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Sample records for premedication parental presence

  1. [Presence of parents in pediatric imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Kalifa, G; Devred, P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitude of French pediatric radiologists regarding the presence or absence of parents during pediatric imaging of their child. A mail survey was sent to the French members of the "Société Francophone de Radiologie Pédiatrique". We asked about the inclusion of parents during pediatric imaging procedures. They gave the reasons for their choice and stated if parental presence was helpful or not for the achievement of imaging procedures. Responses were received from 76% of those surveyed. Excluding vascular and interventional procedures, few respondents (13%) permit parents to be present for all types of examinations. One respondent excluded parents from every procedure. Others excluded parents from selected studies: plain films (18%), upper gastrointestinal series (33%), contrast enema (44%), retrograde (47%) and suprapubic (67%) voiding cystourethrography, intra-venous pyelography (45%), US (5%), CT (27%), MRI (25%). Regarding angiography, only 2% of the respondents allow parental presence. Every respondent performing interventional procedures did not accept parents in the interventional suite. When parents were present, they were close to their child (76%) and could help in his immobilization (47%). Most of the respondents (49%) thought parental presence to affect examination in a favorable way. The opposite opinion was supported by 25% of them. An equivocal response was given in 26% of the answers. Numerous reasons supported these responses, they could be classified according to the child and his illness, the parents, the radiologist and his team, the examination performed. Most pediatric radiologists in France allow parents to accompany their children during selected examinations. Radiologists vary in their perception of how parental presence affects the outcome of the pediatric imaging procedures.

  2. Pre-anesthetic Anxiety Level in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: Comparison between Maternal Presence during Anesthetic Induction and Midazolam Premedication

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    Ratna F Soenarto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia was needed by children with congenital heart disease (CHD who underwent cardiaccatheterization procedure and surgery. Pre-anesthetic anxiety in children with CHD can cause significantproblems during induction of anesthesia which leads to negative postoperative outcomes. This studycompared the role of maternal presence during anesthesia induction with midazolam premedication onpre-anesthetic anxiety level in children with CHD. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital on April toSeptember 2014. Forty-five CHD patients aged 2-5 years old who underwent cardiac invasive procedurewere divided into P group (received midazolam premedication and M group (had maternal presence duringanesthesia induction. Modified Yale Pre-anxiety Scale (MYPAS was used for measuring anxiety level ineach patient during preoperative visit, on the time patient entered the procedure room and during induction ofanesthesia. There was no significant difference of MYPAS scores between the two groups in all measurementtimes. The MYPAS score results were non-anxious (median score 23.4 and the highest was at induction ofanesthesia. Inter-rater agreement test between 2 observers was good (k>0.5. In conclusion, there was nosignificant difference between the effect of maternal presence during induction of anesthesia and midazolampremedication on pre-anesthetic anxiety level in children with CHD. Keywords: pre-anesthetic anxiety, congenital heart disease, maternal presence, midazolam.   Peran Kehadiran Ibu selama Induksi Anestesia dengan PremedikasiMidazolam terhadap Tingkat Kecemasan Pra-anestesia Anak denganPenyakit Jantung Bawan Abstrak Pembiusan umum diperlukan oleh pasien dengan penyakit jantung bawaan (PJB pada saat kateterisasiatau pembedahan jantung. Kecemasan pra-anestesia dapat menimbulkan masalah saat induksi anestesiayang berdampak negatif pascapembedahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan efek premedikasimidazolam dan kehadiran ibu selama

  3. Parental presence, clowns or sedative premedication to treat preoperative anxiety in children: what could be the most promising option?

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnoli, Laura; Caprilli, Simona; Messeri, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives: A significant number of children undergo surgery experience high levels of anxiety in the presurgical period. The aim of this study is to investigate which intervention is more effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. Methods/Materials: The sample was composed of 75 subjects (ages 5-12 years) who had to undergo minor day-surgery. Children were randomly assigned to: the Clowns group (N = 25), accompanied to the preoperative room by the clown...

  4. Attitudes towards parental presence at induction of anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Change. ed. Attitudes towards parental presence at induction of anaesthesia ... determine the source and extent of resistance to this ... pharmaceutical company involved in continuing education in .... their child's birth, but as attitudes changed ways were found ... Logistical problems can be overcome with a positive attitude.

  5. Parental presence in the dental operatory-parent's point of view.

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    Arathi, R; Ashwini, R

    1999-12-01

    Parental presence in the dental operatory is considered a controversial issue and majority of dentists prefer mothers not to be present in the operatory while the child receives dental care. Very few studies have focussed on the parental' point of view. The present study was carried out to find out the attitudes of parents towards being present determine in the operatory during dental procedure and also to determine if willingness to be present was influenced by variables like age, sex, order of the child among siblings and previous dental behavior. Data was collected from 1350 parents using a questionnaire designed by the authors. In the present study, 78.3% of parents expressed their willingness to be present with the child during dental procedures. The study also showed that parents of younger children were more likely to be willing to be present in the operatory and as age advanced, the percentage of parents willing to be present in the operatory decreased.

  6. Rectal premedication in pediatric anesthesia: midazolam versus ketamine

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    Moshirian N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premedication is widely used in pediatric anesthesia to reduce emotional trauma and ensure smooth induction. The rectal route is one of the most commonly accepted means of drug administration. The aim of our study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of rectally administered midazolam versus that of ketamine as a premedication in pediatric patients.Methods: We performed a prospective randomized double-blinded clinical trial in 64 children, 1 to 10 years of age, randomly allocated into two groups. The midazolam group received 0.5 mg/kg rectal midazolam and the ketamine group received 5 mg/kg rectal ketamine. The preoperative sedation scores were evaluated on a three-point scale. The anxiolysis and mask acceptance scores were evaluated separately on a four-point scale, with ease of parental separation, based on the presence or lack of crying, evaluated on a two-point scale. Results: Neither medication showed acceptable sedation (>75%, with no significant difference in sedation score between the two groups (P=0.725. Anxiolysis and mask acceptance using either midazolam or ketamine were acceptable, with  midazolam performing significantly better than ketamine (P=0.00 and P=0.042, respectively. Ease of parental separation was seen in both groups without significant difference (P=0.288 and no major adverse effects, such as apnea, occurred in either group.Conclusions: Rectal midazolam is more effective than ketamine in anxiolysis and mask acceptance. Although they both can ease separation anxiety in children before surgery, we found neither drug to be acceptable for sedation.

  7. DEXMEDETOMIDINE: AS NOVEL PREMEDICATION

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    Priti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation causes intense autonomic reflex responses such as tachycardia, hypertension and a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP. Rise in IOP is further compounded by the use of succinylcholine. Various drugs used to attenuate the rise in IOP are pre-treatment with non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, lignocaine, narcotics, nifedipine and nitroglycerine, but none is found to abolish it completely. To obtain haemodynamic response lignicaine, opiods, nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, vearpamil, nifedipine, esmolol, clonidine etc. have been used. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether dexmedetomidine an α2 agonist could attenuate the rise in IOP after succinylcholine and intubation. Simultaneously, its effect on attenuation of haemodynamic response (Heart rate and MAP to laryngoscopy and intubation was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients without pre-existing eye disease undergoing general anesthesia was randomly premedicated by iv dexmedetomidine 0.6μg or saline. Heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, IOP (using Schioetz tonometer was measured before, after the premedication, after thiopental, after succinylcholine, immediately after intubation and then every minute for 3 minutes. Statistical Analysis: descriptive and inferential statics using chi-square test, z- test and Wilcoxon sign rank test was done. Software used in the analysis was SPSS 17.0 version and Graph Pad Prism 5.0. Data was reported as mean value ± SD & p-value < 0.05 was considered as level of significance. RESULTS: Succinylcholine and intubation increased IOP in both the groups. However, in the dexmedetomidine group, it was not significantly different from baseline values (z value=0. 93, p=0. 358 and was significantly lower than in the control group (z =6. 644, p=0. 000. After intubation the MAP in the control group (z=17. 4, p=0. 000 was higher than that in the dexmedetomidine group (z=8, p=0. 000 and exceeded the baseline value

  8. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam as premedication for brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A prospective randomized double blind trial

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    Ayushi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine results in more successful parental separation and yields a higher sedation level at the time of induction of anesthesia than intranasal midazolam as premedication, with negligible side effects. However, its onset of action is relatively prolonged.

  9. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

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    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  10. Anesthesia Providers’ Perspectives Regarding Parental Presence During Anesthesia Induction: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    was to ascertain anesthesia providers’ perspectives regarding parental presence during anesthesia induction. The work of Dr. John Bowlby (1973) laid...their parental surrogates. Bowlby looked at how orphans bonded with nurses and staff members. He found that children of all ages formed strong...during episodes of extreme stress only amplifies that stress ( Bowlby , 1973). Bowlby studied post World War II orphans in England and observed the

  11. Influence of parental presence on the child’s perception of, and behaviour, during dental treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, I.C.J.; Krikken, J.B.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the influence of the presence of the parent in the dental operatory on their child's behaviour during dental treatment. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial performed in a secondary paediatric dental care clinic. The child's perception of the dental treatment and its

  12. Influence of parental presence on the child’s perception of, and behaviour, during dental treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.J. Cox; J.B. Krikken; J.S. Veerkamp

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the influence of the presence of the parent in the dental operatory on their child's behaviour during dental treatment. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial performed in a secondary paediatric dental care clinic. The child's perception of the dental treatment and its

  13. Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children.

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    Lerman, Robert I.

    This study investigated how marriage, cohabitation, single parenthood, and the presence of biological parents affected the incomes and material hardships of children. Data from the 1997 and 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to examine recent changes in the marital status and household structure of families with children, how…

  14. Oral benzodiazepine premedication in minor gynaecological surgery.

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    Male, C G; Johnson, H D

    1984-05-01

    Clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg, lorazepam 2 mg and oxazepam 30 mg were compared in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial as oral premedication for 150 patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery. All drugs and placebo significantly decreased anxiety when assessed by the patient on a 10-cm linear analogue rating scale 60 min after premedication. Diazepam 10 mg induced significantly more drowsiness when assessed by a trained observer 60 min after premedication than clobazam 20 mg, oxazepam 30 mg and placebo (P less than 0.01). Lorazepam 2 mg caused significantly more drowsiness 2 h (P less than 0.001) and 4 h (P less than 0.01) after operation, and significantly impaired psychomotor function after operation compared with the other four agents. The data suggest that clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg, oxazepam 30 mg or placebo offer advantages over lorazepam 2 mg for oral premedication in minor gynaecological surgery where early discharge after operation is preferred.

  15. Effects of premedication of midazolam or clonidine on perioperative anxiety and pain in children.

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    Cao, Jianping; Shi, Xueyin; Miao, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jia

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and clonidine premedication in children. In a prospective randomized double blind trial, 45 children between 2-8 years old received either oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (group M) or clonidine at 2 microg/kg (group C 2) or 4 microg/kg (group C4). The level of sedation, quality of parental separation, mask acceptance and thermodynamics were recorded. Postoperative analgesia, and perioperative side effects were assessed. In comparison to group M, the scores of sedation, parental separation and mask acceptance were significantly higher in group C2 and group C4 (p clonidine premedication can therefore provide better preoperative sedation and postoperative analgesia with few adverse effects.

  16. Factors associated with parents’ perceptions of parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences on children.

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    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-07

    Parental smoking is the major source of children's secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents' perception of children's exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents' perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents' perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents' gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents' evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents' gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents' perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking.

  17. Presence

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    Pamela Renee Boeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthy therapeutic relationships enhance wholeness and healing; they are the key to effective health promotion. Therapeutic nursing presence demonstrates caring, empathy, and connection, qualities required to build rapport and trust between nurse and patient. This concept analysis’ purpose was to illuminate the various forms of the meanings of presence and the value placed on them. The science of nursing often precedes the art and spirituality of nursing. This is due to focusing primarily on the high acuity of the patients being seen in conjunction with shortage of personnel and resources. Patient dissatisfaction continues to be a growing concern. The nursing shortage crisis continues along with more nurses experiencing moral distress, compassion fatigue, and/or burnout. In nurses’ haste to complete their duties, are we facing the risk of overlooking one of the original gifts of the nursing profession? This would be the gift of genuine presence. This concept analysis aims to identify the attributes that are essential to the concept of presence, and to clarify its nursing usage, by following the strategy suggested by Walker and Avant. It is important to reflect on various ways of providing presence in the clinical setting. By exploring the spiritual, literary, psychological, and nursing literature, there is a diverse yet similar interconnectivity of what presence may represent. Observations and experiences of a range of sensatory and kinesthetic perceptions are revealed to ascertain the attributes discerning commonalities and themes of presence. Nursing presence is considered to be an essential state of holistic nursing as well as a core competency in contemporary nursing. Clarifying the significance of presence in nursing invites the prospect of additional evidence-based research that may place the intrinsic value of presence as a continuing theoretical foundation.

  18. A comparison of midazolam and clonidine as an oral premedication in pediatric patients

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    Sequeira Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg versus oral clonidine (4 μg/kg as a premedication in pediatric patients aged between 2-12 years with regard to sedation and anxiolysis. Methods: Sixty pediatric patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive either oral midazolam (group I 30 min before induction or oral clonidine (group II 90 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of mask application for induction of anesthesia. Results: After premedication, the percentage of children who were sedated and calm increased in both the groups. The overall level of sedation was better in the children in the clonidine group, but children in the midazolam group had a greater degree of anxiolysis at times of venepuncture and mask application. In addition, midazolam did not cause significant changes in hemodynamics unlike clonidine where a significant fall in blood pressure was noted, after premedication, but preinduction. Conclusion: We conclude that under the conditions of the study, oral midazolam is superior to clonidine as an anxiolytic in pediatric population. Clonidine with its sedative action especially at the time of separation from parents along with its other perioperative benefits cannot be discounted.

  19. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium

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    Kolathu Parambil Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M and triclofos sodium group (Group T of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Results: Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002. Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population.

  20. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium.

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    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-06-01

    The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population.

  1. Parenting stress and salivary cortisol in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Longitudinal variations in the context of a service dog's presence in the family.

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    Fecteau, Stéphanie-M; Boivin, Louise; Trudel, Marcel; Corbett, Blythe A; Harrell, Frank E; Viau, Robert; Champagne, Noël; Picard, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A significant portion of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report high levels of stress related to parenting responsibilities, which have been linked to abnormal cortisol patterns. This study seeks to better understand the parents' adaptation to caregiving demands and use of a service dog, by taking into account longitudinal variations in salivary cortisol and perception of parental stress. Salivary cortisol was collected one day per week for 15 weeks by 98 primary caregivers of children with ASD. Overall, parents perceived high levels of stress at baseline. Mean morning cortisol increase was below expected levels for healthy adults, and perception of stress predicted morning cortisol activity. Hypocorticolism related to chronic stress may be present in parents of children with ASD. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the presence of a service dog in the family had an effect on parenting stress, wakening and morning cortisol levels.

  2. RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL OF INTRAMUSCULAR DEXMEDETOMIDINE V/S MIDAZOLAM AS PREMEDICATION IN PAEDIATRIC SURGICAL PATIENTS

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    Anmol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE A genuine attempt was made to find ideal drug for premedication in paediatric surgical patients. Dexmedetomidine a newer, highly selective alpha-2 agonist was compared to midazolam via intramuscular route. Setting: Institute-Department of Anaesthesiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences. METHODS Dexmedetomidine group (Group D with the conventional Midazolam group (Group M was compared for premedication in cases of paediatric surgical patients. A total of sixty patients, scheduled for elective surgery of duration 15 to 90 minutes, were enrolled and randomly assigned in a double blind manner to Group D and Group M. Intramuscular Dexmedetomidine (1.5 mcg/kg in Group D or midazolam (0.05 mg/kg in Group M, as a premedication in preoperative room was given and sedation score with Ramsay sedation scale and parent separation anxiety score were recorded. After 45 mins, patient was shifted in the operation room and a standard technique of anaesthesia was applied to all patients. Mask acceptance score, wake up score, demand of post-op analgesia, time for first analgesia requirement were recorded. RESULTS Our study comparing dexmedetomidine with midazolam premedication found a stable heart rate and blood pressure with comparable sedative effects, (90% vs 56%, P value 0.0074 concluded that dexmedetomidine group had better sedative effect. Parent separation anxiety score was better with dexmedetomidine group compared to midazolam group with p value 0.0419 (93% vs 70%. Mask acceptance was better with dexmedetomidine group compared to midazolam group with p value 0.0153 (90% vs 60%. Wake up score were compared and dexmedetomidine was better than midazolam with p value 0.0001 (93% vs 46%. CONCLUSION Premedication with low-dose intramuscular dexmedetomidine resulted in better sedation, lower anxiety levels during parent separation, better mask acceptance and wake up behaviour as compared with low-dose intramuscular midazolam.

  3. Seizures after intravenous tramadol given as premedication

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    Lalit Kumar Raiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old, 50-kg female with a history of epilepsy was scheduled for elective breast surgery (fibroadenoma under general anaesthesia. She was given glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg and tramadol 100 mg i.v. as premedication. Within 5 min, she had an acute episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure that was successfully treated with 75 mg thiopentone i.v. and after 30 min, she was given general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Surgery, intra-operative period, extubation and post-operative period were uneventful. We conclude that tramadol may provoke seizures in patients with epilepsy even within the recommended dose range.

  4. Limited Concordance between Teachers, Parents and Healthcare Professionals on the Presence of Chronic Diseases in ID-Adolescents

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    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on teachers' knowledge about somatic and mental chronic diseases among ID-adolescent compared to the knowledge parents and healthcare professionals have, is limited. The aim of this study is: (1) to assess the knowledge of teachers on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents; (2) to compare teachers with parents and healthcare…

  5. Motivation and parental presence during induction of anesthesia: an examination of the role of ethnicity and language.

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    Fortier, Michelle A; Gomez, Sulay H; Kain, Alexandra

    2012-11-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and language in parental desire and motivation to be present for children's anesthesia induction. To compare motivation for parental presence at induction of anesthesia (PPIA) between English- and Spanish-speaking White and Hispanic parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery. The effectiveness of PPIA may depend, in part, on parental motivation and desire to be present at children's anesthesia induction; however, cultural variables such as ethnicity and language have not previously been explored in this relationship. Participants included 258 parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery and general anesthesia. Parents were grouped by self-reported ethnicity and primary language spoken into English-speaking White (ESW, n = 55), English-speaking Hispanic (ESH, n = 108), and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SPH, n = 95) groups. Measures included the Motivation for Parental Presence during Induction of Anesthesia (MPPIA) and a 4-item measure of preference for PPIA. The majority of parents (73%) expressed a preference for PPIA. Analyses controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status and demographic variables revealed that English-(P = 0.03) and Spanish-speaking (P = 0.06) Hispanic parents reported significantly greater levels of desire to be present for their child's anesthesia induction compared to English-speaking White parents. English-speaking Hispanic parents also reported greater levels of beliefs about the impact of anxiety on children's anesthesia induction compared to English-speaking White parents (P = 0.07). Parental ethnicity and language may impact desire and motivation for PPIA, which may subsequently impact the effectiveness of PPIA and child anxiety at anesthesia induction. Future research should examine the impact of parental characteristics, including cultural variables, on children's preoperative anxiety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The effects of parental presence in the postanesthetic care unit on children's postoperative behavior: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

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    Lardner, David R; Dick, Bruce D; Crawford, Susan

    2010-04-01

    The effects on children of parental presence in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) have not been extensively studied. The few published studies are retrospective, nonrandomized, or lack adequate controls. They suggest that parental presence in the PACU decreases crying and negative behavior change postoperatively. We performed this prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine whether the presence of a parent affected crying behaviors in the PACU and behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively. Randomly selected patients, aged 2.0 to 8 years 11 months, ASA physical status I or II, and scheduled for elective outpatient surgery with an anticipated PACU stay of >10 minutes were randomly assigned to the parent present group (n = 150) or parent absent group (n = 150) in the PACU. All parents underwent the same preparation program. Reunification occurred once children's eyes had opened for the parent present group. In the PACU, crying was scored each minute after eye opening using a 5-point scale. Negative behavior change 2 weeks after discharge was determined using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. Because the anesthesia technique to be used was not determined a priori, data on the technique used were collected to ensure that groups were similar. Multiple and logistic regression techniques were used to determine predictors of crying in the PACU and behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively. Parental presence in the PACU made no difference in crying in the PACU. Negative behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively occurred more frequently in the parent absent group than the parent present group (45.8% vs 29.3%; P = 0.007). Multiple regression identified the following significant factors as predictive of larger proportion of time spent crying in the PACU (R(2) = 0.256, F[5, 273] = 15.66, P < 0.001): age <5 years (P < 0.001) and higher Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale score at 15 minutes after arrival in day surgery (P < 0.001). Parental

  7. Midazolam premedication in children: a pilot study comparing intramuscular and intranasal administration.

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    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation.

  8. Midazolam Premedication in Children: A Pilot Study Comparing Intramuscular and Intranasal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation. PMID:16048152

  9. INTRANASAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE VS. INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDICATION OF PAEDIATRIC SURGERY PATIENTS

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    Revi N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM Preoperative anxiety is one of the most common problems faced by anyone practising paediatric anaesthesia. Various drugs have been used in various routes to get a calm but cooperative child before induction of anaesthesia. Midazolam and dexmedetomidine have already proved their value in paediatric premedication. This study was conducted to compare the effects of these two drugs given intranasally. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 children falling under the inclusion criteria were assigned to groups of 50 each. They received either intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg (group M or intranasal dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/kg (Group D as premedication. They were compared with regards to the sedation status, anxiety levels and cardiovascular status every 10 minutes, at parental separation and at face mask application. RESULTS The mean sedation score obtained at all-time intervals, at parental separation and more importantly at mask induction were much lower for the midazolam group compared to the dexmedetomidine group. The mean anxiety levels, in general, were lower in the midazolam group, but they attained statistical significance only at 10 minutes and at mask induction. The heart rate measured up to 20 minutes after drug administration did not show much difference between both groups, but at 30 minutes, 40 minutes and at parental separation, heart rate was found to be lower in the dexmedetomidine group. CONCLUSION Intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam are equally effective in providing satisfactory parental separation, but intranasal midazolam produced superior conditions for mask acceptance than intranasal dexmedetomidine.

  10. Look! Listen! Learn! Parent Narratives and Grounded Theory Models of Parent Voice, Presence, and Engagement in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maria K.; Millen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Educators' expectations and understandings of parental involvement in our nation's schools are often disconnected from the reality of students' home lives. This qualitative study purports that educators often lose opportunities to more fully understand and serve students, particularly when perceptions of parental involvement and…

  11. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children's Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  12. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN NON-ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The aim is to present some of the most prescribed premedication schemes prior to an upcoming dental analgesia in non-allergic patients. These schemes we would like to be proved as “standard protocols” in dental practice.

  13. Postbaccalaureate premedical programs to promote physician-workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; McDougle, Leon; Bardo, Harold R; Lipscomb, Wanda D; Metz, Anneke M; Jeffe, Donna B

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical need for enhanced health-professions workforce diversity to drive excellence and to improve access to quality care for vulnerable and underserved populations. In the current higher education environment, post-baccalaureate premedical programs with a special focus on diversity, sustained through consistent institutional funding, may be an effective institutional strategy to promote greater health professions workforce diversity, particularly physician-workforce diversity. In 2014, 71 of the 200 programs (36%) in a national post-baccalaureate premedical programs data base identified themselves as having a special focus on groups underrepresented in medicine and/or on economically or educationally disadvantaged students. Three post-baccalaureate premedical programs with this focus are described in detail and current and future challenges and opportunities for post-baccalaureate premedical programs are discussed.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Fentanyl and Midazolam as a Premedication in Children Undergoing Inguinal Hernial Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Abdollahi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premedication with midazolam can occasionally result in increased pediatric anxiety. In this study, we compared the effects of intravenous midazolam and fentanyl as pediatric premedication in children posted for inguinal hernia surgery. Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, sixty pediatric patients were randomly allocated to two study groups. Anesthesia was similar in both groups. Sedation score by Richmond agitation sedation scale was repeatedly measured on arrival to the preoperative part of the operating room, during drug administration, separation of the child from parent for transfer to the operating room, induction of anesthesia, time of transfer to the recovery room and discharge from the recovery room. Post-operative nausea and vomiting was also recorded. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS 15 and P value<0.05 was considered meaningful. Results: Baseline characteristics of the two study groups were similar. Mean RASS at separation of patients from parents; the time between the study drug administrations till separation from parents, induction of anesthesia and end of operation and need for additional drug during separation was significantly lower in the midazolam group. Opioid need in the fentanyl group was higher. Other findings were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Use of fentanyl instead of midazolam as a premedication is not a priority in children posted for surgery.

  15. Comparison of intranasal dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine for premedication in pediatrics patients: A randomized double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ravi; Santhosh, M.C.B.; Annigeri, Venkatesh M.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal of premedication in pediatric anesthesia are relieving pre and postoperative anxiety, good parental separation, and smooth induction of anesthesia. Anxiety can produce aggressive reactions, increased distress, increased postoperative pain and postoperative agitation. The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is the most frequently used premedication in pediatric anesthesia. Midazolam has a number of beneficial effects when used as premedication in children: Sedation, fast onset, and limited duration of action. Though midazolam has a number of beneficial effects, it is far from an ideal premedicant having untoward side effects such as paradoxical reaction, respiratory depression, cognitive impairment, amnesia, and restlessness. Dexmedetomidine is a newer α-2-agonist, which can be used as premedicant. Aims: To compare the level of sedation, parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative recovery of intranasal premedication with dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized double-blind study. Subjects and Methods: After written informed consent from the patient's parents or legal guardian, 54 children of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 1 and 6 years, scheduled to undergo elective minor surgery were enrolled. In group D patient received 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine intranasally and in group DK received 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 2 mg/kg ketamine intranasally. Patients were assessed every 10 min for the level of sedation, parenteral separation, heart rate, and oxygen saturation by an independent observer. Mask acceptance and postoperative agitation were noted using an appropriate scale. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson Chi-square analysis to determine differences between two groups with respect to separation anxiety and acceptance of the anesthesia mask. Percentages used to represent frequencies. The level of significance was set at P< 0

  16. [Has the presence of parents during invasive procedures in the emergency department increased in the last few years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel Solà, J; Sagué Bravo, S; Parra Cotanda, C; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, parents are playing an important role in Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), and wish to be present when invasive procedures (IP) are performed. 1) To compare the presence of parents during IP in PED in Spain between 2008 and 2012. 2) To compare the arguments to restrict the presence and problems arising from this, and 3) To determine whether the views of health personnel have changed on this subject. A descriptive multicenter comparative study was conducted in 2008 and 2012. A total of 42 questionaires were sent by email to PED managers, with the responding hospitals being included in the 2 periods of the study. A total of 22 hospitals participated in the study. The presence of parents in the PED increased between 2008 and 2012 for all IP, significantly in the blood test and urine catheterization. In 2012, managers state that children are not so nervous, and anxiety of the parents and staff fear of a poorer performance, as an argument to restrict family presence. There were few problems during the 2 periods, with the poor behavior of the children decreasing. According to managers, the opinion of health personnel has not changed in the last four years. The presence of parents during the IP in the PED has increased in the last four years, although the presence is low for more invasive procedures. Managers argue the presence of fewer behavior problems to restrict family presence. The opinion of the staff has not changed in the last four years, although more studies are required on this issue. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of anxiolytic premedication in reducing preoperative anxiety.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of preoperative anxiety with anxiolytic premedication is associated with improved preoperative outcomes in surgical patients. The objective of the authors\\' study was to evaluate the percentage of surgical patients that are prescribed premedication for preoperative anxiety before their anticipated surgical procedure. A prospective study was carried out by theatre nursing staff in the theatre reception bay of a university teaching hospital. A questionnaire was designed to record the number of patients that described symptoms consistent with preoperative anxiety. The number of patients that had been offered anxiolytic premedication for preoperative anxiety was also recorded. Consent was obtained from 115 consecutive surgical patients (male, n=52; female, n=63). Of these, 66% (n=76) reported anxiety before their surgical procedure (male: n=27, female: n=49). Premedication with a low-dose benzodiazepine was prescribed by an anaesthetist in 4% of cases (n=5). Patients that received premedication preoperatively reported effective relief of their anxiety symptoms This study demonstrates that preoperative patient anxiety is highly prevalent. The authors\\' findings suggest that premedication with anxiolytic pharmacological therapy may be an underused therapeutic resource for managing preoperative patient anxiety.

  18. Evaluation of Intranasal Midazolam as an Anesthetic Premedication in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Behdad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative psycho emotional preparation of patients is one of the principle purposes of anesthesia which can be achieved by administration of premedications. Children should receive premedication before entering the operating room due to their dependence on parents and the fear and anxiety of separation from parents. Different drugs are administered for this purpose, but considering children's sensitivity, it is wise to use the most effective and comfortable medication with least side effects. Midazolam is a rapid onset, short acting and water soluble benzodiazapine which can be administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular, rectal or intranasal routes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of intranasal midazolam administration (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in children aged 2-6 years.( Min dose and enough time Methods: In this randomized prospective study, 100 children aged between 2-6 years old in class ASA 1 and candidates of surgery were divided into two groups; case and control. The control group received several nasal drops of normal saline, while the case group received 0.2 mg/kg nasal midazolam 20 minutes before anesthesia induction. Results: Twenty minutes after administration of the nasal drops, 14% in the control group and 68% in the case group were alert and calm. (P value=0.0 . Mask acceptance during induction of anesthesia in control and case group was 14%and 72%, respectively (P value >0.00 The recovery time in the case group was longer (P value >0.5, but no complications (nausea, vomiting, respiratory and cardiovascular problems were seen in either group. Conclusion: Nasal midazolam with its anxiolytic, tranquilizing effects and no respiratory or cardiovascular complications is a safe drug and being better than parenteral drugs is acceptable by children.

  19. IS ATOMIZED INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM A NOVEL SEDATIVE PREMEDICATION IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS?

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    Savitri D. Kabade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The successful conduct of anaesthesia in children depends on adequate premedication, which not only comforts the anxious child but also comforts the parents or guardians. Atomized Intranasal Midazolam is quickly absorbed through the nasal mucosa, resulting in a rapid and reliable onset of action. Clonidine has several applications in paediatric anaesthesia as a premedication and as an adjuvant in general as well as regional anaesthesia. Thus, in search of a novel premedication technique, we conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of atomized intranasal midazolam with intranasal clonidine for preoperative sedation in paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and parent’s consent, a prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study was conducted in 78 children of ASA I and II, belonging to 2 - 10 years age, posted for various elective surgery. Group M (n= 39 received atomized intranasal midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and Group C (n= 39 received clonidine (4 mcg/kg instilled into both the nostrils. Sedation score (Ramsay, separation score, mask acceptance, recovery and vital parameters were recorded. Statistical analysis of data was done using IBM-SPSS version 21.0. RESULTS Mean sedation scores (± SD were higher in Group M than in Group C (at 5th minute 1.58 ± 0.55 in Group M and 1.15 ± 0.36 in Group C with P= 0.002, at 10th minute 2.34 ± 0.97 in Group M and 1.75 ± 0.71 in Group C with P= 0.008. Separation scores and mask acceptance were better with Group M than Group C. Haemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups and no major adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION Atomized intranasal midazolam produces superior sedation levels, child-parent separation and mask acceptance compared to intranasal clonidine in children.

  20. Assessing psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviour using Protection Motivation Theory : Stair gate presence and use among parents of toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); J. Brug (Hans); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); R. Dekker (Rieneke); P. den Hertog (Paul); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnintentional injury due to falls is one of the main reasons for hospitalization among children 0–4 years of age. The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates of parental safety behaviours to prevent falls from a staircase due to the lack of or the lack of adequate us

  1. Comparative evaluation of midazolam and butorphanol as oral premedication in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with oral butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in 60 pediatric patients with regards to sedation, anxiolysis, rescue analgesic requirement, and recovery profile. Materials and Methods: In a double blinded study design, 60 pediatric patients belonging to ASA class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomized to receive either oral midazolam (group I or oral butorphanol (group II 30 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of facemask application for induction of anesthesia. Rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative recovery, and complications were also recorded. Results: Butorphanol had better sedation potential than oral midazolam with comparable anxiolysis at the time of separation of children from their parents. Midazolam proved to be a better anxiolytic during venepuncture and facemask application. Butorphanol reduced need for supplemental analgesics perioperatively without an increase in side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or unpleasant postoperative recovery. Conclusion: Oral butorphanol is a better premedication than midazolam in children in view of its excellent sedative and analgesic properties. It does not increase side effects significantly.

  2. Limited concordance between teachers, parents and healthcare professionals on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on teachers' knowledge about somatic and mental chronic diseases among ID-adolescent compared to the knowledge parents and healthcare professionals have, is limited. The aim of this study is: (1) to assess the knowledge of teachers on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents; (2)

  3. Impact of parental presence during induction of anesthesia on anxiety level among pediatric patients and their parents: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Afsaneh Sadeghi, Ahmad Khaleghnejad Tabari, Alireza Mahdavi, Sara Salarian, Seyed Sajjad Razavi Department of Anesthesiology, Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Introduction: Anesthesia induction is a stressful event for children and their parents, and may have potentially harmful consequences on the patient’s physiological and mental situation. Stressful anesthesia induction has psychological adverse effects that recur with repeated anesthesia, can lead to increased pediatric discomfort during the recovery period, and may even induce reactionary postoperative behavior. A randomized controlled trial was performed to assess the impact of parental presence during induction of anesthesia (PPIA on preoperative anxiety of pediatric patients and their parents at three different times, cooperation of child with anesthesiologist at induction of anesthesia, and parental satisfaction.Patients and methods: A total of 96 pediatric patients undergoing elective minor surgery (ASA 1–2 were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg at least 20 minutes before surgery, but in the PPIA group, the parents were also present in the operating room until loss of consciousness of child at anesthesia induction. Anxiety in the patients (as measured by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale [mYPAS] and parents (as measured by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC, and parental satisfaction (as measured by visual analog scale were assessed. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean anxiety scores (mYPAS of participants in the control and PPIA groups at ward T0 and upon arrival to operating room T1 (P>0.05. However, between the PPIA and control groups, mean mYPAS score was different at the time of induction of anesthesia T2 (35.5±16.6 vs 59.8±22.4; P<0.001. The ICC scores showed that perfect score was

  4. The Influence of a Combined Butorphanol and Midazolam Premedication on Anesthesia in Psittacid Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Marie; Roach, Louise; Eatwell, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Premedication is considered routine for domestic animal and human anesthesia but is rarely applied to avian patients, and few controlled studies exist to document effects of premedication in avian species. To determine the effects of a butorphanol and midazolam premedication on general anesthesia and quality of induction and recovery phases in psittacid species, 17 clinically healthy birds undergoing anesthesia were randomly allocated into either a premedicated or control group. Anesthetic parameters were subsequently compared. Induction time and isoflurane concentration required for anesthetic maintenance were reduced in the premedicated group. Induction quality scores were improved in the premedicated group and no adverse effects on anesthesia and cardiovascular stability were observed. Use of a combined butorphanol and midazolam premedication in clinically healthy psittacine birds appears safe and effective. Premedication provides a beneficial effect at induction and enables maintenance levels of anesthetic gas to be reduced.

  5. Effect of clonidine premedication on haemodynamic responses to fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matot, I; Kuras, Y; Kramer, M R

    2000-03-01

    The usual haemodynamic response to fibreoptic bronchoscopy is an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. We therefore compared, in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study, the effect of two doses of oral clonidine premedication (150 microg or 300 microg) with placebo (control group) on the haemodynamic alterations in 62 patients who underwent elective fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Significant increases in blood pressure and heart rate were observed during fibreoptic bronchoscopy only in the control group. Clonidine 150 microg blunted the haemodynamic response to fibreoptic bronchoscopy (p premedicated with 300 microg clonidine. Throughout the study nine patients (75%) in the 300 microg clonidine group were treated at least once for hypotension. Compared with the control group, time to awakening was significantly longer only in patients premedicated with 300 microg clonidine. In conclusion, premedication with 150 microg oral clonidine attenuates haemodynamic responses to fibreoptic bronchoscopy, without causing excessive haemodynamic depression and sedation. These data encourage the administration of clonidine as premedication in patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy, particularly in those with, or at risk for, coronary artery disease.

  6. SUBLINGUAL BUPRENORPHINE VS MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDICATION IN CHILDREN

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    V.A HASANI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preanesthetic medication may reduce the risks of adverse psychological and physiological sequel of induction in children. Administration of premedication by sublingual route may provide the best compromise because of relatively rapid absorption without causing pain. In this study sedative and anxitolytic effects of sublingual midazolam and buprenorphine in children were compared. Methods. In a randomized, controlled, double blind clinical trial, one hundred and fifty children aged between 4 to 10 years in first or second class of ASA scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were divided in three equal groups. These groups recieved sublingual bupronorphine 3 µg/kg, midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and no premedication respectively. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded from the time of premedication to awakening from anesthesia. Anxiety and sedation scores and patients acceptance of mask at induction were recorded using four point rating scales. Time of spontaneous eye opening and postoperative emesis occurrence were also recorded. Findings. Children recieving sublingual midazolam or buprenorphine had similar sedation, anxiety and mask acceptance scores, but different from no premedication group (P < 0.0001. None of the children experienced respiratory depression or oxygen desaturation after drug administration and during postoperative period. Time of spontaneous eye opening was longer in the midazolam group (P < 0.0001.Emetic episodes were similar in all groups. Conclusion. Midazolam is extensively studied and demonstrated that the drug is highly effective in alleviating anxiety and increasing cooperation. We concluded that sublingual buprenorphine is as effective as sublingual midazolam in providing sedation and anxitolysis for pediatric premedication.

  7. [Research and development of evaluation criteria for premedical curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyoung; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Yoon, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Seung-Hee

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop criteria to evaluate a premedical curriculum to ultimately improve the quality of premedical education. The first draft of the evaluation criteria was developed through a literature review and expert consultation. The Delphi survey was conducted to ensure the validity of the draft. The final premedical curriculum criteria consisted of three evaluation areas (curriculum development, curriculum implementation, and curriculum outcome), five evaluation items (educational objective, organization of curriculum, instructional method, class management,and educational outcome), and 18 evaluation indicators. There should be further discussion on the evaluation questionnaire and the content for each evaluation indicator with regard to its practical application. Also, a concrete evaluation system, including evaluation standards and rating scales, should be developed.

  8. [Adverse hemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and their possible suppression with clonidine premedication. Comparison with intravenous and intramuscular premedication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málek, J; Knor, J; Kurzová, A; Lopourová, M

    1999-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomies have adverse haemodynamic effects which limit their use in risk patients with heart disease. This applies in particular to significant hypertension. The etiology is analysed in detail in a review of the literature. The authors confirmed in their work involving 21 patients the incidence of these effects and tried to suppress them by premedication with clonidine (CATAPRESAN, Boehringer). 21 patients were given 0.15 mg clonidine in an infusion 15 minutes before operation and 21 patients 0.15 mg clonidine by the i.m. route 60-90 min. before operation. Standard anaesthesia was administered. A highly significant drop in the incidence of hypertension was recorded during operation for systolic pressure (p premedication). Premedication with intravenous clonidine can be recommended as a routine procedure before laparoscopic cholecystectomies.

  9. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN NON-ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Kisselova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to present some of the most prescribed premedication schemes prior to an upcoming dental analgesia in non-allergic patients. These schemes we would like to be proved as “standard protocols” in dental practice.

  10. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  11. The Effects of Preanesthetic Parental Presence on Preoperative Anxiety of Children and their Parents: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti-Emad-Abadi, Razie; Naboureh, Abbas; Nasiri, Morteza; Motamed, Nilofar; Jahanpour, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Parental presence during induction of anesthesia (PPIA) has been a controversial issue, with some studies showing its effects on reducing anxiety. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of PPIA on preoperative anxiety of children as well as their parents. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 60 children aged 2–10 years and their parents. Children were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups. Children in the control group were taken to the operating room (OR) alone, while those in the intervention group were taken to the OR with one of their parents. When the anesthetic mask was placed on the children's face (induction), the children's preoperative anxiety in both groups was assessed using Modified-Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (M-YPAS), and after that the parents in the intervention group were escorted to the waiting area. Parents’ anxiety in both the groups was measured by the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in the waiting area. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (independent t-test and Chi-square test) statistic methods through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software. Results: Results showed no significant difference between children's anxiety in the intervention (70.83) and control (70.39) groups in the preanesthetic period. In addition, no significant difference was seen between the intervention (79.23) and control (85.86) groups regarding total parents’ anxiety. Conclusions: PPIA was not successful in reducing the children's preoperative anxiety as well as parents’ anxiety. Future studies in this area are needed to clarify the effects of this intervention in pediatric populations.

  12. Chemistry courses as the turning point for premedical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Donald A; Matsui, John; Wanat, Stanley F; Gonzalez, Maria Elena

    2010-03-01

    Previous research has documented that negative experiences in chemistry courses are a major factor that discourages many students from continuing in premedical studies. This adverse impact affects women and students from under-represented minority (URM) groups disproportionately. To determine if chemistry courses have a similar effect at a large public university, we surveyed 1,036 students from three entering cohorts at the University of California, Berkeley. We surveyed students at the beginning of their first year at the university and again at the end of their second year. All subjects had indicated an interest in premedical studies at the time they entered the university. We conducted follow-up interviews with a stratified sub-set of 63 survey respondents to explore the factors that affected their level of interest in premedical studies. Using a 10-point scale, we found that the strength of interest in premedical studies declined for all racial/ethnic groups. In the follow-up interviews, students identified chemistry courses as the principal factor contributing to their reported loss of interest. URM students especially often stated that chemistry courses caused them to abandon their hopes of becoming a physician. Consistent with reports over more than 50 years, it appears that undergraduate courses in chemistry have the effect of discouraging otherwise qualified students, as reflected in their admission to one of the most highly selective public universities in the US, from continuing in premedical studies, especially in the case of URM students. Reassessment of this role for chemistry courses may be overdue.

  13. Effect of alpha-2-agonist premedication on intraocular pressure after selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius T Oatts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of alpha-2-agonist (AA premedication (PM on intraocular pressure (IOP following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing 360° SLT at an institution with two prevalent practice patterns consisting of SLT performed with PM and without premedication (NPM with AA. The association between pre- and post-operative IOP was evaluated using a linear regression model in 49 (59% PM and 34 (41% NPM eyes. Results: The prevalence of IOP elevations up to 5 mmHg 1 h postoperatively was similar in both groups, occurring in 18% of PM and in 15% of NPM. Elevations above 5 mmHg were seen in 4% of PM and 8% of NPM (P = 0.732. After correcting for age, gender, diagnosis, number of medications, and preoperative IOP, the presence or absence of AA PM had no significant association with any postoperative IOP (P > 0.5. Conclusion: The practice of using AAs before SLT and measuring IOP at 1 h has not been validated yet adds to expenses and workflow burden. Our retrospective study showed no significant correlation between PM and postoperative or longer-term IOP. IOP at 1 h should be measured in patients who cannot tolerate transient pressure elevations. Further studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.

  14. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events. PMID:25191661

  15. Natural killer cell activity during premedication, anaesthesia and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, E; Mickley, H; Grunnet, N

    1983-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured against K-562 target cells in a 51Cr release assay in eight patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery. Eight consecutive blood samples were taken from each patient. A significant increase of NK cell...... days. The findings of this study indicate that premedication, anaesthesia and surgery cause a rapid and transient increase in NK cell activity, followed by a decline in activity postoperatively. The transient increase in activity may be explained by mobilization of natural killer cells from extravasal...... activity was observed after premedication with diazepam per os. The activity increased further during a combined anaesthesia (thiopentone + N2O + O2 + buprenorphene + pancuronium) and remained increased during surgery. Postoperatively, NK cell activity fell and remained depressed for a period of at least 5...

  16. Use of triazolam and alprazolam as premedication for general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doyun; Lee, Seongheon; Pyeon, Taehee; Jeong, Seongwook

    2015-01-01

    Background Triazolam has similar pharmacological properties as other benzodiazepines and is generally used as a sedative to treat insomnia. Alprazolam represents a possible alternative to midazolam for the premedication of surgical patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic, sedative, and amnestic properties of triazolam and alprazolam as pre-anesthetic medications. Methods Sixty adult patients were randomly allocated to receive oral triazolam 0.25 mg or alprazolam 0.5...

  17. Comparison of Clonidine and Midazolam Premedication Before Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Results of Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak, Katarzyna; Kusza, Krzysztof; Cywinski, Jacek B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Premedication with clonidine has been found to reduce the bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), therefore lowering the risk of surgical complications. Premedication is an essential part of pre-surgical care and can potentially affect magnitude of systemic stress response to a surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of premedication with clonidine and midazolam in patients undergoing sinus surgery. Methods Forty-four patients undergoing ESS fo...

  18. [Clinical substantiation of nootropic preparation use for premedication in outpatient stomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, S G

    2008-01-01

    The clinico-pharmacological description of nooclerin is given. The premedication effectiveness in patients with various individual typological features in out-patient stomatologic treatment was studied.

  19. Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication in clinical routine - an observational study : Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, C; Steurer, M P; Mueller, D; Zueger, M; Dullenkopf, A

    2016-10-24

    Midazolam is commonly used as a pre-anesthesia anxiolytic. It`s elimination may not be fast enough for short procedures. In orally premedicated patients we obtained midazolam plasma concentrations at the end of surgical procedures and compared those to concentrations at anesthesia induction. The study was conducted prospectively with consent of the local ethics committee (Ethikkomission Kanton Thurgau, Switzerland) and carried out with written informed consent of each patient. Female patients aged 20 to 60 years undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia were included, and were divided in two groups according to the planned surgical time: group S (Midazolam po as premedication. Blood samples were drawn at anesthesia induction, and at the end of surgery. Data were compared with t-test (independent samples; significance level p midazolam was not detectable in any samples. Time of premedication to the 1st blood sample was not statistically different between groups, neither were Midazolam plasma levels at this time point (p = 0.94). None of the patients from group L (n = 24), but five patients in group S (n = 22) did have a higher plasma level of Midazolam at the end of the case compared to the beginning. The elimination half-life of oral Midazolam can lead to higher plasma levels at the end of a short procedure compared to those at induction of anesthesia. German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00005429 ; date of registration 3(rd) January 2014.

  20. The undergraduate premedical experience in the United States: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y; Parnami, Sonali; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Anspach, Renee R; Crawford, Brett; De Vries, Raymond G

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the consequences of the premedical years for the character of (future) physicians by critically reviewing the empirical research done on the undergraduate premedical experience in the United States. We searched ERIC, JSTOR, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO from the earliest available date for empirical, peer-reviewed studies of premedical students in the United States. We then used qualitative methods to uncover overall themes present in this literature. The initial literature search identified 1,168 articles, 19 of which were included for review. Reviewed articles were published between 1976 and 2010 with the majority published prior to 1990. Articles covered two broad topics: explaining attrition from the premedical track, and investigating the personality traits and stereotypes of premedical students. Self-selection bias and high attrition rates were among the limitations of the reviewed articles. There is very little current research on the premedical experience. Given the importance of the premedical years on the process of becoming a medical professional, it is imperative that we do more and better research on how the premedical experience shapes future physicians.

  1. Does academic performance in the premedical year predict the performance of the medical student in subsequent years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M Al-Mazrou

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the prerequisite of a minimum GPA in the premedical year before proceeding to the higher levels. The GPA of premedical year is a useful predictor of students who need close monitoring and academic support. The use of GPA in the premedical year for admission into medical colleges should help optimize the use of resources and reduce student wastage.

  2. Premedication with oral Dextromethorphan reduces intra-operative Morphine requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Talakoub

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intra-operative pain has adverse effects on hemodynamic parameters. Due to complications of opioids for pain relief, using non-opioids medication is preferred. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral dextrometorphan premedication on intra-operative Morphine requirement. Methods: After approval of the Ethics committee and informed consent, 40 adult patients who stand in American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II, under general anesthesia for elective laparatomy were selected and classified in two equal groups randomly. In group A, oral dextromethorphan (60mg was administered at 10 PM and 6 AM preoperatively. In group B, placebo (dextrose was administered. After induction of general anesthesia and before skin incision, intravenous morphine (0.01 mg/kg was administered. During surgery, when systolic blood pressure or heart rate was increased more than 20% of the preoperative baseline, 0.01 mg/kg morphine was administered. At the end of surgery, the totally prescribed morphine (mg/kg and maximal increase in systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate relative to the baseline values were calculated and statistically compared with student’s t-test. Results: The mean dose of administered morphine during surgery was significantly less in group A than group B (P<0.0001. Also, Maximal increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure was significantly less in group A (p<0.003, p<0.004, p<0.0001, respectively. There was no significant difference in maximal heart rate increase between two groups (p<0.114. Conclusion: Oral dextromethorphan premedication may decrease intra-operative morphine requirement and reduce maximal increase in systolic and mean arterial blood pressure during surgery. Key words: Dextromethorphan, Morphine, Intra-operative, Premedication Hemodynamic

  3. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Does oral clonidine premedication decrease bleeding during open rhinoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Pourdanesh, Freydoun; Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saleh

    2014-05-01

    This uni-blind randomized clinical trial study investigated the effect of clonidine premedication on preoperative blood loss during open rhinoplasty. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The members of the first group received oral clonidine as a single dose (0.2 mg) 2 hours before the induction of general anesthesia, whereas the members of the second group received a placebo. All subjects underwent open rhinoplasty without septoplasty. One anesthetic protocol was followed for all subjects. Variable factors include the subjects' weight, age, sex, and blood pressure during the surgery as well as blood loss during rhinoplasty. Group 1 consisted of 22 women and 11 men, whereas group 2 was composed of 16 women and 17 men. The mean for blood loss amounted to 68.03 ± 22.49 mL for group 1 and 132.12 ± 78.53 mL for group 2. An assessment demonstrated a significant difference in blood loss between the 2 groups (P clonidine premedication thus may decrease preoperative bleeding during open rhinoplasty.

  5. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Kaviani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  6. 音乐对父母陪伴下小儿麻醉诱导的影响%Effects of Music on Induction of Anesthesia on Parental Presence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冶秋; 许强; 周婷; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价音乐对父母陪伴下小儿麻醉诱导的影响.方法 以父母和小儿术前焦虑程度为首要研究目标,父母满意程度为次要研究目标.将100例ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级的择期手术患儿,年龄2~10岁,随机分成2组:音乐辅助组(音乐辅助父母陪伴)和对照组(单纯父母陪伴).通过术前焦虑评分(mYPAS评分)测定两组小儿术前焦虑程度;通过状态-特质焦虑问卷(STAI)测定父母术前焦虑程度;通过视觉模拟评分(VAS)评价父母满意程度.结果 音乐辅助组父母术前焦虑评分降低(P<0.05),满意评分略升高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);音乐辅助组小儿焦虑评分较低,但是两组之间的差异无统计学意义.结论 音乐辅助可以减轻父母在陪伴小儿麻醉诱导期间的焦虑心理,但对小儿的焦虑心理作用有限.%Objective To determine whether music can reduce parental and children preoperative anxiety and thus allow children to benefit from parental presence during induction of anesthesia. Methods The children and the parental anxiety throughout the perioperative period was taken as the primary endpoint of the study, and the parental satisfaction as the secondary endpoint. One hundred children were assigned randomly to a music group (parental presence with music)or a control group (parental presence without music). By using Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale(mYPAS) , preoperative anxiety of children was measured;By using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,anxiety of parents was measured;By using VAS Inventory,satisfaction of parents was measured. Results Music group had a lower level anxiety of parents and a higher level satisfaction of parents. Both groups had the same level of mYPAS. Conclusion Music is effective in reducing the anxiety of parents at induction of anesthesia,but the children can not be benefited.

  7. Is premedication with midazolam more effective by the sublingual than the oral route?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shobhana; Gadani, Hina; Kedia, Shravan

    2011-01-01

    Background: In this study, we compared the sedative effects of sublingual midazolam solution with the oral tablet as premedication. Sixty pediatric patients of ASA physical status I and II were randomly selected to receive either 0.5 mg/kg of tablet or 0.5 mg/kg of sublingual solution of midazolam as premedication, about 45 min before elective surgery. Materials and Methods: There were 30 patients in each group. In Group I, the patients received premedication in the form of oral midazolam tab...

  8. Oral premedication with pregabalin and clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Chaudhary

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Hemodynamic pressure response of airway instrumentation was attenuated with pregabalin and clonidine oral premedication without prolongation of recovery time and side effects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 294-299

  9. Anaphylactic reaction to polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase: premedication and desensitization may not be sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Umit M; Yavuz, S Tolga; Gökce, Muge; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Altan, Ilhan; Aytac, Selin; Tuncer, Murat; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-08-01

    In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is preferred. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is rare. An 8-year-old girl and a 2.5-year-old boy, both diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presented with native L-asparaginase hypersensitivity and substitution with PEG-ASP was preferred. They received a premedication (methylprednisolone, hydroxyzine and ranitidine) followed by desensitization with PEG-ASP infusion. Both patients developed anaphylaxis with peg-asparaginase. These are the first reported cases of anaphylactic reaction to PEG-ASP, despite the application of both premedication and desensitization. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is very rare and premedication and desensitization protocols may not prevent these hypersensitive reactions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon, E-mail: imimdr@yahoo.co.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Hee, E-mail: lshsophia@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Min, E-mail: sangminlee77@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, The Korean Armed Force Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye-Ryun, E-mail: helenmed@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heung-Woo, E-mail: guineapark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-Sin, E-mail: ssksting@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Heon, E-mail: shcho@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  11. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Childrens Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:One of the most significant problems in pediatric dentistry is behavioral resistance of preschool children in the first visit. There is a debate on parental presence in operation room. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Iranian 5-year-old childrens behavior including anxiety and cooperation relative to parental presence in the first and second dental appointments. Methods:The study was conducted on sixty seven 5-year-old children selected according to inclusion criteria and randomly divided into two subgroups. Children in group I were visited in parents presence and in group II in parents absence. Before the childs first dental visit, parents were interviewed. Forty eight of the children receiving the initial examination were recalled for a second visit. The childrens responses during the Holst procedure of the first visit and restorative second visit were assessed using a combination of two measures including heart rate and clinical behavior. The dentist-patient interactions were regulated by standardized scripts and recorded on videotape. Then, the behavior of the child on the recording during each visit was quantified by two pediatric dentists independently according to Venham 6-point rating scale and Frankle 4-point rating scale. Findings:There were no significant differences between the heart rate measures of children in group I and II in the first and second visit (0.67, 0.8 respectively. There were also no significant differences between the clinical anxiety scores of children in the two groups in the first and second visit (0.98, 0.42 respectively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the clinical cooperation scores of children in group I and group II in the first and second visit (0.88, 0.40 respectively, neither were there any significant differences between response measures of each child between two visits (P>0.05. In addition, there were no significant differences related to sex, parental

  12. Objective assessment of the influence of the parental presence on the fear and behavior of anxious children during their first restorative dental visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Sharat C.; AlAnazi, Ghazi S.; AlBaragash, Abdulrahman; AlMosaihel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Parents play an important role in the dental behavior of a child patient. This study aimed to assess the effect of parental presence on the behavior of the child and objectively measure the behavior using pulse oximetry. Materials and Methods: The study was registered with the clinical trials registry of the National Institutes of Health (NCT02619981). The children were divided into three groups, those who had no accompanying parent, those accompanied by their fathers, and those accompanied by their mothers. The Venham anxiety and behavior scores were used for subjective measurements whereas the objective measurement of fear was done by measuring the heart rate using a portable pulse oximeter at six critical clinical situations. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM corp. Armonk, NY, USA). Results: One hundred and twenty two children aged between 6 years and 8 years completed the study. Most of the children accompanied by fathers were males while most of the children accompanied by their mother were females. It was seen that females showed a higher mean heart rate than males at all steps. Children who had their parents outside the operatory exhibited lower anxiety and behavior scores than those whose parents were present; however, they showed a significantly higher pulse rate at all procedures. Boys had higher anxiety and behavior scores than girls, however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the presence of the parent in the operatory reduces the physiological manifestations of anxiety in children in their first restorative dental visit. PMID:27652248

  13. Quantitative genetics of growth and development time in the burying beetle Nicrophorus pustulatus in the presence and absence of post-hatching parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M; Moore, Allen J

    2002-01-01

    Despite a growing interest in the evolutionary aspects of maternal effects, few studies have examined the genetic consequences of maternal effects associated with parental care. To begin to provide data on nonlaboratory or nondomestic animals, we compared the effect of presence and absence of parental care on phenotype expression of larval mass and development time at different life-history stages in the burying beetle Nicrophorus pustulatus. This beetle has facultative care; parents can feed their larvae through regurgitation of digested carrion or offspring can feed by themselves from previously prepared carrion. To investigate larval responses to these two levels of care, including estimates of additive genetic effects, maternal effects, and genotype-by-environment interactions, we used a half-sibling split-family breeding experiment-raising half of the offspring of a family in the presence of their mother and the other half without their mother present. Larvae reared with their mother present were on average heavier and developed faster, although some of the differences in development decreased or were eliminated by the adult stage. These results suggest that presence or absence of post-hatching maternal care plays an important role in phenotype expression early in life, whereas later the phenotype of the offspring is determined mainly by the genotype and/or unshared environmental effects. Our study also permitted us to examine the differences in genetic effects between the two care environments. Heritabilities, maternal/common environment effect, and most genetic correlations did not differ between the care treatments. Genetic analyses revealed substantial additive genetic effects for development time but small effects for measures of body mass. Maternal plus common environment effects were high for measures of mass but low for development time, suggesting that indirect genetic effects of maternal and/or common environment are less important for the evolution

  14. The Effect of Oral Dexmedetomidine Premedication on Preoperative Cooperation and Emergence Delirium in Children Undergoing Dental Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Keles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of 1 μg/kg of oral dexmedetomidine (DEX as premedication among children undergoing dental procedures. Materials and Methods. The study involved 100 children between 2 and 6 years of age, ASA I, who underwent full-mouth dental rehabilitation. The DEX group (n=50 received 1 μg/kg DEX in apple juice, and the control group (n=50 received only apple juice. The patients’ scores on the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS, parental separation anxiety scale, mask acceptance scale, and pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale (PAEDS and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Student’s t-test, and analysis of variance in SPSS. Results. RSS scores were significantly higher in the DEX group than group C at 15, 30, and 45 min (p<0.05. More children (68% easy separation, 74% satisfactory mask acceptance in the DEX group showed satisfactory ease of parental separation and mask acceptance behavior (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the PAEDS scores and mean hemodynamic parameters of both groups. Conclusions. Oral DEX administered at 1 μg/kg provided satisfactory sedation levels, ease of parental separation, and mask acceptance in children but was not effective in preventing emergence delirium. The trial was registered (Protocol Registration Receipt NCT03174678 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  15. Effects of oral premedication on cognitive status of elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed M Ashraf; Marc Schweiger; Neelima Vallurupalli; Sandra Bellantonio; James R Cook

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedatives and analgesics are often administered to achieve conscious sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Appropriate concerns have been raised regarding post procedure delirium related to peri-procedural medication in the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of premedication on new onset delirium and procedural care in elderly patients. Methods Patients≥70 years old and scheduled for elective cardiac catheterization were randomly assigned to receive either oral diphenhydramine and diaze-pam (25 mg/5 mg) or no premedication. All patients underwent a mini mental state exam and delirium assessment using confusion assess-ment method prior to the procedure and repeated at 4 h after the procedure and prior to discharge. Patients’ cooperation during the procedure and ease of post-procedure were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The degree of alertness was assessed immediately on arrival to the floor, and twice hourly afterwards using Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S). Results A total of 93 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 77 years, and 47 patients received premedication prior to the procedure. None of the patients in either group developed delirium. Patients’ cooperation and the ease of procedure was greater and pain medication requirement less both during and after the procedure in the pre-medicated group (P < 0.05 for both). Nurses reported an improvement with patient management in the pre-medicated group (P=0.08). Conclusions In conclusion, premedication did not cause delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The reduced pain medication requirement, perceived procedural ease and post procedure management favors premedication in elderly patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

  16. Application of 'writing for healing' in premedical humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jae Yu; Yeh, Byung Il

    2012-09-01

    There has been a recent tendency to attach special importance to writing education. Books on 'writing to heal' are being written in or translated into Korean. According to these texts, writing is a valuable tool for internal healing, depending on the mode of application. Writing can have positive effects and give hope to an individual or group, but it can also be a source of frustration and despair. Based on the distinct effects of writing, we cannot overemphasize the significance of writing education. Writing is generally taught during a premedical course that targets students who will eventually practice medicine. Many reports have examined immorality in medical students and health care providers, which is a reason that writing education is important for medical systems. 'Writing for Healing' is open to freshmen at Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine. The aim of this subject is to help students identify and acknowledge internal diseases to lead a healthier life and eventually become positive and responsible health care providers. However, in addition to the vague definition of what 'healing' is, the concept of 'writing for healing' has not been defined. This paper attempts to define the concept of 'writing for healing' and considers what influences it can have on a humanities curriculum in medical colleges.

  17. Multimodal Preincisional Premedication to Prevent Acute Pain After Cholecystectomy

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    Dawood Aghamohammadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain as an important medical concern is usually treated by opioids which also are of various inevitable side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of multimodal preincisional premedication on preventing post-cholecystectomy acute pain. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, sixty patients undergoing open cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Before anesthesia induction, Diclofenac suppository (100 mg and oral Clonidine (0.2 mg were administered in the first group. Immediately before operation, patients received Ketamine (1 mg/kg IV while the control group received placebo. The site of incision was infiltrated by the surgeon with 20 mL Bupivacaine 0.25% in both groups. Anesthesia induction and maintenance were similar in both groups. The severity of pain was recorded 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after operation according to Visual Analogue Scale. Results: The severity of pain at two defined stages (6 and 12 hours later was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (P<0.005. The average pain severity score was less than the control group (P<0.005. Conclusion: In our study, the administration of Clonidine, Diclofenac and Ketamine and bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision, altogether was associated with a significant decrease in pain score and opioid requirement after cholecystectomy in comparison to bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision.

  18. Oral clonidine premedication exacerbates hypotension following tourniquet deflation by inhibiting noradrenaline release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Koichi; Takeda, Shinhiro; Hongo, Takashi; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Kim, Chol; Ogawa, Ryo

    2004-02-01

    Clonidine premedication prevents tourniquet pain and reduces sympathetic nerve activity. We evaluated hemodynamic changes and catecholamine release following tourniquet deflation during spinal anesthesia in patients who received oral clonidine premedication. The final analysis included 24 otherwise healthy patients undergoing lower-limb surgery randomly assigned to two groups: those receiving approximately 5 micrograms/kg of oral clonidine 1 hr before anesthesia (clonidine group, n = 12), and those receiving no premedication (control group, n = 12). After lumbar anesthesia, a tourniquet was applied for approximately 60 minutes to each patient. Electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, and consumption of butorphanol for tourniquet pain were monitored. Blood samples were obtained at different times to measure serum concentration of catecholamine. In the clonidine group, mean blood pressure decreased from 87 +/- 7 mmHg at baseline to 65 +/- 10 mmHg after tourniquet deflation (P clonidine group was significantly lower than in the control group. After receiving clonidine premedication, the plasma noradrenaline concentrations in the clonidine group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Noradrenaline concentration increased in the control group from 162.3 +/- 89.2 pg/mL before tourniquet deflation to 199.3 +/- 95.7 pg/mL afterward (P clonidine group. We conclude that oral clonidine premedication exacerbated the reduction in mean blood pressure following tourniquet deflation by inhibiting noradrenaline release.

  19. The effect of play distraction on anxiety before premedication administration: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumin Aydın, Gözde; Yüksel, Serhat; Ergil, Jülide; Polat, Reyhan; Akelma, Fatma Kavak; Ekici, Musa; Sayın, Murat; Odabaş, Öner

    2017-02-01

    The majority of children scheduled to undergo surgery experience substantial anxiety in the preoperative holding area before induction of anesthesia. Pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing perioperative anxiety are paradoxically a source of stress for children themselves. Midazolam is frequently used as premedication, and the formula of this drug in Turkey is bitter. We aimed to assess the role of distraction in the form of playing with play dough (Play-Doh) on reducing premedication anxiety in children. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Preoperative holding area. One hundred four healthy children aged 3 to 7 years scheduled to undergo elective surgery were enrolled into the study. All children routinely receive sedative premedication (oral midazolam) before anesthesia. Children were randomized to 2 groups to receive either play dough (group PD) (n=52) or not (group C) (n=52) before administration of oral premedication. Children's premedication anxiety was determined by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). The difference in mYPAS scores between groups at T0 (immediately after entering the preoperative holding area) was not significant (P=.876). Compared with group C, group PD was associated with lower mYPAS scores at T1 and T2 (P.001). This study showed that distraction in the form of playing with play dough facilitated administration of oral midazolam in young children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Presence of Asthma, the Use of Inhaled Steroids, and Parental Education Level Affect School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.; Paraskakis, E.; Tsalkidis, A.; Rigas, A.; Zimeras, S.; Katsardis, C.; Chatzimichael, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point average promotion. Results. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2 ± 11.7 versus 0.3 ± 3.1, resp., P Students with reduced healthcare use presented less absenteeism than those with increased healthcare use for asthma (4.3 ± 8.6 versus 12.4 ± 17.0 days, resp., P Absenteeism was associated with poor school performance for the last two years of school (P = 0.002) and with lower grade point promotion in elementary school students (P = 0.001) but not in high school students (P = 0.316). Higher level of parental education was associated with better school performance (P students. Students with asthma using inhalers were four times more likely to perform excellently in elementary school (OR = 4.3, P = 0.028, 95%CI = 1.17–15.95) than their asthmatic peers with alternative asthma treatments. Conclusions. Asthma and increased healthcare use enhance school absenteeism. Inhaled steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children. PMID:23936846

  1. Premedicación en anestesia pediátrica: citrato de fentanilo oral transmucoso frente a midazolam oral Premedication in paediatric anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Velázquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La premedicación anestésica está destinada a reducir la ansiedad y la respuesta al estrés que supone el período anterior a la intervención quirúrgica. El temor a lo desconocido, al dolor y la separación de los padres son elementos que se añaden a la ansiedad perioperatoria en la población pediátrica. La necesidad de encontrar una vía de administración idónea en niños que no añada más sufrimientos a los ya existentes, es un reto para los anestesiólogos. Objetivo: Los objetivos del presente estudio eran valorar la eficacia, el grado de sedación y el modo de aceptación de 2 modalidades de premedicación para niños: citrato de fentanilo oral transmucoso (CFOT y midazolam oral disuelto en zumo de fruta. Material y método: Se estudiaron 2 grupos aleatorizados de 40 niños que iban a someterse a cirugía de diversas especialidades. Las dosis administradas fueron de 10 μg/kg de CFOT y 0,3 mg/kg de midazolam, administrados 30 minutos antes de la punciσn venosa. Las variables consideradas fueron: saturaciσn de hemoglobina desde el inicio de la premedicaciσn y en la sala de despertar, modo de aceptaciσn, grado de sedaciσn, actitud del niρo al separarlo de los padres, ante la punción venosa y ante la inducción anestésica, retraso en el despertar, requerimiento de analgesia postoperatoria, aparición de efectos secundarios. Resultados: Los resultados se compararon utilizando la t de Student (p Introduction: The aim of anaesthetic premedication is to reduce anxiety and stress prior to surgery. Paediatric patients suffer even more anxiety due to fear of the unknown and the separation from parents. The need to find out a suitable way of administering premedication to paediatric patients without causing any more trauma is a challenge for the anaesthesiologist. Objectives: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy, level of sedation and a way of accepting two different types of premedication for

  2. Premedication with clonidine versus fentanyl for intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery outcome during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Kumkum; Lakhanpal, Mahima; Prashant K.Gupta; Krishan, Atul; Rastogi, Bhawna; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia induced intraoperative hemodynamic responses which should be attenuated by appropriate premedication. The present study was aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl premedication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for attenuation of hemodynamic responses with postoperative recovery outcome. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective randomized double blind study 64 adult consented patients of either sex ...

  3. Premedical enrichment program at East Carolina University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, V D

    1999-04-01

    The Summer Program for Future Doctors, which started in 1978 at East Carolina University School of Medicine, prepares underrepresented-minority (URM), disadvantaged, and nontraditional students for admission to medical school. The annual eight-week program, sponsored by the school's Academic Support and Counseling Center and funded by the school, is a two-pronged program targeting both premedical and pre-matriculating students. The program has 24 openings per year, with priority accorded to students matriculating at the medical school the following fall. The program covers learning strategies, test-taking skills, reading and comprehension tests, MCAT preparation, contemporary issues in the medical environment, scientific writing, communication skills, and medical school applications. Students who have demonstrated strong performances and consistent improvement in the summer program are likely to gain admission to medical school and perform satisfactorily, especially in their first year. Data collected from 1994-1997 indicate that of the 69 participants, 51 (74%) had applied to medical school, and 24 (47%) of them had been admitted, with 15 of these (63%) being URMs. In these four years of the program, there were twice as many women as men among the 69 participants, of which 60% were African Americans, 20% whites, 13% Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 3% Native Americans, and 2% Hispanics. Although most of these participants pursued medical education, 12 chose other health professions; 13 students were in or had completed graduate school in basic science programs; and seven had not yet completed their under graduate degrees, although most planned to apply to medical school within the next few years.

  4. Giving toys to children reduces their anxiety about receiving premedication for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Leonard; Pagala, Murali; Sukhavasi, Sujatha; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Ahmad, Ayeesha; Mahanta, Aruna

    2006-04-01

    Children have increased anxiety during the preoperative period. The administration of oral premedication to children is often met with apprehension, reluctance, or refusal. We sought to determine whether giving a small toy to the children would decrease the anxiety associated with taking oral premedication. This was a prospective study involving 100 children 3-6 yr of age randomized into two equal groups. The anxiety of each child was assessed using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The results showed significantly less anxiety in children who received a toy before oral administration of midazolam.

  5. The Presence of Asthma, the Use of Inhaled Steroids, and Parental Education Level Affect School Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsakiris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents’ and teachers’ reports and grade point average promotion. Results. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2 ± 11.7 versus 0.3 ± 3.1, resp., P<0.001. Students with reduced healthcare use presented less absenteeism than those with increased healthcare use for asthma (4.3 ± 8.6 versus 12.4 ± 17.0 days, resp., P<0.001. Asthma and healthcare use for asthma accounted for an overall estimated variability in absence days of 13.8% and 9%, respectively. Absenteeism was associated with poor school performance for the last two years of school (P=0.002 and with lower grade point promotion in elementary school students (P=0.001 but not in high school students (P=0.316. Higher level of parental education was associated with better school performance (P<0.001. Asthma was associated with a decreased possibility for excellent performance (OR = 0.64, P=0.049, 95%CI = 0.41–1.00 in elementary students. Students with asthma using inhalers were four times more likely to perform excellently in elementary school (OR = 4.3, P=0.028, 95%CI = 1.17–15.95 than their asthmatic peers with alternative asthma treatments. Conclusions. Asthma and increased healthcare use enhance school absenteeism. Inhaled steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children.

  6. Dexmedetomidine premedication for fiberoptic intubation in patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: A randomized clinical trial

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    Kumkum Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fiberoptic intubation is the gold standard technique for difficult airway management in patients of temporomandibular joint. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine as premedication with propofol infusion for fiberoptic intubation. Methods: Consent was obtained from 46 adult patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis, scheduled for gap arthroplasty. They were enrolled for thisdouble-blind, randomized, prospective clinical trial with two treatment groups - Group D and Group P, of 23 patients each. Group D patients had received premedication of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg infused over 10 min followed by sedative propofol infusion and the control Group P patients were given only propofol infusion to achieve sedation. Condition achieved at endoscopy, intubating conditions, hemodynamic changes and postoperative events were evaluated as primary outcome. Results : The fiberoptic intubation was successful with satisfactory endoscopic and intubating condition in all patients. Dexmedetomidine premedication has provided satisfactory conditions for fiberoptic intubation and attenuated the hemodynamic response of fiberoptic intubation than the propofol group. Conclusion : Fiberoptic intubation was found to be easier with dexmedetomidine premedication along with sedative infusion of propofol with complete amnesia of the procedure, hemodynamic stability and preservation of patent airway.

  7. Competencies in premedical and medical education: the AAMC-HHMI report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Robert J; Belitsky, Richard; Long, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Flexner emphasized the importance of science in medicine and medical education. Over the subsequent years, science education in the premedical and medical curricula has changed little, in spite of the vast changes in the biomedical sciences. The National Research Council, in their report Bio 2010, noted that the premedical curriculum caused many students to lose interest in medicine and in the biological sciences in general. Many medical students and physicians have come to view the premedical curriculum as of limited relevance to medicine and designed more as a screening mechanism for medical school admission. To address this, the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute formed a committee to evaluate the premedical and medical school science curricula. The committee made a number of recommendations that are summarized in this essay. Most important were that competencies replace course requirements and that the physical sciences and mathematics be better integrated with the biological sciences and medicine. The goal is that all physicians possess a strong scientific knowledge base and come to appreciate the importance of this to the practice of medicine. While science education needs to evolve, Flexner's vision is as relevant today as it was 100 years ago.

  8. A Comparative Study between Intramuscular Midazolam and Oral Clonidine As A Premedication For General Anesthesia

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    Jignasa J Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most anesthesiologists agree on the need for efficient pre-medication. The pattern of desired effects of a pre-medication is however, complex and includes relief of anxiety, sedation and relaxation of the patient. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of Midazolam and clonidine as premedication. Methodology: A comparative study between midazolam and clonidine as a premedication for general anesthesia was conducted. Patients were divided in two groups: Group I: Inj. Midazolam 0.07 mg/kg i.m. before surgery; Group II Tab.Clonidine 4 and micro;g/kg oral, 2 hours before surgery. Pulse rate, blood pressure, state of excitement, apprehension and sedation were noted at the time of giving premedication. Results: Majority of cases in both the groups were in the age group of 16-30 years (56%. Gender wise distribution shows 40% cases were males and 60% were females. The sedation score, apprehension score and excitement score in both the groups before and after induction was statistically significant. There is no significant difference in dose requirement of pentothal for induction between midazolam and clonidine group. The amnesia score shows that midazolam produces more potent and perfect amnesia as compared to clonidine. Amnesia score in both the groups was statistically significant Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that midazolam was superior to clonidine in its sedative and anxiolytic effects, had a potent amnesia and does not attenuate hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation and does not prolong recovery time. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(4.000: 312-315

  9. Spectral entropy as an objective measure of sedation state in midazolam-premedicated patients

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    Hany A Mowafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Objective assessment of sedation depth is a valuable target. Spectral entropy is an anesthetic depth monitor based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram signal. Aims: To evaluate the performance of spectral entropy as an objective measure of sedation state in midazolam-premedicated patients and to correlate it with a clinically assessed sedation score. Settings and Design: This prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed in King Fahd Hospital of the university. Methods: Eighty adult ASA I-II patients were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Patients were premedicated using 0.02, 0.04, or 0.06 mg/kg midazolam or saline intramuscularly. The effect of these doses on the Observer′s Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S scale, hemodynamic variables, response entropy (RE, and state entropy (SE, was evaluated at 10, 20, and 30 min after premedication. Statistical analysis: Spearman Rank-order correlation analysis to examine the relation between OAA/S and entropy. The ability of spectral entropy to predict the depth of sedation was evaluated using Smith prediction probability. Results: Midazolam doses ≥0.04 mg/kg produced significant decreases in RE, SE, and OAA/S scores. There was a strong correlation between midazolam dose and OAA/S scale, RE, and SE since Spearman Rank R values were 0.792, 0.822, and 0.745, respectively (P<0.001. In addition, RE and SE were strong predictors of OAA/S level during midazolam sedation with no significant difference in prediction between the 2 entropy components. Conclusions: Spectral entropy is a reliable measure for the sedative premedication. It may be used to objectively assess the adequacy of midazolam premedication and to determine the dose requirement.

  10. Feasibility of stopping paclitaxel premedication after two doses in patients not experiencing a previous infusion hypersensitivity reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Michael J; Dunlea, Leslie J.; Rettig, Amy E.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Phillips, Gary S.; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy continues to be an integral component in the treatment of many solid tumors. Prolonged use of paclitaxel may result in repeated doses of premedications and potential unwanted side effects. Infusion hypersensitivity reactions occurring beyond the second dose are infrequent and not well characterized. We hypothesized that patients whose paclitaxel premedications were discontinued after two doses were unlikely to experience infusion hypersensitivity reaction...

  11. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

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    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  12. Construction and validation of a distance learning module on premedication antisepsis for nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Barbara Juliana da Costa; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Beatriz Maria, Jorge; Mazzo, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this descriptive study, carried out at a public university, was to design, develop, and validate a distance learning module on intramuscular premedication antisepsis. The content was introduced in the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, based on the Systematic Model for Web-Based Training projects. Ten nurses and information technologists at work consented to participate, in compliance with ethical guidelines, and answered a questionnaire to validate the Virtual Learning Environment. The educational aspects of the environment interface were mostly evaluated as "excellent," whereas the assessment of didactic resources indicated interactivity difficulties. It is concluded that distance learning is an important tool for the teaching of premedication antisepsis. To ensure its effectiveness, appropriate methods and interactive devices must be used.

  13. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy without anticonvulsive premedication on serum growth hormone in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigas, M; Stowasserová, N; Németh, S; Jurcovicová, J

    1975-01-01

    Serum concentrations of human growth hormone (HGH) were measured in psychiatric patients during the first, third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) without anticonvulsive premedication. Serum HGH increased 30 min after the application of current and no differences were found between responses to 1st, 3rd, or 6th ECT. Maximal increase of serum glucose was seen after the first ECT and gradual decreases after the 3rd and 6th ECT were observed

  14. A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ORAL CLONIDINE ON PREMEDICATION AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Rao; Mahesh,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of Clonidine as a premedicant started incidentally. Clonidine is a potent antihypertensive drug that suppresses RAAS. Clonidine may be beneficial during laparoscopy in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular and/or renal diseases. AIM OF STUDY To determine the effects of Oral Clonidine on premedication and haemodynamic changes during Laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study was conducted on 60 adult patients belonging to ASA physical...

  15. Pre-Medical Education in the Physical Sciences for Tomorrow's Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    Medical knowledge is being transformed by instrumentation advances and by research results including genomic and population level studies; at the same time, though, the premedical curriculum is constrained by a relatively unchanging overall content in the MCAT examination, which inhibits innovation on undergraduate science education. A committee convened jointly by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute has examined the science and mathematics competencies that the graduating physician will need, and has asked which of these should be achieved during undergraduate study. The recommendations emphasize competency -- what the learner should be able to ``do'' at the end of the learning experience -- rather than dictating specific courses. Because the scientific content of modern medical practice is evolving, new science competencies are desirable for the entering medical student. An example is statistics, an increasingly prominent foundation for database and genomic analysis but which is not yet uniformly recommended as preparation for medical school. On the other hand, the committee believes that the value of a broad liberal arts education is enduring, and science coursework should not totally consume a premedical student's time. Thus if we recommend new areas of science and mathematics competency for pre-meds, we must find other areas that can be trimmed or combined. Indeed, at present there are some science topics mandated for premedical study, which may not be essential. For these reasons, the committee aims to state premedical recommendations in ways that can be met either through traditional disciplinary courses, or through innovative and/or interdisciplinary courses. Finally, we acknowledge that practice of medicine requires grounding in scientific principles and knowledge and in the practice of critical inquiry. These principles may be learned and practiced in undergraduate study through work in the physical

  16. Response of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: effect of inherent personality traits and premedication with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The influence of personality traits on the reaction of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was studied prospectively in 86 patients. High N (neuroticism) scores on the Eysenck personality inventory were associated with poor tolerance to and future compliance with the procedure. Although premedication with diazepam did not affect the degree of discomfort and distress during the procedure, it guaranteed acceptance of repeat endoscopy by virtue of its strong amnesic effect. By contrast,...

  17. Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children

    OpenAIRE

    Khatavkar, Sonal S; Bakhshi, Rochana G

    2014-01-01

    Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 and ...

  18. Effect of clonidine premedication on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness after total intravenous anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Koichi; Yamada, Takeshi; Hara, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of oral clonidine premedication on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness, we evaluated the incidence and severity of each of these complications in patients who underwent elective surgery in the supine position. The subjects were 82 patients, American Society of Anesthiologists (ASA) status I-III, aged 15-82 years. They were premedicated with either 150 microg oral clonidine and 20 mg raftidine (clonidine group; n = 41) or with 20 mg raftidine only (control group; n = 41) 2 h before anesthesia induction. General anesthesia was maintained with propofol, ketamine, fentanyl, and vecuronium, with or without epidural anesthesia. Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated immediately after surgery and on the day after surgery. The incidences of sore throat and hoarseness tended to be higher in the clonidine group than in the control group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the severity of these symptoms between the two groups. In conclusion, oral premedication with 150 microg clonidine did not prevent postoperative sore throat or hoarseness, and may have exacerbated these symptoms.

  19. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON THE ONSET AND DURATION OF SPINAL ANESTHESIA WITH HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE

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    Shruthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is the most common technique used for lower abdominal surgeries. Hyperbaric Bupivacaine has limited duration of action. Clonidine has been used to prolong the duration of local anaesthetic. Hence in our study, we studied the effects of oral clonidine premedication on spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric Bupivacaine with reference to sedation, onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade including its effects on hemodynamic status. METHODS: Prospective randomized, double – blinded placebo, control study, two groups of thirty patients each were selected. One group (Group C received 150μg clonidine tablets and the other group (Group B received placebo, 90 minutes before anesthesia. Primary outcome were sedation, onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade. Hemodynamic and other effects of the study drug were the secondary outcomes. RESULT: It was observed that clonidine premedication resulted in higher incidence of moderate sedation, hastens the onset of sensory block but has no effect on the onset of motor blockade. It prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade. Clonidine at a dose of 150μg is not associated with any greater change in heart rate and blood pressure following spinal anesthesia. CONCLUSION: We conclude that oral clonidine premedication,in patients with hyperbaric bupivacaine hastesns the onset of sensory block and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor anesthesia with moderate sedation.

  20. A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ORAL CLONIDINE ON PREMEDICATION AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Use of Clonidine as a premedicant started incidentally. Clonidine is a potent antihypertensive drug that suppresses RAAS. Clonidine may be beneficial during laparoscopy in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular and/or renal diseases. AIM OF STUDY To determine the effects of Oral Clonidine on premedication and haemodynamic changes during Laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study was conducted on 60 adult patients belonging to ASA physical status I & II. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 30 each. Group C received oral clonidine 150 mcg 90 minutes before surgery and group P received oral ranitidine 150 mg 90 minutes before surgery. Sedation score was noted on arrival to operation theatre. All vital parameters were recorded at regular intervals intra-operatively. RESULTS Clonidine premedication was able to achieve haemodynamic stability during pneumoperitoneum. CONCLUSION Premedication with 150mcg oral Clonidine has been found to be relatively safe as well as effective method that provides stable haemodynamics and protection against stress response triggered by pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

  1. The effect of clonidine premedication on hemodynamic responses to microlaryngoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matot, I; Sichel, J Y; Yofe, V; Gozal, Y

    2000-10-01

    The usual hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy is an increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Previous work has reported that 10%-18% of the patients develop ischemic ST segment changes during the procedure. Therefore, we performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in 36 patients scheduled for elective microlaryngeal and bronchoscopic surgical procedures to evaluate the effects of 300-microg oral clonidine premedication (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) on the hemodynamic alterations and the incidence of perioperative myocardial ischemic episodes. Myocardial ischemia was assessed by using continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, beginning 30 min before, and lasting until 24 h after the operation. During the procedure, patients receiving placebo exhibited a significant increase (mean +/- SD) in arterial blood pressure (the systolic increasing from 137+/-11 to 166+/-17 mm Hg, the diastolic increasing from 80+/-11 to 97+/-14 mm Hg) and heart rate (increasing from 79+/-15 to 97+/-12 bpm) compared with the baseline and with the clonidine group. A dose of 300-microg clonidine blunted the hemodynamic response to endoscopy. Ventricular arrhythmias were more frequent in patients who were not premedicated with clonidine. Two patients in the control group, but none in the clonidine group, had evidence of myocardial ischemia. These data should encourage routine premedication with clonidine in patients undergoing microlaryngoscopic and bronchoscopic procedures.

  2. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY - A CLINICAL STUDY

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    Abu Lais Mustaque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgeries are the recent advances in the field of surgery and are the essence of today’s surgical practice. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionised gall bladder surgeries and has become the treatment of choice for cholelithiasis. This procedure has minimised the numbers of open cholecystectomy performed these days. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the effect of oral clonidine premedication on haemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MATERIALS & METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Anaesthesiology of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh for a period of one year from July 2012 to June 2013 on patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy at operation theatre of Department of General Surgery of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh. A total of 150 adult patients of either sex between the age group of 18 to 40 years of ASA-1 and ASA-2 undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided randomly into two groups of 75 patients each. RESULTS With the present study that oral premedication with Tab. Clonidine 150 mcg administered 90 minutes before surgery was able to prevent adverse haemodynamic changes during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Hence, from the findings of this study, we can reasonably recommend oral premedication with Tab. Clonidine 150 mcg in otherwise healthy patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  3. Melatonin versus midazolam premedication in children undergoing surgery: A pilot study.

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    Gitto, Eloisa; Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Crisafi, Caterina; Montalto, Angela Simona; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Reiter, Russel J; Romeo, Carmelo

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin has been proposed as a premedication alternative to midazolam, preceding anaesthesia induction. However, to our knowledge, data concerning interaction between melatonin and intravenous anaesthetic drugs in children are not available. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study was to investigate the possible effect of melatonin premedication, in comparison to midazolam, on the required infusion of propofol in children undergoing surgery. As a secondary outcome, the effect of oral melatonin on the preoperative sedation level and on the post anaesthesia recovery score was evaluated. Children between the age of 5 and 14 years, scheduled for elective surgery, were prospectively enrolled between January 2012 and December 2013, and randomly assigned to two groups based on whether they received oral melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) or oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) premedication before induction of anaesthesia with propofol. Degree of sedation before and after anaesthesia was also evaluated. Ninety-two patients were studied, 46 for each group. We found that oral administration of melatonin significantly reduced doses of propofol required for induction of anaesthesia in paediatric patients, more than midazolam (P midazolam. These data support the use of melatonin as a premedicant in paediatric surgical patients. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. The cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane after premedication of healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Janan M; Pike, Fred S; Clare, Monica C; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Sevoflurane and isoflurane are commonly used in veterinary anesthesia. The objective of this prospective, randomized, open-label clinical study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane via direct arterial blood pressure measurements and the lithium dilution cardiac output (LDCO) on premedicated healthy dogs undergoing elective tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Nineteen client-owned dogs were included. All dogs were premedicated with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg IV and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg subcutaneously). Ten dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and nine dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eighteen dogs were instrumented with a dorsal pedal arterial catheter, and one dog had a femoral arterial catheter. All dogs had continuous, direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure readings as well as heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), stroke volume variation (SVV), and pulse pressure variation (PPV) recorded q 5 min during the surgical procedure. There was no significant statistical difference in all parameters between the sevoflurane and isoflurane treatment groups. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane inhalant anesthetics appear to have similar hemodynamic effects when used as part of a multimodal anesthetic protocol in premedicated healthy dogs undergoing an elective surgical procedure.

  5. 加巴喷丁在小儿术前用药中的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Oral Gabapentin for Premedication in Pediatric Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长敏; 陈曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of oral gabapentin for premedication in pediatric patients. Method:Sixty ASA I-II pediatric patients were randomly divided into three groups ,each of 20 patients.The A groups and the B groups were orally received gabapentin(20 mg/kg)and midazolam(0.5 mg/kg)respectively.The C groups were given intramuscularly injection of Phenobarbital sodium with 5 mg/kg.The assessment of medication compliance during the premedication and the anxiety behavior and neurobehavioral at separation from parents during venepuncture and induction were graded.In addition,HR,RR,and SpO2 were also recorded and evaluated.Result:Comparison of the C group,there were significant difference with the A and B group with the clinical effects.Conclusion:Gabapentin is effective and safe in pediatric patients as premedication.%目的:探讨加巴喷丁在小儿术前用药中的疗效。方法:择期手术患儿60例,随机分为三组:A组加巴喷丁20 mg/kg口服,B组咪达唑仑0.5 mg/kg+5 mL的10%GS混合液口服,C组苯巴比妥钠5 mg/kg肌注。观察三组患儿给药时接受配合情况,给药后的HR、RR、MAP、SpO2变化;患儿用药后的行为变化。结果:使用加巴喷丁和咪达唑仑作为术前给药的患儿在给药配合、生理循环稳定方面明显优于使用苯巴比妥钠的患儿。结论:加巴喷丁作用安全有效,围术期患儿血流动力学稳定,可作为小儿术前用药。

  6. Comparison Of Oral Premedication With Combination Of Midazolam With Ketamine Vs Midazolam Ketamine Alone In Children Children Medical Center (year 2000

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    Hasani M

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolysis and sedation with oral midazolam are common practice in pediatric anesthesia. Good or excellent results are seen in only 50% to 80% of cases, so we decided to investigate if addition of a low dose of oral ketamine to midazolam (ketamine2.5 mg /kg ^midazolam 0.25 mg/kg resulted in better premedication compared with oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or ketamine 6 mg/kg alone."nMethods and Materials: in a prospective, randomized ,double -blind study we study 105 children (mean age 6 ,range 2-10 yr. undergoing non thoracic and non cardiac surgery of more than 30 min duration. The patients were in ASA 1, 2. After oral premedication the child's condition was evaluated by assigning 1-4 point to the quality of anxiolysis, sedation, and separation from parents in the induction room .The groups were similar in sex, age, weight, intervention and duration of anaesthesia."nResults: The score of sedation before transfer to the operation room was significantly better in the ketamine, midazolam combination group than in the ketamine or midazolam group. Success rates for anxiolysis and behavior at separation were grater than 90%with the combination, approximately 80% with midazolam and 70% with ketamine alone .The incidence of salivation, excitation, nausea and vomiting was grater in the ketamine group but were very low in other groups. During recovery there were no difference in sedation or time of possible discharge."nConclusion: In summery, significantly better anxiolysis and separation were observed with a combination of ketamine and midazolam, even in awake children than with midazolam or ketamine alone. Duration of action and side effects of the combination was similar to those of midazolam.

  7. Ketamine anesthesia with or without diazepam premedication for bone marrow punctures in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, R Y; Noordhoek, M; Kroon, J; Faber-Nijholt, R

    2000-01-01

    Ketamine is a drug widely used for analgesia and sedation of children for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The authors investigated in a randomized controlled clinical trial if diazepam premedication would have a beneficial effect on side effects related to ketamine anesthesia for bone marrow punctures (BMPs) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sixteen children 4 years or older at the time of BMP were eligible. The first 2 BMPs after complete remission was obtained were studied. BMPs were performed under ketamine anesthesia (1.0-1.5 mg/kg i.v.), as usual. Patients were randomized to receive 1 h before the first BMP blinded, either diazepam or placebo orally and before the second BMP the other way round. Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were monitored, and patients were observed for signs of anxiety, pain, and other side effects. The patients were interviewed after each BMP and asked for their preference 1 week after the second BMP. Ketamine anesthesia appeared as safe and effective after diazepam premedication as after placebo premedication. From the interviews and questionnaires, it was clear that half of the children preferred diazepam premedication because of less awful dreaming and more gradual falling asleep and waking up. Diazepam premedication may be useful for selected children with ALL receiving ketamine anesthesia for BMPs.

  8. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  9. A comparison of midazolam and clonidine as an oral premedication in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira Trevor; Madhusudan Upadya; Chandni Sinha; Manpreet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) versus oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) as a premedication in pediatric patients aged between 2-12 years with regard to sedation and anxiolysis. Methods: Sixty pediatric patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive either oral midazolam (group I) 30 min before induction or oral clonidine (group II) 90 min before induc...

  10. Does academic performance in the premedical year predict the performance of the medical student in subsequent years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman M

    2008-05-01

    Student admission into the College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU) is dependent on the achievement of a grade point average (GPA) of ≥3.5 /5 by the end of the premedical year. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether pre-selected medical students who achieve a relatively low GPA (≤3.75/5) in the premedical year are at risk of having academic difficulties in subsequent years. A cross-sectional study of all students admitted to the College of Medicine at KSU during 5 academic years (1994 to 1998) was conducted in 2004. The likelihood of completing the program by 2004 and the dropout frequency were compared in the two groups based on their GPA in the premedical year: High GPA (>3.75) and Low GPA (≤3.75). During the study period, 739 students were admitted to the college. Of these, 619 (84%) were in High GPA group, and 120 (16%) in the Low GPA group. Of the students with High GPA, 545 (88%) out of 619 graduated compared with 79 (66%) of 120 in the Low GPA group (OR 3.822 [95% CI: 2.44, 5.99]: PGPA group (10/120; 8.3%) compared with the High GPA group (18/619; 2.9%: OR 3.035 [95% CI: 1.37, 6.75], P=0.01). Our results support the prerequisite of a minimum GPA in the premedical year before proceeding to the higher levels. The GPA of premedical year is a useful predictor of students who need close monitoring and academic support. The use of GPA in the premedical year for admission into medical colleges should help optimize the use of resources and reduce student wastage.

  11. Oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative evaluation

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    Kumkum Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic responses of laryngoscopy and laparoscopy should be attenuated by the appropriate premedication, smooth induction, and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A total of 180 healthy adult consented patients aged 35 to 52 years with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status I and II of both gender, who met the inclusion criteria for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomized to receive placebo Group I, pregabalin (150 mg Group II, or clonidine (200 μg Group III, given 75 to 90 minutes before surgery as oral premedication. All groups were compared for preoperative sedation and anxiety level along with changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure prior to premedication, before induction, after laryngoscopy, pneumoperitoneum, release of carbon dioxide, and extubation. Intraoperative analgesic drug requirement and any postoperative complications were also recorded. Results: Pregabalin and clonidine proved to have sedative and anxiolytic effects as oral premedicants and decreased the need of intraoperative analgesic drug requirement. Clonidine was superior to pregabalin for attenuation of the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and laparoscopy, but it increased the incidence of intra-and postoperative bradycardia. No significant differences in the parameters of recovery were observed between the groups. None of the premedicated patient has suffered from any postoperative side effects. Conclusion: Oral premedication with pregabalin 150 mg or clonidine 200 μg causes sedation and anxiolysis with hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without prolongation of recovery time and side effects.

  12. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMBINATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND KETAMINE VERSUS MIDAZOLAM OR KETAMINE ALONE AS ORAL PREMEDICATION FOR CHILDREN

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    Anjali P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare the efficacy of combination of oral ketamine and midazolam with oral midazolam or ketamine alone in terms of acceptability, anxiolysis, sedation and side effects. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Compare the efficacy of oral midazolam, oral ketamine and combination of these two drugs, as pre medication in terms of acceptability, sedation, anxiolysis and side effects in paediatric children and t o evaluate whether the addition of oral midazolam to oral ketamine reduces the side effects of oral Ketamine. METHODS: In this randomized prospective study, 90 children of (age 1 - 8 years either sex, ASA grade I and II were randomly allocated to three groups of thirty each. Group M received midazolam 0.75mg/kg, Group K received ketamine 6 mg/kg and Group M+K received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg and ketamine 3 mg/kg via oral route. Formulations of the drugs were given to the children to swallow after mixing with apple juice. The children were separated from their parents 45 minutes after administration of the drug and were taken inside the operation theatre. Acceptability of the drug, time of onset of sedation, level of sedation and anxiolysis at the time of separation from parents and sedation at the time of induction of anaesthesia was noted. Any side effect after administration of the drug and in post - operative period was looked for. RESULTS: The Group K had better acceptance as compared to Group M and Group M+K . The onset of sedation was faster in Group M+K as compared to Group K and Group M, but not statistically significant . The sedation as well as anxiolysis in all the three groups was found to be acceptable at the time of separation; however it was not found to be satisfactory at the time of induction. Incidence of side effects was more in Group K as compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of oral midazolam and oral ketamine in low dose is better premedication than the

  13. The biologist's apprentices: A role for undergraduate research in premedical science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Philip

    This manuscript represents a project in two parts. Part one describes the perceptions of physicians, scientists and undergraduate researchers concerning if/why participation in undergraduate research is preparative for aspiring physicians. These communities in large part perceive that scientific habits appropriated through participation in professional research laboratories orient premedical students to medical classroom and clinical practices. Reasons for these perceptions are described. Topics of discussion include how these perceptions support descriptions of the nature of identities in communities of practice by situated cognition theorists. Part two describes the University-based undergraduate research experiences of four premedical students as they appropriate these selfsame habits. Themes in habit appropriation through these experiences are described in each case and across case studies. Patterns in habit appropriation which support the cognitive apprenticeship model of learning are also discussed. Situations comprising these experiences are described and discussed in terms of the convergence of these students' concurrent and desired future identities with their lived experiences as legitimate peripheral participants in the scientific community of practice. Formal and informal structures in the scientific community at the disciplinary, institutional and local levels were found to regulate the means and outcomes of scientific habit formation. Interplay between nascent scientific identities, established identities and desired physician identities were found to be of particular import to scientific enculturation through undergraduate research.

  14. Low-dose (1 microg/kg) clonidine premedication and hypotension after carotid artery surgery.

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    Pandazi, Ageliki; Karamanis, Periandros; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Matsota, Paraskevi; Papasideris, Christos; Niokou, Dimitra; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of low-dose clonidine intravenous (IV) premedication in arterial pressure variation during and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A total of 84 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III, scheduled for elective CEA under general anesthesia participated in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group P (n = 42) and group C (n = 42) and received N/S 0.9% (placebo) or clonidine 1 μg/kg IV, respectively, 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Recovery times, number of patients needed to be treated for circulatory events (hypertension, hypotension, and bradycardia), number of circulatory events per patient, and consumption of vasoactive drugs (nitroglycerine, phenylphrine, and atropine) intraoperatively and the first 6 hours postoperatively were recorded. Significantly less hypertensive episodes were observed intraoperatively, but more hypotensive episodes were observed postoperatively in patients receiving clonidine. Intravenous premedication with low-dose clonidine (1 μg/kg) seems to be effective in preventing hypertensive episodes during CEA under general anesthesia but seems to increase the incidence of hypotension postoperatively.

  15. Antiemetic effects of granisetron versus dexamethasone in clonidine premedicated children undergoing strabismus surgery

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    Indu Sen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective, double blind, randomized trial, 120 children, aged 3-8 years,ASAI-II, undergoing strabismus repair were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40 each. Oral clonidine premedication (4gg.kg-1 was administered to all the patients two hours prior to surgery. Soon after induction of anaesthesia, Group G patients were administered intravenous granisetron (40gg.kg-1 , Group D intravenous dexamethasone (150gg.kg-1 and group S received 4ml normal saline. Postoperatively, children were continuously monitored and assessed half-hourly till discharge and then after 24 hours for vomiting and pain. The overall incidence of postoperative emesis was lower (15.4% in the Group G compared with the Group D (21.6% in the first 24 hours (P>0.05. The Group S had a highest incidence of postoperative vomiting ((37% P value < 0.0324 compared to group G. The frequency of early vomiting was highest in the S group. Both G and D groups showed better control of delayed emetic episodes. We observed that in children who were premedicated with clonidine, both IV granisetron or dexamethasone were efficacious in reducing the incidence and severity of POV in day-care strabismus surgery.

  16. Premedication with midazolam prior to caesarean section has no neonatal adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Ahmet Can; Mergan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Like all surgical patients, obstetric patients also feel operative stress and anxiety. This can be prevented by giving patients detailed information about their operation and with preoperative pharmacological medications. Because of depressive effects of sedatives on newborns, pharmacological medications are omitted, especially in obstetric patients. The literature contains few studies concerning preoperative midazolam use in Caesarian section (C/S) patients. Our aim in this study was to help patients undergoing C/S surgery. One group scheduled for elective C/S received midazolam 0.025 mg kg(-1) intravenously, the other received saline. Maternal anxiety was evaluated using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) scores, and newborns were evaluated using Apgar and the Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS). In conclusion, patients receiving midazolam 0.025 mg kg(-1) as premedication had significantly low anxiety scores, without any adverse effects on the newborns. Midazolam can therefore safely be used as a premedicative agent in C/S surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Ali M; Elsakka, Ahmed I; Ali, Hassan M

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns.

  18. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Ali M.; Elsakka, Ahmed I.; Ali, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Results: Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns. PMID:27746564

  19. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniadek, Agnieszka; Cepuch, Grażyna; Ochender, Katarzyna; Salamon, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant civilization advancement, parasitic diseases still pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Children's susceptibility to these infections stems from their immature immune system and lack of basic hygiene routines. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge which parents of preschool children's possess about parasitic diseases in their children's environment. The study was carried out in the group of 151 parents of preschool children living both in the city and in the country. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. To make the evaluation even more objective, a special scale was created in which parents could score points for their answers (0 - wrong answer, 1 - correct answer). The total number of points ranging from 0 to 9 indicated an unsatisfactory level of knowledge, from 10 to 13 - satisfactory level, from 14 to 16 - good level and from 17 to 20 - very good level of parents' awareness. The results of the study reveal that the level of parents' knowledge about parasitic diseases is only satisfactory. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the variables such as education and sex. The higher education, the higher level of knowledge. Moreover, women were more knowledgeable in the field of parasitic diseases than men were. Financial status of the family did not influence the level of parents' awareness. Well-planned educational programmes might have a positive influence on developing proper hygiene routines in families, which, in turn, will limit the risk of spreading parasitoses in the population of children.

  20. Parental Bonding

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    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  1. Is a career in medicine the right choice? The impact of a physician shadowing program on undergraduate premedical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer Y; Lin, Hillary; Lewis, Patricia Y; Fetterman, David M; Gesundheit, Neil

    2015-05-01

    Undergraduate (i.e., baccalaureate) premedical students have limited exposure to clinical practice before applying to medical school-a shortcoming, given the personal and financial resources required to complete medical training. The Stanford Immersion in Medicine Series (SIMS) is a program that streamlines the completion of regulatory requirements for premedical students and allows them to develop one-on-one mentor-mentee relationships with practicing physicians. The program, offered quarterly since 2007, is an elective available for Stanford University sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Participants apply to the program and, if accepted, receive patient rights and professionalism training. Students shadow the physician they are paired with at least four times and submit a reflective essay about their experience.SIMS program coordinators administered surveys before and after shadowing to assess changes in students' perceptions and understanding of medical careers. The authors observed, in the 61 Stanford premedical students who participated in SIMS between March and June 2010 and completed both pre- and postprogram questionnaires, significant increases in familiarity with physician responsibilities and in understanding physician-patient interactions. The authors detected no significant changes in student commitment to pursuing medicine. Student perceptions of the value of shadowing-high both pre- and post shadowing-did not change. Physician shadowing by premedical baccalaureate students appears to promote an understanding of physician roles and workplace challenges. Future studies should identify the ideal timing, format, and duration of shadowing to optimize the experience and allow students to make informed decisions about whether to pursue a medical career.

  2. ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH A PLACEBO IN ATTENUATING HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

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    Gurudatta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sympathetic response associated with laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is a potential cause for a number of complications especially in patients with cardiovascular compromise . The aim of our study was to evaluate and study the efficiency of oral Clonidine premedication in this respect as compared with a placebo . METHODS: 100 surgical patients of either sex of physical status ASA I/II were randomly divided into two groups . Group I , who r eceived oral Clonidine tablet 0 . 003mg ( 3μg /kg 90 minutes before surgery and group II , who received oral Ranitidine tablet 150mg 90 minutes before surgery . Basal parameters like HR , SBP , DBP were measured before premedication and for 90 minutes after ; scoring was done for sedation , anxiolysis and antisialogogue effects 90 minutes after premedication . RESULT: Oral Clonidine showed statistically significant attenuation of haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and intubation and in addition it was found t o have good sedative , anxiolytic effect as comared with placebo . CONCLUSION: we conclude that oral Clonidine premedication with dose of 3μg/kg is highly effective in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation

  3. Pre-medication with H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor antagonists for intravenous urography

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    Reimann, H.J.; Tauber, R.; Kramann, B.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Schmidt, U.; Reiser, M.

    1986-02-01

    Intravenous urography using Telebrix was performed on 500 patients. Two hundred patients (group I) received no pre-medication; 300 patients (group II) were premedicated with H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor antagonists. All patients were examined for signs of contrast reactions, blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma histamine levels. These were measured before and three minutes after the administration of the antihistamine substances and/or the contrast medium, and also at the end of the examination. Following the administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor antagonists, a slight, transient and insignificant rise in plasma histamine could be demonstrated. Both groups showed a significant rise in plasma histamine levels after the injection of the contrast medium. Although the pre-medicated group contained a higher percentage of high risk patients, there were significantly fewer patients with contrast reactions. Pre-medication with H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor antagonists in high risk patients is therefore advisable.

  4. Ketamine anesthesia with or without diazepam premedication for bone marrow punctures in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, RYJ; Noordhoek, M; Kroon, J; Faber-Nijholt, R

    2000-01-01

    Ketamine is a drug widely used for analgesia and sedation of children for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The authors investigated in a randomized controlled clinical trial id diazepam premedication would have a beneficial effect on side effects related to ketamine anesthesia for bone marrow

  5. EFFECT OF PREMEDICATION WITH INTRAVENOUS CLONIDINE ON HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A RANDOMISED STUDY

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    Sudheer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers many benefits but significant hemodynamic changes are observed, which can be detrimental especially in elderly and hemodynamically compromised patients. Clonidine was found to inhibit the release of catecholamines and v asopressin and thus modulate the haemodynamic changes induced by pneumoperitoneum. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To assess the efficacy of intravenous clonidine premedication in prevention of adverse haemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystec tomy. The following parameters were studied. Heart rate and Blood pressure response to induction, intubation and pneumoperitoneum . Requirements of intra - op analgesia like Fentanyl . Incidence of post - op nausea and vomiting Incidence of shivering . METHODS: 100 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to one of the two groups to receive either clonidine 4 micrograms per kg or equivalent quantity of normal saline The primary outcome was to assess the efficacy of intrave nous clonidine premedication in prevention of adverse haemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. STATISTICAL METHODS : Student t test (two tailed, independent has been used to find the significance of study parameters (HR, SBP, DBP on conti nuous scale between two groups (Inter group analysis and to test the homogeneity samples based on age (continuous parameters. Chi - square test was used to test the homogeneity of samples based on parameters on categorical scale between two groups. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant . The statistical software namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, Med Calc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 were used for the analysis of the data and Microsoft word and Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables etc. RESULTS: The result showed that Blood Pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP and HR in study group fell significantly to lower level within 10 minutes after starting clonidine infusion and

  6. Oral Clonidine Premedication Decreases Intraoperative Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

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    M Jabalameli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antihypertensive drug, clonidine, is a centrally acting alpha 2 agonist, useful as a premedication because of its sedative and analgesic properties. We examined the effect of clonidine given as an oral premedication in producing a bloodless surgical field in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. We also evaluated the relation between bleeding volume and consumption of fentanyl and hydralazine to control hypotension. Methods: This prospective double - blinded clinical trial was performed on 113 patients (ASA I, ASA II. Fifty-two patients received oral clonidine (5 µg/kg while the other 61 patients received placebo. During general anesthesia, the hemodynamic endpoint of the anesthetic management was maintenance of hypotension (MAP at 70 mmHg for producing a bloodless surgical field. The direct control of MAP was attained with inspired concentration increments of halothane up to maximum of 1.5 vol % as needed. When it was unsuccessful, an intravenous fentanyl bolus of 2 µg/kg was also added. When both drugs failed, hydralazine , was given intravenously as a bolus and intermittently, 0.1mg/kg up to a maximum dose of 40 mg. Intraoperative bleeding was assessed on a six – point scale from 0 (= no bleeding to 5 (= severe bleeding. Data were compared with chisquare test, fisher's exact test and Student t-test. Results: There was less bleeding volume in the clonidine group (mean ± SD than in the placebo group (144 ± 75 Vs 225 ± 72 ml, P<0.05. Frequency of bleeding severity scores 3 and 4 (troublesome with repeated suction were lower in the clonidine group than in the placebo group (12% Vs 35%, P< 0.05. Fentanyl requirement was significantly lower (112 ± 18 Vs 142 ± 21 µg, P < 0.05 in the clonidine group. Hydralazine requirement was significantly lower (0.45 ± 1.68 Vs 2.67 ± 4.33 Conclusion: Premedication with oral clonidine reduces bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery and also decreases fentanyl, and hydralazine

  7. Biologic: Gene circuits and feedback in an introductory physics sequence for biology and premedical students

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, S B

    2013-01-01

    Two synthetic gene circuits -- the genetic toggle switch and the repressilator -- are analyzed quantitatively and discussed in the context of an educational module on gene circuits and feedback that constitutes the final topic of a year-long introductory physics sequence, aimed at biology and premedical undergraduate students. The genetic toggle switch consists of two genes, each of whose protein product represses the other's expression, while the repressilator consists of three genes, each of whose protein product represses the next gene's expression. Analytic, numerical, and electronic treatments of the genetic toggle switch shows that this gene circuit realizes bistability. A simplified treatment of the repressilator reveals that this circuit can realize sustained oscillations. In both cases, a "phase diagram" is obtained, that specifies the region of parameter space in which bistability or oscillatory behavior, respectively, occurs.

  8. Predictive factors of premedical student retention and degree completion within a private undergraduate university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances E.

    Undergraduate retention and eventual graduation is of paramount importance to universities globally. Approximately 58% of students who began their college career at a four-year institution with the intention of receiving a bachelor's degree actually received that degree in a 6-year timeframe, according to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) annual report The Condition of Education 2009 (Planty, 2009). In certain subgroups of the undergraduate population, this graduation rate is even lower. This dissertation presents research into the academic integration of students in premedical programs subgroup based on Vincent Tinto's Integrationist Model of Student Departure. Pre-entry factors of interest for this study included incoming high school grade point average (GPA), incoming SAT total test scores, while post-matriculation factors included grade in organic chemistry, and the initial calculus course taken. A sample of 519 students from a private coeducational institution in the southeastern United States was examined. A logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of high school GPA, SAT total scores, organic chemistry grades, and calculus-readiness on graduation. A significant regression equation was found. The findings suggest that of the four predictor variables, high school GPA and organic chemistry grade were the only variables that showed significant predictive ability based on a significance level of p < .05. Further research should involve the examination of additional indicators of academic integration as well as information on the social integration of the student. Additionally, institutional leaders should continue to evaluate the premedical curriculum based on potential changes in medical school requirements.

  9. Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children

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    Sonal S Khatavkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade 1 and 2 were selected. Group A- midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, Group B- midazolam (0.15 mg/kg + ketamine 1 mg/kg. Both groups received drug intranasally 30 min before surgery in recovery room with monitored anesthesia care. Onset of sedation, sedation score, emotional reaction, intravenous cannula acceptance, and mask acceptance were studied. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t test and chi square test. Results: Sedation score, anxiolysis, attitude, reaction to intravenous cannulation, face mask acceptance, and emotional reaction were significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Intra operatively, in both groups, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate had no significant difference; also, post operatively, no significant difference was observed in above parameters, post operative analgesia was significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Conclusions: Intra nasal premedication allows rapid and predictable sedation in children. Midazolam as well as combination of Midazolam with ketamine gives good level of sedation and comfort. But quality of sedation, analgesia, and comfort is significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. No significant side effects were observed in both groups.

  10. Effects of dobutamine hydrochloride on cardiovascular function in horses anesthetized with isoflurane with or without acepromazine maleate premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Mara F; Raisis, Anthea L; Secombe, Cristy J; Hosgood, Giselle; Musk, Gabrielle C; Lester, Guy D

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of acepromazine maleate premedication on cardiovascular function before and after infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride for 30 minutes in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each horse was anesthetized once following premedication with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) administered 30 minutes prior to anesthetic induction (ACP+ treatment) and once without premedication (ACP- treatment). Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride (0.8 mg/kg), ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg), and diazepam (0.08 mg/kg). Horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency, and anesthesia was maintained via inhalation of isoflurane delivered in oxygen. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was adjusted to achieve a target mean arterial blood pressure of 60 mm Hg (interquartile range [25th to 75th percentile], 57 to 63 mm Hg) for at least 15 minutes. Cardiac index, oxygen delivery index, and femoral arterial blood flow indices were determined 60 minutes after anesthetic induction (baseline). Dobutamine was then infused to achieve a target mean arterial blood pressure of 80 mm Hg (interquartile range, 76 to 80 mm Hg). Data collection was repeated 30 minutes after the start of dobutamine infusion for comparison with baseline values. RESULTS Complete data sets were available from 5 of the 6 horses. Dobutamine administration resulted in significant increases in oxygen delivery and femoral arterial blood flow indices but no significant change in cardiac index for each treatment. However, at baseline or 30 minutes after the start of dobutamine infusion, findings for the ACP+ and ACP- treatments did not differ. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, dobutamine administration increased oxygen delivery and femoral arterial blood flow indices, but these changes were unaffected by premedication with acepromazine.

  11. Melatonin and clonidine premedication has similar impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol target controlled-infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Katarzyna; Wiczling, Paweł; Przybyłowski, Krzysztof; Kokot, Zenon J; Matysiak, Jan; Pachutko, Agnieszka; Józefowicz, Martyna; Kusza, Krzysztof; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2015-03-01

    Recently oral melatonin has been proposed as an agent for premedication. In this study, we compared melatonin with clonidine, considering its anxiolytic properties as well as the influence of both agents on the pharmacokinetic, hypnotic, and hemodynamic effects of propofol during propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The dataset under analysis included 32 patients scheduled for a functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The population pharmacokinetic modeling was done with NONMEM. The PK of propofol was described with a two-compartment disposition model, whereas the BIS and AAI were described with a sigmoidal Emax model linked with the propofol concentration via the biophase compartment. The anxiolytic effect was assessed by means of the visual analog scale for anxiety (VAS-A). The population PK/PD model was successfully developed to describe the data. No significant differences in the PK/PD of propofol were noted due to the premedication with clonidine and melatonin. Melatonin was less effective than clonidine in reducing patients' anxiety at the induction of anesthesia, whereas clonidine premedication was associated with greater decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. A decreased EC50 (2.47 vs. 3.17 mg/L) and increased slope (2.71 vs. 1.30) of the sigmoidal Emax relationship was observed for the AAI index, as compared with the BIS measurements.

  12. PPIP辅助笑气-七氟醚序贯吸入麻醉诱导的效果研究%Influence of Parent presence induction program to enhance gas induction of general anaesthesia using nitrous oxide and sevoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽华; 王立勋; 罗红; 叶燕红

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿麻醉诱导期家长陪同在笑气-七氟醚序贯吸入模式的应用及护理对策.方法:选择择期手术患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组为家长陪同下笑气-七氟醚序贯吸入麻醉诱导,对照组则无家长陪同常规麻醉诱导程序,观察两组患儿麻醉诱导前的血压、心率、呼吸、血氧饱和度及情绪变化,通过问卷方式调查两组患儿术后心理行为、家长满意度.结果:对照组患儿麻醉诱导期血压及心率、呼吸显著高于观察组,血氧饱和度低于观察组(P<0.01),观察组术后心理行为明显优于对照组,观察组家长满意度提高.结论:PPIP辅助笑气-七氟醚序贯吸入麻醉诱导患儿安静合作、生命体征稳定,术后心理行为正常,家长满意.%Objective:To explore the application of using sevoflurane and nitrous oxide for gas induction of general anaesthesia and develop nursing care plan.Methods:Paediatric patients undergo elective operation will be selected and divided in two groups:research group, using sevoflurane and nitrous oxide for gas induction of general anaesthesi with parent presence and compare group, using sevoflurane and nitrous oxide for gas induction of general anaesthesia with no parent presence.During the induction period,patient's blood pressure,heart rate, respiration rate, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation and change on behaviour and mood will be monitored for both groups of patients.Questionnaire will be used to investigate the patient's psychological behaviour and satisfaction of the parents in the post - operation visit.Results:The blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate for the compare group was markedly higher than the research group during the induction period.The blood oxygen saturation for the control group was lower than the research group ( P <0.01 ).The patient' s post - operative psychological behaviour and satisfaction of the parent in the research group was better than the

  13. [Evaluation of short-time premedication with d-chlorpheniramine maleate injection for paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiko; Doi, Masakazu; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Akase, Tomohide

    2008-08-01

    Paclitaxel(referred to hereinafter as PTX )is used in ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and endometrial cancer with positive treatment result reports. However, severe allergic reactions such as decreases in blood pressure and impaired breathing occur with relatively high frequency. For the prevention of such allergic reactions, administration of a premedication composed of the three components, dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablet, and ranitidine hydrochloride injection solution(or injectable famodine), is advised in the appended documentation. Administration is difficult because, among these three components, only diphenhydramine hydrochloride is administered orally and thus must be provided through the internal medicine department. Particularly when this combined dosage is administered as outpatient chemotherapy, the doctor must prescribe diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablets, and the patient must not forget to bring them on the day in which chemotherapy is administered. Also, checks by the medical staff such as pharmacists and nurses are required, complicating the administration of this therapy further. Taking this situation into consideration, our hospital uses a short-time premedication method wherein d-Chlorpheniramine Maleate injections are substituted for diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablets, and the time required for premedication is reduced to 15 minutes. This study investigated the allergic reaction ratio to consider the safety and usefulness of the short-time premedication method used at our hospital. The chemotherapy regimens conducted for the subject patients were 9 cases of PTX+CBDCA, 6 cases of biweekly- PTX, and 5 cases of weekly-PTX. A total of 67 PTX injections were given, 15 of them being first-time administrations. The ratio of allergic/hypersensitivity reactions was 10.0%(2 cases in 20). The short-time premedication method using d-Chlorpheniramine Maleate

  14. Oral Clonidine Premedication Reduces Nausea and Vomiting in Children after Appendectomy

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    Reza Alizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine is an α2-agonist which is used as a sedative premedication in children. There are conflicting results in the published literature about the effect of clonidine on the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV. We therefore decided to evaluate the effect of oral clonidine given preoperatively on the incidence of PONV in children after appendectomy.Methods: sixty children, 5-12 years old, classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were scheduled for appendecectomy were enrolled in this randomized double blinded clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 patients. Patients in clonidine group were given4 μg.kg -1 clonidine in 20 cc of apple juice and patients in control group were given only 20 cc of apple juice 1 hour before transporting to operating room. The protocol of general anesthesia and postoperative analgesia was the same for two groups. Incidence of PONV and antiemetic usage of patients were assessed during 0-24hours after anesthesia.Findings: The patients' characteristics were similar in two groups. Patients who had received clonidine had significantly less episodes of PONV and also less rescue antiemetic usage than patients in control group.Conclusion: we showed that oral clonidine at a dose of 4 μg.kg -1 administered preoperatively is associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative vomiting in children who have undergone appendectomy.

  15. Effects of oral clonidine premedication on haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, H; Nourozi, A; Fateh, S; Mohammadzadeh, A; Eghtesadi-Araghi, P; Jabbari, S; Kalantarian, M

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-anesthetic orally administration of clonidine on pulse rate and blood stress response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. In a double-blinded, randomized study, 274 ASA I and II subjects with age of 18 to 45 years scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. They were randomly allocated to receive oral clonidine (0.2 mg) or placebo as premedication 90-120 min before surgery. All the patients received Succinylcholine (1.5 mg kg(-1)) after induction of anesthesia with Fentanyl (50 microg) and Thiopentone (5 mg kg(-1)). The anesthesia was maintained with halothane (1.5 Mac) in 50% mixture of N2O/O2. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded before, immediately after and then every 5 min after intubation until 20 min. The Clonidine group showed a significant superiority over placebo in the prevention of increase in systolic blood pressure as well as heart rate over the intubation. A significant difference was observed in both heart rate and systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in Control group at three subsequent measurements following intubation. The results of this study suggest that orally administered clonidine in preanesthetic period, provides more haemodynamic stability and attenuates the stress response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  16. Hemodynamic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Effect of two different doses of intravenous clonidine premedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha C Tripathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Clonidine has emerged as an attractive premedication desirable in laparoscopic surgery wherein significant hemodynamic stress response is seen. The minimum safe and effective dose of intravenous clonidine to attenuate the hemodynamic stress response during laparoscopic surgery has however not yet been determined. Materials and Methods : This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study was conducted on 90 adults of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to one of the three groups (n= 30. Group I received 100 ml of normal saline, while groups II and III received 1 μg/ kg and 2 μg/ kg of clonidine respectively, intravenous, in 100 ml of normal saline along. All patients received glycopyrrolate 0.004 mg/kg and tramadol 1.5 mg/kg intravenously, 30 min before induction. Hemodynamic variables (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, SpO2, and sedation score were recorded at specific timings. MAP above 20% from baseline was considered significant and treated with nitroglycerine. Results : In group I, there was a significant increase in hemodynamic variables during intubation pneumoperitoneum and extubation (P<0.001. Clonidine given 1 μg/kg intravenous attenuated hemodynamic stress response to pneumoperitoneum (P<0.05, but not that associated with intubation and extubation. Clonidine 2 μg/kg intravenous prevented hemodynamic stress response to pneumoperitoneum and that associated with intubation and extubation (P<0.05. As against 14 and 2 patients in groups I and II respectively, no patient required nitroglycerine infusion in group III. Conclusions : Clonidine, 2 μg/ kg intravenously, 30 min before induction is safe and effective in preventing the hemodynamic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  17. Changes in intraocular pressure following administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation: Influence of dexmedetomidine premedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandan Kumar; Ray, Manjushree; Sen, Anjana; Hajra, Bimal; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Ghanta, Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of suxamethonium is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and may be harmful for patients with penetrating eye injuries. The purpose of our study was to observe the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for prevention of rise in IOP associated with the administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty-six American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were included in this randomized, prospective, clinical study. Patients were allocated into three groups to receive 0.4 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D4), 0.6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D6) or normal saline (group C) over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded before and after the premedication, after induction, after suxamethonium injection and after endotracheal intubation. Results: Fall in IOP was observed following administration of dexmedetomidine. IOP increased in all three groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation, but it never crossed the baseline value in group D4 as well as in group D6. Fall in mean arterial pressure was noticed after dexmedetomidine infusion, especially in the D6 group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (0.6 μg/kg as well as 0.4 μg/kg body weight) effectively prevents rise of IOP associated with administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. However, dexmedetomidine 0.6 μg/kg may cause significant hypotension. Thus, dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg may be preferred for prevention of rise in IOP. PMID:22223900

  18. Changes in intraocular pressure following administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation: Influence of dexmedetomidine premedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of suxamethonium is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP and may be harmful for patients with penetrating eye injuries. The purpose of our study was to observe the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for prevention of rise in IOP associated with the administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty-six American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were included in this randomized, prospective, clinical study. Patients were allocated into three groups to receive 0.4 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D4, 0.6 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D6 or normal saline (group C over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded before and after the premedication, after induction, after suxamethonium injection and after endotracheal intubation. Results: Fall in IOP was observed following administration of dexmedetomidine. IOP increased in all three groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation, but it never crossed the baseline value in group D4 as well as in group D6. Fall in mean arterial pressure was noticed after dexmedetomidine infusion, especially in the D6 group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (0.6 mg/kg as well as 0.4 mg/kg body weight effectively prevents rise of IOP associated with administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. However, dexmedetomidine 0.6 mg/kg may cause significant hypotension. Thus, dexmedetomidine 0.4 mg/kg may be preferred for prevention of rise in IOP.

  19. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia after premedication with butorphanol in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Stahl, Scott; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    The anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol followed by sevoflurane or isoflurane were compared in 23 male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Heart and respiratory rates were recorded before administration of butorphanol (2 mg/kg i.m.) and at 30 min after premedication. Anesthesia was induced in 12 iguanas (group 1) with isoflurane (5%) and in 11 iguanas (group 2) with sevoflurane (7%). Heart rate, relative arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal CO2 concentrations (EtCO2) were measured every minute for the first 5 min and every 5 min thereafter. Arterial blood gas parameters were determined at 10 and 40 min after induction. Thirty minutes after butorphanol administration, no significant changes in heart and respiratory rate were seen as compared with baseline values. Quality and time to induction were superior with butorphanol-sevoflurane (6 +/- 3 min) than with butorphanol-isoflurane (9 +/- 4 min). Vaporizer settings during maintenance ranged between 1-3% and 2-4%, respectively. No significant differences in heart rate were noted between groups. In the sevoflurane group, SpO2 values were > 90% throughout. Although SpO2, values were isoflurane group, no significant differences in SpO2 values were seen over time and between groups. A significant decrease in EtCO2 with time was present in both groups, with no significant differences between the groups. At 10 and 40 min, arterial blood oxygen saturation values were > 90% in both groups and no significant differences were noted with time and between groups. Recovery time was significantly longer in the butorphanol-isoflurane group (35 +/- 27 min) than in the butorphanol-sevoflurane group (7 +/- 4 min). The cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol-isoflurane and butorphanol-sevoflurane assessed in this study are similar, and both inhalants appear to be safe and effective for induction and maintenance in the green iguana.

  20. A comparative study to assess the effect of oral alprazolam as premedication on vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the changes in vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Methods: This was an in vivo study conducted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Terna Dental College. Sixty patients were randomly selected. Thirty patients were given a preoperative single dose of oral tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg as premedication (test group, whereas the other thirty were treated without any premedication (control group. Results: It was found that the mean systolic blood pressure during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar was raised in the control group and exhibited minimal fluctuation in the test group. Conclusion: The use of tablet alprazolam as premedication before surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars resulted in stability of vital parameters, secondary to reduced patient anxiety.

  1. Influence of premedication with alprazolam on the occurence of obstructive apneas. A prospective randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflandre, E; Bonhomme, V; Courtois, A-C; Degey, S; Poirrier, R; Brichant, J-F

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative development or worsening of obstructive sleep apnea is a potential complication of anesthesia. The objective of this study was to study the effects of a premedication with alprazolam on the occurrence of apneas during the immediate postoperative period. Fifty ASA 1 - 2 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were recruited. Patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were excluded. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: in Group A, they received 0.5 mg of alprazolam orally one hour before the procedure; and in Group C, they received placebo. Anesthesia technique was identical in both groups. Patients were monitored during the first two postoperative hours to establish their AHI (apnea hypopnea index, the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour). Nine patients were excluded (4 in group A and 5 in group C) due to technical problems or refusal. Interestingly, premedication by alprazolam did not change intra-operative propofol requirements. During the first two postoperative hours, the AHI was significantly higher in group A than in group C (Group A: 20.33 ± 10.97 h(-1), C: 9.63 ± 4.67 h(-1)). These apneas did not induce significant arterial oxygen desaturation, or mandibular instability. Our study demonstrates that a premedication with 0.5 mg of alprazolam doesn't modify intra-operative anesthetic requirements during colonoscopy, but is associated with a higher rate of obstructive apneas during at least three and a half hours after ingestion. No severe side effects were observed in our non-obese population. Our results must be confirmed on a larger scale.

  2. STUDY OF THE ROLE OF ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA WITH ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION

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    Subhrajyoti Chattopadhyay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is known to produce Exaggerated Haemodynamic Responses (HDR owing to pneumoperitoneum. Different pharmacological agents like opioids, benzodiazepines, lignocaine, beta blockers, nitroglycerine, etc. are being used to alleviate HDR. Clonidine at doses varying from 2 to 6 mcg per kg body weight or a fixed dose of 150 or 200 mcg have been tested either through intravenous or oral routes with varying results thus creating confusion. Hence, we have designed to observe the effect of oral premedication with 200 mcg clonidine in attenuating HDR in patients undergoing LC under GA. METHODS Sixty adults aged between 18 and 60 years of either sex of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II, undergoing LC under GA were randomly allocated to receive orally either tablet clonidine 200 mcg (Group 1, n=30 or multivitamin tablets (Group 2, n=30 about 60-90 minutes before induction of GA. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP, SpO2, and EtCO2 were recorded at different perioperative time points. The level of sedation was also noted using Ramsay Sedation Scale. Postoperatively, the incidence of shivering was recorded. RESULTS The surge in heart rate and MAP after intubation, 15 and 30 min after pneumoperitoneum, after release of CO2, and after extubation were found lower in the study group (p=0.0001. Patients receiving oral clonidine premedication showed a deeper level of sedation before induction (p=0.001 and in the postoperative period (p <0.001, better control of postoperative shivering (p=0.038, nausea (p=0.038 and vomiting (p=0.036. CONCLUSION Oral premedication with 200 mcg clonidine is effective in achieving better perioperative haemodynamic stability, deeper level of sedation, and reduced incidences of postoperative shivering, nausea, and vomiting compared with placebo. With such dose, clonidine does not produce any harmful changes in observed parameters like SpO2, EtCO2, or ECG.

  3. Producing Presences

    OpenAIRE

    Mandagará, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Resenha de MENDES, Victor K.; ROCHA, João Cezar de Castro (Eds.). Producing Presences: branching out from Gumbrecht’s work. Dartmouth, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2007. (Adamastor book series, 2)

  4. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery

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    Khattab Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The use of sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia, which could enable a more rapid emergence and recovery, is complicated by the frequent occurrence of post-anesthesia agitation. This study aims to test the efficacy of adding a low dose of ketamine orally, as a supplement to the midazolam-based oral premedication for reducing sevoflurane-related emergence agitation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two preschool children, aged between two and six years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, scheduled for elective dental filling and extractions under general anesthesia were included. The patients were allocated into two groups: Group M (46 patients received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, mixed with ibuprofen 10 mg/kg, while group KM (46 patients received a similar premedication mixture, in addition to ketamine 2 mg/kg. The acceptance of the drug mixture, the onset of action, and the occurrence of vomiting were monitored over the next 30 minutes. Induction of anesthesia was carried out using sevoflurane 8 Vol% in 100% oxygen via face mask. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2 Vol% in an oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture. After extubation, the standard scoring scale was used for assessing the quality of emergence. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale. Agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 μg/ kg. The time of hospital discharge allowance was recorded. Results: Drug palatability, vomiting, and onset of action of premedication; showed no significant differences between both groups. Time of eye opening after discontinuation of sevoflurane showed no significant differences between both groups. Postoperative agitation score and rescue fentanyl consumption were higher in group M than in group KM on admission to the PACU ( P < 0.01. The time of hospital discharge allowance in group M was longer than in group KM ( P< 0.05. Conclusion

  5. Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and postoperative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivinder; Arora, Kapil

    2011-01-01

    Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 μg (Group I, n = 25) or placebo (Group II, n = 25) 90 minutes prior to induction. The patients were managed with a standard general anaesthetic. The two groups were compared with respect to haemodynamic parameters, isoflurane concentration, pain and sedation scores, time to request of analgesic and cumulative analgesic requirements. Oral clonidine was found to be significantly better in terms of maintaining stable haemodynamics, having an isoflurane sparing effect and having a prolonged time interval to the first request of analgesia postoperatively compared to the control group. Administration of oral clonidine 150 μg as a pre-medicant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy results in improved perioperative haemodynamic stability and a reduction in the intra-operative anaesthetic and post-operative analgesic requirements.

  6. Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative haemodynamic response and post-operative analgesic requirement for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Shivinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonidine has anti-hypertensive properties and augments the effects of anaesthesia, hence we considered it to be an ideal agent to contain the stress response to pneumoperitoneum. We studied the clinical efficacy of oral clonidine premedication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Fifty patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive premedication with either oral clonidine 150 μg (Group I, n = 25 or placebo (Group II, n = 25 90 minutes prior to induction. The patients were managed with a standard general anaesthetic. The two groups were compared with respect to haemodynamic parameters, isoflurane concentration, pain and sedation scores, time to request of analgesic and cumulative analgesic requirements. Oral clonidine was found to be significantly better in terms of maintaining stable haemodynamics, having an isoflurane sparing effect and having a prolonged time interval to the first request of analgesia postoperatively compared to the control group. Administration of oral clonidine 150 μg as a pre-medicant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy results in improved perioperative haemodynamic stability and a reduction in the intra-operative anaesthetic and post-operative analgesic requirements.

  7. The role of codeine phosphate premedication in fibre-optic bronchoscopy under insufficient local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunezuka, Y; Sato, H; Tsukioka, T; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, Y

    1999-06-01

    Midazolam is widely used as a sedative agent to produce amnesia in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. However, if a patient does not receive sufficient local anaesthesia, continuous severe cough and physical movement may interrupt the procedure and reduce its safety. We therefore examined whether codeine phosphate is a useful premedication for bronchoscopy. The study design was a randomized comparison between codeine phosphate and a placebo in patients undergoing light local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. We used low dose local anaesthesia (5 ml of nebulized 2% xylocaine) on the assumption of insufficient local anaesthesia. Patients were allocated to receive codeine phosphate 0.4 mg kg-1 or a saline placebo 60 min before they were sedated with i.v. midazolam. If the patients exhibited severe cough during bronchoscopy, intrabronchial supplemental local anaesthesia (2% xylocaine solution in 1 ml increments) was instilled via a bronchoscope to the trachea and segmental bronchi to suppress the cough. The dose of supplemental xylocaine was assessed and the requirements were significantly lower in the codeine group compared to the placebo group: 36.4 +/- 10.2 mg vs. 95.1 +/- 24.6 mg, respectively. After bronchoscopy, patients were interviewed by a doctor to assess their willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if one was clinically indicated, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups. If local anaesthesia is insufficient, midazolam together with codeine phosphate premedication is useful for both the patient and the bronchoscopist.

  8. Parents are Educators: Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ed

    1982-01-01

    Discusses growing recognition of the importance of parenting and of parents as educators, due to the increase in single-parent households and awareness of importance of early childhood learning experiences. Ways outdoor education can help (emphasizing methods, materials, motivations) are described, including 11 starting points and 15 tips for…

  9. Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine with clonidine as premedication for attenuation of hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia

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    Salony Agarwal

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine premedication in dose of 1 and #956;g.kg-1 provided more stable hemodynamics during induction with propofol and following laryngoscopy and intubation as compared to clonidine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4026-4032

  10. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in the course of radiation disease. The effect of premedication with cystamine on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nitrazepam. [Rats, x radiation, nitrazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szcawinska, K.; Cenajek, D.; Chodera, D.; Wojciak, Z.; Okulicz-Kozaryn, I.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments carried out on rats the radiation disease was evoked by exposure to 600 R. The strongest radioprotective action of cystamine was found on the 3rd day of radiation disease. The tendency to normalization of both the pharmacodynamics (exploring mobility and anticonvulsant action) and pharmacokinetics of nitrazepam in the animals premedicated with cystamine was described.

  11. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  12. Competencies as the basis for reformed premedical education. The case for an unrestricted liberal arts collegiate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Nathan; Muller, David

    2012-01-01

    As the HHMI-AAMC declared, their report should be taken as a "first step in a continuing conversation about the appropriate skills and knowledge," and, echoing the ACGME and GPEP, "values and attitudes that future physicians should possess." (9pExecSum) As a new formulation evolves, the premedical curriculum must foster "scholastic vigor, analytic thinking, quantitative assessment and analysis of complex systems." (9pExecSum) Based on the Mount Sinai experience, these qualities are not engendered solely nor confined to engagement in natural sciences. Students involved in a variety of baccalaureate liberal arts endeavors appear to acquire similar intellectual competencies. Furthermore, when performed successfully in challenging collegiate environments, a thorough liberal arts education may yield precisely the same values, attitudes, and behavioral characteristics all agree are essential to the medical profession and preparing physicians for the twenty-first century.

  13. Genetic variation in the functional ENG allele inherited from the non-affected parent associates with presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 (HHT1) and may influence expression of PTPN14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letteboer, Tom G W; Benzinou, Michael; Merrick, Christopher B; Quigley, David A; Zhau, Kechen; Kim, Il-Jin; To, Minh D; Jablons, David M; van Amstel, Johannes K P; Westermann, Cornelius J J; Giraud, Sophie; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Lesca, Gaetan; Berg, Jonathan H; Balmain, Allan; Akhurst, Rosemary J

    2015-01-01

    HHT shows clinical variability within and between families. Organ site and prevalence of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) depend on the HHT causative gene and on environmental and genetic modifiers. We tested whether variation in the functional ENG allele, inherited from the unaffected parent, alters risk for pulmonary AVM in HHT1 mutation carriers who are ENG haploinsufficient. Genetic association was found between rs10987746 of the wild type ENG allele and presence of pulmonary AVM [relative risk = 1.3 (1.0018-1.7424)]. The rs10987746-C at-risk allele associated with lower expression of ENG RNA in a panel of human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P = 0.004). Moreover, in angiogenically active human lung adenocarcinoma tissue, but not in uninvolved quiescent lung, rs10987746-C was correlated with expression of PTPN14 (P = 0.004), another modifier of HHT. Quantitative TAQMAN expression analysis in a panel of normal lung tissues from 69 genetically heterogeneous inter-specific backcross mice, demonstrated strong correlation between expression levels of Eng, Acvrl1, and Ptpn14 (r2 = 0.75-0.9, P ENG gene influences quantitative and/or qualitative differences in ENG expression that contribute to risk of pulmonary AVM in HHT1, and provide correlative support for PTPN14 involvement in endoglin/ALK1 lung biology in vivo. PTPN14 has been shown to be a negative regulator of Yap/Taz signaling, which is implicated in mechanotransduction, providing a possible molecular link between endoglin/ALK1 signaling and mechanical stress. EMILIN2, which showed suggestive genetic association with pulmonary AVM, is also reported to interact with Taz in angiogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating these interactions in endothelial cells may ultimately provide more rational choices for HHT therapy.

  14. Premedication with N-acetylcysteine and simethicone improves mucosal visualization during gastroscopy: a randomized, controlled, endoscopist-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, James R; James, Shirley; Callaghan, James; Patel, Praful

    2013-07-01

    Diagnostic gastroscopy provides a unique opportunity to diagnose early oesophagogastric neoplasia; however, intraluminal mucus and bile can obscure mucosal visualization. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of a premedication solution containing the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine and the surfactant simethicone improves mucosal visualization within a UK diagnostic gastroscopy service. A total of 75 consecutive patients were recruited from a single (S.J.) endoscopist's diagnostic gastroscopy list. They were randomized into three treatment groups: (a) standard control=clear fluids only for 6 h, nil by mouth for 2 h; (b) water control=standard control+100 ml sterile water (given 20 min before gastroscopy); and (c) solution=standard control+100 ml investigated solution (20 min before gastroscopy). The endoscopist was blinded to patient preparation. Inadequate mucosal visualization was defined as fluid/mucus during gastroscopy that could not be suctioned and required flushing with water. The volume of flush, the site at which it was used and the total procedure times were recorded. All three groups showed no statistical difference for age, sex ratio, procedure priority or indication. The mean volume of flush required to obtain clear mucosa was significantly less in the solution group compared with the other groups. The mean overall procedure time was also less in the solution group compared with the other groups. Premedication with N-acetylcysteine and simethicone markedly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy. It also reduces the time taken for the procedure. This low-cost and well-tolerated intervention may improve detection of early neoplasia.

  15. Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James R; Grint, Nicola J; Taylor, Polly M; Murrell, Joanna C

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of intramuscular buprenorphine with either dexmedetomidine or acepromazine, administered as premedication to cats and dogs undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study. Forty dogs and 48 cats. Animals were assigned to one of four groups, according to anaesthetic premedication and induction agent: buprenorphine 20 μg kg(-1) with either dexmedetomidine (dex) 250 μg m(-2) or acepromazine (acp) 0.03 mg kg(-1), followed by alfaxalone (ALF) or propofol (PRO). Meloxicam was administered preoperatively to all animals and anaesthesia was always maintained using isoflurane. Physiological measures and assessments of pain, sedation and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were made before and after premedication, intraoperatively, and for up to 24 hours after premedication. Data were analyzed with one-way, two-way and mixed between-within subjects anova, Kruskall-Wallis analyses and Chi squared tests. Results were deemed significant if p ≤ 0.05, except where multiple comparisons were performed (p ≤ 0.005). Cats premedicated with dex were more sedated than cats premedicated with acp (p cats (1.2 ± 1.0 mg kg(-1) ) than acp cats (2.5 ± 1.9 mg kg(-1)) (p = 0.041). There were no differences in sedation in dogs however PRO doses were lower in dex dogs (1.5 ± 0.8 mg kg(-1) ) compared to acp dogs (3.3 ± 1.1 mg kg(-1) ) (p cats or dogs. Choice of dex or acp, when given with buprenorphine, caused minor, clinically detectable, differences in various characteristics of anaesthesia, but not in the level of analgesia. A combination of buprenorphine with either acp or dex, followed by either PRO or ALF, and then isoflurane, accompanied by an NSAID, was suitable for anaesthesia in dogs and cats undergoing elective surgery. Choice of sedative agent may influence dose of anaesthetic induction agent. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists

  16. Comparative evaluation of oral gabapentin versus clonidine as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saikat Majumdar; Anjan Das; Haripada Das; Sambhunath Bandyopadhyay; Bimal Kumar Hajra; Dipankar Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation (L and I) is associated with rise in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), leading to adverse cardiological outcome especially in susceptible individuals. To compare the BP, HR during L and I as well as to evaluate the preoperative sedation status between oral clonidine (Group C) and oral gabapentine (Group G) as premedication for the patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia (GA). Materials and Methods: From April 2008...

  17. Comparative evaluation of oral clonidine and midazolam as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan Das; Tushar Kanti Saha; Saikat Majumdar; Rahul Deb Mandal; Anindya Mukherjee; Subrata Kumar Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Context: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is associated detrimental hemodynamic changes like rise in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) leading to adverse cardiological outcome specially in susceptible individuals. Aims: To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as well as to evaluate the preoperative sedation status between oral clonidine and oral midazolam as premedication for the patients undergoing general anes...

  18. Comparative evaluation of oral clonidine and midazolam as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anaesthesia

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    Anjan Das

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is associated detrimental hemodynamic changes like rise in blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR leading to adverse cardiological outcome specially in susceptible individuals. Aims: To compare the blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR changes during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as well as to evaluate the preoperative sedation status between oral clonidine and oral midazolam as premedication for the patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA. Settings and Design: Fifty patients between 18 and 60 years of age of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA Grade I and II undergoing GA were randomly divided into two equal groups of 25 patients each. Group-C patients received clonidine 4 mcg/kg orally and Group-M patients received 0.5 mg/kg midazolam orally as premedication. Material s and Methods: After measuring baseline hemodynamic parameters patients of both groups received premedication. Preoperative sedation was assessed 2 hr after premedication administration. Standard anesthetic technique was followed. Hemodynamic (HR, BP parameters were noted baseline, immediately after laryngoscopy and intubation and 5 min after intubation to observe the stress response. Results and Statistical Analysis: A significant difference in pre-operative sedation between two groups (P < 0.05 and midazolam (group M produced significantly better sedation than clonidine (group C. Laryngoscopic stress response in group C was still at a lower level than baseline values and significantly (P < 0.005 less than group M. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is more effective in producing preoperative sedation than oral clonidine while on the contrary oral clonidine is more efficacious in reducing laryngoscopic stress response than oral midazolam. Laryngoscopy and intubation was better controlled by oral clonidine than midazolam.

  19. [Night-time premedication with Di-potassium-clorazepate, diazepam or a placebo before anaesthesia; a double-blind trial (author' transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubella, U; Henschel, W F; Franzke, H G

    1981-12-01

    The efficacy of dipotassium clorazepate (DPCA) and of diazepam (DP) as night-time premedication was tested against a placebo in a double-blind trial in 300 patients of all ages. Examination of the patients in the morning before anaesthesia showed that tachycardia, nausea and anxiety were considerably less in patients who had been premedicated with DPCA or DP. Relief from anxiety and restlessness according to standardized self-evaluation scale was most marked in the DPCA group. There were statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the sleep pattern: 66 per cent of patients in the DPCA group fell asleep within the normal time of 2-15 minutes compared with 53 per cent in the DP group and 48 per cent in the placebo group. Uninterrupted sleep until the morning was experienced by about 70 per cent of patients who had been premedicated with DPCA as against 47 per cent and 31 per cent who had been given DP or a placebo respectively. The total sleeping period was normal or slightly prolonged in 73 and 74 per cent of patients who had received one or the other drug but in only 38 per cent of patients in the placebo group. As regarded the quality of sleep (quiet, uninterrupted sleep and feeling rested) the DPCA group considered it to have been much sounder than did the other groups. On account of its marked ataractic and sleep-protecting properties DPCA is considered to be the most suitable agent for night-time premedication.

  20. Effect of the premedication with oral clonidine on surgical comfort in patients undergoing fess due to advanced nasal polyposis: A randomized double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugrul, Selahattin; Dogan, Remzi; Senturk, Erol; Kocak, Ilker; Sezen, Seda; Bakan, Mefkur; Ozturan, Orhan

    OBJECTıVE: The objective of this randomized double blind study was to evaluate effect of the premedication with oral clonidine on blood pressure, cleaning of surgical site and bleeding in the ESS performed due to advanced NP. A total of 52 patients who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) due to Kennedy grade 4 nasal polyposis (NP) were included. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n=26) received 0.2mg oral clonodine one hour before the operation in addition to standard anesthesia procedure. Group 2 (n=26) was administered standard anesthesia procedure alone. The amount of bleeding during surgery, cleaning of surgical site and surgeon's satisfaction were evaluated in comparison between the groups. The amount of bleeding and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in the Group 1 compared to the Group 2. The cleaning of surgical site was found to be significantly better and surgeon's satisfaction significantly higher in the Group 1 than in the Group 2. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures during surgery were significantly lower in the Group 1 compared to the Group 2. Premedication with oral clonidine provides a clearer view of surgical site, reduces the amount of bleeding and significantly increases surgeon's satisfaction during the operation in FESS performed due to NP. Premedication with oral clonidine is a safe, inexpensive and effective methods in order to increase the surgical success and comfort and reduce complications in the FESS surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine versus oral alprazolam as a premedication agent in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

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    Lakshmi Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea are extremely sensitive to sedative premedication. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is painless and quick acting. Intranasal dexmedetomidine can be used for premedication as it produces adequate sedation and also obtund hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Forty morbidly obese patients with BMI > 35 were chosen and divided into two groups. Group DEX received intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg (ideal body weight while other group (AZ received oral alprazolam 0.5 mg. Sedation scale, heart rate and the mean arterial pressure was assessed in both the groups at 0 hour, 45 minutes, during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Results: The demographic profile, baseline heart rate, means arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and sedation scale was comparable between the two groups. The sedation scores, after 45 min, were statistically significant between the two groups i.e., 2.40 ± 1.09 in the AZ group as compared to 3.20 ± 1.79 in DEX group P value 0.034. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure and oxygen saturation were statistically similar between the two groups, after 45 min. The heart rate was significantly lower in the DEX group as compared to the AZ group. There was no statistical difference in the mean arterial pressure between the two groups either during laryngoscopy or tracheal intubation. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine is a better premedication agent in morbidly obese patients than oral alprazolam.

  2. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  3. Oral premedication for pediatric anaesthesia: a comparison between midazolam and clonidine

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    Anupam Das

    2016-06-01

    Results: In the midazolam group 23 (76.67% children had no apprehension after parental separation and at induction (P and #706;0.001, sedation score at induction was significant higher in midazolam group versus clonidine group (93.33% versus 66.6%, P<0.01, clonidine resulted in a more stable pulse and blood pressure peri-operatively (P<0.05. Conclusion: Oral midazolam has better efficacy in terms of preoperative sedation and oral clonidine had stable hemodynamic profile and better analgesia in the clonidine group. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2341-2347

  4. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  5. Effects of oral clonidine premedication on hemodynamic status in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Farnoosh; Marashi, Mojtaba; Tavakoli, Iman; Khakbaz, Oveis

    2016-04-01

    Controlled hypotension during a surgical procedure is a way to decrease blood pressure and subsequently to improve the field of operation. Clonidine is an antihypertensive agent used for induced hypotension. Correction of maxillomandibular discrepancies may necessitate performing osteotomy on both jaws in many cases. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is a procedure that is associated with significant blood loss. A total of 30 participants who were candidates for double-jaw orthognathic surgery were classified into two groups with equal numbers. In one group, 300 μg oral clonidine premedication was administered 90 min before the operation, and in the other group a placebo with the same condition as in the first group. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate at 10 min intervals, operation time, blood loss, and surgeon satisfaction were measured. A total of 10 men and 5 women with a mean age of 22.9 ± 2.9 years in the study group and 13 men and 2 women with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.1 years in the control group were evaluated. The MAP was significantly lower in the clonidine group (P bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Hemodynamic stability, bleeding control, decrease of operative time, and enhancement of surgical results are advantages of this method. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  7. Clonidine premedication in patients with sleep apnea syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Michael T; Hansen, Ernil; Waldhauser, Daniela; Selig, Christoph; Kuehnel, Thomas S

    2005-11-01

    Patients with sleep apnea often present with cardiac diseases and breathing difficulties, with a high risk of postoperative respiratory depression. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, prospective study in 30 adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, undergoing elective ear-nose-throat surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or clonidine (2 microg/kg oral) the night before and the next morning 2 h before surgery. Spo2, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, snoring, and oronasal airflow were monitored for 36 h. A standard anesthesia was used consisting of propofol and remifentanil. Anesthetic drug consumption, postoperative analgesics, and pain score were recorded. In the clonidine group, mean arterial blood pressures were significantly lower during induction, operation, and emergence from anesthesia. Both propofol dose required for induction (190 +/- 32.2 mg) and anesthesia (6.3 +/- 1.3 mg . kg(-1).h(-1)) during surgery were significantly reduced in the clonidine group compared with the placebo group (induction 218 +/- 32.4, anesthesia 7.70 +/- 1.5; P clonidine group. Apnea and desaturation index were not different between the groups, whereas the minimal postoperative oxygen saturation on the day of surgery was significantly lower in the placebo than in the clonidine group (76.7% +/- 8.0% versus 82.4% +/- 5.8%; P clonidine premedication stabilizes hemodynamic variables during induction, maintenance, and emergence from anesthesia and reduces the amount of intraoperative anesthetics and postoperative opioids without deterioration of ventilation.

  8. Single dose oral clonidine premedication does not enhance postoperative, single low dose epidural morphine analgesia in hysterectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oofuvong, Maliwan; Chanvej, Laksamee; Thongsuksai, Paramee

    2005-03-01

    In this randomized, double blind placebo controlled study, the authors evaluated the effects of oral clonidine premedication on very low dose epidural morphine analgesia in 50 hysterectomy patients. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral clonidine 300 microg (n = 25) or a placebo (n = 25) 90 minutes before insertion of the epidural catheter. 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (5 microg ml(-1) mixed with 2 mg morphine were injected via epidural, followed by an additional volume of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (5 microg ml(-1)) titrated to T6 block height before commencing general anesthesia. The postoperative analgesia regimen was 2 mg of intravenous morphine every 10 minutes for the first 48 hr and 1 gm of oral acetaminophen every 4-6 hr after initiation of oral diet at 24-48 hr as required. Morphine consumption, acetaminophen, pain scores, and side effects were recorded thoughout 48 hr after surgery. The results show patients in the clonidine and placebo groups were not different in terms of local anesthetics dose (p = 0.27), total morphine and acetaminophen requirement (p = 0.34, p = 0.1) respectively. Pain scores at rest and movement were also not different in both groups (p = 0.83, p = 0.64) respectively. No serious adverse effects were noted. The authors concluded that oral clonidine approximately 6 microg kg(-1) does not enhance the analgesic effect of epidural morphine 2 mg after hysterectomy.

  9. How different are premedical freshmen who enter after introducing a multiple mini-interview in a medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Lee, Seunghee

    2014-06-01

    Seoul National University College of Medicine (SNUMC) introduced a multiple mini-interview (MMI) to assess the noncognitive ability of applicants in 2013. This study aims to examine whether students differ with regard to their personal career values and academic achievements by admission type. We administered a survey about career values and self-perception of competencies. We then compared the survey results and academic achievements by admission type. Finally, the correlation coefficient between MMI score and academic achievement was calculated in the MMI group. The data were analyzed by t-test and correlation analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in career values between groups. For self-perception of competency, only the 'interact in heterogeneous groups' domain was higher for those who entered through the MMI. The MMI group had a higher and broader level of academic achievement. Within the MMI group, there was a significant correlation between grade point average and MMI station scores. The characteristics of students who entered through the MMI were more in accordance with the goals of SNUMC and the competency of future doctors. Considering the unique feature of premedical academic achievement, this result implies that such students have superior noncognitive abilities, such as self-development and internal motivation. How these differences change subsequently remains to be seen.

  10. Parental Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  11. Comparing Stage Presence and Virtual Reality Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Xavier Samur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the impending release of new Head Mounted Display virtual reality (VR technologies, the article examines definitions and techniques for digital presence, and compares them with research into stage presence. It opens with an outline of definitions of digital presence, comparing them with Cormac Power’s fictional, auratic, and literal modes of presence in performance. The article then looks at techniques used in VR and on stage to achieve presence. Finally, performance examples that use virtual reality technologies are presented. The article concludes that even if the technology falls short, discourse on digital presence is useful in providing insights into presence on stage.

  12. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examinzation of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents without any psychiatric disorder participated with one of their children (ages 6 to 14 years; 46.4% male; 75.8% Caucasian). Parent anxiety was related to both child anxiety and depression, but not child externalizing symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only parent externalizing symptoms had additive effects, beyond parent anxiety symptoms, in relation to child anxiety symptoms. Further, parent anxiety symptoms moderated the relationship between parent and child externalizing symptoms, such that the strength of this relationship was reduced in the presence of high levels of parent anxiety symptoms. Results of this study illuminate the role of parent comorbidity in understanding relations between parent and child symptoms. PMID:20432062

  13. Pre-medication to block [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the brown adipose tissue of pediatric and adolescent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Curtwright, Lois A.; MacLean, Joseph R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Radiopharmaceutical uptake of [{sup 18}F]2-deoxy-2-glucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue is noted on 15-20% of positron emission tomography (PET) scans in children and adolescents. To determine whether [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue can be adequately blocked by pre-medication other than moderate-dose oral diazepam. One hundred and eighteen [{sup 18}F]FDG PET body imaging studies were performed in 69 pediatric patients with a variety of solid tumors. The mean age at the time of imaging was 12.9 years (range 1.2-22.6 years), and 33 studies were performed in patients younger than 10 years old. Seventy-six were performed in boys and 42 in girls. Patients were imaged using a dedicated PET camera. Pre-medication was given in 88 studies: 45 received intravenous fentanyl (0.75-1.0 {mu}g/kg), 34 received low-dose oral diazepam (0.06 mg/kg) and 9 received moderate-dose oral diazepam (0.10 mg/kg). Thirty patients received no pre-medication, 7 of whom were known to have received opiates for pain during the 12 h before the study. Six body regions in the neck and chest were reviewed for [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue. Uptake of FDG in brown fat was visually graded: 0 for no FDG uptake, 1 for low-grade uptake, 2 for moderate uptake, and 3 for intense uptake. Visual grades 2 and 3 were considered to interfere potentially with image interpretation in the neck and chest. Data were analyzed by multivariate regression using a Poisson distribution. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue was most often seen in the lateral neck region and superior and lateral to the lungs (in 36 and 39 studies, respectively). Uptake was also seen near the costovertebral junctions (15 studies), in the superior and central neck in 7 studies and in the anterior mediastinum in 2. Brown adipose tissue uptake was thought to interfere potentially with image interpretation (visual grades 2 and 3) in 19 studies - in 6 of 23 (26.1%) studies after no pre-medication and no

  14. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (d-AMB) use in cases with febrile neutropenia and fungal infections: lower toxicity with suitable premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Ozgur Akin; Paydas, Semra; Disel, Umut; Yavuz, Sinan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2007-03-01

    In spite of the development of new antifungal drugs, amphotericin B deoxycholate (d-AMB) remains the gold standard in the treatment of severe fungal infections in immunosuppressed hosts. However, d-AMB is a toxic drug, the most important dose-limiting toxicities being nephrotoxicity and infusion-related allergic reactions. Lipid and liposomal formulations of d-AMB have relatively lower toxicity and are considered alternative choices. However, the routine use of these formulations is limited by their higher cost. Using retrospective analysis, we explored the incidence of nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions requiring the cessation of conventional d-AMB in 113 cases treated with the drug. In contrast to knowledge in the relevant literature, we did not detect significant toxicity, which would have required discontinuation of the d-AMB treatment. Mean serum creatinine levels were 0.72 +/- 0.25 and 0.84 +/- 0.31 mg dl(-1) before and after therapy, respectively. Although the difference between creatinine levels before and after d-AMB is statistically significant, the creatinine level increased twofold in only eight cases. Mean serum potassium levels were 3.8 +/- 0.54 and 3.6 +/- 0.7 mmol l(-1) before and after d-AMB respectively. Potassium levels below 3 mmol l(-1) were found in 7 and 17 cases before and after d-AMB respectively. Potassium levels were statistically lower in cases with fungal mucositis. Severe infusion-related allergic reactions were observed in three cases. Antihistamine and corticosteroid were added to the treatment in these cases. With these findings, we can conclude that d-AMB is a tolerable, low cost drug which can be safely used provided there is suitable premedication and monitoring of blood urea nitrogen, serum potassium and magnesium levels.

  15. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GABAPENTIN AND CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA REQUIREMENT FOLLOWING ABDOMINAL SURGERIES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study was to compare the relative effectiveness of gabapentin and clonidine premedication on patients undergoing elective abdominal surgeries under G.A. OBJECTIVE: gabapentine and clonidine have anti-nociceptive properties .This study assess their efficacy in prolonging the analgesic effect intra-operative and postoperative analgesic requirement. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 225 patients of either sex of age between 20-60 years, ASA grade I & II, patient admitted to Hamidia hospital for elective abdominal surgeries under general anaesthesia were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups 75 each group I : Control group (patients received placebo tablet at 90 min before the surgery,group II Gabapentin 300 mg tablet orally 90 min before surgery ,groupIII:clonidine150µg tablet orally given 90 min before surgery. Duration of postoperative analgesia, Degree of postoperative pain (VAS scoreand added rescue analgesia required in 24 hrs were recorded postoperatively. RESULT: Analysis reveled that there was no difference in the HR, SBP among the three group during the study. Duration of postoperative analgesia, observed from time of reversal to first demand of analgesia in the recovery room was more in group II compared to group I and group III (p-value <0.001, highly significant. Pain perception was highly blunted in groups II compared to group I & group III. Total rescue analgesic requirement during the postoperative 24hrs period was much lower in group II inj Diclofenac compared to group I and group III . ( p-value < 0.001, highly significant.CONCLUSION: Given 90 min before induction of GA oral gabapentin(300 mg or clonidine(150 µg preoperatively was effective in lowering postoperative VAS pain score and consumption of analgesics, it was also shows that gabapentin significantly decreases postoperative pain intensity and analgesic consumption after abdominal surgeries.

  16. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDIC ATION FOR PROLONGATION OF BUPIVA CAINE SUBARACHNOID BLOCK FOR LOWER LIMB ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Addition of α2 adrenergic agonists with local anaesthetics in bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with minimal haemod ynamic alterations. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine as premedication on subarachnoid blockade duration, postoperative analgesia, and sedation score in patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgeries in bupivacaine (0.5% heavy intrathecal block. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: We carried out a prospective, randomized, double blind study in which 60 patients of ASA status I or II, scheduled for orthopaedic lower limb surgery under spinal a naesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 each group A and group B. Group A received dexmedetomidine 0.5μg/kg IV and group B received clonidine 1μg/kg in 10 ml of normal saline intravenously as premedication over 10 min., before subarachnoi d blockade with 3.0 ml. of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Onset time and regression times of both sensory and motor blockade, haemodynamic parameters were recorded. Duration of postoperative analgesia and sedation score with adverse effects were also recorde d. RESULTS: The sensory block level was higher (T5 - T7 and earlier in onset (1.81±1.75min. in dexmedetomidine group than clonidine with level (T6 - T8 and onset (2.56±1.62min.. Dexmedetomidine also increased the onset (3.54±3.07min. and duration (265.45± 41.50min. of motor block achieved as compared to clonidine. The Ramsay sedation score was also greater in dexmedetomidine group than clonidine group (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Single dose of premedication with intravenous dexmedetomidine is better than intrav enous clonidine during bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia in orthopaedic lower limb surgeries for prolongation of sensory and motor blockade.

  17. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents can continue to attend school Classes in parenting skills and child development Child health care Counseling ... the fact that success stories abound. There are single teenage mothers who complete their educations and go ...

  18. Single Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR some parents the responsibility of bringing up a child is a one person task. Shouldering parental duties of two, single parents not only raise the child, but bring home the bacon as well. This is life for many people—either because of the death of a spouse, divorce, living apart from a spouse, pregnancy without marriage, or abandonment—the parent and child

  19. Comparison of surgical conditions following premedication with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomized, double-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini V Bhat Pai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30 or group C (n = 30. The patients′ vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS.

  20. The effect of oral clonidine premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery: a placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masood; Ebneshahidi, Amin

    2011-08-01

    Bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) remains a challenge for both surgeons and anesthesiologists despite several modalities available for improving the surgical field. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral clonidine premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field in FESS. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 84 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis were randomly allocated to receive either oral clonidine 0.2 mg or identical-looking placebo tablets 90 min before arrival at the operating room. Blood loss in the clonidine group was 214 ± 67 ml on average and that in the placebo group was 276 ± 78 ml (mean ± SD, p clonidine group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (2 (1-3) vs. 2.5 (2-4), p clonidine group than with that in the placebo group (median score, 4 (3-5) vs. 3 (1-5), p premedication with oral clonidine 0.2 mg can effectively reduce bleeding during FESS.

  1. Comparison of surgical conditions following premedication with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomized, double-blinded study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat Pai, Rohini V; Badiger, Santhoshi; Sachidananda, Roopa; Basappaji, Santhosh Mysore Chandramouli; Shanbhag, Raghunath; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30) or group C (n = 30). The patients' vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field) than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS. PMID:27275059

  2. Effects of addition of ketamine, fentanyl and saline with Propofol induction on hemodynamics and laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions in oral clonidine premedicated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this double-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to compare the effect of addition of ketamine; fentanyl and saline with propofol anesthesia on hemodynamic profile and laryngeal mask airway (LMA insertion conditions in oral clonidine premedicated children. Methods: 180 children (age 2 - 10 years were at first given oral clonidine (4 μg/kg 90 minutes before operation, and then were randomly allocated to receive either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (n=60, fentanyl 1 μg/kg (n=60 or 0.9% normal saline (n=60 before induction with propofol 3.0 mg/kg. Insertion of LMA was performed within 1 minute of injection of propofol. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were noted 1 min before induction (baseline, immediately after induction, before and after insertion of LMA for up to 3 min. Following LMA insertion, 6 subjective end points were noted-mouth opening, coughing, swallowing, patient′s movement, laryngospasm, and ease of an insertion. LMA insertion summed score was prepared depending upon these variables. Results: LMA insertion summed score was nearly similar in ketamine and fentanyl group, which were significantly better than saline group (P120 secs. was higher in fentanyl group compared to ketamine and saline group. Conclusion: Even in oral clonidine premedicated children, addition of ketamine with propofol provides hemodynamic stability and comparable conditions for LMA insertion like fentanyl propofol with significantly less prolonged apnea.

  3. Effects of midazolam or tramadol premedication on early cognitive function in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): A randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hulya; Coskun, Ilker; Arslan, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the sedative efficacy and effects on early period cognitive function of premedication in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Forty patients (18-70 years; American Society of Anesthesiology risk category I-III) undergoing elective ERCP were randomized to receive oral premedication with 0.15 mg/kg midazolam or 1 mg/kg tramadol. Cognitive function was determined by mini-mental test (MMT). Target scores for effective sedation were determined as a Bispectral index score of 70-90 and modified Ramsay Sedation Scale score (mRSS) of 2-4. Global MMT score was not significantly different between treatment groups at 60 min post-ERCP. A significant deterioration in the MMT subcategory of recall was determined in with midazolam versus tramadol. Level of sedation (mRSS) was higher in with midazolam compared with tramadol reaching statistical significance at 30 min after drug administration. Although more effective sedation was obtained with midazolam in patients undergoing ERCP, there was a dysfunction in memory recall. It was concluded, however, that early cognitive functions were generally preserved with both drugs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A comparative study of effect of dexmedetomidine in dose of 0.7 μg/kg and clonidine in doses of 2 μg/kg as premedication before general anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singh

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Study concluded that Dexmedetomidine had better control over hemodynamics as compared to clonidine when given as premedication, the drug dose used for induction was lesser and also the post-operative analgesia duration was longer with dexmedetomidine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3365-3369

  5. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    on quality care time is correlated with parents’ education, and that marital homogamy reduces couple specialization, but only among the highly educated. In line with earlier research, we identify gendered parental behaviour. The presence of boys is an important condition for fathers’ time dedication......, but primarily among lower educated fathers. To the extent that parental stimulation is decisive for child outcomes, our findings suggest the persistence of important inequalities. This emerges through our special attention to behavioural differences across the educational distribution among households....

  7. Effect of Oral Premedication on the Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Dubey, Sandeep; Kala, Shubham; Misuriya, Abhinav; Kataria, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is generally accepted that achieving complete anaesthesia with an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is more challenging than for other teeth. Therefore, administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) 1 hour prior to anaesthetic administration has been proposed as a means to increase the efficacy of the IANB in such patients. Aim The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to determine the effect of administration of oral premedication with ketorolac (KETO) and diclofenac potassium (DP) on the efficacy of IANB in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty patients with irreversible pulpitis were evaluated preoperatively for pain using Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which they were randomly divided into three groups. The subjects received identical tablets of ketorolac, diclofenac pottasium or cellulose powder (placebo), 1 hour prior to administration of IANB with 2% lidocaine containing 1:200 000 epinephrine. Lip numbness as well as positive and negative responses to cold test were ascertained. Additionally pain score of each patient was recorded during cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation. Success was defined as the absence of pain or mild pain based on the visual analog scale readings. The data was analysed using One-Way Anova, Post-Hoc Tukey pair wise, Paired T – Test and chi-square test. Trial Registery Number is 4722/2015 for this clinical trial study. Results There were no significant differences with respect to age (p =0.098), gender (p = 0.801) and pre-VAS score (DP-KETO p=0.645, PLAC-KETO p =0.964, PLAC-DP p = 0.801) between the three groups. All patients had subjective lip anaesthesia with the IAN blocks. Patients of all the three groups reported a significant decrease in active pain after local anaesthesia (p< 0.05). The post injection VAS Score was least in group

  8. Premedication, preparation, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G D

    2002-01-01

    The vigorous debate over whom to sedate, when to sedate, and how to sedate shows no sign of running out of steam. There is a general consensus that patients should be more involved in the decision-making process for the sedation "menu". A move away from the take-it-or-leave-it attitude of all or nothing to an "à la carte" choice is to be encouraged. A new textbook and several further guidelines have appeared. The particular problems associated with sedating the elderly are briefly presented. The pros and cons of using local pharyngeal anaesthesia are discussed. Enthusiasm for the use of intravenous propofol is gathering momentum, despite continuing worries about its safety in the hands of the nonanaesthetist. For many endoscopists, the combination of a benzodiazepine plus (or minus) an opioid with which they are most familiar is still the best compromise in terms of efficacy, cost, and safety. Fatal drug-induced cardiopulmonary complications continue to occur, despite a general trend toward using smaller doses of sedation than we did 5 - 10 years ago. Monitoring techniques that are at present considered as research tools may one day become commonplace. These include: the use of an electroencephalography parameter known as bispectral analysis; transcutaneous CO(2) measurement; and a modified continuous capnographic waveform trace to monitor ventilatory effort. Bispectral analysis may be of use in monitoring central nervous system depression and helping to distinguish between conscious sedation and deep sedation. If the measurement of CO(2) levels, either transcutaneously or in breath samples, was as easy and inexpensive as measuring SpO(2) with a pulse oximeter, then undoubtedly such technology would enhance the early detection of sedative-induced hypoventilation and apnoea. Further evidence regarding droperidol's possible role in conscious sedation is presented. Pain during colonoscopy remains a problem, and the possible role for intraluminal injection of peppermint oil, as well as the value of variable-stiffness colonoscopes, in reducing the need for intravenous sedation is discussed. Case reports of hyponatraemic encephalopathy and hypocalcaemic tetany as complications of oral bowel preparation are presented, as is the challenge associated with adequate bowel preparation in diabetic patients.

  9. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  10. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  11. Parental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parental responsibility can be broadly defined as a legal term that specifies rights and responsibilities of parents towards their children. It is usually given initially to the birth mother and the married father, though unmarried fathers can obtain it either with the agreement of the mother or through a court order. In accordance with the provisions in law the court can also transfer parental responsibility to other persons (e.g. adoptive parents or in cases of child abuse or neglect to the state, represented by local authority social services. While the concept of parental responsibility can be found in most countries, the exact terminology varies from one country to another, as well as over time.

  12. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...... on quality care time is correlated with parents’ education, and that marital homogamy reduces couple specialization, but only among the highly educated. In line with earlier research, we identify gendered parental behaviour. The presence of boys is an important condition for fathers’ time dedication......, but primarily among lower educated fathers. To the extent that parental stimulation is decisive for child outcomes, our findings suggest the persistence of important inequalities. This emerges through our special attention to behavioural differences across the educational distribution among households....

  13. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital.

  14. COMPARISON BETWEEN TAB. CLONIDINE AND TAB. LABETALOL AS ORAL PREMEDICATION IN ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY: A RANDOMISED DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS To study and compare Labetalol and Clonidine as premedication to attenuate haemodynamic changes to Laparoscopy through oral route, as it is safe method of administration and easy to prescribe. METHODS In a prospective, comparative randomised study, 60 adult patients of both sexes of ASA Grade I and II were divided randomly into 2 groups of 30 each, Group L and Group C. Group L were given Tab. Labetalol 200mg orally 60-90 minutes before induction. Group C were given Tab. Clonidine 300µg orally 60-90 minutes before induction. We compared the degree of attenuation of haemodynamic changes during laparoscopic surgeries. RESULTS Oral Clonidine has better control on the rise in heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP during laryngoscopy for laparoscopy compared to oral Labetalol. CONCLUSION We conclude that oral Clonidine showed better attenuation of haemodynamic changes than oral Labetalol.

  15. Effect of oral clonidine, etoricoxib, and gabapentin as premedication on sensory and motor blocks and post operative analgesia in surgeries under subarachnoid block using bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Akhilesh K; Tayal, Swapnil; Chadha, Madhur; Ganguly, Subroto; Mandhyan, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Oral premedicant has better patient compliance since it avoids a potential needle prick, and hence can be considered closest to an ideal premedicant. This was a randomized prospective observational study on 120 patients after obtaining ethical committee approval and valid informed consent from patients to be part of the study. We assessed the onset and duration of both sensory and motor blocks along with postoperative analgesic requirement by the patient in terms of first dose and total dose required over the period of 24 hours. It is recommended that clonidine, etoricoxib, and gabapentin be considered as good premedicants for patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. However, more research using these drugs needs to be carried out in the field of premedication.

  16. [Administration of premedication with fexofenadine for paclitaxel-induced hypersensitive reactions in breast cancer patients complicated with closed-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsubara, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Kyoko; Kogure, Yuuki; Matsuhisa, Tetsuaki; Eguchi, Hisae

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most important breast cancer treatment drugs. However, severe hypersensitivity reactions such as decreases in blood pressure and impaired breathing occur with high frequency. For the prevention of such hypersensitivity reactions, administration of a premedication composed of three components, diphenhydramine, ranitidine (or famotidine), and dexamethasone, has been advised in package insert information of medicine. Administration of diphenhydramine is difficult in breast cancer patients complicated with closed-angle glaucoma, because diphenhydramine has a weak anticholinergic adverse effect which can induce mydriasis and glaucoma attack. We studied the prevention of severe hypersensitivity reactions and of glaucoma attack in 2 breast cancer patients complicated with closed angle glaucoma at our hospital from April 2007 to March 2008. We switched from diphenhydramine to fexofenadine as the medicine to prevent hypersensitivity reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions were not observed throughout all courses in both patients, and no glaucoma attack was observed.

  17. Anticholinergic premedication to prevent bradycardia in combined spinal anesthesia and dexmedetomidine sedation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Park, Jun Ha; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kyung Woo; Choi, Hey Ran; Bang, Si Ra

    2016-12-01

    When dexmedetomidine is used in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, high incidence of bradycardia in response to parasympathetic activation is reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of atropine premedication for preventing the incidence of bradycardia and the hemodynamic effect on patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with sedation by dexmedetomidine. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Operating room. One hundred fourteen patients (age range, 2-65 years; American Society of Anesthesiology class I-II) participated in this study, willing to be sedated and to undergo spinal anesthesia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A and group C. After performing spinal anesthesia, dexmedetomidine was infused at a loading dose of 0.6 μg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by an infusion at 0.25 μg/(kg h). Simultaneously with the loading dose of dexmedetomidine, patients in group A received an intravenous bolus of 0.5 mg atropine, whereas patients in group C received an intravenous normal saline bolus. Data on administration of atropine and ephedrine were collected. Hemodynamic data including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) were also recorded. The incidence of bradycardia requiring atropine treatment was significantly higher in group C than group A (P=.035). However, the incidence of hypotension needing ephedrine treatment showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P=.7). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate showed no significant differences between the 2 groups (P=.138 and .464, respectively). However, group A showed significant increases in DBP and MBP, and group C did not (P=.014 and .008, respectively). Prophylactic atropine reduces the incidence of bradycardia in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with dexmedetomidine sedation. However, DBP and MBP showed significant increases in patients when prophylactic atropine was administrated. Therefore

  18. Comparison of quality of induction of anaesthesia between intramuscularly administered ketamine, intravenously administered ketamine and intravenously administered propofol in xylazine premedicated cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dzikiti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group, ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group. Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms.

  19. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  20. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  1. Las presencias de los padres en las instituciones educativas y la configuración del trabajo docente: el caso de una escuela privada de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires The Presence Of Parents And The Configuration Of Teachers' Work In Educational Institutions: The Case Of A Private School In Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Petrelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis que estructura este artículo sostiene que el modo en que se configura el trabajo de los docentes de una escuela de gestión privada de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires está vinculado con las presencias de los padres de los alumnos en la institución. Aquí reflexionamos sobre el trabajo de los docentes basándonos en el enfoque antropológico relacional que recupera los significados producidos por diferentes actores (maestros, padres de los niños que intervienen en la construcción de una problemática específica. Al considerar que los distintos actores no pueden comprenderse sin atender a las relaciones que establecen con otros, en este trabajo documentamos la heterogeneidad que caracteriza esos modos de estar presentes los padres, para precisar los contenidos que asumen las relaciones de poder que se despliegan entre maestros y familias por sus lugares en la escuela, en torno de los procesos de escolarización.This article is based on the hypothesis that the particular shape teacher work takes in a private school in Buenos Aires City is related to the presence of pupils' parents in the institution. Under consideration are ideas about teacher work based on the anthropological relational school which recuperates the meanings produced by the different actors (teachers, pupils' parents involved in the way specific problems are constructed. Here the great diversity that can be found in families' ways of being present at school is fore fronted, as it is considered that a comprehensive analysis of actors should not avoid their mutual relations. This will allow the contents of power relations existing between teachers and families in relation to their positions as regards schooling processes to be specified.

  2. Does Child Labor Decrease When Parental Incomes Rise?

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In the presence of two-sided altruism, i.e., when parents and children care about each other’s utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to increases in schooling and to decreases in child labor. This surprising result derives from the systematic way capital market constraints bind as parental income rises: child labor increases as soon as parental income rises by enough to eliminate transfers from children to parents.

  3. Does Child Labor Decrease When Parental Incomes Rises

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In the presence of two-sided altruism, i.e., when parents and children care about each other's utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to increases in schooling and to decreases in child labor. This surprising result derives from the systematic way capital market constraints bind as parental income rises: child labor increases as soon as parental income rises by enough to eliminate transfers from children to parents.

  4. ORAL CLONIDINE AS A PREMEDICATION IN SPINAL ANESTHESIA: EFFECTS ON THE DURATION OF BLOCK AND HEMODYNAMIC STATUS A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K MONTAZERI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Valuable effects of oral clonidine hemodynamic instability during general anesthesia and prolongation of spinal anesthesia were approved in previous studies. In this study, the effects of clonidine as an oral premedication on the duration of block, hemodynamic status and ephedirine requirements in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, has been evaluated. Methods. In a double blind controlled clinical trial, sixty patients of ASA class I and II, who were candidates for spinal anesthesia for lower abdominal and lower extremity surgical procedures of less than 90 minutes duration, were randomly divided into two equal groups. In interventional group, clonidine and in another control group placebo, was taken orally, 90 minutes before begining of operation. Blood pressure and pulse rate in predetermined times, the amounts of ephedrine being used, duration of sensory and motor blocks and the block level were compaired. Results. Mean changes in MAP and pulse rate at 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after induction of spinal anesthesia from basic values in the study group was more than control group (P < 0.05. Mean duration of sensory and motor block in the study group was more than the control group (P < 0.001. Mean of the ephedrine requirements in the study group (5.47 ± 7.5rng was more than the control group (1.9 ± 4.97mg (P < 0.05. Block levels was the same (P > 0.05. Discussion. It is implicated that the effect of oral clonidine premedication in prolongation the block time in spinal anesthesia is almost conclusive. But regarding more hemodynamic flactuations in the study group, the results of this study was different from studies that performed with general anesthesia. This may be due to additive effects of spinal anesthesia or inappropriate dose of clonidine. More ephedrine requirements in the study group was due to more hemodynamic instability in this group which may be decreased by modifying the clonidine dose. It is suggested

  5. Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Farnoush; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Mirmansouri, Ali; Fakoor, Fereshteh; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Biazar, Gelareh; Zarei, Tayyebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose. Objectives: This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient’s satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement. Results: The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients’ dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups

  6. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  7. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  8. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  9. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  10. Responsive Parenting: One Approach for Teaching Single Parents Parenting Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marilyn C.; Nelson, Dorellis J.

    1981-01-01

    Responsive Parenting is a program designed to use parents in helping teach other parents to apply a behavior analysis approach in managing the behavior of their children. A description and evaluation of the adaptations for single-parents are discussed. Guidelines for program development and implementation are provided. (Author/RL)

  11. COMPARISON OF ORAL TRAMADOL AND ORAL CLONIDINE AS A PREMEDICATION TO PREVENT PERIOPERATIVE SHIVERING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY UNDER SUBARACHNOID BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Ajjapp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perioperative shivering, in patients undergoing surgery under central neuraxial blockade is a common complication. Prophylactic measures to reduce shivering are quintessential to decrease the morbidity and mortality. AIMS This randomised prospective study seeks to compare the efficacy of oral clonidine and tramadol, as premedication, in prevention of shivering in patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia. METHODS AND MATERIAL The patients were randomly allocated into two groups (50 patients each. Group C received oral clonidine 100 μg; Group T received oral tramadol 50 mg. Number of patients having shivering, their grades and duration, hemodynamic changes were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data were analysed using appropriate statistical software, Student’s t-test when appropriate RESULTS In group I and II, 39 patients (78% and 28 patients (56% did not shiver, respectively. No drug showed any statistically significant advantage over the other. CONCLUSION Oral clonidine and tramadol were comparable in respect to their effect in decreasing the incidence, intensity and duration of shivering when used prophylactically in patients who underwent surgery under subarachnoid blockade.

  12. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presence While Watching Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Troscianko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Presence” is the illusion of being in a mediated experience rather than simply being an observer. It is a concept often applied to the question of realism of virtual environments. However, it is equally applicable to the act of watching a movie. A movie provides a markedly different visual environment to that given by the natural world—particularly because of frequent edits. And yet, the audience in a movie achieves high levels of presence. We investigate the relationship between presence and the optical and temporal parameters of movies. We find effects of mean shot length, colour/b&w, and 3D/2D. We find that short shots, while being unnatural, are associated with high levels of presence. We consider why such artificial stimuli should appear so real and immersive.

  14. Helicopter Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宪国

    2008-01-01

    孩子的自理能力差,与父母的过度关心有关。请阅读下面一篇短文,想想你有此经历吗? Do you know parents of high school students who come to the rescue whenever their son or daughter is in a tough spot?Are they still delivering forgotten lunches or gym clothes to school?Have they tried to

  15. Presence Service in IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Petras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the presence service, which is located in the IP multimedia subsystem. This service allows making many applications for different groups of people. The paper describes differences between a network without the service and with the service. The biggest change is an increased number of transmitted messages. The presence uses some part of the IP multimedia subsystem control layer, which is shown in communication between the user and the server. The paper deals with the number of generated messages depending on the behaviour of the users. This is described by a mathematical model using discrete Markov chains.

  16. Estudio exploratorio sobre la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y 12 años y en sus padres o adultos responsables Preliminary study about the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Slapak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados preliminares de un estudio cuyo propósito es indagar la presencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en niños entre 10 y años y en sus padres o adultos responsables. Metodología: Muestras: niños de a años que reciben asistencia psicoterapéutica en una unidad de docencia en servicio de una cátedra universitaria; padres o adultos responsables de dichos niños. Instrumentos: CORIN. Fuente: CONICET. Cuestionario que indaga hábitos de consumo en los adultos. Anamnesis a los adultos. Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos. Conclusiones: Se registra consumo ocasional de alcohol durante el año de administración del instrumento entre los niños. De la misma manera, se observa un consumo habitual de diversas sustancias psicoactivas en su entorno familiar. Se concluye que el consumo ocasional de alcohol en los niños no se encuentra relacionado con su sintomatología, sino más bien con las características del contexto familiar.This paper presents the preliminaries results of a study which purpose is to inquire the presence of the use of psychoactive substances among children between ten and twelve years old and in their parents or responsible adults. Methodology: Samples: Children between ten and twelve years old that receive psychotherapeutical assistance in an academic unit in a service witch belongs to an university chair; parents or responsible adults of these children. Tools: CORIN. Source: CONICET. Questionnaire that inquires about consume habits in the adults. Adults anamnesis. Sociodemographic data protocol. Conclusions: During the year of the administration of the instrument, it is registred an occasional consume of alcohol among the children. In the same way, it is observed a habitual consume of diverse psychoactive substances in their family context. It is concluded that the occasionally use of alcohol in children it is not related with their sinthomatology, but with the characteristics of their family

  17. Connected media and presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, J.; Nefs, H.T.; Gullström, C.; Greef, T.J. de; Parnes, P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective design of shared mediated spaces, information and connectedness requires theory and practice from a range of disciplines such as found in European projects like Together Anywhere, Together Anytime (TA2) and the EIT ICT Labs Mediating Presence activity. Building on this work we continue to

  18. Connected media and presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, J.; Nefs, H.T.; Gullström, C.; Greef, T.J. de; Parnes, P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective design of shared mediated spaces, information and connectedness requires theory and practice from a range of disciplines such as found in European projects like Together Anywhere, Together Anytime (TA2) and the EIT ICT Labs Mediating Presence activity. Building on this work we continue to

  19. "Presence" and myth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, F. R.

    2006-01-01

    There are no dictionary meanings or authoritative discussions of "presence" that fix the significance of this word in a way that ought to be accepted by anybody using it. So we are in the welcome possession of great freedom to maneuver when using the term. In fact, the only feasible requirement for

  20. The presence of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence...

  1. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  2. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  3. Presence at a distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays in the context of the cyberculture, computer-mediated inter-subjective relationships are part of our everyday lives, in both the professional and personal spheres, and for all age groups. In the clinical field, many applications have been developed to facilitate the exchange of informations and mediate the relationship between patient and therapist. In psychology, more or less immersive technologies are used, to encourage the feeling of presence among the users, and to trigger certain psychological processes. In our research, we have explored the remote clinical interview through videoconferencing, with the development and utilisation of the iPSY platform, totally focused on this objective. In this context, we have considered the notion of intersubjectivity, despite the physical absence. This research is leading us today to envision the notions of distance and presence, and possibly to redefine them. Thus, can we still oppose physical distance to psychological distance? Can we still affirm that the physical absence does not permit a psychological co-presence in certain interactions, like this observed in video interviews? The results show that the psychological processes, activated in this context, are similar to those observed in "traditional" clinical consults between the patient and the therapist. However, certain specifics have led us to consider the concept of distance, here influenced by the framework, and to observe its effects. This distance could possibly constitute a therapeutic lever for some patients, notably for those who have difficulties establishing the right psychological distance in their relationships with others. According to these results, can "distance" still be opposed to "presence", or could it be re-defined? This also opens up questions on the more general concept of digital relationships, and the definition of their specificities.

  4. 术后镇痛与家长陪伴对儿童麻醉苏醒期躁动的影响%Effects of post-operative analgesia combined with parental presence on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞冬; 白洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effects of post-operative analgesia combined with parental presence on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children. Methods 60 patients were randomly assigned into three groups with 20 cases each. After sevoflurane inhalation and being given rocuronium, all patients were intubated for mechanical ventilation. Then patients received caudal block. Patiens in group A and B were treated with diclofenac sodium suppositories before operation. To maintain anesthesia patients were adopted sevoflurane inhalation. Patients in group A and C were cared by nurses in post anesthesia care unit, whereas patients in group B added parental presence. Emergence agitation incidence, modified Aldrete scale, PAEDS, CHEOPS were all recorded. Results Therewas no difference of modified Aldrete scale among three groups( F =0.652 ,P >0. 05) ,but emergence agitation incidence in group C was more than those of group A and B. At each point PAEDS scores of group B were lower than those of group C( x2 =4. 566,7. 234,4. 124,6. 126, P < 0. 05) ,also scores of group B were lower than those of group A at 10 min and 30 min(F=0.654,P>0.05). PAEDS scores of group A were lower than those of group C at 20min and 30min(t =3.256,3.778,4.556,4.223 ,all P<0.05). At 20min and 30min CHEOPS scores of group C were higher than those of group A and B ( F =1. 987, P > 0.05 ). Conclusion Post-operative analgesia combined with parental presence could decrease the incidence of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children.%目的:探讨术后镇痛与家长陪伴对儿童麻醉苏醒期躁动的预防作用。方法60例急诊手术患儿,在其家属知情同意情况下,按术后是否镇痛及家长陪伴分成A组(20例)、B组(20例)、C组(20例),三组均采用七氟烷吸入诱导、气管插管后机械通气、骶管阻滞等麻醉方法,同时A组和B组均给予双氯酚酸钠栓(l mg/kg)纳肛,C组不使用双氯酚酸钠栓;术

  5. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  6. Role of butorphanol and ondansetron premedication in reducing postoperative shivering after general and spinal anesthesia: A randomized comparative study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sujeet; Verma, Satyajeet; Pandey, H P; Yadav, Pramod; Patel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative shivering (PAS) is a common problem following general and spinal anesthesia and may lead to multiple complications. This placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Ondansetron and butorphanol premedication reduces shivering after general and spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this study to highlight the efficacy of Butorphenol and ondosteron in controlling postoperative shivering. This clinical trial included 180 patients scheduled for elective general surgery, E.N.T., Ophthamological operations, randomly divided to six groups. Three groups in which General Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 1-ondansetron 8 mg intravenously(IV).Group 2 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 3 - saline 4 ml IV. And three groups where spinal Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 4-Ondosteron 8 mg IV, Group 5 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 6 - saline 4 ml IV 3-5 minutes before anaesthesia. Patients were observed in terms of vital signs, side effects and shivering. The type of the study was double blind randomized trial. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 statistical analysis software. Postoperative shivering was observed in 15.5%, 22.2% and 60% in general anaesthesia groups I II and III respectively. The reduction of core and dermal temperature during the anaesthesia and recovery, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were similar in all three groups (i.e. Group I,II,III). In spinal anaesthesia groups, PAS occurred 10%, 13.3% and 43.3% in group IV, V, VI respectively. The reduction of core temperature is similar in all three groups of spinal anaesthesia. But heart rate and mean arterial pressure increase were significant in control saline group in post operative recovery time. No complication seen in any of the six groups. This study suggested that use of Butorphanol and Ondansteron both are effective in reducing the incidence of PAS after general and spinal anaesthesia.

  7. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  8. PresenceRemote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Svensson, Marcus Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on our early experiences with the design of Social TV for senior citizens. Even though there seems to be a straight forward match between new interactive TV technologies on the rise and the notion of supporting social interaction amongst elderly TV viewers it is not at all clear...... how these technologies can accommodate the specific challenges related to the everyday life of elderly people. In particular, using an example concept – the PresenceRemote – we will discuss how the stigma associated with being lonely, an inherent part of senior living, can be addressed by leaving room...

  9. Caring for newborns in the presence of their parents: the experience of nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit Cuidar del recién nacido en la presencia de sus padres: vivencia de enfermeras en unidad de cuidado intensivo neonatal Cuidar do recém-nascido na presença de seus pais: vivência de enfermeiras em unidade de cuidado intensivo neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The nurse has a key role in involving parents in the care of newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to comprehend how the nurses experience the care provided to newborns in the presence of the parents. This is a qualitative study using social phenomenology, with the participation of seven nurses, interviewed between January and February 2009. The nurses perceived the needs of parents; had positive expectations regarding the care provided and acknowledge themselves to be the link between them, helping them to live with the hospitalized child. However, in emergencies, the nurses had difficulties in caring for the neonate in the presence of the parents. The nurses positively evaluated the presence of parents in the neonatal intensive care unit, involving them permanently in the care of the newborn. The study evokes the emergence of a care context (nurse/neonate/parents that precedes the proximity between the subjects and the demands presented by them.La enfermera tiene un papel fundamental en el envolvimiento de los padres en el cuidado al recién nacido en la unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal. El objetivo del estudio fue comprender como las enfermeras experimentan el cuidado prestado al recién nacido en la presencia de los padres. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa con abordaje de la fenomenología social; tuvo la participación de siete enfermeras, entrevistadas en los meses de enero y febrero de 2009. Se encontró que la enfermera percibe las necesidades de los padres, tiene expectativas positivas en relación al cuidado realizado y reconoce ser el eslabón entre ellos, ayudándolos a convivir con el hijo internado. Sin embargo, en situaciones de emergencia, tiene dificultades en cuidar al neonato en la presencia de los padres. Concluimos que la enfermera evalúa positivamente la presencia de los padres en la unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal, envolviéndolos permanentemente en el cuidado del reci

  10. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections ... this movie to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  11. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  12. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  13. Parent Involvement in the College Recruiting Process: To What Extent? CERI Research Brief 2-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Parents' increasing involvement in their children's transition from college to work has grabbed the attention of the media. Every time the author talks with employer groups, he hears similar stories about the pervasive presence of parents in the recruiting process. At the same time, numerous employers questioned the presence of parents in the…

  14. Role of butorphanol and ondansetron premedication in reducing postoperative shivering after general and spinal anesthesia: A randomized comparative study from North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sujeet; Verma, Satyajeet; Pandey, H. P.; Yadav, Pramod; Patel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative shivering (PAS) is a common problem following general and spinal anesthesia and may lead to multiple complications. This placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Ondansetron and butorphanol premedication reduces shivering after general and spinal anaesthesia. Aims: The aim of this study to highlight the efficacy of Butorphenol and ondosteron in controlling postoperative shivering. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial included 180 patients scheduled for elective general surgery, E.N.T., Ophthamological operations, randomly divided to six groups. Three groups in which General Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 1-ondansetron 8 mg intravenously(IV).Group 2 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 3 – saline 4 ml IV. And three groups where spinal Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 4-Ondosteron 8 mg IV, Group 5 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 6 – saline 4 ml IV 3-5 minutes before anaesthesia. Patients were observed in terms of vital signs, side effects and shivering. Settings and Design: The type of the study was double blind randomized trial. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: Postoperative shivering was observed in 15.5%, 22.2% and 60% in general anaesthesia groups I II and III respectively. The reduction of core and dermal temperature during the anaesthesia and recovery, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were similar in all three groups (i.e. Group I,II,III). In spinal anaesthesia groups, PAS occurred 10%, 13.3% and 43.3% in group IV, V, VI respectively. The reduction of core temperature is similar in all three groups of spinal anaesthesia. But heart rate and mean arterial pressure increase were significant in control saline group in post operative recovery time. No complication seen in any of the six groups. Conclusion: This study suggested that use of Butorphanol and Ondansteron both are effective

  15. Reaching Parents Through Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    The parent involvement program evolved from the needs of parents. Basic to the program is the concept of parenting, which implies taking positive action to facilitate and meet the needs of the children ahe family. Parents participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of their child's program. (Author)

  16. A Chance to Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  17. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  18. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  19. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  20. Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

  1. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Maung Liam; Grech Katrina; Read Andrew F

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory...

  2. Oral midazolam in paediatric premedication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... the holding room and at induction, than those over 5 years. (P < 0,01). ... priate size, at a fresh gas flow of 3 times the calculated minute volume. ... End-expired carbon dioxide levels were measured with a. Normocap CD-102 ...

  3. Burnout in Premedical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina; Fang, Daniel; Golshan, Shah; Moutier, Christine; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been growing recognition that medical students, interns, residents and practicing physicians across many specialties are prone to burnout, with recent studies linking high rates of burnout to adverse mental health issues. Little is known about the trajectory and origins of burnout or whether its roots may be traced to earlier…

  4. Burnout in Premedical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina; Fang, Daniel; Golshan, Shah; Moutier, Christine; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been growing recognition that medical students, interns, residents and practicing physicians across many specialties are prone to burnout, with recent studies linking high rates of burnout to adverse mental health issues. Little is known about the trajectory and origins of burnout or whether its roots may be traced to earlier…

  5. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  6. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Children on Parental Sex-Role Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role self-concept of parents was affected more by the presence of sons than of daughters in 153 parental dyads who had daughters only (N=41), sons only (N=41), or an equal number of sons and daughters (N=71). Results indicated that sex of child, especially sons, did appear to have an effect on parents' femininity. (Author/ABL)

  8. Effects of Children on Parental Sex-Role Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role self-concept of parents was affected more by the presence of sons than of daughters in 153 parental dyads who had daughters only (N=41), sons only (N=41), or an equal number of sons and daughters (N=71). Results indicated that sex of child, especially sons, did appear to have an effect on parents' femininity. (Author/ABL)

  9. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  10. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  11. Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring on Sexual Risk Behaviour of ... authoritative parenting style [t(192)=4.99, p<.001]; authoritarian parenting style has no significant effect on adolescents' risky sexual behavior ...

  12. Parents' Reactions to Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joyce L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the findings of a survey of parents' experiences with different kinds of parent involvement. Views school and family relations from the parents' perspective and suggests that parents favor programs that stress cooperation between school and home. (DR)

  13. Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    less social realism: a world with a green sky, flying trains, and misshapen animals that speak Dutch would surely seem more surreal than real, and...reactions of thousands of guests at a Disney installation, state that they can improve the experience by telling a pre-immersion background story and by

  14. Presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    For more than thirty years now, thinking about the way we, humans, account for our past has taken place under the aegis of representationalism. In its first two decades, representationalism, inaugurated by Hayden White's Metahistory of 1973, has been remarkably successful, but by now it has lost muc

  15. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ...

  16. Who Needs Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1978-01-01

    The author proposes that those most in need of parent education are non-parents; the basis for this contradictory conclusion is in the changes that have been taking place in the structure and position of the American family. (MM)

  17. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  18. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  19. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  1. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Night Terrors KidsHealth > For Parents > Night Terrors Print A A A en español Terrores nocturnos What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...

  2. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  3. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  4. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your parenting and improve your childrearing skills. Everyone wins with responsible parenting. Protect Your Children from Health ... or peer aggression, is more common than you think. It consists of any behavior – verbal or physical – ...

  5. Helping Parents Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  6. Investigation of PHC as Premedication in Pediatric Surgery%盐酸戊乙奎醚应用于大样本小儿外科手术麻醉前用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽伟; 艾艳秋; 王家祥; 王宏伟

    2012-01-01

    为了观察盐酸戊乙奎醚(PHC)应用于小儿外科手术麻醉前用药效果及不良反应,选取1 535例小儿外科手术,随机分为三组,观察麻醉前用药唾液分泌量、体温和血流动力学变化.结果发现气管插管和拔管时,三组分泌物量有差异(P<0.01).三组基础体温无差异(P>0.05),组内有差异(P<0.05).三组基础心率无差异(P>0.05),组内有差异(P<0.01).三组平均动脉压无差异(P>0.05).因此PHC 0.04mg/kg应用于小儿外科手术麻醉前用药,能有效抑制唾液腺分泌,维持体温和血流动力学稳定.%To study the influence of PHC as premedication in pediatric surgery, we selected 1 535 cases of pediatric surgeries which were divided into three groups randomly. The results are as follow. There is significant difference of secretion during the endotracheal intubation and extubation(P0. 05). HR; there is significant difference of heart rate among the three groups (P0. 05). MAP: there is no significant difference of mean arterial blood pressure (P>0. 05). Therefore, PHC 0. 04mg/kg used in the pediatric surgeries as premedication can effectively inhibit the salivary gland secretion, maintain a stable temperature and hemodynamics.

  7. Does Parents' Money Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper asks whether parental income per se has a positive impact on children's human capital accumulation. Previous research has established that income is positively correlated across generations. This does not prove that parents' money matters, however, since income is presumably correlated with unobserved abilities transmitted across generations. This paper estimates the impact of parental income by focusing on variation due to parental factors -- union, industry, and job loss experien...

  8. Emotional distress and parenting among community and clinic parents

    OpenAIRE

    Rimehaug, Tormod

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the distribution of and the change in parental emotional distress and parenting dimensions by combining samples of community parents, non-parents and clinic parents. Clinic parents were involved in intensive inpatient family treatment related to their children’s psychiatric problems. Research questions: The focal themes of the three research questions were as follows: 1) Anxiety and depression among community parent and non-parent subg...

  9. The Effect of Parental Modeling on Child Pain Responses: The Role of Parent and Child Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; LoLordo, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf

    2017-06-01

    Social modeling is a process by which pain behaviors are learned, and research has found parents act as models for their children's behavior. Despite social learning theory predicting that same-sex models have greater effect, no experimental investigation to date has examined the role of sex of the model or observer in social learning of pediatric pain. The present study recruited 168 parent-child dyads (equal father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads) in which children were generally healthy and 6 to 8 years old. Unbeknownst to their child, parents were randomly assigned to exaggerate their expression of pain, minimize their expression of pain, or act naturally during the cold pressor task (CPT). Parents completed the CPT while their child observed, then children completed the CPT themselves. Children whose parents were in the exaggerate condition reported higher anxiety than children of parents in the minimize condition. Additionally, girls in the exaggerate condition rated their overall pain intensity during the CPT significantly higher than boys in the same condition. No child sex differences were observed in pain intensity for the control or minimize conditions. Parent expressions of pain affects children's anxiety, and sex-specific effects of parental exaggerated pain expression on children's own subsequent pain experience are present. This article describes how parental expressions of pain influence children's pain and anxiety, specifically examining the relevance of parent and child sex in this process. These findings have implications for children of parents with chronic pain, or situations in which parents experience pain in the presence of their child (eg, vaccinations). Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  11. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  12. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  13. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  14. Parenting by Lying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

  15. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  16. Achieving Presence through Evoked Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jayesh S; Schmidt, Colin; Richir, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The sense of "Presence" (evolving from "telepresence") has always been associated with virtual reality research and is still an exceptionally mystifying constituent. Now the study of presence clearly spans over various disciplines associated with cognition. This paper attempts to put forth a concept that argues that it's an experience of an "Evoked Reality (ER)" (illusion of reality) that triggers an "Evoked Presence (EP)" (sense of presence) in our minds. A Three Pole Reality Model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The poles range from Dream Reality to Simulated Reality with Primary (Physical) Reality at the center. To demonstrate the relationship between ER and EP, a Reality-Presence Map is developed. We believe that this concept of ER and the proposed model may have significant applications in the study of presence, and in exploring the possibilities of not just virtual reality but also what we call "reality."

  17. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  18. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  19. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  20. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  1. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  2. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  3. Assessing Dimensions of Single Parenting: The Single Parenting Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Arnold L.; Ullman, Ann J.

    1984-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument that assesses five dimensions of single parenting: problem solving skills, parental warmth, discipline procedures, parent rules, enthusiasm for parenting and parent support systems. Results gave statistical support for the Single Parenting Questionnaire, suggesting it may be useful in both clinical and…

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of parents toward children with epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    280 parents' knowledge and their attitude toward children suffering from epilepsy ... seizures which makes their teachers and fellow students uncomfortable with their presence in class. ... procedures in attending to a person during a seizure,.

  5. Crenças determinantes da intenção da enfermeira acerca da presença dos pais em unidades neonatais de alto-risco Creencias determinantes de la intención de la enfermera acerca de la presencia de los padres en los centros neonatales de alto riesgo Beliefs determining the nurse's intention concerning the presence of parents in neonatal intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabelle Mariano Rossato-Abéde

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo conhecer as crenças, as atitudes e as normas sociais determinantes da intenção da enfermeira em possibilitar a presença dos pais em unidades neonatais de alto-risco. O conteúdo de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 11 enfermeiras foi analisado tendo como referencial teórico a Teoria da Ação Racionalizada. Os núcleos temáticos permitiram compreender a relação existente entre a intenção e o comportamento da enfermeira em permitir a presença dos pais na UTI Neonatal e a influência das crenças pessoais e das normas subjetivas no comportamento da enfermeira.El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer las creencias, actitudes y normas sociales que determinan la intencionalidad de la enfermera para posibilitar que los padres estén presentes en las unidades neonatales de alto riesgo. El contenido de entrevistas, semi-estructuradas, realizadas con 11 enfermeras fue analizado teniendo como referencial teórico la Teoría de la Acción Racionalizada. Los núcleos temáticos permitieron comprender la relación existente entre la intención y el comportamiento de la enfermera para permitir la presencia de los padres en la UCI Neonatal y la influencia de las creencias personales y de las normas subjetivas en el comportamiento de la enfermera.This study aims at learning about the beliefs, attitudes and social rules which determine the nurse's intention to allow the presence of parents in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The content of semi-structured interviews conducted with 11 nurses was analyzed by using the Rationalized Action Theory as a theoretical framework. The thematic units enabled the comprehension of the relationship between the nurse's intention and behavior when allowing the presence of parents in Neonatal Intensive Care Units as well as the influence of the nurse's personal beliefs and subjective norms on her behavior.

  6. The Role of Parent Governors in School Governance in Zimbabwe: Perceptions of School Heads, Teachers and Parent Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikoko, Vitallis

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on a study of the role of parent governors in five neighbouring rural primary schools in Zimbabwe. The study proposed that despite the presence of a legal decentralised school governance structure in which parents form the majority, they did not have the capacity to function effectively therein, and were still marginalised in school governance decision-making. Four areas of decision-making were investigated: school organisation; curriculum; employment and appraisal of teaching staff; and financial resources. Interviews were conducted with parent governors, school heads and teachers. Findings show that all the respondent groups perceived significant parental involvement in the area of school finances only. However, parents were perceived to lack the capacity to make decisions in all four areas. The study concludes that the role of parents in the running of schools in the country has not significantly grown from that of being school financiers and builders of infrastructure. Therefore, building school governance capacity among parents is necessary.

  7. [Control or involvement? Relationship between parenting style and adolescent depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.

  8. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (Mage  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    ' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance......Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...

  10. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  11. Achieving Presence through Evoked Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh S. ePillai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sense of ‘Presence’ (evolving from ‘telepresence’ has always been associated with virtual reality research and is still an exceptionally mystifying constituent. Now the study of presence clearly spans over various disciplines associated with cognition. This paper attempts to put forth a concept that argues that it’s an experience of an 'Evoked Reality’ (illusion of reality that triggers an ‘Evoked Presence’ (sense of presence in our minds. A Three Pole Reality Model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The poles range from Dream Reality to Simulated Reality with Primary (Physical Reality at the center. To demonstrate the relationship between Evoked Reality and Evoked Presence, a Reality-Presence Map is developed. We believe that this concept of Evoked Reality and the proposed model may have significant applications in the study of presence, and in exploring the possibilities of not just virtual reality but also what we call ‘reality’.

  12. Children with ostomies: parents helping parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A

    1992-01-01

    Thousands of ostomies are performed on children every year to treat a variety of acquired conditions and congenital anomalies. The parents of children with ostomies are faced with the challenge of successfully living with and managing their child's ostomy. These families need practical information and support, both from the professional community and from parents who have shared the responsibility of a child with an ostomy. A parental support network has been developed throughout the country to address some of the needs of these families. This article provides current information about the status of these networks: what they have to offer and how they can be accessed. These groups, which continue to evolve, demonstrate a trend within this unique population. The parents of a child with an ostomy no longer need to feel alone in their experience.

  13. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  14. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie; Deković, Maja; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2007-09-01

    The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Participants were 91 parents of children with epilepsy (mean age of children=8 years, 5 months). Parental perceptions of stressors, resources, parental coping behaviors, parenting stress, and parenting were assessed by means of questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to analyze the unique and combined power of the predictors to predict parenting stress and parenting. Sobel tests were used to identify the mediational role of parenting stress. Evidence was found for direct effects of stressors, resources, and coping behaviors on parenting stress and parenting, with relatively large effects for stressors. The mediational role of parenting stress was largest in the domain of parental behavioral control. In the context of pediatric epilepsy, parenting stress mediates both disruptive and resilient family factors for their effects on parenting. Parents of children with epilepsy may benefit from parent training programs that, to reduce parenting stress, address epilepsy education, the management of difficult child temperament, building social support networks, and the modification of inadequate parental coping behaviors.

  15. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Metho

  16. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. METHO

  17. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  18. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  19. [Husband's presence at childbirth in light of obstetric psychoprophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Sipiński, Adam; Majerczyk, Iwona; Selwet, Monika; Kuna, Anna; Machura, Mariola

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary obstetric psychoprophylaxis gives prospective parents wide opportunities to prepare to the pregnancy period and delivery. It is educationally-minded and points the importance to modify the life style, introduces exercises accompanied by the relative during the pregnancy and delivery. The survey portrays husband's--child father's role in obstetric psychoprophylaxis. The importance to continue the psychoprophylaxis in the delivery room was spotted in the survey, too. The continuation might be reached by close relative's presence.

  20. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success.

  1. Perils and Promises: Middle-Class Parental Involvement in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Horvat, Erin McNamara

    2009-01-01

    Given recent trends, middle-class families may become an increasing presence in urban districts. Such parents could help secure badly needed resources and raise expectations. This study of parental involvement in two urban schools suggests that middle-class parental involvement may be more complex than often assumed. The authors find that…

  2. Food advertisements in two popular U.S. parenting magazines: results of a five-year analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Hammond, Rodney; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    .... Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study's objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category...

  3. Parenting in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  4. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2004-12-01

    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  6. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  8. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  9. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…

  10. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  11. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  12. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  13. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  14. Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a test of how personality may shape social behaviors in a long-lasting dyad: the parent-adolescent relationship. In a large Belgian community sample, it was examined which parent Big Five characteristics were related to parenting and whether adolescent Big Five characteristics elicited certain parenting behaviors. Further, the proposition that individual differences are amplified under stress was examined by exploring whether parent personality was differentially related to parenting for parents of "easy" versus "difficult" adolescents. Moreover, possible differences in associations across parental and adolescent gender were explored. Mothers (N = 467) and fathers (N = 428) reported on their personality using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory; adolescents (N = 475) assessed their personality with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Two types of parenting behaviors, overreactive discipline and warmth, were assessed 2 years later by parent self-reports, partner reports, and adolescent reports, from which multi-informant latent factors were created. Results indicate that parental personality was more relevant than adolescent personality for explaining overreactivity, but parent and adolescent personality were similarly relevant in explaining warmth. Especially parental and adolescent Agreeableness and adolescent Extraversion were important predictors of both types of parenting. Associations between parental personality and parenting were similarly related to parents of easy versus difficult adolescents, and for mothers and fathers parenting daughters or sons. Together, results show that parent characteristics as well as adolescent characteristics importantly affect dysfunctional and adaptive parenting.

  15. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  16. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  17. Gay and lesbian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Turner, P H

    An anonymous survey of 23 gay and lesbian parents and 16 heterosexual single parents was conducted in order to see whether the parents' homosexuality created special problems or benefits or both, for their children. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-typed toys, activities, and playmates. Heterosexual parents made a greater effort to provide an opposite-sex role model for their children, but no other differences in their parenting behaviors were found. Gay and lesbian parents saw a number of benefits and relatively few problems for their children as a result of their homosexuality, with lesbians perceiving greater benefits than gay men. Conversely, the gay males reported greater satisfaction with their first child, fewer disagreements with their partners over discipline, and a greater tendency to encourage play with sex-typed toys than did the lesbians. The findings suggest that being homosexual is clearly compatible with effective parenting and is not a major issue in parents' relationships with their children.

  18. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  19. 术前口服可乐定对脊柱手术患者全麻苏醒的影响%The effects of oral clonidine for premedication of anesthetic recovery on the spinal operation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓嘉陵; 李军祥; 杨小霖

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察脊柱手术患者术前口服可乐定对全麻苏醒的影响。方法:将64例ASAⅠ-Ⅱ级,18~60岁,择期行椎管减压、脊柱融合手术的患者随机分为术前口服可乐定组(200μg)和安慰剂组(维生素C 600 mg)。麻醉诱导采用芬太尼2μg/kg、异丙酚1~2 mg/kg及维库溴铵0.1 mg/kg。气管插管后机械通气,调整吸入异氟烷浓度维持BIS 40~50,间断给予维库溴铵维持肌松。调整呼吸参数维持ETCO235~40 mmHg。记录患者一般资料,芬太尼、异丙酚用量、麻醉时间、拔管时间、低血压或高血压发生率。结果:可乐定组患者芬太尼用量少于安慰剂组(2.11±0.87 vs 3.68±0.93,P0.05)。结论:脊柱手术的患者,术前给于可乐定能减轻麻醉所需麻醉药的用量,加快麻醉后复苏,并且不增加低血压和心动过缓的发生率。%Objective:To observe the effects of oral clonidine premedication on the general anesthesia and recovery in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Methods:Sixty-four ASA levelⅠ-Ⅱ patients (18-60 years old) undergoing major spine surgery were ran-domly allocated to two groups. One group received oral clonidine (200 μg) and the other received placebo (Vitamin C 600 mg) for premedication. Standard anesthesia protocols were followed for induction Fentanyl 2 μg/kg,Propofol 1~2 mg/kg and Vecuronium Bro-mide 0. 1 mg/kg. The mechanical ventilation was performed after the tracheal intubation. And the concentration of isoflurance was adjus-ted and maintained at the level of BIS 40~50. The Vecuronium Bromide was given inconsistently in order to keep the muscular relaxa-tion. The reference data of breathing is adjusted at the level of ETCO2 35~40 mmHg. Heart rate,blood pressure,and end-tidal concen-trations of isoflurane were monitored. Hypotensive episodes were treated with bolus doses of ephedrine or phenylephrine. Results:The demographic data,duration of anesthesia,propofol requirement were not

  20. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  1. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  2. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  3. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  4. In the Presence of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    of teaching, is found in the study in the video recorded lectures when e-students are deprived of the traditional student behaviour as interacting with other students and the teacher in the same room. They therefore translate and interact with the recorded lesson not as process but as digital artifact...... introduces the concept of disembodied presence and presents different learning design experiments that have been developed in a physiotherapy e-learning program to deal with the experience of disembodied presence and to thematise the role of technology....

  5. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  6. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  7. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  8. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  9. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other ...

  10. Hemophilia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Hemophilia KidsHealth > For Parents > Hemophilia Print A A A ... bike or a stray kick in a soccer game means a temporary bruise or a cut that ... with hemophilia, these everyday mishaps are cause for concern. What ...

  11. Parent News Offline, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 5 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduced those without Internet Access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2003 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Summer Academic…

  12. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should coop

  13. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Cope With Divorce? How Can I Help My Child Deal With My Dating After Divorce? ... With a Single Parent Living With Stepparents What Kids Who Are Moving ...

  14. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  15. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  16. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  17. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  19. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  20. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  1. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  2. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  3. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  4. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  5. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover,

  6. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover, a

  7. Parental Relationships in Fragile Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara McLanahan; Audrey N. Beck

    2010-01-01

    ...: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child...

  8. Sonic Virtuality, Environment, and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a brief introduction to the concept of sonic virtuality, a view of sound as a multi-modal, emergent perception that provides a framework that has since been used to provide an explanation of the formation of environments. Additionally, the article uses such concepts to explai...... on the use of biofeedback in computer games as part of the immersive technology designed to facilitate presence in such worlds....

  9. Executive presence for strategic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2013-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses cultivating executive presence, a crucial component of great leadership, needed for strategic influence and to drive change.

  10. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups...

  11. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.

  12. Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

    Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

  13. Educational Groups for Single Parents: The Parenting after Divorce Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)

  14. Perceptions of Parent School Collaboration within Single Parent Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josafat, Jason Marc

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the involvement levels of single parents in their child's education or what schools can do to support the collaborative involvement with single parents. This is important, because parent involvement is crucial for student success, and schools play an important part in garnering this role towards parent involvement; single…

  15. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  16. Parents Want Their Children's Data: DQC's 2015 Parent Poll Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…

  17. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, c

  18. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  19. Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual and child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, posit

  20. Maternal presence, childrearing practices, and children's response to an injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, M E; Endsley, R C

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal presence or absence and childrearing practices on young children's response to an injection. One hundred thirty-eight mothers and their children, who were attending health screening clinic, were assigned to one of four groups in which mothers were either present or absent during an interview and an immunization. Mothers were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their childrearing practices. Child behavior was observed during both the interview and the immunization. Results indicated that while maternal presence was associated with the children behaving more distressed during the interview, maternal presence had no effect on child behavior during the immunization. Children whose mothers reported high levels of both control and warmth in their relationship (authoritative parents) were found to be significantly less distressed during the immunization than children of either the low-control, high-warmth (permissive), high-control, low-warmth (authoritarian) or low-control, low-warmth (nonresponsive) parent groups.

  1. Malaria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria A A A What's ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  2. Tetanus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Dealing With Cuts Osteomyelitis Bites and Scratches Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations ... Scratches, and Abrasions Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Osteomyelitis Wound Healing and Care Why Did I Feel ...

  3. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rh Incompatibility KidsHealth > For Parents > Rh Incompatibility Print A ... this information early in your pregnancy. About the Rh Factor People with different blood types have proteins ...

  4. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  5. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  6. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child After Immunization Your child might have a fever, soreness, and ...

  7. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A A ... your risk of getting this infection. continue Treating Listeriosis Listeriosis is usually treated with antibiotics in the ...

  8. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  9. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Asperger Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Asperger Syndrome Print A ... the medical community still use the term. About Asperger Syndrome The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, ...

  10. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reconcile their teen's sexual orientation with their religious or personal beliefs. Sadly, some react with anger, hostility, or rejection. But many parents find that they just need time to adjust ...

  11. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Amblyopia KidsHealth > For Parents > Amblyopia Print A A A ... could lead to permanent vision loss later. About Amblyopia From birth until about age 8, a child's ...

  12. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  13. Strokes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... test that uses magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to produce very good pictures of internal body ...

  14. Cochlear Implants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... understand their new bionic ear and the cool technology behind it that allows them to hear better. ...

  15. Turner Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... become pregnant) as adults. However, advances in medical technology, including hormonal therapy and in vitro fertilization, can ...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  17. CPR (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help CPR KidsHealth > For Parents > CPR Print A A A ... can be given by health care providers. About CPR CPR (or cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) is a combination of ...

  18. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  19. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A ... Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes ...

  20. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Help Kids Handle Teasing? Talking to Your Child About Puberty Helping Kids Deal With Bullies How Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie ...

  1. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  3. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, but the condition is usually not severe. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is also known as the "bubble boy ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Autoimmunity Immunotherapy Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Living With Lupus Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ...

  4. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  5. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  6. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  7. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from time to time. They might disagree ... happen and that's OK — it's all part of learning how to live with each other and get ...

  8. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  9. Diphtheria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diphtheria KidsHealth > For Parents > Diphtheria Print A A A ... Contagiousness Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Diphtheria Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that spreads easily ...

  10. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Gun Safety Print A ... unloaded, and the ammunition should be stored separately. Guns and Pretend Play Allowing kids to play with ...

  11. Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Your Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Warts KidsHealth > For Parents > Warts Print A A A ...

  12. Sepsis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Sepsis KidsHealth > For Parents > Sepsis Print A A A ... Infections When to Call the Doctor What Is Sepsis? Sepsis is when the immune system responds to ...

  13. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Amebiasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Amebiasis Print A A A ... Prevention Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Amebiasis Amebiasis is an intestinal illness that's typically transmitted ...

  14. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  15. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bleeding disorder , such as sickle cell disease , thalassemia, or anemia caused by kidney disease , hemophilia , or ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Beta Thalassemia Sickle Cell Disease Alpha Thalassemia von Willebrand Disease ...

  16. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Alpha Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  17. Psoriasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Psoriasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Psoriasis A A A What's ... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non- ...

  18. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  19. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  20. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  1. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  2. Hernias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Hernias KidsHealth > For Parents > Hernias Print A A A ... get your child the appropriate medical care. About Hernias When part of an organ or tissue in ...

  3. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Scoliosis Print A A A en español Escoliosis What Is Scoliosis? Scoliosis affects the spine. Although the spine is ...

  4. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease Print A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...

  5. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with urination Untreated chlamydia also can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect the vagina, cervix, uterus, ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sexual Development Pelvic Inflammatory Disease About Condoms STDs Questions and Answers About Sex ...

  6. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease A A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...

  7. Neurofibromatosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Neurofibromatosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Neurofibromatosis Print A A A ... Caring for Your Child en español Neurofibromatosis About Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that can ...

  8. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Measles and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... July 2015 The best way to protect against measles is to get the measles-mumps-rubella shot ( ...

  9. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  10. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  11. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  12. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  13. Sibling Rivalry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to any family member is damaging to the self-esteem or psychological well-being of any family member ... Should I Intervene During Teasing? Becoming a Stepparent Parenting Multiples Birth of a Second Child Preparing Your ...

  14. ECG Electrocardiogram (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ECG (Electrocardiogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > ECG (Electrocardiogram) Print A ... whether there is any damage. How Is an ECG Done? There is nothing painful about getting an ...

  15. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  16. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  17. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  18. Meningitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Meningitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Meningitis A A A What's ... to Call the Doctor en español Meningitis About Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the ...

  19. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > For Parents > Sexual Orientation Print A ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the ...

  20. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Bronchiolitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Bronchiolitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Bronquiolitis About Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common illness of the respiratory ...

  1. Ebola (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ebola KidsHealth > For Parents > Ebola Print A A A ... take precautions to avoid becoming infected. What Is Ebola? Ebola, or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( Ebola HF) , is ...

  2. MRSA (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... are harder to kill. They become resistant by changing in some way that affects the ability of ...

  3. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... voice is a sign that his voice is changing and will become deeper. Dark, coarse, curly hair ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... it, then wash his or her hands after changing the litter. If you are unable to have ...

  5. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  6. Parents as Writing Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  7. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Diabetes Movie ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who ...

  8. Parental attitudes toward mouthguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, N; Mourino, A P

    1997-01-01

    An 11-item, one-page questionnaire was mailed to 1800 parents chosen at random in the Henrico County, VA public school system. Parents were asked questions such as "who should be responsible for mouthguard wear?" "what sports should require mouthguards?" and "has [their] child ever sustained an oral or facial injury?" The parental responses indicate that mouthguard enforcement is the responsibility of both parents and coaches. Of the total injuries reported, 19% were sustained in basketball, 17% in baseball, and 11% in soccer. Despite these high injury rates, however, there was a lack of perceived need for mouthguard use in these sports. When asked which sports should require a mouthguard rule, the sports that generated the most responses were, in decreasing order, football, boxing, ice hockey, wrestling, field hockey, and karate. Parents were more likely to require mouthguards for their sons than daughters, and more likely to require them for their children who participated in a mandatory mouthguard sport, a contact sport, or who had been previously injured. The authors conclude that because parents view themselves as equally responsible as coaches for maintaining mouthguard use, both groups should be targeted and approached as a possible source for the recommendation of mandatory mouthguard rules in basketball, baseball, and soccer.

  9. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  10. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  11. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  12. Parents' Knowledge of Emergent Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ellen

    This study investigated parents' knowledge of their child's emergent literacy development by administering parent questionnaires that examined parents' beliefs of literacy learning and the early writing and reading experiences of preschool children in their home. A total of 115 questionnaires were administered to parents with children enrolled in…

  13. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  14. Parents of "Beyond Control" Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the child rearing and disciplinary methods of parents of adolescent boys who were reported by their parents to be serious control problems. On the basis of a social learning analysis of family relationships, it was hypothesized that parental difficulty in controlling adolescents was related to two factors: parent consistency in setting…

  15. Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

  16. Single Parenting of the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses issues that are of interest and concern to all parents of adolescents, but that may be particularly difficult for single parents to manage. It also provides a framework for examining the areas of similarity as well as difference between the adolescent and the single parent. Attention is paid to the potential advantages of single-parent status.

  17. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  18. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  19. What Are Parents Willing to Discuss with Their Pediatrician About Firearm Safety? A Parental Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jane M; Bobenhouse, Neil; Dodd, Sherry; Sterkel, Randall; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    To determine if parents are receptive to discussing firearm safety with their pediatrician. Parents completed a self-administered paper survey during a pediatric office visit. Responses of those who confirmed and denied household firearms were compared using Fisher exact test. Between March 23 and May 21, 2015, 1246 of 1363 eligible parents (91.4%) completed the survey (22.6% African American, 79.5% at least some college education); 36% of respondents reported household firearms (owners). An additional 14.3% reported that their child was often in homes that contained firearms. Of the 447 owners, 25.1% reported ≥1 firearm was stored loaded, and 17.9% carried a firearm when leaving the house. Seventy-five percent of parents thought the pediatrician should advise about safe storage of firearms (owners 71.1%, others 77.5%), 16.9% disagreed (owners 21.9%, others 13.4%), and 8.2% were uncertain. Sixty-six percent thought pediatricians should ask about the presence of household firearms (owners 58.4%, others 70.9%), 23.2% disagreed (owners 31.5%, others 17.8%), and 10.5% were uncertain. Differences in parental opinions between owners and other parents were statistically significant. Twenty-two percent of owners would ignore advice to not have household firearms for safety reasons, and 13.9% would be offended by such advice. Only 12.8% of all parents reported a discussion about firearms with the pediatrician. Avoiding direct questioning about firearm ownership and extending the discussion about why and how to ensure safe storage of firearms to all parents may be an effective strategy to decrease firearm-related injuries and fatalities in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parent-nursing student communication practice: role-play and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark J; Taylor, Erin A; High, Patricia L

    2012-02-01

    Parents accompanying their child's hospitalization can experience stress associated with the child's illness, treatments, and major alterations in family life. Nurses often serve as the primary communicator and cultural broker because of their constant presence at the child's bedside. Nursing students may not have essential parent-nurse communication competencies. In an innovative method of teaching nursing students about communicating with parents, 64 undergraduate nursing students participated in a parent-led postconference with a nursing instructor. The parents provided background and led role-play activities and debriefing sessions with students. Feedback provided by students before and after the parent session included requests for additional parents' experiences, appreciation and exceeded expectations of hands-on experience, recognized value of information provided, and the recommendation that all students attend. We demonstrate that empathy is a teachable skill, nursing students are apprehensive about communicating with parents, and nursing students do not understand how much families rely on nurses. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  2. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  3. Involving Parents in a Community-Based, Culturally Grounded Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth: Parent Perspectives, Challenges, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth's life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission…

  4. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  5. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    OpenAIRE

    Anbo Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem ...

  6. Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Ayson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents

  7. Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Ayson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents.

  8. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  9. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...

  10. Parental trisomy 21 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D J; Begleiter, M L; Chamberlin, J; Hankins, L; Magenis, R E

    1982-01-01

    A family with three children with trisomy 21 in which the mother is a phenotypically normal, trisomy 21/normal mosaic was studied. Chromosome 21 fluorescent heteromorphisms were used to document that two of the three number 21's in two of the Down syndrome offspring were of maternal origin. Five cytogenetic surveys in which both parents of a child with trisomy 21 were studied have been reviewed. From these data, it is estimated that 3% of couples producing a child with trisomy 21 can be explained by parental mosaicism. From 17 informative sibships, with one parent mosaic, the segregation ratio was estimated to be 0.43 +/- 0.11. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6211090

  11. Parenting Style and Its Correlates. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy

    One of the most robust approaches to researching parents' influence on children's social competence is the study of what has been called "parenting style." Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental…

  12. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms...... of professionals: first, by teachers and librarians in the mid-fifties and, then, by intellectuals and performing artists in the late sixties. With a radically changed professional hegemony and a shifting media landscape, the role of media in children’s lives was described very differently during the period...

  13. Aimons nos parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛

    2004-01-01

    En général, on trouve naturel d'aimer ses parents. Par exemple, on dit très souvent penser à papa et à maman quand on est loin de chez sol; et beaucoup de gens ont écrit de belles phrases pour chanter l'amour éternel entre parents et enfants. Mais est-ce que la réalité est aussi simple? Ma réponse est bien sūr que non.

  14. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection......' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance...

  15. Misunderstandings between Parents and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建琳; 尹小明

    2002-01-01

    Today more and mere young men say that their parents don’t understand them well. They think their parents are very striet with them and don't give them enough space to do their own things which they like to. They even think their parents are out of touch with modern life. So,generally speaking, they don' t want to talk with their parents, they don' t tell everything, especially their secret to their parents. It seems there is a gap between the parents and their children.

  16. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  17. Parenting of adult children in an Israeli sample: parents are always parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, Naama

    2009-04-01

    This qualitative study examines the role of parents with regard to their adult children, by exploring parents' experiences, meanings, and the underlying psychological processes of their parental role. In-depth interviews with healthy Israeli parents (N = 23) aged 56 to 69 explored their perceptions about their parental role. Narrative analysis techniques focused on the content and on the form of the narratives were applied. Five important internal dialectic dimensions emerged: emotional connection and separation; the child as narcissistic extension of the parent and the parent's desire to let the child individuate; growing importance of familial connections and the perceived generation gap; parents' balancing personal needs and the children's needs, and finally, maintaining a hierarchical stance and an equal stance. The results are integrated into the developing theory of intergenerational ambivalence, suggesting a dialectical configuration for the role of parent to adult children.

  18. Reduced virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, F W; Liauw, H L; Geftic, S G; Gelzer, J

    1975-01-01

    Resistant cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 which were grown in the presence of 1 mg of benzalkonium chloride (BC) per ml caused only a mild conjunctivitis when they were dropped onto the scratched corneas of rabbits. In contrast, cells of the BC-sensitive parent strain induced a severe keratoconjunctivitis. In addition, the BC-grown cells also had a reduced capacity to produce kidney infections in mice as compared to the parent strain. BC-grown cells acted as weak complex antigens which conferred slight protection against lethal doses of BC-grown cells. No cross-protection to cells of the parent strain occurred. The data indicate that growth in the presence of BC results in cells with reduced virulence. Images PMID:809470

  19. Why Do Parents Homeschool? A Systematic Examination of Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.

    2007-01-01

    Although homeschooling is growing in popularity in the United States, little systematic research has focused on this population. Grounded in the parental involvement literature, this study examines why parents decide to home-school. Parents of 136 homeschooled elementary children completed questionnaires assessing constructs derived from the…

  20. Mainland Chinese Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying

    2005-01-01

    Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…

  1. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  2. Parental relocation Free movement rights and joint parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen de Boer, Christina G.

    2008-01-01

    As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute

  3. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  4. Parental relocation Free movement rights and joint parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen de Boer, Christina G.

    2008-01-01

    As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute

  5. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  6. Parental monitoring, sensitivity toward parents, and a child's mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Li, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in parental monitoring and sensitivity toward parents and the extent to which these measures can influence children's mate preferences. In 2 samples (the United States and the Netherlands), females reported experiencing higher levels of parental monitoring

  7. Parent Training: Implementation Strategies for "Adventures in Parenting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Shannon Carothers; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Borkowski, John G.

    2008-01-01

    "Adventures in Parenting", an informational booklet published by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, offers five principles that parents can use to develop a mental model of parenting: Responding, Preventing, Monitoring, Mentoring, and Modeling (RPM3). The current study was designed to assess the differential impact of…

  8. Parenting Behaviour among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Boonen, Hannah; Maes, Bea; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting…

  9. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  10. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  11. Parenting "Gifted and Talented" Children in Urban Areas: Parents' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Smith, Carole Portman; Brown, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    International evidence demonstrates the importance of engaging parents in the education of their "high-potential" children, yet limited research has focused on the involvement of parents from differing economic strata/backgrounds. The current study explored the dilemmas of parenting academically high-ability children from economically…

  12. Evaluation of a Parent Education Program for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenry, Patrick C.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Stone, Glenn

    1999-01-01

    Compares participants in a parent education program [Parents' Education about Children's Emotions Program (PEACE)] mandated for divorcing parents with a similar sample of individuals who had not participated in such a program. Although the findings provide little evidence for the longer-term impact of this program, the program participants…

  13. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  14. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  15. Parental Influence on Adolescent Sexuality: Implications for Parents as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Hicks, Mary W.

    1982-01-01

    Positive and negative sexual messages are communicated by parents to their children, verbally and nonverbally. The impact of parental messages upon the sexuality of youth appears relatively straightforward for males but quite complex for females. Educational approaches are suggested to be used to recycle early parental sexual messages. (Author/PN)

  16. Parental monitoring, sensitivity toward parents, and a child's mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Li, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in parental monitoring and sensitivity toward parents and the extent to which these measures can influence children's mate preferences. In 2 samples (the United States and the Netherlands), females reported experiencing higher levels of parental monitoring

  17. Unmarried Parents in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current…

  18. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Scarlet Fever Print A A A What's in this article? ... to Call the Doctor en español Escarlatina Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with group A ...

  19. Kawasaki Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Kawasaki Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Kawasaki Disease Print A A A What's in this ... Complications Diagnosis Treatment en español La enfermedad de Kawasaki Kawasaki disease is an illness that involves the ...

  20. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxocariasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxocariasis Print A A A What's in this article? ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor en español Toxocariasis When common parasites of dogs and cats infect ...

  1. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression A A A What's ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  2. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > EEG (Electroencephalogram) A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Electroencefalograma (EEG) What It Is An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a ...

  3. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  4. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  5. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A A What's in this article? Salmonella ... contaminated food (usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk). Salmonella infections affect the intestines and cause vomiting, fever, and ...

  6. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other ...

  7. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  8. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? Signs ... Doctor Professional Treatment Home Care en español Neumonía Pneumonia is a general term for lung infections that ...

  9. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis A A A What's in this article? Signs ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...

  10. Strokes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain that's affected and the amount of damage the stroke causes. More likely, a parent first notices changes ... rehabilitation and therapy. previous continue Complications The brain damage that occurs during a stroke can cause a number of other problems that ...

  11. Down Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Down Syndrome Print A A ... Help en español El síndrome de Down About Down Syndrome Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is ...

  12. Parenting NICU graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reflects the results of our randomized, clinical trial on the effectiveness of a generic parenting intervention named Primary Care Triple P. We investigated whether Primary Care Triple P reduced emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born and asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. The

  13. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen Print A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a ...

  14. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  15. Yoga for Exceptional Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Yoga can help make life easier for parents. The author started practicing with a Hatha Yoga teacher once a week at the local church community center. The breath (Pranayama) leads to self-discovery, Yoga poses (asanas) lead to quieting of the mind and self-connection. That was seven years ago, and since then,…

  16. Parenting for Moral Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Ralph L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of moral development and provides examples of how Kohlberg's theoretical principles can be employed in everyday family interaction. Holds that parents are always moral educators and must therefore consciously implement moral development strategies in the home environment. (GC)

  17. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A ... olds and, later, in 8- to 12-year-olds. Signs and Symptoms Growing pains always concentrate in the muscles , rather than ...

  18. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease Print A A ... en español La enfermedad de Lyme What Is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease is the leading tick-borne disease ...

  19. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  20. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Physical Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Physical Therapy A A A en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...