eduardo Lutaif; Becker, Renata; Berger, Cezar; Mocellin, Marcos

    2017-07-03

    Norms and patterns of nasal esthetics are essential for an adequate preoperative evaluation and surgical programming. The esthetic nasal patterns used are a blend of artistic beauty ideals and tracings in models and celebrities. Because they do not consider population measures, they vary according to the period, and allow a discrepancy between the surgeon's preference and the patient's real desire for rhinoplasty. Not all populations wish to obtain an esthetic result according to these values, but prefer a natural result, that is, one with some of the nasal characteristics of the population to which they belong to. The Brazilian population lacks population studies to evaluate its nose measurements. (1) To evaluate the anthropometric measures of Caucasian noses of people living in the city of Curitiba (state of Paraná), and to compare them to the ideal esthetic pattern of the literature; (2) To compare them between genders. This is a prospective cohort study involving 100 Caucasian volunteers at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Through the frontal and lateral view photos, intercanthal distance, alar distance, nasal dorsum length, nasofrontal angle, nasolabial angle, and nasal tip projection (Goode's method) were obtained. A statistical analysis was performed to compare the measures obtained between genders and with the ideal patterns. Comparing the results obtained with those predicted by the esthetic ideals, the sample presented: similar nasolabial angle (p=0.07), alar width greater than intercanthal distance (p<0.001), higher nasal tip projection (p<0.001), larger width-length ratio (p<0.001), and more obtuse nasofrontal angle (p<0.001). The nasofrontal angle (p=0.0008) and the tip projection (p=0.032) were statistically different between the genders. Men had a smaller nasofrontal angle, and a larger Goode's ratio. Except for the nasolabial angle, the measures obtained in the population sample differed from the published esthetic ideals. Comparing the

  17. Glucose tolerance and weight loss in obese women with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with glucose intolerance and the beneficial effect of lifestyle intervention have been poorly investigated in women particularly before menopausal status. The study explored 1 whether OSA is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in obese non diabetic premenopausal and menopausal women and 2 the effects of a 3- month lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in OSA women. DESIGN AND METHODS: We consecutively recruited 98 obese women (39 premenopausal from those referred for a weight loss intervention. Ambulatory nocturnal polysomnography, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity and β cell function were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: 41% of premenopausal and 64% of menopausal women had OSA which was associated with worse glucose homeostasis before menopausal status. Mean and minimal nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with neck/height ratio (NHR, independently of total and central obesity. Mean and minimal nocturnal SaO2 and NHR were correlated with insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose. In multivariate analyses, nocturnal mean SaO2 was negatively and independently correlated with fasting glucose (p<0.0001 and NHR with insulin sensitivity (p<0.0001. In OSA women, the intervention induced a 5% weight reduction and a significant increase in minimal nocturnal SaO2, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. Changes in fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity were associated with those in minimal nocturnal SaO2 (p<0.05 and not with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: In obese women, glucose homeostasis worsens due to nocturnal hypoxia and increased neck circumference through mechanisms partially independent of obesity. OSA is more clearly associated with glucose intolerance in premenopausal than in menopausal women. In OSA women, the improvement of nocturnal hypoxia induced by lifestyle modifications is associated with that of

  18. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Naess, Marit; Langhammer, Arnulf; Forsmo, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. Methods This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). Results Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Conclusion Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles. PMID:26291617

  19. Alterations of the USP26 gene in Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2006-12-01

    The Ubiquitin Specific Protease 26 gene is a testis-specific gene that is located on the X chromosome. Sequence variants of this gene were previously reported in men with azoospermia caused by defects at the level of spermatogenesis. Especially a cluster of three changes (c.370_371insACA, c.494T>C and c.1423C>T) was frequently observed. To further define the role of this cluster of sequence variants in the USP26 gene, we have now analysed 202 control samples and 146 patients of Caucasian origin with cryptozoospermia or oligozoospermia. The detection method was based on a restriction reaction, by which the change c.494T>C can be detected. In none of the patients, the change c.494T>C was observed. Only in one man with normal spermatogenesis this sequence variant was detected. Sequencing can confirm the presence of the three changes of the USP26 gene. These data indicate that the cluster of changes is not restricted to men with severe testicular dysfunction.

  20. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  1. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  2. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  3. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on platelet activation in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古健; 杨冬梓; 王良岸; 尹松梅; 邝健全

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on platelet activation in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. Methods The expressions of CD41 and CD62P in fifteen postmenopausal women before and after HRT were detected using flow cytometry (FCM), with fifteen premenopausal women with a mean age of 47 years as controls.Results The expressions of CD41 and CD62P in postmenopausal women were higher than those in the control group. CD62P(%), CD62P(I) and CD41 were reduced from 36.40±5.9, 37.75±5.8, and 470.11±74.0 to 27.97±5.6, 26.64±4.9, and 303.23±72.8 after six months of HRT (P<0.05). Conclusions Platelet activation in postmenopausal women was higher than in premenopausal women and was reduced significantly after six months of HRT. HRT may have a favorable effect on reduction of platelet activity.

  4. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  5. Large prospective study of ovarian cancer screening in high-risk women: CA125 cut-point defined by menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K; Buys, Saundra S; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Horowitz, Ira R; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D; Fabian, Carol J; Sluss, Patrick M; Nayfield, Susan G; Kasten, Carol H; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Greene, Mark H; Lu, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, whereas the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this preplanned analysis. Because of the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points on the basis of 98th percentile. The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL, while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, and 35 for postmenopausal women).

  6. Obesity enhances verbal memory in postmenopausal women with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bindu N; Pang, Deborah; Stern, Yaakov; Silverman, Wayne; Kline, Jennie K; Mayeux, Richard; Schupf, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the loss of estrogen after menopause may play a role in cognitive declines associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In postmenopausal women, the principal source of estrogen is estrone, which is influenced by body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in postmenopausal women is associated with higher levels of serum estradiol and estrone. We hypothesized that obesity could have a beneficial effect on cognition with advancing age. We compared the performance of healthy nondemented obese and non-obese women with Down syndrome (DS) on a broad spectrum of cognitive tests. Estrone levels were 66.9% higher in obese than in non-obese postmenopausal women, and 136% higher in obese than in non-obese premenopausal women. Obese postmenopausal women performed significantly better than non-obese women on measures of verbal memory and on an omnibus test of neuropsychological function, but did not differ significantly in verbal fluency, language, praxis or visuospatial functioning. Among premenopausal women, there was no difference in cognitive function between obese and non-obese women. Our results support the hypothesis that higher endogenous estrogen levels after menopause are associated with better performance on verbal memory.

  7. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  8. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  9. Sleep in midlife women: effects of menopause, vasomotor symptoms, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Polo, Olli; Kauko, Tommi; Aittokallio, Jenni; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate subjective sleep quality in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to study its association with night sweats, hot flashes, and depressive symptoms. A total of 158 healthy women were recruited; 107 were premenopausal (44-48 y) and 51 were postmenopausal (53-58 y). Sleep quality was evaluated with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, night sweats and hot flashes were evaluated with a specific symptom questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory. Postmenopausal women had poorer general sleep quality (P menopause status. Maintenance insomnia, most evidently because of night sweats and hot flashes, seems to be the major type of insomnia in postmenopausal women and has to be considered when choosing insomnia treatment for this group. Initiation of sleep and daytime vitality are not, in general, affected by menopause.

  10. CAUCASIAN MINORITIES OF KRASNODAR REGION: CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lubsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the retrospective transformation of ethno-demographic structure of the population of Krasnodar region from the perspective of representation, dynamics and characteristics of reproduction of Caucasian ethnic groups in the post-Soviet period. On the basis of census data in 1989, 2002 and 2010 describes the general trends, and compares the demographic development of the Caucasian ethnic groups in the region. The concept of Caucasian ethnicity used in its geographical rather than linguistic or cultural and historical significance. The authors classify living in the Caucasus region, minority, into several groups: indigenous peoples of the region, internal diaspora indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation, the Diaspora peoples who have their own national state or ethnic core outside of Russia. A comparison of the natural reproduction and migration of Caucasian ethnic groups in the region, analyzed the regional dynamics of migration as a factor of change in the population of the Caucasian diaspora. At the same time the features of the regional identity of the Caucasian communities, causes the appearance of new forms of ethnic identification. On the example of "Circassian issue" through the process of ethnic mobilization in modern conditions, and on the example of the Turkish community analyzes the problem of ethnic segregation in the province, spread ethnophobia, which resulted in mass re-emigration. At the end of the article presents forecast of development of processes of ethno-demographic reproduction of Caucasian minorities in the Krasnodar Territory.

  11. Similarities and differences in Chinese and Caucasian adults' use of facial cues for trustworthiness judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for trustworthiness judgments.

  12. Similarities and differences in Chinese and Caucasian adults' use of facial cues for trustworthiness judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for trustworthiness judgments.

  13. Changes in vitamin-D metabolites and parathyroid hormone in plasma following cholecalciferol administration to pre- and postmenopausal women in the Netherlands in early spring and to postmenopausal women in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKlis, FRM; Jonxis, JHP; vanDoormaal, JJ; Sikkens, P; Saleh, AEC; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    To study the effect on plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1, 25(OH)(2)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) we supplemented premenopausal (aged 30 (so 7) years) and postmenopausal (aged 61 (so 2) years) white women living in The Netherlands in late winter/early sp

  14. Pioglitazone enhances expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe

    Aims                Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women and is associated with insulin resistance increasing the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies have shown that thiazolidinediones (TZD) improve metabolic disturbances in PCOS...

  15. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  16. Understanding hypertriglyceridemia in women: clinical impact and management with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters

    OpenAIRE

    Dayspring, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Thomas D DayspringNorth Jersey Institute of Menopausal Lipidology, Wayne, NJ, USABackground: Elevated triglycerides (TGs) are a common lipid disorder in the US and are associated with comorbidities such as pancreatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. TGs are generally elevated in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. Meta-analysis has shown that elevated TGs are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).Objective: This article provi...

  17. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Mohr, Magni

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO...... adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women....

  18. SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS OF HEALTHY CAUCASIAN, CHINESE AND HAIDA INDIAN MALES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORD, D K; DEMOS, A M

    1964-06-06

    Because previous studies have shown that serum uric acid levels are higher in members of the Filipino and Maori races than in Caucasians, and because gout seemed unexpectedly common in the Chinese population of Vancouver, a study of serum uric acid levels in Caucasian, Chinese and Haida Indian males was undertaken. The serum uric acid levels of 200 Caucasian, 100 Chinese and 237 Haida Indian males were determined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method of Dubbs, which gives a result 0.5 mg. % below that of the more commonly employed method of Grayzel. The mean level of the Caucasians was 4.55 mg. % and that of the Haida Indians 4.41 mg. %; in contrast, the Chinese mean was 5.44 mg. %, a significantly higher figure than the means of the other two groups. No explanation for this finding can be given at present.

  19. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian;

    2014-01-01

    by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied. Groups...... were comparable in radius regarding geometry and vBMD, but SLE patients had lower trabecular number (-7 %, p FEA-estimated failure load compared to controls (-10 %, p ....01], trabecular number (-9 %, p FEA-estimated bone...

  20. Differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates in emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, J

    2000-08-01

    Most theories of justice focus on individual-level approaches; few examine the role of contextual factors such as culture. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates (n = 120 and 58, respectively) in terms of their emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Analyses indicated that Hispanic students were more likely to use interactional justice than Caucasian respondents, but the groups did not differ in their likelihood of using distributive or procedural justice.

  1. Secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A J; Liu, H L; Du, Z Q

    2015-02-01

    In this previous work, we investigated the secondary structure changes of stretched yak hairs by deconvolution, secondary derivation, and curve fitting and determined the number of bands and their positions in order to resolve the protein spectrum of Raman spectroscopy. The secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile curves, and measurement of density. The hairs were stretched, dried, and baked at ratios 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The analysis of the amide I band indicated that the transformation from α-helix to β-pleated structure occurred during the stretching process, which could be verified from the tensile analysis. The cysteine oxide in S-O vibration area exhibited that stretching led to the breakage of the disulfide bonds. When the stretching ratio of Caucasian hair was more than a certain ratio, the fiber macromolecular structure was destroyed because Caucasian hair had finer diameter and less medulla than Asian hair. The β turn was easier to retract compared with other conformations, resulted in the content increase. The density measurements revealed that the structure of Caucasian hair was indeed more destroyed than that of Asian hair. The cuticles characterization indicated the length of scales was stretched longer and the thickness became thinner. Caucasian hair tended to collapse to form small fragments at the early stage of stretching. With the increase in stretching ratio, the scales of Caucasian hair lifted up, then flaked off and the scale interval increased accordingly. Asian hair was more easily peeled off than Caucasian hair cuticles with the increase in stretching ratio. The secondary structure of Caucasian hair was destroyed more easily than that of Asian hair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fibromyalgia syndrome: is it related to vitamin D deficiency in premenopausal female patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Muyesser; Koybası, Mine; Tuncay, Figen; Ceceli, Esma; Ayhan, Figen; Yorgancioglu, Rezan; Borman, Pinar

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of studies that have evaluated the relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) and vitamin D deficiency with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D deficiency in patients with FM and to evaluate the relationship with the common symptoms of FM and levels of serum vitamin D. Forty premenopausal female fibromyalgia patients and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of all subjects, including age, sex, and body mass index, were recorded. The number of tender points was recorded, and the intensity of the widespread pain of the subjects was measured by the visual analog scale. The activities of daily living component of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-ADL), was used to assess physical functional capacity. Serum vitamin D was measured in both groups, and vitamin D levels vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D levels and clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patient and control groups were comparatively analyzed. The relationship between vitamin D levels and clinical findings of the FM patients were also determined. The mean age was 41.23 ± 4.8 and 39.48 ± 4.08 years for the patient and control groups, respectively. The pain intensity, number of tender points, and FIQ-ADL scores were higher in FM patients than in control subjects. The mean levels of vitamin D in the patient and control groups were determined to be 31.97 ± 15.50 and 28.97 ± 13.31 nmol/L, respectively (p > .05). The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was similar between the patient and control groups (67.5% vs. 70%). Vitamin D levels significantly correlated with pain intensity (r = -0.653; p = .001) and FIQ-ADL scores in the FM group (r = -0.344; p = .030). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that deficiency of vitamin D is not more common in premenopausal female patients with FM than in control subjects without FM. However, the association between pain and vitamin D

  3. Three-Dimensional Anthropometric Database of Attractive Caucasian Women: Standards and Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Luigi Maria; Deli, Roberto; Laino, Alberto; Di Gioia, Eliana; D’Alessio, Raoul; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Percoco, Gianluca; Savastano, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a database to determine a new biomorphometric standard of attractiveness. Sampling was carried out using noninvasive three-dimensional relief methods to measure the soft tissues of the face. These anthropometric measurements were analyzed to verify the existence of any canons with respect to shape, size, and measurement proportions which proved to be significant with regard to the aesthetics of the face. Finally, the anthropometric parameters obtained were compared with findings described in the international literature. The study sample was made up competitors in the Miss Italy 2010 and 2009 beauty contest. The three-dimensional (3D) scanning of soft tissue surfaces allowed 3D digital models of the faces and the spatial 3D coordinates of 25 anthropometric landmarks to be obtained and used to calculate linear and angular measurements. A paired Student t test for the analysis of the means allowed 3 key questions in the study of biomorphometric parameters of the face to be addressed through comparison with the data available in the literature. The question of statistical evidence for the samples analyzed being members of the populations samples reported in literature was also addressed. The critical analysis of the data helped to identify the anthropometric measurements of the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face, variations in which have a major influence on the attractiveness of the face. These changes involve facial width, height, and depth. Changes in measurements of length, angles, and proportions found in the sample considered were also analyzed. PMID:27763980

  4. Predicting Total, Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity with Circulating Biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Unhee Lim; Turner, Stephen D; Franke, Adrian A; Cooney, Robert V.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thomas Ernst; Albright, Cheryl L.; Rachel Novotny; Linda Chang; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Loïc Le Marchand

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptide...

  5. Poor sleep in relation to natural menopause: a population-based 14-year follow-up of midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Gross, Stephanie A; Pien, Grace W

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) in midlife women. Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was severity of poor sleep, as reported by participants in annual interviews for 16 years and as evaluated in relation to the FMP. The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at premenopausal baseline, premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep in premenopause were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause than those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.50-5.11; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.99-2.47; P = 0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.44-2.21; P menopausal transition. Overall, poor sleep does not increase around the FMP and frequently occurs in the absence of hot flashes, indicating that sleep difficulties in the menopausal transition in generally healthy women are not simply associated with ovarian decline.

  6. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  7. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  8. Associations between body mass index and molecular subtypes as well as other clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Yu; Ou, Hui-Ying; Wang, Shou-Man; Wu, Yu-Hui; Yan, Guo-Jiao; Tang, Li-Li

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women; however, the associations between BMI groups and molecular subtypes have yet to be well defined in premenopausal breast cancer patients. A total of 2465 female breast cancer patients diagnosed at our institution were recruited for this study. Clinicopathologic information (including age, body height and weight, as well as tumor subtypes and stages) was collected; analyses of these characteristics and the associations between them were performed. A total of 1951 cases were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, the majority of patients were of normal weight, premenopausal, had stage 2 cancer, and did not present with positive nodes. The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+, and triple-negative subtypes were 57.8%, 11.6%, 6.1%, and 24.5%, respectively. There were significant differences in the clinicopathologic features among BMI groups in premenopausal patients. The case-only odds ratio (OR) analysis revealed that normal weight patients tended to have luminal B cancer (OR = 1.4, P = 0.206), and overweight and obese patients tended to have triple-negative cancer in premenopausal patients (OR = 2.8, OR = 3.7, respectively; P < 0.001). IN CHINESE WOMEN, BREAST CANCER CAME WITH THESE CHARACTERISTICS: young mean age (premenopause), luminal A subtype, and the majority of them were within a normal weight range. In premenopausal patients, underweight patients tended to have luminal A, lower human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ expression, stage 1 and no positive node cancer. However, overweight and obese patients tended to have a triple-negative, stage 3, and lymph node metastatic cancer.

  9. Perception of Caucasian and African faces in 5- to 9-month-old Caucasian infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timeo, Susanna; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Farroni, Teresa

    2017-09-13

    Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, a group of 5-month-old and a group of 9-month-old Caucasian infants were assessed during passing-viewing of Caucasian and African faces. Results showed a greater activation for African than for Caucasian faces for both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Moreover, results suggested a tendency for a progressive specialization between 5 and 9 months of age. This is the first fNIRS study investigating the neural correlates of race perception in Caucasian infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Premenopausal hormone-responsive breast cancer with extensive axillary nodes involvement: total estrogen blockade and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Recchia, Cornelia Ortensia Carla; Piazze, Juan; Rea, Silvio

    2011-02-01

    Poor prognosis is associated with estrogen- and/or progesterone receptor-positive (ER(+), PGR(+)) premenopausal breast cancer (PM-BC) with high Ki-67 labeling index and extensive axillary lymph node involvement. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and hormonal therapy have not yet been established in these patients. Twenty-five PM-BC patients received, in sequence, leuprorelin, taxane-anthracycline induction chemotherapy, radiation therapy, a platinum-based intensification high-dose CT, followed by leuprorelin and anastrazole for five years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as the primary end-point; secondary end-points were 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. The median patient age was 44 years, and the mean number of positive axillary nodes was 14. All patients were ER(+) and/or PGR(+), with a median Ki-67 index of 33%. Five patients were Cerb-B2 positive. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in all patients, no patient showed a decrease of cardiac ejection fraction and hot flashes and arthralgias were of moderate intensity. After a median follow-up of 70 months, VEGF levels significantly decreased (p<0.001); 10-year RFS and OS were 76% and 78%, respectively. Total estrogen blockade and high-dose CT in PM-BC patients is feasible, has moderate toxicity, significantly reduces VEGF levels, and seems to improve the expected RFS and OS.

  11. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  12. INFLUENCE OF MENOPAUSE ON BLOOD PRESSURE DIPPING IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study if menopause influences the blood pressure (BP decrease level during nighttime in women with metabolic syndrome.Methods. 84 women with metabolic syndrome are examined, from them 52 are in postmenopause (average age is 56 [SD 5] years and 32 are in premenopause (average age is 44 [5] years. Anthropomorphic measurements were made, levels of office BP and heart rate were assessed, ambulatory BP monitoring was carried out, lipids and glucose of blood serum were studied.Results. Clinical parameters, characterizing metabolic syndrome, didn’t vary between the groups. Number of patients with insufficient decrease of BP in postmenopausal women didn’t differ significantly from the number of such women in premenopausal period (for systolic BP: 64% versus 52%, p=0,288; for diastolic BP: 34% versus 42%, p=0,469. Nevertheless, when evaluating the level of systolic BP decrease during nighttime as continuous variable, significant differences between groups are revealed (M±SEM [95% CI]: 4.4±1.5% [1.4-7.3] in postmenopausal women versus 11.3±1.7% [7.9-14.8] in premenopausal women, p=0,011.Conclusion. Postmenopause associates with insufficient systolic BP decrease during nighttime in women with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Reproductive and lifestyle risk factors and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Lajous, Martin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Several breast cancer risk factors have been consistently associated with mammographic density (MD); however, data are limited for Hispanic women. We examined data from 1007 premenopausal and 600 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teachers' Cohort. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and MD. Among premenopausal women, age, current body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease, alcohol intake, and breastfeeding 12 months or more were associated with higher percent MD. Among postmenopausal women, age, current BMI, BMI at age 18 years, weight change since age 18 years, and speaking or having parents who speak an indigenous language were inversely associated with percent MD, whereas benign breast disease and greater age at natural menopause were positively associated with percent MD. Other breast cancer risk factors, such as age at menarche, parity, and age at first pregnancy, were not significantly associated with density in either premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Results from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort are generally consistent with predictors of mammographic density observed in primarily non-Hispanic white populations; however, certain risk factors (e.g., parity) were not significantly associated with MD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle function in Flemish Caucasians: a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Ruben; Knaeps, Sara; Mertens, Evelien; Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Aging is a complex process that is accompanied with changes in both muscle mass and muscle function (strength and performance). Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to provide a better insight in 10-year aging-related changes in whole-body muscle mass and strength performance of the leg extensors during the adult life span. Data were gathered within the framework of the first- (2002-2004: baseline) and third-generation Flemish Policy Research Center Sport (2012-2014: follow-up). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 591 Flemish Caucasian adults (19-73 years, 381 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Biodex Medical System 3® dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°) strength, ballistic movement speed (S 20 %), and muscular endurance (work) of the knee extensors. Overall strength performance was higher at both evaluation moments in men compared to women (p < 0.01). But only S 20 % declined significantly faster in men compared to women (p < 0.01). Age and baseline strength performance were negatively related with the change in strength performance, even when corrected for SMM, protein intake, and energy expenditure during sports (E sport). In conclusion, strength performance was not associated with E sport in this study, but protein intake was associated with isometric strength in men, and with ballistic and isokinetic strength in women. Changes in S 20 % were significantly greater in men compared to women. Baseline values of strength performance and age were associated with changes in strength performance parameters, even after correction for SMM, protein intake, and E sport.

  15. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  16. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James J; Hehn, Laura E; Klein, David A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous infections is typically responsible for recurrences. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse three or more times per week, spermicide use, new or multiple sex partners, and having a UTI before 15 years of age are established risk factors. In postmenopausal women, risk is primarily increased by sequelae of lower estrogen levels. Episodes of recurrent UTI are typically characterized by dysuria and urinary frequency or hesitancy. Findings from the history or physical examination that suggest complicated infection or another disease process warrant additional evaluation. At least one symptomatic episode should be verified by urine culture to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Imaging is rarely warranted. Short courses of antibiotics are as effective as longer courses. Patient-initiated treatment lowers the cost of diagnosis, number of physician visits, and number of symptomatic days compared with physician-initiated treatment. It also reduces antibiotic exposure compared with antibiotic prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis effectively limits UTI recurrence but increases the risk of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Cranberry products may reduce recurrent UTIs in premenopausal women, but are less effective than antibiotic prophylaxis, and data are conflicting. Optimal dosing is unknown. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis may benefit from topical estrogen therapy.

  17. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  18. Body-Surface Compounds in Buckfast and Caucasian Honey Bee Workers (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Body-surface chemical compounds were studied in 1-day-old nest workers and foragers both in Buckfast and Caucasian bees. The workers of these two age-castes were sampled twice in each of two consecutive years. Body-surface lipids were determined by means of gas chromatography, with a GCQ mass spectrometer. Protein concentrations and activities on the body surface were examined in bee cuticle rinsings obtained from worker bees according to the methods of Lowry, of Anson, and of Lee and Lin. Protease and protease inhibitor activities were determined. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Caucasian bees, particularly foragers, had more lipids, but Buckfast bees (two age-castes had more proteins on their body surfaces. A total of 17 alkane types (C17 - C33, 13 alkene types (C21 - C33, 21 esters (C12 - C32, and a phenol (C14 were detected in both races. Alkene C33 was detected only in Caucasian bees. More alkanes, esters, and phenols were found in Caucasian 1-day-old nest workers and foragers than in these age-castes of Buckfast bees. The protein concentration and protease inhibitor activities were lower in Caucasian bees that had higher protease activities. These values corresponded with specific numbers and widths of the electrophoretic bands.

  19. Comparison of the frontal esthetic preferences in the lower facial portion of Koreans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Goo; Lee, Yong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Seong-Hun; Sinclair, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the differences in frontal esthetics in the lower face among Caucasian models, Korean models, and Korean nonmodels. The sample consisted of three groups comprising 36 Caucasian models, 30 Korean models, and 26 Korean nonmodels. Their frontal photos were scanned, and 12 distances, five angles, lip perimeter, and lip area were measured. Differences among groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. There was no significant difference in the upper lip height among the three groups. The Korean models had shorter lower lip to chin height than the two other groups. Full lip width was wider in the Korean and Caucasian models than in the Korean nonmodels. The Caucasian models had greater total vermilion area compared to both Korean groups. Finally, the Korean models had fuller lower and thinner upper vermilion areas than the nonmodels. Attractive lower facial portions in Caucasians are different from those of Koreans. Therefore, clinicians in Korea should use these data as guidelines for evaluating and enhancing patients' frontal facial esthetics. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  20. Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W; Carter, C S; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H

    2007-04-24

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p=0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR.

  1. Association of insulin resistance with breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers in non-diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanwan; Lu, Jieli; Wu, Shengli; Bi, Yufang; Mu, Yiming; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Lulu; Shi, Lixin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Ye, Zhen; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Di; Lai, Shenghan; Li, Donghui; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were reported to play a crucial role in diabetes-cancer relationship. This study aimed to explore the associations between insulin resistance and several female cancers in a non-diabetic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121,230 middle-aged and elderly non-diabetic women. Cancer diagnosis was self-reported and further validated by medical records. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.50. The prevalence of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, postmenopausal ovarian cancer and premenopausal endometrial cancer were higher in insulin-resistant participants than in insulin-sensitive participants (premenopausal breast cancer, 0.45 vs 0.28%; postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.86 vs 0.63%; postmenopausal ovarian cancer, 0.17 vs 0.09%; premenopausal endometrial cancer, 0.43 vs 0.25%, respectively, all P insulin resistance had higher odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer, both premenopausal and postmenopausal (OR 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.32; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.63), postmenopausal ovarian cancer (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) as well as total endometrial cancer (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12). Subgroup analysis revealed that the possitive association between insulin resistance and risk of prevalent breast cancer was observed in popualtion with younger age, overweight or obesity, higher education and impaired glucose tolerance (IGR). No relationships were observed for the risk of prevalent cervical cancers with insulin resistance. Non-diabetic women with insulin resistance had higher risk of prevalent breast, ovarian and endomatrial cancer, which suggests special attentions to these female cancer screening and prevention.

  2. Menstrual and oral contraceptive use patterns among deployed military women by race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Crago, Mark S; Cuda, Amanda S

    2011-01-01

    Menstrual cycle patterns and concerns and oral contraceptive use in the combat environment were examined in Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic, and African American women to guide the development of educational resources for women soldiers. An anonymous, questionnaire was completed by 455 U.S. Army women-Caucasian (CA: n = 141); Asian (AS: n = 67); Hispanic (HIS: n = 67); and African American (AA: n = 184) to compare menstrual patterns and concerns, dysmenorrhea, and oral contraceptive patterns. Total menstrual concerns were significantly lower among African Americans relative to Caucasians, Asians, or Hispanics; Asians and Hispanics reported the greatest concern. Overall, secondary amenorrhea was noted by 14.9% of women. Severe dysmenorrhea rates were significantly lower in African American (6.1%) compared to Caucasian (11.6%), Asian (20.9%) and Hispanic (19.7%) women. Asian women reported missing less work-only 9.3% with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea missed work compared to 25.1% of all other women. Only 9.2% of women with mild, compared to 25.8% with moderate to severe (OR = 3.44; p ≤ 0.0001) dysmenorrhea sought health care. Less than 50% of women took oral contraceptive, and less than half of those women took oral contraceptive continuously. African Americans seemed to experience menstruation as less bothersome than others, despite no difference in the proportion with menstrual irregularities, mean duration of menses, and/or mean time between cycles.

  3. It's not as bad as you think: menopausal representations are more positive in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lydia; Brown, Valerie; Judd, Fiona; Bryant, Christina

    2017-09-22

    The menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Psycho-social factors including attitudes and internal representations play a central role in women's experience of the menopause, but very little is known about how representations might differ across menopausal stages. A sample of 387 women aged 40-60 completed a postal questionnaire that included the menopausal representations questionnaire, the emotional representation subscale adapted from the illness perception questionnaire, and data on menopausal status. Significant differences across menopausal stages were found for both cognitive [F(2, 381) = 4.32, p representations. Postmenopausal women had a significantly more positive cognitive representations of the menopause relative to perimenopausal women (standardised mean difference = 0.25, p > .05). Postmenopausal women held a significantly more positive emotional representation of the menopause than both premenopausal (standardised mean difference = 0.56, p women. Women's emotional and cognitive representations of the menopause are more positive among postmenopausal women, compared to women in the late premenopausal stage. This is consistent with the affective forecasting theory, which proposes the tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of emotional reactions to future events. Given the association between representations and bothersomeness of menopausal symptoms, clinicians should educate women about their expectations, and challenge their negative beliefs about the menopause.

  4. Serum cholesterol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, B B

    1998-05-01

    Hypercholes erolaemia is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis. Women lose their relative protection against coronory heart disease at menopause because of changed lipid profile due to oestrogen deficiency. Total serum cholesterol was estimated in 82 healthy postmenopausal women in the age group of 46-72 years (51.5 +/- 7.39). Thirty five healthy pre-menopausal women in the age group of 18-38 years (29.5 +/- 6.4) served as controls. The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared to control group (178.5 +/- 39.8 Vs 155.4 +/- 24 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol concentration in the study group was not related to social class, dietary habit and obesity.

  5. Suppression of Gonadotropins and Estradiol in Premenopausal Women by Oral Administration of the Nonpeptide Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Elagolix

    OpenAIRE

    Struthers, R. Scott; Nicholls, Andrew J.; Grundy, John; Chen, Takung; Jimenez, Roland; Yen, Samuel S. C.; Bozigian, Haig P.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Parenteral administration of peptide GnRH analogs is widely employed for treatment of endometriosis and fibroids and in assisted-reproductive therapy protocols. Elagolix is a novel, orally available nonpeptide GnRH antagonist.

  6. POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND IMPROVED FLOW-MEDIATED DILATION IN PREMENOPAUSAL, EUMENORRHEIC ATHLETIC WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Z. Hoch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if six weeks of folic acid supplementation would improve brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation in eumenorrheic female runners with previously normal serum folate levels. This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized pilot study with convenience sampling. Sixteen eumenorrheic subjects who were not taking birth control pills and who ran at least 20 miles/week were randomly assigned to 10 mg/day of folic acid supplementation or placebo for at least 6 weeks. Serum folate levels and brachial artery measurements were made during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, in a sedentary state, following an 8 hour fast; a standard ultrasound technique was used. The brachial artery vasodilator response to reactive hyperemia was similar between the folic acid (6.6% ± 0.8%, mean ± SE and placebo groups (6.5% ± 0.7% at baseline. After six weeks, there was a significantly higher change in flow-mediated dilation for the folic acid group (3.5% ± 0.6% compared to the placebo group (0.1% ± 0.2% (p = 0.01. Serum folate levels also increased significantly in the folic acid group following six weeks of folic acid supplementation. This study demonstrates that brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improves significantly in eumenorrheic female runners with previously normal serum folate levels after 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid

  7. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6......% of the variance in sleeping energy expenditure was accounted for by plasma androstenedione concentration (4%, P = 0.0005) and by free T3 index (2%, P = 0.03). Thus physiological variation among individuals in plasma androstenedione concentration may result in a difference in energy expenditure of 908 k...

  8. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  9. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  10. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-1 in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Investigator: ” Consumer Taste and Education of a Nutritional Sports Supplement” 3. US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command 1998-2001 5% US...sensitive to nutritional status, previously reported stimulatory effects of exercise on IGF-I can be overridden if exercise is performed in the face of...Ovulation Detection Kit Mid-luteal Progesterone VO2max (FP) Body Composition FP) Physical Exam (FP) Endocrine Screening (FP

  11. The influence of a physical activity program on the body and the cardio vascular parameters of premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Balas, Almudena; Muñoz Marín, Diego; Timón Andrada, Rafael; Guillermo J. Olcina Camacho; Robles Gil, Mª Concepción; Maynar Mariño, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    During the life cycle of a woman's body figure is changed gradually, but on reaching middle age, as a result of follicular loss of ovarian function among others, are emphasized the physiological changes and increase health risk and welfare. Androgyny in association with obesity increases the risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, osteoarthritis, arthritis, cancers and other disorders of female middle age. Physical activity has gaine...

  12. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  13. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  14. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  15. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sathler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40, Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32 and Mongoloid (n = 33. The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. RESULTS: Statistical differences (P < 0.05 indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. CONCLUSION: The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  16. Grip strength in healthy caucasian adults: reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Christian M; Bürger, Alexander; Rickert, Markus; Crispin, Alexander; Schulz, Christoph U

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to update reference data of handgrip strength for healthy adults of both genders spanning a wide age range and to analyze possible factors of influence. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of grip strength and their relation to several anthropometric factors were analyzed in a standardized manner for 769 healthy adults (women, n = 403; men, n = 366) aged between 20 years and 95 years. Measurements were done in neutral position of arm, forearm, and wrist on setting II of a Baseline digital hydraulic dynamometer (NexGen Ergonomics Inc. Quebec, Canada). Mean strength was about 41% less in women (right 29 kg; left 27 kg) than in men (right 49 kg; left 47 kg) resulting in a ratio of left to right hand slightly above .95 in both genders. During the course of life, hand strength develops comparably in both genders peaking at 35 years of age and decreasing continuously further on. Anthropometric variables such as forearm circumference and length, hand size, or body mass showed a positive correlation with grip strength. Body mass index, type of work, and hand dominance showed only a partial positive correlation or no correlation with grip strength. Gender and age, followed by parameters representing body length and obesity, were observed to have the highest predictive value for handgrip strength and were therefore entered into the generation of prediction equations. We recommend side adjustment of measured values for intraindividual comparison and inclusion of information regarding anthropometric characteristics, as well as using gender- and age-adjusted reference values, whereas hand dominance can be neglected. The regression equations we generated might prove to be useful for clinicians or for those who use normative values within software to provide more accurate predictions of strength scores for specific applications.

  17. Poor Sleep in Relation to Natural Menopause: A Population-Based 14-Year Follow-up of Mid-Life Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Gross, Stephanie A.; Pien, Grace W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) of mid-life women. Methods Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was the severity of poor sleep, as reported by the participants in annual interviews for 16 years and evaluated in relation to the FMP. Results The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at the premenopausal baseline, the premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep when premenopausal were approximately 3 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause compared to those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (OR 3.58, 95% CI: 2.50-5.11, Pmenopause (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.47, P=0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at the premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.44-2.21, Pmenopause transition. Overall, poor sleep did not increase around the FMP and frequently occurred in the absence of hot flashes, indicating that sleep difficulties in the menopause transition in generally healthy women were not simply associated with ovarian decline. PMID:25549066

  18. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Ravussin, Eric; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interact to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, especially during stress. Pima Indians have a low SNS activity, which may contribute to both their increased risk of obesity and reduced risk of hypertension. Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol and muscle SNS activity [muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA), microneurography] in 58 males [27 Pimas/31 Caucasians]. Seven Pimas and 12 Caucasians were randomized to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to examine the effect of overnight partial chemical adrenalectomy (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P fasting cortisol and basal MSNA. Administration of metyrapone did not lead to significant changes in MSNA. In response to a hydrocortisone infusion, MSNA decreased in Pima Indians (P = 0.03) but not in Caucasians (P = 0.7). Our data indicate that the low SNS activity that predisposes Pima Indians to obesity is not due to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population.

  19. Lack of Association of Caucasian Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility Loci in a Korean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Soon; Korman, Benjamin D; Le, Julie M; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F; Gregersen, Peter K; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have identified a number of novel rheumatoid arthritis (RA) loci in Caucasian populations. In this study, we sought to determine whether the genetic variants at 4q27, 6q23, CCL21, TRAF1/C5, and CD40 identified in Caucasians are also associated with RA in a Korean case-control collection. We also comprehensively evaluated the genetic variation within PTPN22, a well established autoimmune disease-associated gene. Methods We designed a Sequenom iPlex experiment to thoroughly evaluate the PTPN22 linkage disequilibrium region using tag SNPs and disease-associated SNPs at 5 other previously reported Caucasian RA-associated loci in 1123 RA Korean RA patients and 1008 ethnically matched controls. We also re-sequenced the PTPN22 gene to look for novel coding variants that might be contributing to disease in this population. Results None of the Caucasian RA susceptibility loci contributed significantly to disease in Koreans. Tag SNPs covering the PTPN22 linkage disequilibrium block, while polymorphic, did not reveal any disease association and re-sequencing did not identify any new common coding region variants in this population. The 6q23 and 4q27 SNPs assayed were non-polymorphic in this population and the TRAF1/C5, CD40, and CCL21 SNPs did not show any evidence for association. Conclusions Caucasian and Korean rheumatoid arthritis have different genetic risk factors. While patients of different ethnic groups share the HLA region as a major genetic risk locus, most other genes shown to be significantly associated with disease in Caucasians appear not to play a role in Korean RA. PMID:19180477

  20. An evaluation of early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with advances breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy: a later analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, D L; Green, S J; Bisel, H F; Ingle, J N; Hahn, R G; Lee, R A; Edmonson, J H

    1982-08-01

    In 1977 we reported our results of an ongoing randomized clinical trial evaluating early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy utilizing 5-flourouracil, cytoxan and prednisone in premenopausal patients with recurrent or advanced breast cancer. At that time the group receiving early systemic chemotherapy was shown to have an improved progression-free interval and appeared to have a trend toward improved survival. The results of subsequent analysis after over 4 more years of follow-up indicate however, that while early employment of systemic chemotherapy does indeed prolong the progression-free interval, and while this advantage has been maintained, there is no survival advantage shown for either group of patients.

  1. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  2. Comparative study between crossbred and caucasians individuals using Ricketts cefalometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez Méndez, Leoncio; Docente del Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the sample mixed with Caucasian Ricketts cephalometric radiographs and determine if there are significant differences between the values found in our sample and standardized measures of Caucasians used as a standard in our study. The population was based on adolescent women’s secondary school level “Rosa de Santa Maria” Breña district, between 11 to 16 years of age. Which was selected a sample of 32 students, with characteristic patterns of racial mixing as peruvia...

  3. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  4. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  5. Better skeletal microstructure confers greater mechanical advantages in Chinese-American women versus white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Sherry; Walker, Marcella D; McMahon, Donald J; Udesky, Julia; Liu, George; Bilezikian, John P; Guo, X Edward

    2011-08-01

    Despite lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD), Chinese-American women have fewer fractures than white women. We hypothesized that better skeletal microstructure in Chinese-American women in part could account for this paradox. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), a novel image-analysis technique, and micro-finite-element analysis (µFEA) were applied to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images to determine bone microarchitecture and strength in premenopausal Chinese-American and white women. Chinese-American women had 95% and 80% higher plate bone volume fraction at the distal radius and tibia, respectively, as well as 20% and 18% higher plate number density compared with white women (p radius and tibia, respectively, in Chinese-American women (p radius and tibia, respectively, than in white women (p radius, p < .001) and 29% to 43% (distal tibia, p < .01) greater trabecular bone strength, as assessed by Young's moduli, in the Chinese-American versus the white group. The observation that Chinese-American women have a major microstructural advantage over white women may help to explain why their risk of fracture is lower despite their lower BMD.

  6. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed.

  7. TRANSVAGINAL SONOGRAPHY COMBINED WITH SALINE CONTRAST SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY IN EVALUATING THE UTERINE CAVITY IN PREMENOPAUSAL PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. M. Premleel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH improved the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS for predicting endometrial abnormality in premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS The uterine cavity was evaluated with TVS and SCSH in 60 premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. All 58 patients underwent operative hysteroscopy or hysterectomy within 4 months which provided a detailed description of the uterine cavity and was used as the true value for exclusion of polyps and submucous myomas. RESULT Out of 60 patients, 45 had uterine abnormalities on TVS and SCSH and rest of the patients who appeared normal but had other abnormalities such as ovarian haemorrhagic cyst. Out of the 45 patients, 9 patients had submucous myomas and 9 were diagnosed as endometrial polyp. The findings were confirmed using hysterectomy/hysteroscopy/endometrial sampling. CONCLUSION The use of TVS without saline contrast left nine submucosal fibroids and five in nine of the polyps undiagnosed in referred patients with complaints of abnormal bleeding. It also helps in reducing the rate of more invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy. However, studies carried out for longer duration and large study population are required to validate our findings

  8. Bilateral atypical femoral subtrochanteric fractures in a premenopausal patient receiving prolonged bisphosphonate therapy: evidence of severely suppressed bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki; Yoda, Takuya; Fujisawa, Junichi; Arai, Katsumitsu; Sakuma, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Hiroshi; Sano, Hiroshige; Endo, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral atypical femoral fractures that occurred in a patient who had been taking bisphosphonate long-term. A 36-year-old premenopausal female diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis had been treated with glucocorticoid and alendronate (5 mg/day) to prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. She was taken to our hospital because she could not walk immediately after falling down from the standing position. A plain radiograph showed a subtrochanteric fracture of the left femur. Four months later, she fell again and sustained a contralateral subtrochanteric fracture. For each fracture, a femoral intramedullary nail was inserted. Delayed union was detected in both sides, and revision surgery with an iliac bone graft was required for implant breakage in the right side. Histomorphometric findings for the ilium revealed remarkably decreased osteoid volume with no osteoclasts and a minimally eroded surface, suggesting that bone turnover was severely suppressed. However, histology of the delayed union site revealed callus formation and some osteoclast appearance, suggesting that fracture healing was occurring. In total, it took 29 months (left) and 24 months (right) until fracture healing was achieved, showing delayed union. This case is extremely rare in that patient who presented with atypical femoral fractures in spite of her premenopausal status. The bone histomorphometric findings from this case suggest that severely suppressed bone turnover is associated with atypical femoral subtrochanteric fracture and can cause delayed union in patients treated with alendronate long-term.

  9. Reproductive Status Is Associated with the Severity of Fibrosis in Women with Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Erica; Vukotic, Ranka; Cammà, Calogero; Petta, Salvatore; Di Leo, Alfredo; Gitto, Stefano; Turola, Elena; Karampatou, Aimilia; Losi, Luisa; Bernabucci, Veronica; Cenci, Annamaria; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Baraldi, Enrica; De Maria, Nicola; Gelmini, Roberta; Bertolini, Elena; Rendina, Maria; Francavilla, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause of death in patients with end-stage liver disease. Prognosis depends on the increase of fibrosis, whose progression is twice as rapid in men as in women. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of reproductive stage on fibrosis severity in women and to compare these findings with age-matched men. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of 710 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C was conducted, using data from a clinical database of two tertiary Italian care centers. Four age-matched groups of men served as controls. Data about demographics, biochemistry, liver biopsy and ultrasonography were analyzed. Contributing factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Liver fibrosis was more advanced in the early menopausal than in the fully reproductive (P<0.0001) or premenopausal (P = 0.042) group. Late menopausal women had higher liver fibrosis compared with the other groups (fully reproductive, P<0.0001; premenopausal, P = <0.0001; early menopausal, P = 0.052). Multivariate analyses showed that male sex was independently associated with more severe fibrosis in the groups corresponding to premenopausal (P = 0.048) and early menopausal (P = 0.004) but not late menopausal pairs. In women, estradiol/testosterone ratio decreased markedly in early (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.002 and vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001) and late menopause (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.001; vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001). In men age-matched with menopausal women, estradiol/testosterone ratio instead increased (reproductive age group vs. early: P = 0.002 and vs. late M: P = 0.001). Conclusions The severity of fibrosis in women worsens in parallel with increasing estrogen deprivation and estradiol/testosterone ratio decrease. Our data provide evidence why fibrosis progression is discontinuous in women and more linear and severe in men, in whom aging

  10. Reproductive status is associated with the severity of fibrosis in women with hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Villa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause of death in patients with end-stage liver disease. Prognosis depends on the increase of fibrosis, whose progression is twice as rapid in men as in women. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of reproductive stage on fibrosis severity in women and to compare these findings with age-matched men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 710 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C was conducted, using data from a clinical database of two tertiary Italian care centers. Four age-matched groups of men served as controls. Data about demographics, biochemistry, liver biopsy and ultrasonography were analyzed. Contributing factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis was more advanced in the early menopausal than in the fully reproductive (P<0.0001 or premenopausal (P = 0.042 group. Late menopausal women had higher liver fibrosis compared with the other groups (fully reproductive, P<0.0001; premenopausal, P = <0.0001; early menopausal, P = 0.052. Multivariate analyses showed that male sex was independently associated with more severe fibrosis in the groups corresponding to premenopausal (P = 0.048 and early menopausal (P = 0.004 but not late menopausal pairs. In women, estradiol/testosterone ratio decreased markedly in early (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.002 and vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001 and late menopause (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.001; vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001. In men age-matched with menopausal women, estradiol/testosterone ratio instead increased (reproductive age group vs. early: P = 0.002 and vs. late M: P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of fibrosis in women worsens in parallel with increasing estrogen deprivation and estradiol/testosterone ratio decrease. Our data provide evidence why fibrosis progression is discontinuous in women and more linear and severe in men, in whom aging-associated estradiol

  11. Takayasu's arteritis: A rare cause of cardiac death in a Caucasian teenage female patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A.M. Saïd (Salah); J.C. Koetsveld-Baart (J.); J.C. den Hollander (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA Caucasian teenage Dutch schoolgirl with known chronic low visual acuity and albinism, presented with frank acute pulmonary oedema, died after 1 h of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation for bradyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest. Two weeks prior to presentation, during sport training, she

  12. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  13. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Suspicion in Healthy Young Asian and Caucasian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lauren Doss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.

  14. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  15. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  16. Bannatyne Patterns of Caucasian and Mexican-American Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkin, Terry B.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the measurement properties and practical utility of Bannatyne's recategorized WISC-R scores. Analyses of the scores of Caucasian learning disabled children indicated that, as a group, these students were characterized by the predicted Spatial-Conceptual-Sequential pattern. This was not found to be true for Mexican-American learning…

  17. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  19. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific Regist

  20. A measuring system for facial aesthetics in Caucasian adolescents: reproducibility and validity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Maltha, J.C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new measuring system to judge facial aesthetics in young Caucasians is presented. The system uses sets of three photographs (one frontal, one three-quarter smiling, and one lateral) as a stimulus. Scores are performed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) with separate sets of reference photographs for

  1. Clinical Features Differ Substantially Between Caucasian and Asian Populations of Marfan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W; van de Riet, Liz; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; de Waard, Vivian; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Groenink, Maarten; Yip, James W; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prevention of aortic dissection and sudden death in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) requires accurate diagnosis. MFS is diagnosed by the Ghent criteria, which are primarily based on clinical features of Caucasian MFS populations. We determined whether the Ghent criteria apply to Asia

  2. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  3. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  4. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  5. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  6. Body Composition Is the Main Determinant for the Difference in Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko;

    2014-01-01

    the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment...

  7. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  8. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  9. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  10. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...... in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group....

  11. Accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for predicting body composition in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Hanawa, Satoshi; Murakami, Haruka; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy for predicting body composition using single-frequent segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between pre- and postmenopausal women. A total f 559 Japanese women aged 30-88yr were divided into 4 groups by questionnaire: natural menopause, pathological menopause, regular menstruation, or irregular menstruation. The measurement values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used as a reference of the body composition. In terms of the results, regardless of the menopausal status, BIA slightly but significantly overestimated the percentage of body fat (standard error of estimate: 5.3%-6.7%) and the leg lean soft tissue mass (LSTM; 5.1%-6.1%), and underestimated the LSTM in the whole body (6.2%-7.6%) and arm (2.8%-3.7%). The absolute values of the predictive error for leg LSTM were significantly higher in postmenopausal groups than in the premenopausal ones. The corresponding values for the whole body and arm LSTM, and the percentage of body fat were higher in premenopausal groups than in postmenopausal ones. In conclusion, the predictive accuracy of BIA for postmenopausal women is not inferior to that for premenopausal ones, unless we target the leg LSTM.

  12. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

  13. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  14. Portrayal of Tanning, Clothing Fashion and Shade Use in Australian Women's Magazines, 1987-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-01-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic…

  15. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  16. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Maria