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  1. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

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    ... of Prematurity (ROP) Facts About Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) This information was developed by the National Eye ... blind from ROP. Are there different stages of ROP? Yes. ROP is classified in five stages, ranging ...

  2. Multiple pregnancies and its relationship with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP

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    Fiorot CA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mário Martins dos Santos Motta1, João Borges Fortes Filho2, Jacqueline Coblentz1, Claudia Amaral Fiorot31Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre RS, Brazil; 3Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, Rio de Janeiro RJ, BrazilBackground: The influence of multiple gestation on the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is still not completely understood.Objectives: To verify the incidence of any stage of ROP and threshold ROP in singletons and in multiple gestation among preterm infants.Methods: This was an institutional, prospective, and descriptive cohort study, which included preterm newborns with birth weight (BW of 1500 g or less and/or gestational age (GA of 32 weeks or less, as admitted to the neonatal units at Laranjeiras and Amparo Hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2001 and July 2005, and whom remained hospitalized for at least 28 days. There were no exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included multiples; and Group 2 consisted of singletons.Results: A total of 159 infants that remained in neonatal unit care for at least 28 days were included in this study. Group 1 comprised 56 (35% multiples; and Group 2 comprised 103 (65% singletons. Mean BW was 1072 g ± 272 and 1089 g ± 282 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P > 0.05. Mean GA among multiple gestation (Group 1 was 29 weeks ± 2.1; and 29 weeks ± 2.4 among singletons (Group 2 (ANOVA P > 0.05. Days in oxygen therapy ranged from 0 to 188 days. Median among Group 1 was 15 days, while median in Group 2 was 10 days (Kruskal–Wallis P > 0.05. Any stage ROP was detected in 66 (41.5% of the whole cohort comprising 159 babies. Among the 56 multiples, 30 (53.6% achieved any stage ROP, and among 103

  3. Evaluation of the WinROP system for identifying retinopathy of prematurity in Czech preterm infants.

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    Timkovic, Juraj; Pokryvkova, Martina; Janurova, Katerina; Barinova, Denisa; Polackova, Renata; Masek, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially serious condition that can afflict preterm infants. Timely and correct identification of individuals at risk of developing a serious form of ROP is therefore of paramount importance. WinROP is an online system for predicting ROP based on birth weight and weight increments. However, the results vary significantly for various populations. It has not been evaluated in the Czech population. This study evaluates the test characteristics (specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values) of the WinROP system in Czech preterm infants. Data on 445 prematurely born infants included in the ROP screening program at the University Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic, were retrospectively entered into the WinROP system and the outcomes of the WinROP and regular screening were compared. All 24 infants who developed high-risk (Type 1 or Type 2) ROP were correctly identified by the system. The sensitivity and negative predictive values for this group were 100%. However, the specificity and positive predictive values were substantially lower, resulting in a large number of false positives. Extending the analysis to low risk ROP, the system did not provide such reliable results. The system is a valuable tool for identifying infants who are not likely to develop high-risk ROP and this could help to substantially reduce the number of preterm infants in need of regular ROP screening. It is not suitable for predicting the development of less serious forms of ROP which is however in accordance with the declared aims of the WinROP system.

  4. Visual impairment due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in New Zealand: a 22-year review.

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    Tan, Zachary; Chong, CheeFoong; Darlow, Brian; Dai, Shuan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)-related visual impairment in New Zealand children. 22-year retrospective review of medical records of children with moderate to severe visual impairment registered with the Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand. The cohort was divided into two periods (1991-2004; 2005-2012) for analysis. 232 children with ROP were treated in the study period (109 in period 1, 123 in period 2). 36 children, 63.9% of whom were of male sex, were identified with subsequent significant visual impairment (27 in period 1, 9 in period 2). The incidence of new cases of visual impairment from ROP declined from 271.6 infants/100 000 live very preterm births per annum (period 1) to 146.1 per annum (period 2). Mean gestational age and mean birth weight were comparable between the two study periods. 75% of children with visual impairment from ROP received treatment for their condition (period 1, 74.1%; period 2, 77.8%) and modalities used changed significantly over time. The modal visual outcome overall was Snellen visual acuity visual impairment from ROP over time in New Zealand, likely due to progress in clinical management of ROP. Our study suggests the current ROP screening criteria of <31 weeks' gestation or <1250 g are of sufficient breadth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Proposta de diretrizes brasileiras do exame e tratamento de retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP Brazilian guidelines proposal for screening and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP

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    Andrea Zin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia da prematuridade é uma das principais causas de cegueira na infância, havendo cerca de 50.000 crianças cegas pela doença em todo o mundo. A deficiência visual causada pela retinopatia dá-se em função de descolamento de retina tracional. O exame de rotina de prematuros possibilita a identificação de formas graves da doença, cujo tratamento por fotocoagulação ou crioterapia pode reduzir significativamente a cegueira por retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP. A seguir serão apresentadas as diretrizes brasileiras para exame de prematuros e tratamento daqueles com a forma grave da retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP, recomendadas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria, Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia Pediátrica. Essas diretrizes foram baseadas nos resultados do I Workshop de Retinopatia da Prematuridade e apresentam os atributos para a implementação de um programa eficiente de diagnóstico e tratamento.Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the main causes of childhood blindness. Worldwide, there are more than 50,000 children blind due to retinopathy of prematurity. Visual impairment is a consequence of retinal detachment. It can be detected by serial ophthalmologic examination of infants at risk, and those identified with the severe form of the disease can be treated by laser or cryotherapy, which can decrease significantly the blindness due to ROP. The Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology and Brazilian Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology suggest a guideline for the detection and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in Brazil. This document was based on the results of the I Workshop of Retinopathy of Prematurity and presents the attributes for the implementation of an efficient diagnostic and treatment program.

  6. The Global Education Network for Retinopathy of Prematurity (Gen-Rop): Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of A Novel Tele-Education System (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

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    Chan, R V Paul; Patel, Samir N; Ryan, Michael C; Jonas, Karyn E; Ostmo, Susan; Port, Alexander D; Sun, Grace I; Lauer, Andreas K; Chiang, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a tele-education system developed to improve diagnostic competency in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by ophthalmology residents. A secure Web-based tele-education system was developed utilizing a repository of over 2,500 unique image sets of ROP. For each image set used in the system, a reference standard ROP diagnosis was established. Performance by ophthalmology residents (postgraduate years 2 to 4) from the United States and Canada in taking the ROP tele-education program was prospectively evaluated. Residents were presented with image-based clinical cases of ROP during a pretest, posttest, and training chapters. Accuracy and reliability of ROP diagnosis (eg, plus disease, zone, stage, category) were determined using sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic calculations of the results from the pretest and posttest. Fifty-five ophthalmology residents were provided access to the ROP tele-education program. Thirty-one ophthalmology residents completed the program. When all training levels were analyzed together, a statistically significant increase was observed in sensitivity for the diagnosis of plus disease, zone, stage, category, and aggressive posterior ROP (Peducation system for ROP education is effective in improving diagnostic accuracy of ROP by ophthalmology residents. This system may have utility in the setting of both healthcare and medical education reform by creating a validated method to certify telemedicine providers and educate the next generation of ophthalmologists.

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity: A study of prevalence and risk factors

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    Abdel H. A. A. Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a serious complication of prematurity treatment and can lead to blindness unless recognized and treated early. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of ROP in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, to identify the risk factors which predispose to ROP, and to assess the outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A ROP prospective screening survey was performed enrolling all prematures admitted to the NICU from January 2009 to December 2010, with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less at birth and a birth weight of 1500 g or less. Infants whose gestational age was >32 weeks or birth weight was >1500 g were included if they were exposed to oxygen therapy for more than 7 days. A total of 172 infants (84 males and 88 females had retinal evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy from the fourth postnatal week and followed up periodically. Perinatal risk factors for ROP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infants who progressed to stage 3 ROP were given laser therapy. Results: Out of the studied 172 infants, 33 infants (19.2% developed ROP in one or both eyes; 18 (54.5% cases stage 1, 9 (27.3% cases stage 2, and 6 (18.2% cases stage 3. None of the studied neonates presented ROP at stages 4 or 5. The six cases diagnosed as ROP stage 3 underwent laser ablative therapy. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of ROP and gestational age (P = 0.000, sepsis (P = 0.004, oxygen therapy (P = 0.018, and frequency of blood transfusions (P = 0.030. However, an insignificant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex, mode of delivery, birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, phototherapy, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CPAP (all P > 0.05. Gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of

  8. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

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    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: A comprehensive risk analysis for prevention and prediction of disease

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    Owen, Leah A.; Morrison, Margaux A.; Hoffman, Robert O.; Yoder, Bradley A.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a blinding morbidity of preterm infants. Our current screening criteria have remained unchanged since their inception and lack the ability to identify those at greatest risk. Objectives We sought to comprehensively analyze numerous proposed maternal, infant, and environmental ROP risk variables in a robustly phenotyped population using logistic regression to determine the most predictive model for ROP development and severity. We further sought to determine the statistical interaction between significant ROP risk variables, which has not previously been done in the field of ROP. We hypothesize that our comprehensive analysis will allow for better identification of risk variables that independently correlate with ROP disease. Going forward, this may allow for improved infant risk stratification along a time continuum from prenatal to postnatal development, making prevention more feasible. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of preterm infants referred for ROP screening in one neonatal intensive care unit from 2010–2015. The primary outcome measure was presence of ROP. Secondary outcome measures were ROP requiring treatment and severe ROP not clearly meeting current treatment criteria. Univariate, stepwise regression and statistical interaction analyses of 57 proposed ROP risk variables was performed to identify variables which were significantly associated with each outcome measure. Results We identified 457 infants meeting our inclusion criteria. Within this cohort, numerous factors showed a significant individual association with our ROP outcome measures; however, stepwise regression analysis found the most predictive model for overall ROP risk included estimated gestational age, birth weight, the need for any surgery, and maternal magnesium prophylaxis. The corresponding Area Under the Curve (AUC) for this model was 0.8641, while the traditional model of gestational age and birth weight predicted

  10. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

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    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  11. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

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    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to ophthalmologist; responses thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Hundred percent knowledge about ROP and need for screening in premature babies was observed among the respondents. However, only 135 (58% pediatricians always referred for ROP screening, 19 (8% referred only sometimes and 80 (34% did not refer at all. Consistent referral protocols taking into account all plausible risk factors for ROP were followed by only 25% of those who always referred. Major deterrent in ROP screening was perceived as non-availability of trained ophthalmologists. Conclusions: Only 14.5% of total pediatricians contacted were following international recommendations for ROP referral. Screening for ROP remains dismal as observed in this pilot survey as a consequence of non-availability of trained ophthalmologists as well as inconsistent screening guidelines.

  12. Refractive Development in the “ROP Rat”

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    Toco Y. P. Chui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is clinically characterized by abnormal retinal vessels at the posterior pole of the eye, it is also commonly characterized by vascular abnormalities in the anterior segment, visual dysfunction which is based in retinal dysfunction, and, most commonly of all, arrested eye growth and high refractive error, particularly (and paradoxically myopia. The oxygen-induced retinopathy rat model of ROP presents neurovascular outcomes similar to the human disease, although it is not yet known if the “ROP rat” also models the small-eyed myopia characteristic of ROP. In this study, magnetic resonance images (MRIs of albino (Sprague-Dawley and pigmented (Long-Evans ROP rat eyes, and age- and strain-matched room-air-reared (RAR controls, were examined. The positions and curvatures of the various optical media were measured and the refractive state (℞ of each eye estimated based on a previously published model. Even in adulthood (postnatal day 50, Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans ROP rats were significantly myopic compared to strain-matched controls. The myopia in the Long-Evans ROP rats was more severe than in the Sprague-Dawley ROP rats, which also had significantly shorter axial lengths. These data reveal the ROP rat to be a novel and potentially informative approach to investigating physiological mechanisms in myopia in general and the myopia peculiar to ROP in particular.

  13. Choroidal thickness in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity.

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    Wu, Wei-Chi; Shih, Chia-Pang; Wang, Nan-Kai; Lien, Reyin; Chen, Yen-Po; Chao, An-Ning; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Lai, Chi-Chun; Huang, Chung-Ying; Tsai, Shawn

    2013-11-01

    The cause of reduced vision in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is not yet fully understood. The role of the choroid in ROP remains unknown and existing studies of choroidal thickness in patients with a history of ROP are limited. It might be helpful to understand the association of the choroid with ROP by measuring the choroidal thickness in patients with a history of ROP and correlating these findings with the visual outcome of these patients. To examine choroidal thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in children with a history of ROP and assess the impact of choroidal thickness on visual acuity. A prospective cross-sectional analysis from August 2011 to September 2012. Institutional referral centers. Children aged 6 to 14 years with a history of ROP were classified into the following 2 groups: patients with a history of threshold ROP and treatment with laser or cryotherapy (treated group) and those with regressed ROP who had not received any treatment (nontreated group). All of the patients had a normal-appearing posterior pole. Examinations of visual acuity, refractive errors, and optical components and measurement of choroidal thickness. Best-corrected visual acuity, optical components, and optical coherence tomography findings. In total, 49 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients in the treated group had a significantly thinner choroidal thickness than the patients in the nontreated group after adjusting for age, axial length, and spherical power. Choroidal thickness was found to be positively associated with spherical power and spherical equivalent and negatively associated with axial length and vitreous depth. In addition, a thin choroidal thickness was associated with a worse best-corrected visual acuity. Choroidal thickness is thinner in patients with threshold ROP compared with the patients with spontaneously regressed ROP. A thinner choroid is associated with worse vision in these patients. This study

  14. Can screening for retinopathy of prematurity be reduced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termote, JUM; Donders, ART; Schalij-Delfos, NE; Lenselink, CH; van Angeren, CSD; Lissone, SCJL; Cats, BP

    2005-01-01

    Background. As screening,for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is costly, time-consuming for the ophthalmologist and discomforting for the neonate, the minimum number of infants should be screened for ROP, without missing infants with severe ROP, at risk for threshold ROP. Objectives: To develop a di

  15. Introduction of multicenter clinical trials for retinopathy of retinopathy: LIGHT-ROP, STOP-ROP and BEAT-ROP%早产儿视网膜病变多中心临床试验介绍—LIGHT-ROP、STOP-ROP和BEAT-ROP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 王雨生

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is very important to clinical prevention and treatment tor retinopathy of prematurity(ROP).Although retianl ablation including cryotherapy and laser has been proved to be effective in treating ROP,it can be destructive to the peripheral retina to some extent.Therefore,better and safer therapies are desired.After the two influential clinical trials—" Cryotherapy forretinopathy of prematurity(CRYO-ROP) " and "Early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study(ET-ROP) ",other significant muhicenter clinical trials has been initiated successively in the United States in order to explore novel therapeutic ways,such as "The effects of light reduction on retinopathy of prematurity (LIGHT-ROP) ","Supplemental therapeutic oxygen for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (STOP-ROP)" and " Bevacizumab eliminates the angiogenic threat of retinopathy of prematurity(BEAT-ROP) ".In this article,we reviewed the goals,designs,main results and conclusions of the three trials.%循证医学证据对于临床防治早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)具有重要意义.已证实视网膜消融术(冷冻和激光)治疗ROP有效,但对周边视网膜具有一定的破坏性,因而需要寻找更安全的治疗方法.继“冷冻治疗ROP(CRYO-ROP)”和“早期治疗ROP(ET-ROP)”临床试验之后,美国又先后发起了“减少光照对ROP的效应(LIGHT-ROP)”、“阈值前ROP补充氧疗(STOP-ROP)”和“贝伐单抗消除ROP的血管生成威胁(BEAT-ROP)”等多项重要的多中心临床试验,旨在探索新的治疗途径.本文综述了ROP多中心临床试验LIGHT-ROP、STOP-ROP和BEAT-ROP的目的、试验设计、主要结果和结论.

  16. Anti-VEGF therapy in the management of retinopathy of prematurity: what we learn from representative animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy

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    Wang H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Haibo Wang Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness, affecting infants born prematurely. ROP is characterized by the onset of delayed physiological retinal vascular development (PRVD and followed by pathologic neovascularization into the vitreous instead of the retina, called intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy for treating ROP is to promote PRVD and inhibit or prevent IVNV. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ROP. There is a growing body of studies testing the use of anti-VEGF agents as a treatment for ROP. Intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment for ROP has potential advantages compared with laser photocoagulation, the gold standard for the treatment of severe ROP; however, intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment has been associated with reactivation of ROP and suppression of systemic VEGF that may affect body growth and organ development in preterm infants. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of VEGF in PRVD and IVNV. This review includes the current knowledge of anti-VEGF treatment for ROP from animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, highlighting the importance of VEGF inhibition by targeting retinal Müller cells, which inhibits IVNV and permits PRVD. The signaling events involved in mediating VEGF expression and promoting VEGF-mediated angiogenesis, including hypoxia-dependent signaling, erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor-, oxidative stress-, beta-adrenergic receptor-, integrin-, Notch/Delta-like ligand 4- and exon guidance molecules-mediated signaling pathways, are also discussed. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, retinopathy of prematurity, intravitreal neovascularization, oxygen-induced retinopathy model, physiological retinal vascular development

  17. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

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    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity and oxygen saturation > 94% in room air : The High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, ML; Bremer, DL; Cole, C; McClead, RE; Phelps, DL; Fellows, RR; Oden, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the rate of progression from prethreshold to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants excluded from Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP) because their median arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))

  19. A theoretical model for ROP localisation by auxin in Arabidopsis root hair cells.

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    Robert J H Payne

    Full Text Available Local activation of Rho GTPases is important for many functions including cell polarity, morphology, movement, and growth. Although a number of molecules affecting Rho-of-Plants small GTPase (ROP signalling are known, it remains unclear how ROP activity becomes spatially organised. Arabidopsis root hair cells produce patches of ROP at consistent and predictable subcellular locations, where root hair growth subsequently occurs.We present a mathematical model to show how interaction of the plant hormone auxin with ROPs could spontaneously lead to localised patches of active ROP via a Turing or Turing-like mechanism. Our results suggest that correct positioning of the ROP patch depends on the cell length, low diffusion of active ROP, a gradient in auxin concentration, and ROP levels. Our theory provides a unique explanation linking the molecular biology to the root hair phenotypes of multiple mutants and transgenic lines, including OX-ROP, CA-rop, aux1, axr3, tip1, eto1, etr1, and the triple mutant aux1 ein2 gnom(eb.We show how interactions between Rho GTPases (in this case ROPs and regulatory molecules (in this case auxin could produce characteristic subcellular patterning that subsequently affects cell shape. This has important implications for research on the morphogenesis of plants and other eukaryotes. Our results also illustrate how gradient-regulated Turing systems provide a particularly robust and flexible mechanism for pattern formation.

  20. INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ROP: STUDY FROM NEONATAL CARE UNIT- SOUTH INDIA

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    Karthiyaeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity among the preterm neonates treated at neonatal unit and to evaluate the associated risk factors for ROP. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Department of Paediatrics at Chengalpattu Medical College. During the study period, 159 babies were treated at the NICU and 111 babies were discharged from the unit. Among those babies who were discharged, 14 neonates were lost for followup for ROP screening. This lost to followup was 12.6% of the study population. In this study 97 infants were screened, out of which 18 infants had ROP. The rate of ROP is 18.6% in our institution and 2 out of 18 babies had threshold ROP (11.1%, who were treated with Laser therapy

  1. Sweeten, soother and swaddle for retinopathy of prematurity screening: a randomised placebo controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral sucrose combined with swaddling and non-nutritive suck (NNS) as a method for reducing pain associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled study. SETTING: Tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. SAMPLE: 40 infants undergoing primary eye examination for ROP screening. INTERVENTION: The control group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sterile water given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. The intervention group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sucrose 24% given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. RESULTS: 40 infants were included in the study. There was no difference in mean gestational age at birth, mean birth weight or corrected gestational age at first examination between both groups. The sucrose group had a significantly lower median Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) score during ROP screening, initially following insertion of the speculum (6.5 vs 5, p=0.02) and subsequently during scleral indentation (9.5 vs 7.5, p=0.03). Fewer infants experienced episodes of desaturations or bradycardia in the intervention group (1 vs 4, p=0.18). CONCLUSION: ROP screening is a necessary but recognised painful procedure. Sucrose combined with NNS and swaddling reduced the behavioural and physiological pain responses. However, pain scores remained consistently high and appropriate pain relief for ROP screening remains a challenge.

  2. Bilateral Total Cataract after Laser Treatment of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity.

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    Chandra, Parijat; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Kumar, Atul

    2016-11-07

    Laser is the gold standard for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A preterm baby born at 26 weeks gestation age with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP had bilateral total cataract after laser treatment. Uneventful cataract surgery. Aggressive laser treatment in aggressive posterior ROP can rarely lead to anterior segment ischemia and cataract.

  3. Reduction in screening for retinopathy of prematurity through risk factor adjusted inclusion criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sorge, A. J.; Schalij-Delfos, N. E.; Kerkhoff, F. T.; van Rijn, L. J.; van Hillegersberg, J. L. A. M.; van Liempt, I. L. A.; Peer, P. G. M.; Simonsz, H. J.; Termote, J. U. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To develop a new national screening guideline for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods Included were infants of the 2009 prospective ROP inventory in The Netherlands with gestational age (GA) Results The model including all infants with severe ROP comprised screening of infants with GA Con

  4. Nursing and Clinical Observation of Cryotherapy in Premature with ROP%早产儿视网膜病冷凝治疗的临床观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文芳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨及总结早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)围术期的护理.方法对27例ROP围术期患儿冷凝治疗的护理及观察进行研究.结果通过围术期治疗及科学护理能有效控制或延缓玻璃体视网膜病变的进展,稳定视力.结论巩膜外冷凝术是阻止阈值ROP发展至晚期视网膜脱离的良好方法.

  5. 12例早产儿视网膜病的冷凝治疗围手术期护理%The whole operative period nursing of cryotherapy in 12 prematures with ROP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟花

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)围术期的护理作用.方法 对12例ROP围术期患儿冷凝治疗前后行整体护理.结果 通过围手术护理能有效控制或延缓玻璃体视网膜病变的进展,稳定视力.结论 巩膜外冷凝术是阻止阈值ROP发展至晚期视网膜脱离的良好方法,而其围手术期护理是手术成功的关键.

  6. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  7. [Off-label use of intravitreal bevacizumab for severe retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, L E; Zaldua, R A; Masini, R A

    2015-02-01

    To examine the quality of evidence and the variability in the off-label use of intravitreal bevacizumab for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A wide review of the literature was performed using Pubmed, Medline, and Cochrane database, using the words vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), retinopathy of prematurity, treatment and bevacizumab. Case reports, case series, reviews, one sistematic review and one randomized controlled trial were found on the use of intravitreal bevacizumab in severe ROP, as monotherapy or combined with láser and/or vitrectomy. The results shown on the use of intravitreal bevacizumab in ROP stage 3+ in zone I or in aggressive posterior ROP are promising. However, uncertainty remains regarding its maximum tolerable dose in the neonatal group, its ocular and systemic safety profile, or its efficacy and bioactivity in a developing child. This report found no significant differences in the recurrence rates of ROP stage 3+ in zone II in patients treated with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy in comparison to láser, although the latter is the best option due to long-term safety and efficacy. The use of intravitreal bevacizumab is not indicated in stages 1 and 2 of ROP as the risk of severe visual loss is low and VEFG is necessary for normal retinal vessel development. On the other hand, the use of intravitreal bevacizumab would be contraindicated in stages 4 and 5 because the retinal detachment is accelerated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Profile of asymmetrical retinopathy of prematurity in twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rajvardhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In twin births, both babies have the same gestational age and pre-natal conditions. However, twins may develop a varied retinopathy of prematurity (ROP course depending on birth weight and other systemic factors. Objective: To study the profile of asymmetric ROP in twins Design: Retrospective study Setting: Tertiary ROP referral eye hospital. Materials and Methods: The profile of 56 pairs of twins with ROP were studied and analyzed for differences in zone or need for treatment, while studying possible causes for the varied outcome. Results: In 45 pairs of twins (80% the disease progressed identically in both eyes, while in 11 pairs (20% the ROP showed differences in zone or need for treatment. Four of these pairs were discordant. In 3 of these 4 pairs, the heavier birth weight twin had a more severe ROP course. Conclusions: Twins can present with asymmetric ROP course, and it is therefore essential to examine both twins as per screening protocols.

  9. Current Concepts of Oxygen Management in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A Owen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a potentially blinding disorder in premature infants. The underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood, limiting the prevention and treatment of this devastating condition. Current therapies are directed toward management of aberrant neovascularization thought to result from retinal ischemia in the developing preterm retina. The molecular mediators important for development of retinal ischemia and subsequent neovascular pathology are not fully understood. However, oxygen has been shown to be a key mediator of disease and the oxygen environment for preterm infants has been extensively studied. Despite this, the optimal oxygen environment for preterm infants remains unclear and recent works seeking to clarify this relationship demonstrate somewhat disparate findings. These data further substantiate that ROP is a complex disease with multifactorial etiology including genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, while environmental factors such as oxygen are important to our understanding of the disease process and care of preterm infants, identification of the molecular mediators downstream of oxygen which are necessary for development of ROP pathology will be critical to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  10. Eye size in threshold retinopathy of prematurity, based on a Danish preterm infant series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans Callø; Fledelius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation.......To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation....

  11. Association between hyperglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sunny C L; Tang, Shu-Min; Rong, Shi-Song; Chen, Li-Jia; Yam, Jason C S

    2015-03-13

    As the role of hyperglycemia in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has not been well established, a meta-analysis of the association between hyperglycemia and ROP was conducted. Studies were identified through literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to June 20, 2014 with keywords related to "hyperglycaemia" and "ROP". Nine eligible studies involving 1939 neonates with 509 cases of ROP were included. Unadjusted analyses showed that hyperglycemia was significantly associated with ROP (Odds ratio [OR] = 4.16, Phyperglycemia (Standardized mean difference [SMD] = 1.21, Phyperglycemia with ROP (adjusted OR 1.08, P = 0.03); and no significant association on mean glucose level with ROP (adjusted OR = 1.08, P = 0.15). Hence, hyperglycemia cannot be definitely considered as a risk factor for ROP, and further studies should adjust for potential confounding factors to clarify this association.

  12. ROP18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Nan, Huizhu; Liu, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Neospora caninum (N. caninum) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. Despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. A secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among different T. gondii clonal lineages. Intriguingly, we found that ROP18 in Nc1 strain of N. caninum (NcROP18) is a pseudogene due to several interrupting stop codons in the sequence in our previous studies. We assume that the difference of ROP18 leads to virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum. We constructed a transgenic N. caninum Nc1 stain by transfecting the TgROP18 from the T. gondii RH strain. Phenotype and virulence assays showed that the expression of TgROP18 in N. caninum did not affect the motility and cell invasion, but resulted in a significant increase in intracellular parasite proliferation and virulence in mice. Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG) phosphorylation assay showed that the transgenic parasite Nc1-TgROP18 was able to phosphorylate IRGs as T. gondii did. The present study indicated that the ROP18 plays a crucial role in virulence of the closely related parasites T. gondii and N. caninum and it is indeed a key factor responsible for the virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum.

  13. Mean trombosit volume in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP with respect to development of type 1 ROP Methods: The medical records of the premature infants were evaluated. Babies with a birth weight under 1500 g and a gestational age under 32 weeks were enrolled to the study. Birth weight, gestational age, onset and grade of retinopathy, presence of plus disease were analyzed. At the time of type 1 ROP diagnosis, blood samples were obtained. In the patients without type 1 ROP the blood samples were also obtained at similar gestational age. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and MPV results were recorded. Results: Sixty-three infants were studied. 22 of them had type 1 ROP and 41 had not developed type 1 ROP. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight between groups were not statistically significant. The mean MPV values in patients with type 1 ROP and without type 1 ROP was 9,1±2,0 fL and 9,4±1,8 fL, respectively (p=0.61. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that MPV values were not associated with severity of ROP in our study population. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  14. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  15. Detection of Clinically Significant Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Wide-angle Digital Retinal Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F.; Melia, Michele; Buffenn, Angela N.; Lambert, Scott R.; Recchia, Franco M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.; Yang, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of detecting clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using wide-angle digital retinal photography. Methods Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted last on December 7, 2010, and yielded 414 unique citations. The authors assessed these 414 citations and marked 82 that potentially met the inclusion criteria. These 82 studies were reviewed in full text; 28 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors extracted from these studies information about study design, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. After data abstraction, 18 were excluded for study deficiencies or because they were superseded by a more recent publication. The methodologist reviewed the remaining 10 studies and assigned ratings of evidence quality; 7 studies were rated level I evidence and 3 studies were rated level III evidence. Results There is level I evidence from ≥5 studies demonstrating that digital retinal photography has high accuracy for detection of clinically significant ROP. Level III studies have reported high accuracy, without any detectable complications, from real-world operational programs intended to detect clinically significant ROP through remote site interpretation of wide-angle retinal photographs. Conclusions Wide-angle digital retinal photography has the potential to complement standard ROP care. It may provide advantages through objective documentation of clinical examination findings, improved recognition of disease progression by comparing previous photographs, and the creation of image libraries for education and research. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:22541632

  16. Identification of vitreous proteins in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Saito, Akio; Kusaka, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of blood vessels in the retina developed in premature infants and the leading cause of the blindness in children. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify vitreous proteins specific to patients with ROP. Vitreous humor samples were obtained from three patients with ROP and two patients with congenital cataract, the latter included as a control group. The vitreous samples were separated by 2D-PAGE and the proteins running as definitive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. We identified 13 and 6 proteins in the vitreous from ROP and cataract patients, respectively. Albumin, transferrin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and transthyretin were found in both patient groups. In the samples from ROP patients, PEDF and transthyretin levels were lower than in those from cataract patients, and retinol binding protein 3 and prostaglandin D synthase were not detected. Of the 13 proteins, 9 proteins including α-2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein, α-1-antitrypsin, α-1-β-glycoprotein, hemopexin, apolipoprotein A-1 and A-lV were found in vitreous samples of only the ROP patients. PEDF has anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic functions. Whether PEDF is increased or decreased in diabetic retinopathy has been controversial but we observed lower PEDF in the ROP samples than in the controls. The proteins specific to or decreased in ROP, if confirmed in future studies, may provide clue to understanding its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Reliability of retinal imaging screening in retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Blanco, C; Peralta-Calvo, J; Pastora-Salvador, N; Alvarez-Rementería, L; Chamorro, E; Sánchez-Ramos, C

    2014-09-01

    The retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially avoidable cause of blindness in children. The advances in neonatal care make the survival of extremely premature infants, who show a greater incidence of the disease, possible. The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of ROP screening using retinography imaging with the RetCam 3 wide-angle camera and also study the variability of ROP diagnosis depending on the evaluator. The indirect ophthalmoscopy exam was performed by a Pediatric ROP-Expert Ophthalmologist. The same ophthalmologist and a technician specialized in digital image capture took retinal images using the RetCam 3 wide-angle camera. A total of 30 image sets were analyzed by 3 masked groups: group A (8 ophthalmologists), group B (5 experts in vision), and group C (2 ROP-expert ophthalmologists). According to the diagnosis using indirect ophthalmoscopy, the sensitivity (26-93), Kappa (0.24-0.80), and the percent agreement were statistically significant in group C for the diagnosis of ROP Type 1. In the diagnosis of ROP Type 1+Type 2, Kappa (0.17-0.33) and the percent agreement (58-90) were statistically significant, with higher values in group C. The diagnosis, carried out by ROP-expert ophthalmologists, using the wide-angle camera RetCam 3 has proved to be a reliable method. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Variation of China ROP Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Wei; Liu Xinping

    2012-01-01

    History and current state of China's ROP policy China's refined oil pricing mechanism belonged to the stage of single target price before 1983, the stage of dual- price mechanism between 1983 and 1993, and the stage of price consolidation between 1994 and 1995. Then the mechanism got rid of the bondage of planned economy and entered into the track of market economy. Since 1998, the market reform of the mechanism advanced steadily based on China situation and was improved gradually, but it was still at the transitional stage.

  20. Increases in ROPS pricing from 2006-2012 and the impact on ROPS demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P L; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Purschwitz, M A; May, J J

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, a social marketing campaign was developed to increase the installation of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on unprotected New York tractors. Using data gathered from the program's hotline, the impact of price increases on farmers' interest in ROPS is examined. Pricing data were obtained for all rigid ROPS kits commercially available in the U.S. since 2006. These data were stratified into two groups of ROPS suppliers: (1) tractor manufacturers that sell ROPS for their own tractors, referred to in this study as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and (2) aftermarket (AM) ROPS suppliers. The trend in price increases was contrasted with the change in the consumer price index (CPI), the probability of retrofitting within quintiles of cost was estimated, and the increase in ROPS prices over time was plotted The average price increase for a ROPS kit (excluding shipping and installation) over the six years of the study was 23.3% for OEM versus 60.5% for AM (p cost quintile to 23% in the highest. If these trends continue, the proportion of inquiries resulting in a ROPS retrofit will fall below 20% by 2020 for AM ROPS. Based on other trends identified in the literature, it is reasonable to assume that decreases in ROPS installation are likely to affect the tractor owners who are most likely to need these safety devices.

  1. Action Learning: a new method to increase tractor rollover protective structure (ROPS) adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem.

  2. Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been a major problematic disorder during childhood. Laser photocoagulation (LPC has been proven to be effective in most of the ROP cases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis (AVC is responsible for epidemics among adult and pediatric population. It has also been reported to be a cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICU several times. We herein demonstrate a case with AVC who underwent LPC for ROP. And we discuss the treatment methodology in such cases.

  3. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  4. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity over the Last Decade in the Central Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, A.; Schalij-Delfos, N. E.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Termote, J. U. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To retrospectively analyze changes in incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) over two periods, 10 years apart, in the central Netherlands. Methods: Data of 570 infants admitted between 2001 and 2005, screened for ROP according to the Dutch National

  5. Retinopathy of prematurity: an epidemic in the making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graham E. Quinn; Clare Gilbert; Brian A. Darlow; Andrea Zin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP),which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth".Study selection We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies.Results Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventiing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however,there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution.Conclusions ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be

  6. Identification of Retinopathy of Prematurity Related miRNAs in Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Rats by Deep Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibin Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains a major problem for many preterm infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and have been studied in many diseases. To understand the roles of miRNAs in ROP model rats, we constructed two small RNA libraries from the plasma of hyperoxia-induced rats and normal controls. Sequencing data revealed that 44 down-regulated microRNAs and 22 up-regulated microRNAs from the hyperoxia-induced rats were identified by deep sequencing technology. Some of the differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. A total of 594 target genes of the differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Functional annotation analysis indicated that a number of pathways might be involved in angiogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation, which might be involved in the genesis and development of ROP. The elevated expression level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein in the hyperoxia-induced neonatal rats was also confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie ROP development, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  7. Specification of ROP flux shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Gray, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs.

  8. ROP18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lei

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii and Neospora caninum (N. caninum are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. Despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. A secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18 was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among different T. gondii clonal lineages. Intriguingly, we found that ROP18 in Nc1 strain of N. caninum (NcROP18 is a pseudogene due to several interrupting stop codons in the sequence in our previous studies. We assume that the difference of ROP18 leads to virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum. We constructed a transgenic N. caninum Nc1 stain by transfecting the TgROP18 from the T. gondii RH strain. Phenotype and virulence assays showed that the expression of TgROP18 in N. caninum did not affect the motility and cell invasion, but resulted in a significant increase in intracellular parasite proliferation and virulence in mice. Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG phosphorylation assay showed that the transgenic parasite Nc1-TgROP18 was able to phosphorylate IRGs as T. gondii did. The present study indicated that the ROP18 plays a crucial role in virulence of the closely related parasites T. gondii and N. caninum and it is indeed a key factor responsible for the virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum.

  9. Selecting target populations for ROPS retrofit programs in Pennsylvania and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, A M; Sorensen, J A; Foster, F; Myers, M; Murphy, D; Cook, G; May, J; Jenkins, P

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture has the highest injury and fatality rates when compared with other U.S. industries, and tractor overturns remain the leading cause of agricultural fatalities. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) are the only proven devices to protect a tractor operator in the event of an overturn. These devices are 99% effective when used with a seatbelt. Nearly 49% of tractors in the U.S. are not equipped with a ROPS. Interventions such as social marketing, community awareness campaigns, and financial incentives have been directed at encouraging farmers to install ROPS on their unprotected tractors. The purpose of this study was to conduct similar comparisons of ROPS protection and readiness to retrofit in different segments of the Vermont and Pennsylvania farm communities. A telephone survey was used to collect data on ROPS prevalence, farm demographic characteristics, and farmer's stage of change relative to installing ROPS on farm tractors. Our data provide new and unique information on the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors relative to commodity, farm size, and a variety of other demographic variables. Extrapolating from these data, the commodities studied account for roughly 162,072 tractors across the two states. Of these, 85,927 (53%) do not have ROPS. Of these unprotected tractors, 77,203 are in Pennsylvania and 8,724 are in Vermont. Our other two research questions dealt with the farmer's stage of change and possible ways to segment this population. The stage of change portion of our work demonstrates that most Pennsylvania and Vermont farmers are not contemplating ROPS retrofitting in the near future. Since no major differences were found in the stage of change, the number of unprotected tractors was examined for each of the commodity groups. In Pennsylvania, 29% of all unprotected tractors were found on cash crop farms. This trend was even more apparent on smaller farms than large farms. This led to the selection of smaller cash crop farms as the target

  10. RAC/ROP GTPases and Auxin Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hen-ming Wu; Ora Hazak; Alice Y. Cheung; Shaul Yalovsky

    2011-01-01

    .... Plants do not have Ras proteins, but they contain Rho-like small G proteins called RACs or ROPs that, like fungal and metazoan Rhos, are regulators of cell polarity and may also undertake some Ras functions...

  11. Adoption of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on U.S. farm tractors by state: 1993-1995, 2001, and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R

    2011-04-01

    This research compares state-level rollover protective structure (ROPS) prevalence rates from the early and mid-1990s to those observed in the years 2001 and 2004. In addition, state-level ROPS prevalence rates are compared to state-level tractor overturn fatality rates. Tractor data for 1993-1995 and for 2001 and 2004 for all tractors and ROPS-equipped tractors in use on U.S. farms were derived from surveys conducted for NIOSH by the USDA-NASS. Changes in ROPS prevalence rates at the state level between the two time periods were assessed using a two-sample paired t-test with unequal sample sizes. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between ROPS prevalence rates and tractor overturn fatality rates at the state level. Overall, 49 of the 50 states had an observed increase in the percentage of farm tractors equipped with ROPS from 1993-1995 to 2001 and 2004. This increase was statistically significant for 34 states. Large shifts in ROPS prevalence were found within individual states and in clusters of states. These include a major increase in the southeastern U.S. and some western states. However, a core of states in the northeast (many of them in or near the Appalachian Mountains) through the upper midwest remain in the bottom quartile for ROPS prevalence. For the years 1992 through 2004, the highest fatality rates were observed in many of the same states that were identified previously as having persistently low ROPS prevalence rates. There is a clear relationship between low state-level ROPS prevalence rates and high state-specific tractor overturn fatality rates. While progress has been made in increasing the percentage of ROPS-equipped farm tractors, it is projected that ROPS prevalence rates will not reach a protective level nationally until after 2015. Regionally, the northeast and midwest will not reach protective levels of ROPS-equipped tractors until after 2020. Based on the adoption rates observed, tractor overturn rates will likely

  12. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Juliana Zimmermann; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Tartarella, Marcia Beatriz; Zin, Andrea; Jornada, Ignozy Dorneles

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP has decreased in Latin America. PMID:22174577

  13. Genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病遗传易患性及相关基因的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑莲

    2012-01-01

    目前,早产儿视网膜病仍是儿童致盲和视力损害的主要原因.它是一个多因素引起的疾病,除了早产、低体重及吸氧等原因,该病也存在遗传易患性,并有大量的基因参与其发病,对于这方面的研究能深入了解早产儿视网膜病的发病机制,为防治该病提供新的临床思路.%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a major cause of childhood blindness and visual impairment.ROP is a multifactorial disease which is associated with prematurity,low birth weight and oxygen treatment.Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ROP is examined which may help to find a new way to prevent or treatment of ROP in the future.

  14. Medicago truncatula Rop GTPases expression in young nodules

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    Lucia Kusu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases are monomeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins with molecular weight of 21 to 30 kD. Plants have plantspecific small GTPases, termed Rop (Rho GTPases from plants which serve as signaling proteins in plant signal transduction. To have better understanding on nodulation process in legume, which Rop proteins that play a dominant role in nodule formation would be determined. Therefore, the expression of five Medicago truncatula Rop GTPase genes (MtRops in young nodules were studied in this experiment. RT-PCR method was used to examine the expression of MtRops. The MtRops expression in inoculated M. truncatula plants were compared with those in uninoculated plants. Results of this studies showed that the expression of MtRop5 and MtRop6 were significantly induced in young nodules, it was suggesting that these Rops may have important role during nodule formation.

  15. ROP GTPase Signaling in The Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenbiao

    2013-05-24

    I secured funding from the DOE to investigate the effect of auxin signaling on ROP9. This was based on our preliminary data showing that ROP9 is activated by auxin. However, we were unable to show that rop9 knockout mutants have altered sensitivity to auxin. Instead, we found that auxin activates both ROP2 and ROP6, and relevant mutants exhibit reduced sensitivity to auxin. Therefore we used the fund to strengthen our research on ROP2 and ROP6. My laboratory made major advancements in the recent years in the understanding of the effect of auxin signaling on ROP2 and ROP6. This is clearly exemplified by the numerous publications acknowledging fund DE-FG0204ER15555 as the source of funding.

  16. The modern view on the concept of treatment of active stages of retinopathy of prematurity

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    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show the basic regulations of the complex retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treatment with use of retinal pattern scanning laser coagulation and early vitrectomy.Methods: Pascal pattern scanning lasercoagulation is performed for stage 2 ROP type 2, stage 3 ROP type 2 and subclinical stageand early clinical stage of aggressive posterior ROP (S. N. Fyodorov Federal State Institution «IRTC «Eye Microsurgery» Kaluga Branchclassification. Early 3‑ports 25G vitrectomy is performed if ROP progressing 2‑4 weeks after the laser treatment.Results: In 2003‑2011 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP was performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3‑ports vitrectomy — 72, 3‑ports lensvitrectomy — 14. Treatment efficacy was 98.6 % for stage 2 and stage 3 ROP (regress of the disease occurred in 557 of 565 eyes, and 74.4 % for aggressive posterior ROP (regress of the disease occurred in 128 of 172 eyes. The total efficacy of the complex treatment was 92.9 % (regress of the disease occurred in 685 of 737 eyes.Conclusion: The basic regulations of the complex ROP treatment are early, within first 6 weeks of chronologic age, photocoagulationto delay progression of the retinal detachment and to stabilize vascularity, and early vitrectomy if ROP progressing after the lasertreatment.

  17. Macular hard exudates and scar formation after laser photocoagulation in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ilan J; Aziz, Hassan A; Young, Ryan C; Berrocal, Audina M

    2013-07-02

    The authors report the formation of hard exudates and macular scarring after laser photocoagulation therapy in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Two premature neonates, the first born at 24 weeks and the second at 25 weeks gestational age, were diagnosed as having ROP that necessitated laser photocoagulation treatment at 32 and 36 weeks, respectively. Subretinal fluid and macular hard exudation developed in both patients that eventually caused bilateral macular scarring. Subretinal macular fluid with hard exudation could lead to macular scar formation in neonates with ROP after laser photocoagulation that could significantly affect the visual prognosis in preterm infants. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

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    Cut Badriah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in premature infants. Due to advances in neonatal care, the increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants in recent years has produced a population of infants at very high risk of ROP. Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for ROP. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the Neonatalogy Ward, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January 2005 to August 2010. We included all premature infants of gestational age (GA < 37 weeks, body weight (BW not exceeding 2000 grams, as well as those who had eye examinations and complete medical records. Risk factors such as GA, BW, duration of oxygen (O2 therapy, sepsis, and red blood cell (RBC transfusion were analyzed using the Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Pediatric ophthalmologists had performed eye examinations on all infants. ROP was graded according to the International Classification of ROP. Results The prevalence of ROP and of stage 3 or greater ROP was 11.9% and 4.8% of all subjects, respectively. Body weight, GA, duration of O2 therapy, and sepsis were found to be associated with the development of ROP. However, stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that only BW of ≤ 1000 g [odds ratio (OR 10.88; 95% CI 3.09 to 38.31; P < 0.000], O2 therapy ≥ 7 days (OR 5.56; 95% CI 1.86 to 16.58; P < 0.0001, and GA of ≤ 28 weeks (OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.15 to 15.81; P = 0.030 were statistically significant risk factors for ROP. The equation obtained was y = -4.092 + 2.388 (BW + 1.451 (GA + 1.716 (duration of O2 therapy. The model showed good calibration (a non-significant Hosmer-Llemeshow test; P = 0.816 and discriminative ability. The area under the curve (AUC value was 92.2% (95% CI 0.867 to 0.976; P < 0.0001. Conclusion Prevalence of ROP in this study (11.9% was lower than that of previous studies. Bby regression logistic analysis, the

  19. Investigation of the effect of hemoglobin F and A levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Hidayet; Hacioglu, Dilek; Kola, Mehmet; Türk, Adem; Aslan, Yakup

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. In this prospective study, blood samples were collected from the side of the heel of 49 premature infants at postnatal months 0, 1, 2, and 3. HbF and HbA levels were measured in all samples and analyzed statistically. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed regarding development of ROP, blood transfusion, and HbF and HbA levels. A total of 49 infants were included. The mean gestational age of the premature infants was 30.9 ± 2.7 weeks (range, 25-35 weeks); mean birth weight, 1542 ± 582 g (range, 520-3240 g). Of the 49 premature infants, stage 1 ROP or above developed in 26 (53%). Mean HbF levels were lower at postnatal months 1 and 2 in premature infants with ROP compared to those without ROP (P = 0.013 and 0.02, respectively); however, mean HbA levels were higher in the infants with ROP than the others (P = 0.034 and 0.029, respectively). Analysis of covariance that ignored transfusion revealed no difference between the means of Hb variants in the infants with and without ROP (P = 0.572 and 0.486). Blood transfusion significantly altered the levels of HbF and HbA in premature infants, and Hb variants have no direct effect on development of ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

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    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  1. Finite element modeling of ROPS in static testing and rear overturns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; Mucino, V H; Etherton, J R; Snyder, K A; Means, K H

    2000-08-01

    Even with the technological advances of the last several decades, agricultural production remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States. Death due to tractor rollover is a prime contributor to this hazard. Standards for rollover protective structures (ROPS) performance and certification have been developed by groups such as the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) to combat these problems. The current ROPS certification standard, SAE J2194, requires either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both. Although some ROPS manufacturers perform both the dynamic and static phases of SAE J2194 testing, it is possible for a ROPS to be certified for field operation using static testing alone. This research compared ROPS deformation response from a simulated SAE J2194 static loading sequence to ROPS deformation response as a result of a simulated rearward tractor rollover. Finite element analysis techniques for plastic deformation were used to simulate both the static and dynamic rear rollover scenarios. Stress results from the rear rollover model were compared to results from simulated static testing per SAE J2194. Maximum stress values from simulated rear rollovers exceeded maximum stress values recorded during simulated static testing for half of the elements comprising the uprights. In the worst case, the static model underpredicts dynamic model results by approximately 7%. In the best case, the static model overpredicts dynamic model results by approximately 32%. These results suggest the need for additional experimental work to characterize ROPS stress levels during staged overturns and during testing according to the SAE standard.

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South China

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    Yi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China, respectively. Methods: We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts. The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population. Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP. The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed. Results: The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%, and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP, and the difference is statistically significant. ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77 [0.62-0.95], P = 0.015, BW (OR: 0.998 [0.996-0.999], P = 0.008, maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR: 4.27 [1.21-15.10], P = 0.024 and preeclampsia (OR: 6.07 [1.73-21.36] P = 0.005. The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals. In Zhujiang Hospital, BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA, BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions: Retinopathy of prematurity incidence is different based on area. Incidence of ROP is still high in China. More efforts need to prevent ROP.

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    J. M. Ortega-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014 was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001, postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001, and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014. Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code.

  4. Pharmacological Approach for Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    İmren Akkoyun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current standard of screening examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is determined in international guidelines. The criteria for classification and therapy are also determined in international guidelines, and currently, retinal laser fotocoagulation of peripheral avascular retinal area is gold standard (ETROP, Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group for proliferative ROP. Vitreoretinal surgery will be used in cases with retinal detachment. In case series after off-label injection of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor agent bevacizumab and in the first report of BEAT-ROP study in proliferative ROP the results are promising. Furthermore, beside the intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, systemic therapy with mediators like IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor and/or ω3-fatty acids outlines pharmacological approach to treatment of ROP. The results of well-designed clinical trials of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy and pharmacological systemic therapy with the above-mentioned mediators for ROP are needed in order to provide information as to the balance of risk versus benefit, as well as practical guidance regarding optimal treatment parameters and follow-up.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 466-73

  5. Performance of an automatically deployable ROPS on ASAE tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, J R; Harris, J R; Etherton, J R; Snyder, K A; Ronaghi, M; Newbraugh, B H

    2001-02-01

    In the U.S., approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best-known method for preventing these fatalities. However, one impediment to ROPS use is low-clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low-clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, developed a prototype automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If an overturn condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The results of these tests show that the NIOSH AutoROPS has significant potential to overcome the limitations of current ROPS designs for use in low clearance as well as unrestricted clearance operations.

  6. 远程医疗用于早产儿视网膜病变防治的意义%Telemedicine for retinopathy of prematurity care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 王雨生

    2011-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)是目前世界范围内儿童致盲的主要原因之一,虽然防治策略已取得了很大进步,但其管理体系方面尚存在许多限制.作为一种新兴技术,远程医疗对于提高ROP防治效率和管理质量具有较大潜力,但同时也面临着许多挑战.本综述对远程医疗用于ROP防治的必要性、可行性、优势及目前尚存在的问题进行了总结,特别强调了远程医疗用于ROP防治具有准确性高、可靠性高、效率高、性价比高的优势,具有广泛应用的前景.%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide, although the strategies have improved greatly. Current disease management systems have many limitations. Telemedicine is an emerging technology that has the potential to improve the accessibility and quality of ROP management. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we reviewed the current literature on applications of telemedicine for ROP, and summarized its necessity, feasibility, advantages and challenges for use. We particularly address the diagnostic accurgcy and reliability as well as the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine for ROP. We predict a promising future for implementing this system on mainland China as well as the rest of the world.

  7. Combination of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Laser Photocoagulation for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Ágata Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 2 cases of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis® and laser photocoagulation. Methods: Two premature females, born at 25 and 26 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 530 and 550 g, respectively, with aggressive posterior ROP received combined treatment with laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab (0.3 mg [30 µl] to each eye. Structural outcomes were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy and documented by retinography. Results: An intravitreal injection was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age in the first case, followed by laser photocoagulation 1 week later. There was a partial regression of ROP with treatment. Five weeks later, neovascularization regrowth with bleeding in both eyes (intraretinal and subhyaloid occurred and retreatment with combined therapy was performed. In the second case, single therapy with laser photocoagulation was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age. In spite of the confluent photocoagulation in the avascular area, progression to 4A ROP stage occurred 1 week later. Both eyes were retreated 1 week later with intravitreal ranibizumab and laser photocoagulation. Treatment resulted in ROP regression in both cases. There were no signs of systemic or ocular adverse side effects. Conclusion: The cases presented show that combination therapy of indirect laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in the management of aggressive posterior ROP. Further investigation on anti-VEGF safety in premature infants is necessary . Additional studies are needed to define the role of anti-VEGF in ROP treatment.

  8. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

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    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  9. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts.

  10. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

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    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

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    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  12. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

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    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  13. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  14. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  15. Macular Findings Obtained by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the macular findings obtained with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT in infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods. The macular SD OCT images of 190 premature infants were analyzed. Data regarding central foveal thickness (CFT, cystoid macular edema (CME, and cyst grading were compared. The relationships of CFT with gestational age and birth weight were investigated. Results. The results were obtained from 358 eyes of 179 infants (81 females and 98 males of a mean gestational age of 30.9±2.7 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1609±477 g. ROP was diagnosed in 126 eyes and CME in 139 eyes. A significantly greater percentage of eyes with ROP were found to have CME (54% compared to eyes without ROP (31%; P=0.001. The incidence of CME was 46.3% for stage 1 ROP, 57.1% for stage 2, and 87.5% for stage 3. There was a weakly inverse correlation between CFT, gestational age, and birth weight (P=0.025, r=-0.227; P=0.002, r=-0.182, resp., Spearman correlation test. Conclusions. High-quality SD OCT images can be obtained from premature infants using the iVue system. Severity and frequency of CME in premature infants increase as stage of ROP increases.

  16. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  17. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis.

  18. Analysis of prenatal and postnatal risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna A Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recent advances in neonatology have influenced the incidence and severity of ROP in a dichotomous fashion. Aims: To determine the incidence of ROP and to analyse its risk factors. Settings and Design: Prospective clinical case series. Materials and Methods: 282 preterm infants with birthweight 32 weeks, with birthweight between 1500-2000 g, who were at risk for ROP were selected. Weight gain proportion was measured as weight at 6 weeks minus birthweight divided by birthweight. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Incidence of any ROP was 21.6% while severe ROP was 6.7%. Prenatal factors like multiple gestation (P = 0.510 and antenatal steroids (P = 0.104 were not significantly associated with ROP. On multivariate analysis, postnatal factors like weight at birth < 1250 g (P = 0.01 and gestational age between 31-32 weeks (P = 0.02 were independent risk factors for any ROP, while intraventricular hemorrhage (P = 0.03 was the only independent risk factor for severe ROP. Mean birthweight of infants with severe ROP was 1056 μ 207 g (P = 0.004, which was significantly low. After logistic regression, the mean weight gain proportion at 6 weeks, of those neonates with severe ROP was 30%. Conclusions: Low birthweight and prematurity were the most important risk factors for developing any ROP, while intraventricular hemorrhage was the independent risk factor for developing severe ROP. The mean postnatal weight gain at 6 weeks was not statistically significant in neonates with severe ROP.

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Chen; Deng Xun; Ya-Cong Wang; Bin Wang; Shao-Hui Geng; Hui Chen; Yan-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China,respectively.Methods:We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA) ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW) ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1,2011 and December 31,2011.Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts.The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population.Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP.The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed.Results:The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%,and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP,and the difference is statistically significant.ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]:0.77 [0.62-0.95],P =0.015),BW (OR:0.998 [0.996-0.999],P =0.008),maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR:4.27 [1.21-15.10],P =0.024) and preeclampsia (OR:6.07 [1.73-21.36] P =0.005).The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals.In Zhujiang Hospital,BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA,BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions:Retinopathy ofprematurity incidence is different based on area.Incidence of ROP is still high in China.More efforts need to prevent ROP.

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Zenaida Soriano; Al-Mulaabed, Sharef Waadallah; Bataclan, Flordeliz; Montemayor, Cheryl; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Zuhaibi, Sanaa; Al-Waili, Huda; Al-Wahibi, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and the maternal/neonatal risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, compared to other countries. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of premature neonates born with gestational age (GA) 24–32 weeks at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, from January 2007 to December 2010. Maternal and neonatal in-hospital course was retrieved. The incidence of ROP was reported. Risk factors analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: A total of 171 neonates (57% males, 43% females) were included for analysis. The incidence of ROP (any stage) was 69/171 (40.4%). Infants with ROP had significantly lower GA (27.7±2 weeks) compared to non-ROP group (30.2±1.7 weeks), P patent ductus arteriosus, seizures, and number of blood transfusions. There was no significant difference in maternal characteristics between the ROP and non-ROP groups except that mothers of infants with ROP were found to be significantly younger. Logistic regression analysis revealed early GA, low BW, duration of Oxygen therapy, and late-onset clinical or proven sepsis as independent risk factors. Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis. PMID:28298861

  1. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  2. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  3. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  4. Factors associated with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J R

    2010-10-01

    Rollover protective structures (ROPS) are an effective engineering control known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, the leading cause of occupational fatalities for farmers and farm workers in the U.S. However, the use of ROPS is known to vary greatly from farm to farm. A national sample of 11,458 farm operators from the 2004 Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture (OISPA) survey was used to assess the association between the prevalence of ROPS and ten farm operator and farm demographic variables using logistic regression. The variable were: operator's age, operator's sex, operator's education, farm sales, full- or part-time farming, acreage, type of operation, number of hired workers, number of injuries, and region. All ten variables were found to have significant associations with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the univariate logistic regressions. For the multivariate model, all variables except for the sex of the farm operator remained significant. Farms with less than three adult injuries, no hired workers, less than 300 acres in size, a Midwest location, and a primary farm type of tobacco, fruit and nuts, dairy, or poultry and eggs all had adjusted odds ratios of 2 or greater. Increasing the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors is essential for reducing the leading cause of death on farms, tractor overturns. Economic factors play a major role in the prevalence and distribution of non-ROPS tractors on farms. The identified associations can be used to effectively target areas of the U.S. for ROPS promotion activities.

  5. The omega-3 and retinopathy of prematurity relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamas, Angelakis; Chranioti, Angeliki; Tsakalidis, Christos; Dimitrakos, Stavros A; Mataftsi, Asimina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the effect of omega-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) intake on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reviewing the experimental and clinical trials conducted on animal models and infants. LCPUFAs demonstrate cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. Their intake appears to have a beneficial effect on ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular signaling mechanisms, influencing retinal cell gene expression and cellular differentiation. ω-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes that activate molecules implicated in the pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases such as ROP. PMID:28251092

  6. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  7. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children bor...

  8. [Telemedicine correlation in retinopathy of prematurity between experts and non-expert observers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossandón, D; Zanolli, M; López, J P; Stevenson, R; Agurto, R; Cartes, C

    2015-01-01

    To study the correlation between expert and non-expert observers in the reporting images for the diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a telemedicine setting. A cross-sectional, multicenter study, consisting of 25 sets of images of patients screened for ROP. They were evaluated by two experts in ROP and 1 non-expert and classified according to telemedicine classification, zone, stage, plus disease and Ells referral criteria. The telemedicine classification was: no ROP, mild ROP, type 2 ROP, or ROP that requires treatment. Ells referral criteria is defined as the presence at least one of the following: ROP in zone I, Stage 3 in zone I or II, or plus+ For statistical analysis, SPSS 16.0 was used. For correlation, Kappa value was performed. There was a high correlation between observers for the assessment of ROP stage (0.75; 0.54-0.88) plus disease (0.85; 0.71-0.92), and Ells criteria (0.89; 0.83-1.0). However, inter-observer values were low for zone (0.41; 0.27-0.54) and telemedicine classification (0.43; 0.33-0.6). When evaluating telemedicine images by examiners with different levels of expertise in ROP, the Ells criteria gave the best correlation. In addition, stage of disease and plus disease have good correlation among observers. In contrast, the correlation between observers was low for zone and telemedicine classification. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of retinopathy of prematurity on ocular structures and visual functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Alistair; Blencowe, Hannah; O'Connor, Anna; Gilbert, Clare

    2015-03-01

    The preterm baby may develop ophthalmic sequelae which can be due to prematurity per se, due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or due to neurological damage. Focusing on the former two, we discuss how in high-income countries the risk of sight-threatening ROP is largely confined to babies visual impairment. We discuss sequelae and how they affect the eye and its shape, strabismus and finally consider their impact on visual functions, including visual acuity, the visual field, colour vision and contrast sensitivity.

  10. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrion JZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Zimmermann Carrion1, João Borges Fortes Filho2, Marcia Beatriz Tartarella3, Andrea Zin4, Ignozy Dorneles Jornada Jr41Program for the Prevention of Blindness due to Retinopathy of Prematurity, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 3Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 4Departament of Neonatology, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, 5University Luterana do Brasil School of Medicine, Canoas, BrazilAbstract: The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity screening and treatment cost in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Magluta, Cynthia; Pinto, Márcia F T; Entringer, Aline P; Mendes-Gomes, Maria A; Moreira, Maria E L; Gilbert, Clare

    2014-07-01

    To assess the additional cost of incorporating the detection and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) into neonatal care services of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). A deterministic decision-tree simulation model was built to estimate the direct costs of screening for and treating ROP in neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs), based on data for 869 preterm infants with birth weight less than 1 500 g examined in six governmental NICUs in the capital city of Rio de Janeiro, where coverage was 52% and 8% of infants were treated. All of the parameters from this study were extrapolated to Brazilian newborn estimates in 2010. Costs of screening and treatment were estimated considering staff, equipment and maintenance, and training based on published data and expert opinion. A budget impact analysis was performed considering the population of preterm newborns, screening coverage, and the incidence of treatable ROP. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses were performed. In Rio de Janeiro, unit costs per newborn were US$ 18 for each examination, US$ 398 per treatment, and US$ 29 for training. The estimated cost of ROP diagnosis and treatment for all at-risk infants NICUs was US$ 80 per infant. The additional cost to the SUS for one year would be US$ 556 640 for a ROP program with 52% coverage, increasing to US$ 856 320 for 80% coverage, and US$ 1.07 million or 100% coverage. The results of this study indicate that providing ROP care is affordable within the framework of the SUS in Brazil, and might be feasible elsewhere in Latin America, considering the evidence of the effectiveness of ROP treatment and the social benefits achieved.

  12. Technical aspects of laser treatment for acute retinopathy of prematurity under topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Subhadra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a significant cause of childhood blindness. The criteria for laser therapy have been revised from threshold ROP to include the earlier stage of high-risk prethreshold ROP. Laser photocoagulation is an established technique for the treatment of ROP. However, the detailed procedure and techniques for laser photocoagulation have not yet been published. Adequate and appropriate laser photocoagulation for ROP is different from the application of lasers in adult retinal vascular diseases, and many ophthalmologists need to be trained in this technique if the outreach of ROP treatment programs is to improve. Laser under topical anesthesia has been practiced in India as a preferred modality especially due to logistics and risks of general anesthesia in these pre-term babies. We discuss the details of the technique as practiced at tertiary care ophthalmic hospitals in India, so that the nuances in treatment parameters and clinical decision-making can be usefully applied to ophthalmic practice. This will ultimately lead to safe and effective treatment delivery in ROP.

  13. Technical aspects of laser treatment for acute retinopathy of prematurity under topical anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Subhadra; Azad, Rajvardhan; Trehan, Hemant Singh; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Gopal, Lingam; Narendran, Venkatapathy

    2010-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a significant cause of childhood blindness. The criteria for laser therapy have been revised from threshold ROP to include the earlier stage of high-risk prethreshold ROP. Laser photocoagulation is an established technique for the treatment of ROP. However, the detailed procedure and techniques for laser photocoagulation have not yet been published. Adequate and appropriate laser photocoagulation for ROP is different from the application of lasers in adult retinal vascular diseases, and many ophthalmologists need to be trained in this technique if the outreach of ROP treatment programs is to improve. Laser under topical anesthesia has been practiced in India as a preferred modality especially due to logistics and risks of general anesthesia in these pre-term babies. We discuss the details of the technique as practiced at tertiary care ophthalmic hospitals in India, so that the nuances in treatment parameters and clinical decision-making can be usefully applied to ophthalmic practice. This will ultimately lead to safe and effective treatment delivery in ROP.

  14. Research progress in treatment of retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳丽娟; 皮练鸿

    2015-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是全世界儿童致盲的主要原因之一,早期发现和及时治疗可以有效地终止大部分患儿病变的进展。阈值期和高危阈值前期 ROPROP 是否需要治疗的分水岭。目前 ROP 主要的治疗方式为激光治疗,新型的药物抗血管内皮生成因子(Anti-VEGF)成为近年来研究的热点。本文就 ROP 的治疗进展作一综述。%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major causes of childhood blindness. in the world,early identification and treatment could end the progress of most patients effectively. Threshold and high-risk prethreshold disease are the boundary to decide whether treatment or not. Nowadays the main therapy of ROP is photocoagulation, Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(Anti-VEGF)as a new drug has been a research hotspot in recent years. The main aim of this review is to introduce the new progress in the studies on ROP.

  15. Effect of Trace Elements on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; DING Yi; CHEN Ling

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the trace elements on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were studied. Thirty preterm infants who had potential high risk factors Of ROP were selected as observation group and 18 normal infants as control groups. By using atom spectrophotometer, the contents of serum trace ele-ments (Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were measured and analyzed statistically. The contents of serum Zn, Cu and Se in observation group were 0.75±0.22, 0.41±0.20 and (134.07±71.57)×10-3 mg/L respectively,and 0.55±0.12, 0.65±0.194 and (202.92±44.71)×10-3 mg/L in control group respectively (P0.05). It was concluded that the contents of serum Cu and Se in preterm infants who had high risk factors of ROP were obviously lower than in the controls. The contents of serum Cu and Se in the ROP infants were also much lower while contents of Zn much higher. Attention should be paid to the detection of the trace elements in preterm infants in order to prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se. Only in this way can we prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se, so as to decrease the ROP risk factors and prevent the disease.

  16. Evaluation of engineering plastic for rollover protective structure (ROPS) mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, R S; Ayers, P D; Liu, J

    2007-04-01

    Agriculture has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry in America. Tractor rollovers are a significant contributor to the high death rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) have helped lower these high fatality rates on full-size tractors. However, a large number of older tractors still do not use ROPS due to the difficulty of designing and creating a mounting structure. To help reduce this difficulty, engineering plastics were evaluated for use in a ROPS mounting structure on older tractors. The use of engineering plastics around axle housings could provide a uniform mounting configuration as well as lower costs for aftermarket ROPS. Various plastics were examined through shear testing, scale model testing, and compressive strength testing. Once a material was chosen based upon strength and cost, full-scale testing of the plastic's strength on axle housings was conducted. Finally, a mounting structure was tested in static ROPS tests, and field upset tests were performed in accordance with SAE Standard J2194. Initial tests revealed that the ROPS mounting structure and axle housing combination had higher torsional strength with less twisting than the axle housing alone. An engineering plastic ROPS mounting structure was easily successful in withstanding the forces applied during the static longitudinal and lateral ROPS tests. Field upset testing revealed that the mounting structure could withstand the impact loads seen during actual upsets without a failure. During both static testing and field upset testing, no permanent twisting of the mounting structure was found. Engineering plastic could therefore be a viable option for a universal ROPS mounting structure for older tractors.

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  18. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

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    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  19. Influence of Fluorescein Angiography on the Diagnosis and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klufas, Michael A.; Patel, Samir N.; Ryan, Michael C.; Gupta, Mrinali Patel; Jonas, Karyn E.; Ostmo, Susan; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria Ana; Berrocal, Audina M.; Chiang, Michael F.; Chan, R.V. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the influence of fluorescein angiography (FA) on the diagnosis and management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Nine recognized ROP experts (3 pediatric ophthalmologists; 6 retina specialists) interpreted 32 sets (16 color fundus photographs; 16 color fundus photographs paired with the corresponding FAs) of wide-angle retinal images from infants with ROP. Methods All experts independently reviewed the 32 image sets on a secure web site and provided a diagnosis and management plan for the case presented, first based on color fundus photographs alone, and then by color fundus photographs and corresponding FA. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and specificity of the ROP diagnosis (zone, stage, plus disease, and category – i.e. no ROP, mild ROP, type-2 ROP, and treatment-requiring ROP) was calculated using a consensus reference standard diagnosis, determined from the diagnosis of the color fundus photographs by three experienced readers in combination with the clinical diagnosis based on ophthalmoscopic examination. The kappa statistic was used to analyze the average intergrader agreement among experts for the diagnosis of zone, stage, plus disease, and category. Results Addition of FA to color fundus photographs resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity for diagnosis of stage 3 or worse disease (39.8% vs. 74.1%, P = 0.008), type-2 or worse ROP (69.4% vs. 86.8%, P = 0.013), and pre-plus or worse disease (50.5 vs. 62.6%, P = 0.031). There was a nonsignificant trend towards improved sensitivity for diagnosis of treatment-requiring ROP (22.2% vs. 40.3%, P = 0.063). Using the kappa statistic, addition of FA to color fundus photographs significantly improved intergrader agreement for diagnosis of treatment-requiring ROP. Addition of FA to color fundus photographs did not significantly affect intergrader agreement for the diagnosis of stage, zone, or plus disease. Conclusions Compared to color

  20. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  1. Successful surgical management of retinopathy of prematurity showing rapid progression despite extensive retinal photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age <30 weeks, those with very low birth weight and multiple risk factors (eg., oxygen therapy for respiratory distress, sepsis, neonatal jaundice. A premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount.

  2. ROPs in the spotlight of plant signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, A

    2006-11-01

    Small guanine nucleotide binding proteins of the Rho family called ROP play a crucial role as regulators of signal transduction in plants. They participate in pathways that influence growth and development, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental situations. As members of the Ras superfamily, ROPs function as molecular switches cycling between a GDP-bound 'off' and a GTP-bound 'on' state in a strictly regulated manner. Latest research provided fascinating new insights into ROP regulation by novel guanine nucleotide exchange factors, unconventional GTPase activating proteins, and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors, which apparently organize localized ROP activation. Important progress has also been made concerning signaling components upstream and downstream of the ROP cycle involving receptor-like serine/threonine kinases and effectors that can manipulate cytoskeletal dynamics, intracellular calcium levels, H2O2 production and further cellular targets. This review outlines the fast developing knowledge on ROP GTPases highlighting their specific features, regulation and roles in a cellular signaling context.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P; Bayes, B; Clark, S; May, J J

    2010-01-01

    Tractor rollovers are the most frequent cause of death in the farm community. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) can prevent the injuries and fatalities associated with these events; however, almost half of U.S. farms lack these essential devices. One promising strategy for increasing ROPS use is social marketing. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs associated with the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign in relation to the cost of fatalities and injuries averted as a result of the campaign to determine whether cost savings could be demonstrated in the initial years of program implementation. A total of 524 farmers who had retrofitted a tractor through the program were mailed a survey to assess the number of rollovers or close calls that occurred since ROPS installation. Responses were obtained from 382 farmers, two of whom indicated that they had a potential fatality/injury scenario since retrofitting their tractor through the program. The cost savings associated with the intervention was estimated using a decision-tree analysis adapted from Myers and Pana-Cryan with appropriate consumer price index adjustments. The data were compared to the cost of the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign to arrive at an associated cost-savings estimate relative to the intervention. This study indicates that a net savings will likely be demonstrated within the third year of the New York ROPS Social Marketing initiative. These data may provide evidence for researchers hoping to generate support from state and private agencies for similar initiatives.

  4. Motion-defined form processing in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Frisk, V; Downie, A L S

    2006-01-01

    Children born extremely prematurely are at risk for a variety of problems with motion analysis, including problems with motion-defined (MD) form recognition [Downie, A. L. S., Jakobson, L. S., Frisk, V., & Ushycky, I. (2003). Periventricular brain injury, visual motion processing, and reading and spelling abilities in children who were extremely-low-birthweight. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 440-449]. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and mild periventricular brain injury (PVBI) on MD form processing in this population; (2) to assess relationships between MD form recognition in these children and their performance in several other areas of visual competence. To this end, a battery of visual and visuomotor tests was administered to 43, 5- and 6-year old, extremely premature children, all of whom had escaped severe PVBI. A group of full-term controls was also studied. Relative to controls, premature children displayed clear deficits in MD form recognition and these deficits were related to the presence of ROP and/or mild PVBI, rather than to a history of prematurity per se. Regression analyses revealed significant associations in premature children between MD form processing deficits and problems with visual search, stereopsis, visuoconstructive and graphomotor skills, motor development, and Performance IQ. The results suggest that assessment of sensitivity to MD forms may be useful in the early identification of preterm children at greatest risk for visual problems associated with dorsal stream dysfunction.

  5. Outcome and quality of screening in a nationwide survey on retinopathy of prematurity in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.J. van; Termote, J.U.; Simonsz, H.J.; Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rijn, L.J. van; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Provide insight in natural history, screening and treatment policy of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in The Netherlands. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective, population-based study (NEDROP) included all preterm infants born in 2009 in The Netherlands fulfilling the inclusion criteria for

  6. Nationwide inventory of risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.J. van; Termote, J.U.; Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rijn, L.J. van; Simonsz, H.J.; Peer, P.G.M.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, approximating population-based study that included infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) <1500 g born in 2009. Pediatricians an

  7. Outcome and quality of screening in a nationwide survey on retinopathy of prematurity in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.J. van; Termote, J.U.; Simonsz, H.J.; Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rijn, L.J. van; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Provide insight in natural history, screening and treatment policy of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in The Netherlands. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective, population-based study (NEDROP) included all preterm infants born in 2009 in The Netherlands fulfilling the inclusion criteria for

  8. Experts do not agree when to treat retinopathy of prematurity based on plus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Fielder, Alistar

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate inter-reader agreement on five severity levels of central vascular changes (none, mild, moderate, severe pre-plus disease, plus disease) and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to see whether an unintended shift in indication for treatment occurred....

  9. Timely implementation of a retinopathy of prematurity telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Graham E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Repka, Michael X; Siatkowski, R Michael; Hoffman, Robert; Mills, Monte D; Morrison, David; Daniel, Ebenezer; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Hildebrand, P Lloyd; Schron, Eleanor B; Ells, Anna L; Wade, Kelly; Kemper, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    To examine the feasibility of a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) telemedicine evaluation system of providing timely feedback to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with at-risk premature infants. This was a prospective observational study of premature infants with birth weights of return of the grading results to the clinical center was 10.1 ± 11.3 hours (standard deviation), with a median of 12.0 hours (1st quartile, 0.9 hours; 3rd quartile, 16 hours). Overall, 95.5% of gradings (95% CI, 93.9%-96.7%) were returned within 24 hours. Subgroup analyses found, for image sets submitted to the reading center before 2 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, median time to report was 1.7 hours (1st quartile, 0.7 hours; 3rd quartile, 15.5 hours) compared with those submitted after 2pm (median, 14.1 hours; 1st quartile, 11.2, hours; 3rd quartile, 16.3 hours). An ROP telemedicine approach can provide timely feedback to the NICU regarding the detection of potentially serious ROP and thus referral to an ophthalmologist for examination and consideration of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  11. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  12. Preclinical screening for retinopathy of prematurity risk using IGF1 levels at 3 weeks post-partum.

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    Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri

    Full Text Available Following current recommendations for preventing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involves screening a large number of patients. We performed a prospective study to establish a useful screening system for ROP prediction and we have determined that measuring serum levels of IGF1 at week three and the presence of sepsis have a high predictive value for the subsequent development of ROP. A total of 145 premature newborn, with birthweight <1500 g and/or <32 weeks gestational age, were enrolled. 26.9% of them showed some form of retinopathy. A significant association was found between the development of retinopathy and each of the following variables: early gestational age, low birthweight, requiring mechanical ventilation, oxygen treatment, intracranial haemorrhage, sepsis during the first three weeks, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the need for erythrocyte transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and low levels of serum IGF1 in the third week. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to obtain curves for the probability of developing ROP, based on the main factors linked with ROP, namely serum levels of IGF1 and presence of sepsis. Such preclinical screening has the ability to identify patients with high-risk of developing retinopathy and should lead to better prediction for ROP, while at the same time optimising the use of clinical resources, both human and material.

  13. Association of Gestational Hypertensive Disorders with Retinopathy of prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla Y. L.; Tang, Shu-Min; Au, Sunny C. L.; Rong, Shi-Song; Lau, Henry H. W.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Ng, Danny S. C.; Chen, Li Jia; Yam, Jason C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of gestational hypertensive disorders, which includes both pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension, in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between gestational hypertensive disoders and ROP. Eligible studies published up to June 5, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated the association between the two conditions. Totally 1142 published records were retrieved for screening, 925 of them eligible for detailed evaluation. Finally 19 studies involving 45281 infants with 5388 cases of ROP met our criteria for meta-analysis. Gestational hypertensive disorders were not associated with ROP (unadjusted OR: 0.89; P = 0.38; adjusted OR: 1.35; P = 0.18). Subgroup analyses also revealed no significant association between ROP with pre-eclampsia (unadjusted OR: 0.85; P = 0.29; adjusted OR:1.29; P = 0.28) or with gestational hypertension (unadjusted OR: 1.10; P = 0.39; adjusted OR: 1.25; P = 0.60) separately. Sensitivity analysis indicated our results were robust. We concluded no significant association between gestational hypertensive disorders and ROP. More large scale well-conducted prospective cohorts on the topic are needed. PMID:27491726

  14. Correlation of interactions between NOS3 polymorphisms and oxygen therapy with retinopathy of prematurity susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhong; Yi, Jinglin; Yin, Xiaolong; Deng, Yan; Liao, Yujun; Li, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to detect the correlation of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene polymorphisms (T-786C and G894T) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) susceptibility. Interaction between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and the duration of oxygen therapy was also explored in ROP babies. Genotypes of NOS3 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by MassArray method. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was used to calculate the representativeness of the cases and controls. Crossover analysis was utilized to explore the gene environment interactions. Relative risk of ROP was presented by odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Among the subject features, oxygen therapy had obvious difference between case and control groups (PNOS3 gene polymorphisms and oxygen therapy duration. When the duration of oxygen therapy was less than 17 days, both -786CC genotype and 894GT genotype were correlated with ROP susceptibility (P=0.020, OR=0.115, 95% CI=0.014-0.960; P=0.011, OR=0.294, 95% CI=0.100-0.784). -786C allele might have a protective effect for ROP. Interactions of -786CC and 894GT genotype with oxygen therapy duration (less than 17 days) were both protection factors of ROP.

  15. Usefulness of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity with Severely Dilated Tunica Vasculosa Lentis and Poor Mydriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Higashiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laser therapy has been the gold standard treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, while intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB is reported to be of significant benefit for zone I ROP. A problem with laser therapy is that it is difficult to administer in ROP patients with severely dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and poor mydriasis. However, although IVB treatment has been performed in such severe ROP cases, only 1 report has discussed its usefulness. Case 1: A male infant was born with a birth weight of 382 g at 23 weeks’ gestation. As visualization was poor and laser therapy could not be performed due to dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and poor mydriasis, IVB (0.625 mg/0.025 mL was administered to both eyes. Following treatment, the ROP gradually improved, with regression of the dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and improvement of the mydriasis in both eyes. Case 2: A male infant was born with a birth weight of 698 g at 25 weeks’ gestation. As laser therapy could not be performed due to severely dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and poor mydriasis, IVB (0.625 mg/0.025 mL was administered to both eyes. Following treatment, the ROP gradually improved, with regression of the dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and improvement of the mydriasis in both eyes. Conclusions: IVB is potentially more useful than laser therapy for the treatment of severe ROP with dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and poor mydriasis.

  16. Implementing higher oxygen saturation targets reduced the impact of poor weight gain as a predictor for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Pia; Hård, Anna-Lena; Wilde, Åsa; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hellström, Ann

    2017-09-05

    This study evaluated poor weight gain as a risk factor for infants who required treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), by comparing those born before and after the implementation of higher oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) targets at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. We compared infants born at less than 31 weeks, who were screened and, or, treated for ROP: 127 in 2011-2012 when SpO2 targets were 88-92% and 142 in 2015-2016 when they were 91-95%. The subjects were reviewed for birth characteristics, weekly weight and ROP treatment. Data were analysed using the weight, insulin-like growth factor-1, neonatal, ROP (WINROP) prediction tool. The 2011-12 infants who needed ROP treatment (12.6%) had significantly poorer postnatal weight gain than those who did not, but this was not seen in the treated (17.6%) and non-treated ROP groups in 2015-2016. WINROP sensitivity decreased from 87.5% in 2011-12 to 48% in 2015-2016. After the SpO2 target range was increased from 88-92% to 91-95%, postnatal weight gain was no longer a significant risk factor and WINROP lost its ability to predict ROP requiring treatment. Risk factors clearly change as neonatal care develops. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Peters Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Minami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our findings in an infant with Peters anomaly type II whose retinopathy of prematurity (ROP was treated with an anti-VEGF agent and surgeries. Case Report: A male infant weighing 548 g was born prematurely at 23 weeks and 1 day with corneal opacity and shallow anterior chambers in both eyes. At the postmenstrual age of 35 weeks and 3 days, the infant was tentatively diagnosed with stage 3 ROP because of a dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and ultrasonographic findings. The boy was treated with bilateral intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB because laser photocoagulation of the retina could not be performed due to the corneal opacity. The retina in the right eye detached 3 times, namely 5 days, 16 days, and 7 months after the IVB; encircling the scleral buckle and a vitrectomy with endolaser photocoagulation were therefore required. In his left eye, the retina was reattached after the initial IVB, and no additional treatment was required. ROP was not reactivated in both eyes until the last examination at the age of 2 years and 6 months. Conclusions: Our results showed that IVB is a useful treatment for ROP in patients with Peters anomaly. However, a retinal detachment can be a complication after IVB. The optimal timing of IVB for ROP in infants with hazy media needs to be determined.

  18. Posterior Pole Sparing Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Rebecca Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Methods. A retrospective chart review of premature babies with ROP, all of whom received laser photocoagulation with IVB. Eleven eyes of 6 infants with advanced zone I ROP underwent laser ablation sparing posterior pole with concurrent IVB. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole. Results. The posterior pole sparing laser with IVB was performed with zone I, stage 3+ ROP at the mean postmenstrual age of 36 weeks and 5 days. The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Conclusions. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina.

  19. RAC/ROP GTPases and Auxin Signaling[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hen-ming; Hazak, Ora; Cheung, Alice Y.; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Auxin functions as a key morphogen in regulating plant growth and development. Studies on auxin-regulated gene expression and on the mechanism of polar auxin transport and its asymmetric distribution within tissues have provided the basis for realizing the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin function. In eukaryotes, members of the Ras and Rho subfamilies of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases function as molecular switches in many signaling cascades that regulate growth and development. Plants do not have Ras proteins, but they contain Rho-like small G proteins called RACs or ROPs that, like fungal and metazoan Rhos, are regulators of cell polarity and may also undertake some Ras functions. Here, we discuss the advances made over the last decade that implicate RAC/ROPs as mediators for auxin-regulated gene expression, rapid cell surface-located auxin signaling, and directional auxin transport. We also describe experimental data indicating that auxin–RAC/ROP crosstalk may form regulatory feedback loops and theoretical modeling that attempts to connect local auxin gradients with RAC/ROP regulation of cell polarity. We hope that by discussing these experimental and modeling studies, this perspective will stimulate efforts to further refine our understanding of auxin signaling via the RAC/ROP molecular switch. PMID:21478442

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity: results from 10 years in a single neonatal intensive care unit

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    Inês Coutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina of preterm newborns and is an important and preventable cause of visual impairment in childhood. This study aimed to assess the incidence and main risk factors associated with the development of ROP in the last 10 years at Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca in Lisbon, Portugal.Methods: Observational and retrospective study conducted between 2005 and 2014 at Hospital Prof. Doctor Fernando Fonseca. The study included newborns of gestational age < 32 weeks. We analyzed maternal, prenatal and neonatal factors associated with the development of ROP. Statistical analysis were performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a multiple logistic regression model was carried out with a significance level α = 0.05.Results: 527 premature infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks were studied, of which 165 developed ROP. 60 of these patients needed treatment. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for the development of ROP were maternal infection in pregnancy, low birth weight, low gestational age, low Apgar score at 5 minutes, need for oxygen therapy until the 28th day of life, a high score on the CRIB and SNAPPE2 scales, use of surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for ROP were the presence of neonatal sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus and a high score on the neonatal SNAPPE2 scale.Conclusions: We found a ROP incidence rate of 31.3%, with risk factors similar to those observed in other studies.

  1. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  2. Dynamic performance of the mechanism of an automatically deployable ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Howard, S

    2002-02-01

    The mechanism for an automatically deployable ROPS (AutoROPS) has been designed and tested. This mechanism is part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against rollover fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The device is a spring-action, telescoping structure that releases on signal to pyrotechnic squibs that actuate release pins. Upper post motion begins when the release pins clear an internal piston. The structure extends until the piston impacts an elastomeric ring and latches at the top position. In lab tests the two-post structure consistently deployed in less than 0.3 s and latched securely. Static load tests of the telescoping structure and field upset tests of the fully functional AutoROPS have been successfully completed.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

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    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates without vaso-proliferative findings of ROP as the control group and 30 preterm infants with evidence of severe ROP in follow up eye examination as the case group. Blood samples obtained from these infants 6-8 weeks after birth and blood levels of IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean gestation age and birth weight of the studied patients were 28.2±1.6 weeks and 1120.7±197 gram in the case group and 28.4±1.6 weeks and 1189.4±454 gram in the control group (P=0.25 and P=0.44 respectively. The infants in the case group had significantly lower Apgar score at first and 5 min after birth. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with proliferative ROP than the patients without ROP [592.5±472.9 vs. 995.5±422.2 ng/ml (P=0.009]. Using a cut-off point 770.45 ng/ml for the plasma IGFBP-3, we obtained a sensitivity of 65.9% and a specificity of 66.7% in the preterm infants with vasoproliferative ROP. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that the blood levels IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with ROP and it is suspected that IGFBP-3 deficiency in the premature infants may have a pathogenetic role in proliferative ROP.

  4. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel... October 24, 1988, that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and...

  5. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY SCREENING OF 500 INFANTS IN A LEVEL II NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AT A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA

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    Keerthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the leading cause of infant blindness and predominantly affects premature, low birth weight babies.1 India and other middle-income countries are said to be suffering from the ‘third epidemic’. ROP is multi-factorial and early detection and treatment of threshold ROP with timely laser treatment results in excellent outcome.3-8 OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the yield of ROP in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at a Government Medical College Hospital in Mandya district. 2. To determine disease characteristics and outcome of treatment. METHODOLOGY: The study is a prospective analysis of infants admitted during March 1st 2009 and November 30th, 2011(33 months at the NICU of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS Hospital. All infants weighing ROP management. Infants outside these criteria were screened at the discretion of the neonatologist if deemed at risk. The disease was classified according to the ICROP classification and treated according to the ETROP guidelines. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 2.0.1 software. RESULTS: During the study period, 508 (Male =264, Female=244 infants were enrolled for screening. Of these, 104 (20.47% had incomplete follow up and were excluded. Of the 404 who had complete follow up, 141 infants (34.9%, n=404 had ROP. Of these, 19 (12.93%, n=141 progressed to treatment threshold ROP and underwent laser photo ablation. All treated infants (100% showed a favorable outcome following treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study of a rural hospital reporting ROP incidence thus far. A yield of 34.9% is comparable with level III NICU’s in larger cities. With improving neonatal care, a collaborative, timely and appropriate screening strategy is necessary in the community to prevent ROP blindness in rural infants.

  6. Bevacizumab compared with Diode Laser in stage 3 posterior retinopathy of prematurity: a 5 year follow-up

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, N

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized study to compare outcomes of intravitreal Bevacizumab versus diode laser in thirty eyes of fifteen premature babies with zone 1 or posterior zone 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We recorded complications, regression\\/reactivation of ROP, visual outcome, refractive error and systemic complications. The Bevacizumab-treated eyes showed rapid regression of the ROP with resolution of plus disease and flattening of the ridge at 48 hours post injection. In 3 Bevacizumab-treated eyes, reactivation occurred and were treated with laser (3 eyes) or a further Bevacizumab injection (1 eye). Of the diode laser treated eyes, one showed progression and was treated with Bevacizumab. At 5-year follow-up, good outcomes were observed in both treatment groups. However, less myopia was found in the Bevacizumab compared with the diode laser treated eyes.

  7. ROP6 is involved in root hair deformation induced by Nod factors in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Danxia; Li, Xiangyong; Han, Yapeng; Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hongyu; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Roots of leguminous plants perceive Nod factor signals, and then root hair deformation responses such as swelling and curling are activated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of such root hair deformation. We have previously shown that LjROP6, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, was identified as an NFR5 (Nod Factor Receptor 5)-interacting protein and participated in symbiotic nodulation in Lotus japonicus. In this study, we identified ten LjROP GTPases including LjROP6, and they were distributed into groups II, III, IV but not group I by phylogenetic analysis. The expression profiles of ten LjROP genes during nodulation were examined. LjROP6 belonged to group IV and interacted with NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner. Overexpression of either wild-type ROP6 or a constitutively active mutant (ROP6-CA) generated root hair tip growth depolarization, while overexpression of a dominant negative mutant (ROP6-DN) exhibited normal root hair growth. After inoculating with Mesorhizobium loti or adding Nod factors to hairy roots, overexpression of ROP6 and ROP6-CA exhibited extensive root hair deformation, while overexpression of ROP6-DN inhibited root hair deformation. The infection event and nodule number were increased in ROP6 and ROP6-CA overexpressing transgenic plants; but decreased in ROP6-DN overexpressing transgenic plants. These studies provide strong evidence that ROP6 GTPase, which binds NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner, is involved in root hair development as well as root hair deformation responses induced by NFs in the early stage of symbiotic interaction in L. japonicus.

  8. 多胎妊娠早产儿191例ROP筛查结果分析%Outcomes of retinopathy of prematurity screening in 191 multiple pregnancy premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海霞; 姚家奇; 陈志钧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the occurrence of multiple pregnancy premature ROP (Retinopathy of prematurity,ROP),and to discuss the related risk factors.Methods Of 191 cases of multiple pregnancy premature included in the study,fundus examinations were performed with Retcam Ⅱ,the incidence of the ROP and and its relationship with related risk factors were studied.The SPSS 17.0 software was applied in the statistical analysis.Results The incidence of ROP was 9.95% (19/191) in 191 cases of multiple pregnancy premature,twins was 8.79% (16/182); triplets were 33.33%(3/9).The average birth weight of 19 infants with ROP was (1.47±0.45) kg,172 cases without ROP was (1.90 ±0.45) kg,birth weight between two groups had statistical significance (t =3.91,P =0.0001); The average born age of 19 infants with ROP was (29.53 ±2.25) weeks,172 cases without ROP was (32.93 ±2.93) weeks,between the two groups,born age had statistical significance (t =6.75,P <0.0001).Conclusions The incidence of ROP with multiple pregnancy premature is higher,gestational age and birth weight are important risk factors for ROP.%目的 观察多胎妊娠早产儿ROP的发生情况,探讨相关危险因素.方法 191例多胎妊娠早产儿纳入研究,所有患儿均由经验丰富的视网膜专科医师用二代广角数码视网膜成像系统(RetCamⅡ)进行检查,研究早产儿视网膜病变(Retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发生率及其与胎龄、出生体重、分娩方式及有无吸氧史的关系.应用SPSS17.0统计软件分析结果.结果 191例多胎妊娠早产儿ROP发生率9.95% (19/191),发现ROP征象的19例患儿有明确吸氧史者16例.双胎妊娠ROP发生率8.79% (16/182);三胎妊娠ROP发生率33.33%(3/9);顺产100例8例发现ROP,剖宫产91例11例发现ROP; 19例ROP患儿平均出生体重(1.47±0.45) kg,无ROP的172例早产儿平均出生体重(1.90±0.45) kg,两组出生体重比较具有统计学意义(t=3.91.P=0.0001); 19

  9. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  10. Plant GTPases: regulation of morphogenesis by ROPs and ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin

    2006-03-21

    Polarized cell growth in plants is controlled by Rho-like small GTPases (ROPs), not only through the canonical WAVE/Arp2/3 pathway, but also through newly defined plant-specific pathways involving the regulated release of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  11. RopGEF2 is involved in ABA-suppression of seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujuan; Wu, Yuxuan; He, Yuqing; Wang, Yarui; Xiao, Jun; Li, Lin; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of Rho of Plants (ROP) GTPases in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in Arabidopsis has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the roles of RopGEFs (Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factors), which modulate ROP activities in ABA signalling, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that RopGEF2 may play a negative role in ABA-suppressed seed germination and post-germination growth. We show that disruption of RopGEF2 enhances sensitivity to exogenous ABA in seed germination assays and that RopGEF2pro-GUS is mainly expressed in developing embryos and germinating seeds. Interestingly, YFP-RopGEF2 is located in both the cytoplasmic region and in mitochondria. Notably, the PRONE2 (plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger 2) domain of RopGEF2 is detected in mitochondria, whereas the N-terminus of RopGEF2 is shown to be in the cytosol. After ABA treatment, degradation of RopGEF2 is triggered in the cytosol through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. The binding of RopGEF2 to ROP2, ROP6 or ROP10, which has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA signalling, not only alters the localization of RopGEF2 but also enables RopGEF2 to escape degradation in the cell. Thus, in this study, we deduce a sophisticated mechanism of ABA-mediated RopGEF2-ROP signalling, which potentially implicates the inactivation of ROPs in responsiveness to ABA. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors on minority operated farms in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2009-05-01

    Tractor overturns kill an average of 100 farmers and farm workers per year. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are a proven intervention, but are not on a sufficient number of tractors in the US to reduce these deaths. Little has been reported on ROPS use by racial minority farm operators. Data from the NIOSH OISPA survey were used to assess ROPS prevalence rates from a random sample of racial minority farm operators for the year 2003, and ROPS prevalence rates from a random sample of all US farms for the year 2004. ROPS prevalence rates on minority farming operations follow similar patterns to ROPS prevalence rates on all US farms. A low prevalence of ROPS on farms was associated with operators over the age of 65 years, farms with small acreages, and farms operated on a part-time basis. The race of the operator had little impact on ROPS prevalence rates. Factors such as acreage, farm operator age, region of the US, and full- or part-time farming status influence ROPS prevalence rates on farms more than the race of the operator. Understanding how ROPS prevalence differs across these farm and farm operator characteristics has the potential to efficiently target areas for ROPS promotion programs across the US. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Exploring the Musical Interests and Abilities of Blind and Partially Sighted Children and Young People with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawa, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the musical interests and talents of children and young people who are blind or partially sighted as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (RoP). The results from questionnaires completed by 37 parents were analysed using methods drawn from Ockelford et al.'s (2006) study of the musical interests and abilities of children with…

  14. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  15. Results of Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity: How the Ideal Screening Program Should Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Esen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the rate of infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment, to investigate the relation of this rate with birth age and birth weight, and to discuss the screening criteria eligible for our country. Materials and Methods: Medical records of premature infants examined for ROP with birth weight ≤2000 gram (g and/or gestational age ≤34 weeks were evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their birth weights as ≤1000 g, 1001-1500 g, >1500 g, and according to gestational age as ≤27 weeks, 28-31 weeks, ≥32 weeks. The rate of patients with treatment-requiring ROP was evaluated in these groups. The birth weights and gestational ages of these patients were analyzed. Results: Treatment requiring ROP stages were detected in 100 (8% of 1250 infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight of these patients was 28.3±2.3 (24-34 weeks and 1152.2±396 (520-2120 g respectively, and both were found lower than those of nontreated infants (p1500 g required treatment. According to the gestational age, 33 (19.4% of 170 infants ≤27 weeks, 59 (10.3% of 572 infants between 28-31 weeks, 8 (1.6% of 508 infants ≥32 weeks required treatment. Conclusion: The best way to avoid the vision loss due to ROP is to establish a regular screening program including every infant that may require treatment. So we recommend that screening criteria for our country should be wider than applied in developed countries, and babies having gestational age ≤34 weeks and/or birth weight ≤2000 g should be screened for ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 42-6

  16. Toxoplasma's arms race with the host interferon response: a ménage à trois of ROPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yap, George S

    2014-05-14

    The Toxoplasma gondii virulence factors ROP5 and ROP18 both target immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) to evade immunity. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Etheridge et al. (2014) identify a third virulence factor, ROP17, which forms a complex and synergizes with ROP5/ROP18 to fully disable the IRG system of antiparasite defense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a multifactorial disease that occurs most frequently in very small and very sick preterm infants, and it has been identified as the major cause of childhood blindness. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate ROP incidence and risk factors associated with varying degrees of illness. Methods. The study was conducted at the Centre for Neonatology, Paediatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia, in the period from June 2006 to December 2008. Ophthalmologic screening was performed in all children with body weight lower than 2000 g or gestational age lower than 36 weeks. We analyzed eighteen postnatal and six perinatal risk factors and the group correlations for each of the risk factors. Results. Out of 317 children that were screened, 56 (17.7% developed a mild form of ROP, while 68 (21.5% developed a severe form. Univariate analysis revealed a large number of statistically significant risk factors for the development of ROP, especially the severe form. Multivariate logistical analysis further separated two independent risk factors: small birth weight (p=0.001 and damage of central nervous system (p=0.01. Independent risk factors for transition from mild to severe forms of ROP were identified as: small birth weight (p=0.05 and perinatal risk factors (p=0.02. Conclusion. Small birth weight and central nervous system damage were risk factors for the development of ROP, perinatal risk factors were identified as significant for transition from mild to severe form of ROP.

  18. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  19. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national regis......: An independent association was found between the occurrence of hyperglycaemic events during the first postnatal week and later development of treatment-demanding ROP, when adjusted for known risk factors.......BACKGROUND: To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national...... was borderline significant (t-test; p=0.047). Hyperglycaemic events (indexed value) were statistically significantly different between the two study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; pindependent risk factor (OR: 1.022; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.042; p=0.031). CONCLUSION...

  20. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori N Miyawaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound active state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during PC morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  1. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Kaori N; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound "active" state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  2. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment.

  3. Comparative study of RetCamRetCam II vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Palacios, P; Zarratea, L; Moral, M; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J

    2015-08-01

    To determine the performance of RetCam vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy (BIO) in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Observational comparative study with prospective data collection. Examinations with RetCam (n=169) were performed on 83 infants included in a screening program for ROP and stored for analysis at a later stage. An experienced ophthalmologist examined the ocular fundus with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO). The RetCam images were assessed for the presence of ROP, zone, grade, and presence of plus disease. RetCam and BIO data were compared by visually to estimate sensitivity, specificity, positive (VPP) and negative (VPN) predictive values. ROP disease was detected in 108 eyes with BIO, and in 74 with RetCam. Out of 306 eyes examined with RetCam, false negative results were found in 34 eyes, with no false positives. Sensitivity of RetCam exam vs. BIO was 0.68, and specificity was 0.99. Positive predictive value was 0.93 and negative predictive value was 0.85. All 34 ROP cases not detected with RetCam were in zone III or outer zone II. They were all mild and regressed spontaneously. No threshold ROP was missed with RetCam. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is the reference method for the diagnosis of ROP. RetCam may be used as an alternative for ROP screening. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Rhoptry Proteins ROP5 and ROP18 Are Major Murine Virulence Factors in Genetically Divergent South American Strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Behnke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has evolved a number of strategies to evade immune responses in its many hosts. Previous genetic mapping of crosses between clonal type 1, 2, and 3 strains of T. gondii, which are prevalent in Europe and North America, identified two rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, that function together to block innate immune mechanisms activated by interferon gamma (IFNg in murine hosts. However, the contribution of these and other virulence factors in more genetically divergent South American strains is unknown. Here we utilized a cross between the intermediately virulent North American type 2 ME49 strain and the highly virulent South American type 10 VAND strain to map the genetic basis for differences in virulence in the mouse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of this new cross identified one peak that spanned the ROP5 locus on chromosome XII. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of all copies of ROP5 in the VAND strain rendered it avirulent and complementation confirmed that ROP5 is the major virulence factor accounting for differences between type 2 and type 10 strains. To extend these observations to other virulent South American strains representing distinct genetic populations, we knocked out ROP5 in type 8 TgCtBr5 and type 4 TgCtBr18 strains, resulting in complete loss of virulence in both backgrounds. Consistent with this, polymorphisms that show strong signatures of positive selection in ROP5 were shown to correspond to regions known to interface with host immunity factors. Because ROP5 and ROP18 function together to resist innate immune mechanisms, and a significant interaction between them was identified in a two-locus scan, we also assessed the role of ROP18 in the virulence of South American strains. Deletion of ROP18 in South American type 4, 8, and 10 strains resulted in complete attenuation in contrast to a partial loss of virulence seen for ROP18 knockouts in previously described type 1 parasites. These data show that ROP5

  5. Analysis of T-786C and 4a/b endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in retinopathy of prematurity

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    Pantelić Jelica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vascular proliferative disorder of retina, that causes visual impairment in premature children. Beside well known risk factors such as short gestational age, low birth weight and early oxygen exposure, genetic susceptibility is considered as a risk factor for development of the disease. The aim of our study was to explore the association of T-786C and 4a/b eNOS gene polymorphisms with the development of severe ROP. Study included 174 preterm infants, 84 with ROP and 90 as a control group. No differences have been observed in genotypes and alleles distributions of eNOS T-786C and eNOS 4a/b polymorphisms between two analyzed groups. There was significant difference in female infants by dominant model for 4a/b genotypes (4bb/4ba+4aa. Namely, female infants in ROP group were more frequently carriers of 4ba and 4aa genotypes than female infants in control group (p=0.037. Analysis of association between 4a/b eNOS polymorphism and ROP among preterm infants have not shown statistically significant association (p=0.288. Gestational age values by recessive model (4bb+4ba/4aa were significantly lower in infants with 4aa genotype (t=2.034 p=0.044. Almost all detected 4aa genotypes were present in the group of infants with gestational age under 30 weeks (p=0.032, but multivariate linear regression analysis does not show association of 4a/b genotypes with gestational age of premature infants. According to results of the present study T-786C and 4a/b polymorphisms of the eNOS gene may not be the risk factors for the manifestation of severe ROP in Serbian infants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175091

  6. Stress of dynamic loaded protection cab ROPS of truck

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    Ševčík Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design geometry, calculate deformation, deformation energy and stress safety of extended hydraulically lifted ROPS frame lorry TATRA by FEM according to Australian Standard AS 2294.2-1997 Earth-moving machinery-Protective Structures, Part 2: Laboratory tests and performance requirements for roll-over protective structures and by international Standard ISO 3471: 2008 (E for the proposed design solution.

  7. Assessment of a Tele-education System to Enhance Retinopathy of Prematurity Training by International Ophthalmologists-in-Training in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria Ana; Berrones-Medina, David; Swan, Ryan; Ryan, Michael C; Jonas, Karyn E; Ostmo, Susan; Campbell, J Peter; Chiang, Michael F; Chan, R V Paul

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate a tele-education system developed to improve diagnostic competency in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by ophthalmologists-in-training in Mexico. Prospective, randomized cohort study. Fifty-eight ophthalmology residents and fellows from a training program in Mexico consented to participate. Twenty-nine of 58 trainees (50%) were randomized to the educational intervention (pretest, ROP tutorial, ROP educational chapters, and posttest), and 29 of 58 trainees (50%) were randomized to a control group (pretest and posttest only). A secure web-based educational system was created using clinical cases (20 pretest, 20 posttest, and 25 training chapter-based) developed from a repository of over 2500 unique image sets of ROP. For each image set used, a reference standard ROP diagnosis was established by combining the clinical diagnosis by indirect ophthalmoscope examination and image-based diagnosis by multiple experts. Trainees were presented with image-based clinical cases of ROP during a pretest, posttest, and training chapters. The accuracy of ROP diagnosis (e.g., plus disease, zone, stage, category) was determined using sensitivity and specificity calculations from the pretest and posttest results of the educational intervention group versus control group. The unweighted kappa statistic was used to analyze the intragrader agreement for ROP diagnosis by the ophthalmologists-in-training during the pretest and posttest for both groups. Trainees completing the tele-education system had statistically significant improvements (P Mexico. This system has the potential to increase competency in ROP diagnosis and management for ophthalmologists-in-training from middle-income nations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New Insights into Rho signaling from plant ROP/Rac GTPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Christian; Lavagi, Irene; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2012-01-01

    In animal and plant cells, a wide range of key cellular processes that require the establishment of cell polarity are governed by Rho-GTPases. In contrast to animals and yeast, however, plants possess a single Rho-GTPase subfamily called ROP (Rho-like GTPases from plants). This raises the question of how plants achieve the high level of regulation required for polar cellular processes. It is becoming evident that plants have evolved specific regulators, including ROP-Guanine Exchange Factors (GEFs) and the Rop-interactive CRIB motif–containing proteins (RIC) effectors. Recent research shows that the spatiotemporal dynamics of ROPs, the cytoskeleton, endocytosis and exocytosis are intertwined. This review focuses on the proposed self-organizing nature of ROPs in plants and how ROP-mediated cellular mechanisms compare with those responsible for cell polarity in animals and yeast. PMID:22795444

  9. [Félicien Rops: medicine, doctors, and his diseases (part one)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchy, H

    2005-02-01

    Félicien Rops was among the 19th-century's finest draughtsmen and Belgium's most sulphurous artist. Rops was born in Namur in 1833. He began to study law at the Free University of Brussels in 1851, joined a rowdy circle of students and began drawing the kind of caricatures and sharp satirical lithographs that would later gain him open-armed acceptance in the artistic and literary circles in Paris. As draughtsman and engraver, Rops has illustrated medical subjects such as "The massage", "Speculum", "Experimental medicine" "My gout". Rops was also a prolific letter-writer. In his correspondence, he spoke about his real or imaginary diseases: measles, gout, typhoid fever and typhus, congestion of the lung, phosphatous diabetes, nervous break-down, congestion of the brain, ocular injury, cardiac insufficiency. Rops' illnesses are discussed according to the medical knowledge at the time of Rops and to those of nowadays.

  10. New insights into Rho signaling from plant ROP/Rac GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Christian; Lavagi, Irene; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2012-09-01

    In animal and plant cells, a wide range of key cellular processes that require the establishment of cell polarity are governed by Rho-GTPases. In contrast to animals and yeast, however, plants possess a single Rho-GTPase subfamily called Rho-like GTPases from plants (ROPs). This raises the question of how plants achieve the high level of regulation required for polar cellular processes. It is becoming evident that plants have evolved specific regulators, including ROP-Guanine Exchange Factors (GEFs) and the Rop-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein (RIC) effectors. Recent research shows that the spatiotemporal dynamics of ROPs, the cytoskeleton, endocytosis, and exocytosis are intertwined. This review focuses on the proposed self-organizing nature of ROPs in plants and how ROP-mediated cellular mechanisms compare with those responsible for cell polarity in animals and yeast.

  11. Serum Erythropoietin, Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Ethiopathogenesis of Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Özlem Yenice

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 that possibly play an important role in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and to investigate their relationship with each other. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, 93 infants with gestational age of less than 32 weeks or had a birth weight of less than 2000 g were investigated prospectively. To determine levels of EPO, VEGF and IGF-1, samples were collected from cord blood and were reserved at -80°C. Serum levels of cytokines in babies with and without ROP (ROP+ and ROP- were determined and their relationship with each other was investigated. Re sults: ROP was found in 57 (61.3% babies. There was a significant difference between ROP- and ROP+ groups for birth weight (1678.06±326.03 g; 1383.95±343.23 g; p=0,001 and birth week (29.65±2.34 weeks; 32.22±1.49 weeks; p=0,001 correspondingly. Besides, IGF-1 levels correlated significantly with birth weight (r=0.509; p=0.001 and birth week (r=0.586, p=0.001. Median serum levels in ROP(- group were 19.45 ng/ml (0-40 ng/ml for IGF-1, 1159.5 pg/ml (396.59-2389.25 pg/ml for VEGF, and 6.14 mU/ml (2.6-35.4 mU/ml for EPO. The median serum levels in ROP+ group were 0 ng/ml (0-30.6 ng/ml for IGF-1, 864.98 pg/ml (182.57-2133.05 pg/ml for VEGF, and 6.07 mU/ml (2.4-90.2 mU/ml for EPO. Levels of IGF-1 (p=0.008 and VEGF (p=0.011 were significantly lower in the ROP(+ group. Serum VEGF correlated with EPO levels (r=0.275; p=0.019. Dis cus si on: Serum IGF-1 and VEGF levels at birth may be measured to assess the risk for developing ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 423-8

  12. Retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em crianças submetidas à terapia com surfactante exógeno endotraqueal Threshold retinopathy of prematurity in children undergoing exogenous endotracheal surfactant therapy

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    Mário Martins dos Santos Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a freqüência da retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP em qualquer estadiamento e da retinopatia da prematuridade limiar em prematuros que usaram ou não surfactante endotraqueal, para tratamento da síndrome da membrana hialina e avaliar a resposta dos olhos que necessitaram tratamento de ablação da retina periférica. MÉTODOS: Cento e sessenta e oito prematuros, nascidos com 1.500 gramas ou menos e/ou idade gestacional de 32 semanas ou menos, foram triados para a ROP por avaliação oftalmoscópica. Foram comparados os achados de 40 crianças tratadas pelo surfactante endotraqueal com os de 128 que não precisaram desta terapia. A ablação da retina periférica, com laser ou crioterapia, foi realizada nos pacientes com ROP limiar. Para análise estatística foram usados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, além do teste exato de Fisher com significância para pOBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in any stage and its threshold form in premature infants, either treated or non-treated with exogenous surfactant to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and evaluate the response of eyes with threshold retinopathy to ablation treatment. METHODS: One hundred and sixty eight premature infants who weighed 1500 grams or less and/or who had a gestational age of 32 weeks or less, were screened for ROP by ophthalmoscopy. We compared findings in 40 patients treated with exogenous endotracheal surfactant, with those of 128 patients who did not require such therapy. Ablation of ischaemic peripheral retina, either with laser or cryotherapy, was applied in cases of threshold ROP. For statistical analysis Student's t, qui-square, Kruskal-Wallins and Fisher's exact tests were used, with p value of < 0.05 considered as significant. RESULTS: ROP, in any stage, occurred in 51,2% of children. Threshold ROP, requiring treatment, was found in 12 (7,4% of them and regressed in 9. There was no

  13. Rhoptry protein 5 (ROP5) Is a Key Virulence Factor in Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Liu, Jing; Li, Muzi; Fu, Yong; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Qun

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum, of the Apicomplexa phylum, is a common cause of abortions in cattle and nervous system dysfunction in dogs. Rhoptry proteins of Apicomplexa play an important role in virulence. The objectives of this study were to study functions of NcROP5 in N. caninum by deleting the NcROP5 gene from the wild Nc-1 strain. We selected NcROP5 in ToxoDB and successfully constructed an NcROP5 gene-deleted vector, pTCR-NcROP5-CD KO. Then we screened the NcROP5 knockout strains (ΔNcROP5) at the gene, protein and transcription levels. Plaque assay, host cell invasion assay and intracellular proliferation test showed that the ΔNcROP5 strain had less plaque space, weakened invasion capacity and slower intracellular growth. Animal testing showed significantly lower cerebral load of ΔNcROP5 than the load of the Nc-1 strain, as well as a loss of virulence for the ΔNcROP5 strains. Phenotypic analyses using the label-free LC-MS/MS assay-based proteomic method and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed a reduction of NcGRA7 transcription and altered expression of multiple proteins including the apicomplexan family of binding proteins. The present study indicated that ROP5 is a key virulence factor in N. caninum in mice. The proteomic profiling of Nc-1 and ΔNcROP5 provided some data on differential proteins. These data provide a foundation for future research of protein functions in N. caninum. PMID:28326073

  14. How prenylation and S-acylation regulate subcellular targeting and function of ROP GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Nadav; Henis, Yoav I; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-07-01

    Rho of Plants (ROP) small G proteins function at discrete domains of the plasma and possibly endo membranes. ROPs are synthesized as soluble proteins and their attachment to membranes and partitioning in membrane microdomains are facilitated by the posttranslational lipid modifications prenylation and/or S-acylation. Based on their amino acid sequences, ROPs can be classified into two major subgroups: type-I ROPs terminate with a canonical CaaX box motif and are prenylated primarily by geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGT-I) and to a lesser extent by farnesyltransferase (FT). Type-II ROPs terminate with a plant specific GC-CG box domain and are attached to the plasma membrane by stable S-acylation. In addition, type-I and possibly also type-II ROPs undergo activation dependent transient S-acylation in the G-domain and consequent partitioning into lipid rafts. Surprisingly, although geranylgeranylation is required for the membrane attachment of type-I ROPs and the γ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, Arabidopsis mutants lacking GGT-I function have a mild phenotype compared to wild type plants. The mild phenotype of the ggt-I mutants suggested that farnesylation by FT may compensate for the loss of GGT-I function and that possibly the prenylated type-I and S-acylated type-II ROPS have some overlapping functions. In a paper recently published in Plant Physiology we examined the role of the prenyl group type in type-I ROP function and membrane interaction dynamics and the functional redundancy between type-I and type-II ROPs. This study complements a second paper in which we examined the role of G-domain transient S-acylation in the membrane interaction dynamics and signaling by type-I ROPs. Together these two studies provide a framework for realizing the role of prenylation and S-acylation in subcellular targeting, membrane interaction dynamics and signaling by ROP GTPases.

  15. The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening in underserved rural areas using an indigenously developed tele-ROP model. Materials and Methods: KIDROP currently provides ROP screening and treatment services in three zones and 81 neonatal units in Karnataka, India. Technicians were trained to use a portable Retcam Shuttle (Clarity, USA and validated against ROP experts performing indirect ophthalmoscopy. An indigenously developed 20-point score (STAT score graded their ability (Level I to III to image and decide follow-up based on a three-way algorithm. Images were also uploaded on a secure tele-ROP platform and accessed and reported by remote experts on their smart phones (iPhone, Apple. Results: 6339 imaging sessions of 1601 infants were analyzed. A level III technician agreed with 94.3% of all expert decisions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for treatment grade disease were 95.7, 93.2, 81.5 and 98.6 respectively. The kappa for technicians to decide discharge of babies was 0.94 (P < 0.001. Only 0.4% of infants needing treatment were missed.The kappa agreement of experts reporting on the iPhone vs Retcam for treatment requiring and mild ROP were 0.96 and 0.94 (P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: This is the first and largest real-world program to employ accredited non-physicians to grade and report ROP. The KIDROP tele-ROP model demonstrates that ROP services can be delivered to the outreach despite lack of specialists and may be useful in other middle-income countries with similar demographics.

  16. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  17. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anand Vinekar,1 Chaitra Jayadev,1 Siddesh Kumar,2 Shwetha Mangalesh,1,3 Mangat Ram Dogra,4 Noel J Bauer,5 Bhujang Shetty6 1Department of Pediatric Retina, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bangalore, 2Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University of Health Sciences, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Narayana Nethralaya Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Bangalore, India Purpose: To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods: The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP, is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012 and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015. Results: During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001. The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from

  18. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  19. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  20. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: review of a seven-year period in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M; Peitersen, Birgit

    1994-01-01

    of the hospital. One hundred and eighty survived to at least 8 weeks of age and 170 had eye examinations. Forty-five of the 170 infants examined (26.5%) had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 18 (40%) of these developed blindness or severely impaired vision, a higher incidence than reported in other studies....... Significant differences were found between infants with and without ROP for: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score at 1 min, resuscitation, ventilator treatment, duration of supplementary oxygen, severe complications in the neonatal period and sequels from the central nervous system. Statistical analysis......, corrected for correlations, showed that the occurrence of ROP was related significantly to early intubation, hypotension, persistent ductus arteriosus and necrotizing enterocolitis....

  2. Conserved Subgroups and Developmental Regulation in the Monocot rop Gene Family1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Todd M.; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Arthur, Kirstin M.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Albright, Carol A.; Meeley, Robert B.; Duvick, Jon P.; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Fowler, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Rop small GTPases are plant-specific signaling proteins with roles in pollen and vegetative cell growth, abscisic acid signal transduction, stress responses, and pathogen resistance. We have characterized the rop family in the monocots maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa). The maize genome contains at least nine expressed rops, and the fully sequenced rice genome has seven. Based on phylogenetic analyses of all available Rops, the family can be subdivided into four groups that predate the divergence of monocots and dicots; at least three have been maintained in both lineages. However, the Rop family has evolved differently in the two lineages, with each exhibiting apparent expansion in different groups. These analyses, together with genetic mapping and identification of conserved non-coding sequences, predict orthology for specific rice and maize rops. We also identified consensus protein sequence elements specific to each Rop group. A survey of ROP-mRNA expression in maize, based on multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and a massively parallel signature sequencing database, showed significant spatial and temporal overlap of the nine transcripts, with high levels of all nine in tissues in which cells are actively dividing and expanding. However, only a subset of rops was highly expressed in mature leaves and pollen. Intriguingly, the grouping of maize rops based on hierarchical clustering of expression profiles was remarkably similar to that obtained by phylogenetic analysis. We hypothesize that the Rop groups represent classes with distinct functions, which are specified by the unique protein sequence elements in each group and by their distinct expression patterns. PMID:14605221

  3. Static simulation and analyses of mower's ROPS behavior in a finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ayers, P; Womac, A R

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this research was to numerically predict the maximum lateral force acting on a mower rollover protective structure (ROPS) and the energy absorbed by the ROPS during a lateral continuous roll. A finite element (FE) model of the ROPS was developed using elastic and plastic theories including nonlinear relationships between stresses and strains in the plastic deformation range. Model validation was performed using field measurements of ROPS behavior in a lateral continuous roll on a purpose-designed test slope. Field tests determined the maximum deformation of the ROPS of a 900 kg John Deere F925 mower with a 183 cm (72 in.) mowing deck during an actual lateral roll on a pad and on soil. In the FE model, lateral force was gradually added to the ROPS until the field-measured maximum deformation was achieved. The results from the FE analysis indicated that the top corners of the ROPS enter slightly into the plastic deformation region. Maximum lateral forces acting on the ROPS during the simulated impact with the pad and soil were 19650 N and 22850 N, respectively. The FE model predicted that the energy absorbed by the ROPS (643 J) in the lateral roll test on the pad was less than the static test requirements (1575 J) of Organization for Economic Development (OECD) Code 6. In addition, the energy absorbed by the ROPS (1813 J) in the test on the soil met the static test requirements (1575 J). Both the FE model and the field test results indicated that the deformed ROPS of the F925 mower with deck did not intrude into the occupant clearance zone during the lateral continuous or non-continuous roll.

  4. 早产儿视网膜病变的筛查分析%Analysis of screening results of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍萍; 张秋玲; 张敏; 李达桔; 陈敏瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)发病情况.方法 回顾性分析2009年6月至2010年10月间在东莞市人民医院ROP发病率及其特点.结果 接受筛查的早产儿共126例,发生ROP病变的21例,均为双眼发病,发病率16.67%,未到阈值前病变的19例,发病率15.08%,阈值病变2例,发病率1.59%.其中出生体重<1500g的41例,ROP病变患儿13例,发病率为31.71%,1500g≤出生体重<2000g的85例,ROP病变患儿8例,发病率为9.41%;出生孕周<32周的49例,ROP患儿15例,发病率30.61%,出生孕周≥32周的77例,ROP患儿6例,发病率7.79%.出生体重<1500g和1500g≤出生体重<2000g两组患儿发病率比较(x2=9.899,P<0.01)、出生孕周<32周和出生孕周≥32周的两组患儿发病率分别比较(x2=11.227,P<0.01),差异均具有统计学意义.结论 ROP发病率为16.67%,危及患儿视力的严重ROP发病率低,低出生体重与低出生孕周是影响ROP发病的重要因素.%Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity(ROP)in Dongguan People's Hospital. Methods Records of premature infants who had undergone ROP screening in our hospital between June 2009 and October 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Twenty-one cases out of 126 screened infants had developed ROP. Both eyes suffered from ROP in all the cases. The incidence of ROP was 16.67%. Of 19 cases(15.08%)developed ROP less than prethreshold and 2 cases(1.59%)developed threshold ROP. Among the 126 screened infants, 13(31.71%)out of 41 premature infants with birth weight(BW)<1500g and 8(9.41%)out of 85 with 1500g≤BW<2000g developed ROP, 15(30.61%)out of 49 with gestational age (GA)<32W and 6(7.79%)out of 77 with GA≥ 32W developed ROP. The incidence of ROP either among the groups of BW<1500g andl500g≤BW<2000g(x2=9.899, P <0.01), or among the groups of GA<32W and GA≥32W(x2=11.227, P<0.01)had statistical differences. Conclusions The incidence of ROP is 16.67% in Dongguan People

  5. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

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    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  7. 我国大陆地区近20年早产儿视网膜病变发病概况%Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in mainland of China over the last 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储昭节; 王雨生

    2012-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)是我国儿童致盲的重要眼病之一,其发病率呈逐年上升趋势,给家庭和社会带来沉重负担.随着我国卫生部ROP防治指南的颁布,全国的ROP筛查工作逐渐深入,但流行病学资料显得较为零乱.笔者复习了近20年国内有关盲校学生致盲疾病谱和ROP筛查相关文献,予以综述,旨在为深化ROP防治工作提供参考依据.%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the important causes of childhood blindness in China with an increasing trend of affected infants.It gives great burden on both the individuals and the society.With the publishing of guidelines on oxygenation policies by Ministry of Health,the screening of ROP has been gradually performed nation-wide. But the prevalence data of ROP is still confusing. We reviewed literature over the last 20 years about causes of childhood blindness in blind school students and ROP screening.This study could provide preliminary evidence about prevalence of ROP in mainland of China and could be benefit for further prevention and the control of ROP.

  8. [Félicien Rops and phosphatous diabetes in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchy, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Félicien Rops was among the 19th century's finest draughtsmen and Belgium's most sulphurous artist. Rops was also a prolific letter-writer. In his correspondence, he complained of real or imaginary diseases among which phosphatous diabetes. Causes and treatments of diabetes at that time are described.

  9. The Toxoplasma pseudokinase ROP5 is an allosteric inhibitor of the immunity-related GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Michael L; Shah, Niket; Boothroyd, John C

    2014-10-03

    The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that there is an evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen. One possible example of such a phenomenon could be the recently discovered interaction between host defense proteins known as immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and a family of rhoptry pseudokinases (ROP5) expressed by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Mouse IRGs are encoded by an extensive and rapidly evolving family of over 20 genes. Similarly, the ROP5 family is highly polymorphic and consists of 4-10 genes, depending on the strain of Toxoplasma. IRGs are known to be avidly bound and functionally inactivated by ROP5 proteins, but the molecular basis of this interaction/inactivation has not previously been known. Here we show that ROP5 uses a highly polymorphic surface to bind adjacent to the nucleotide-binding domain of an IRG and that this produces a profound allosteric change in the IRG structure. This has two dramatic effects: 1) it prevents oligomerization of the IRG, and 2) it alters the orientation of two threonine residues that are targeted by the Toxoplasma Ser/Thr kinases, ROP17 and ROP18. ROP5s are highly specific in the IRGs that they will bind, and the fact that it is the most highly polymorphic surface of ROP5 that binds the IRG strongly supports the notion that these two protein families are co-evolving in a way predicted by the Red Queen hypothesis.

  10. 中国早产儿视网膜病变登记网的建设%Establishment of Website of China Retinopathy of Prematurity Registry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炜; 王雨生

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has become research hot spot in China. However,due to lack of public knowledge and professionals, prevention and treatment of ROP in China is still in primary stage. We established the website of China Retinopathy of Prematurity Registry, and hope it could make ROP knowledge more public and improve the prevention and treatment of ROP in China.%早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)近年来在我国逐渐受到关注,成为研究热点.但由于民众欠缺相关知识及专业技术人员的匮乏,致使我国ROP的防治处于初级阶段,亟待ROP知识的普及以及专业防治的开展."中国早产儿视网膜病变登记网"(http://www.chinarop.com)的建设,旨在加强ROP的科普宣传和医务工作者的专业培训,建立国内的ROP病历注册登记制度及ROP数据库,为国内的ROP研究提供帮助.

  11. Reduced oxygen protocol decreases the incidence of threshold retinopathy of prematurity in infants of <33 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhiro, Yumiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Nakabayashi, Yoshinobu; Nakauchi, Shohei; Nakagawa, Yumi; Kihara, Minako; Mitsufuji, Nobuto; Kizaki, Zenro

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between oxygen and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been studied frequently, and a pulse oximeter has the potential to facilitate the control of oxygen fluctuation in neonates. The objective of the present study was to compare the incidence of threshold ROP (stage 3 requiring laser treatment and stage 4) in infants of Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from 1 July 2004 to 31 October 2007 (closed 1 December 2006-30 March 2007 for reconstruction). A reduced oxygen protocol was implemented to maintain oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) values using a pulse oximeter between 88% and 92%. The incidence of threshold ROP in the earlier period (1 July 2004-31 December 2005) and the later period (1 January 2006-31 October 2007) were compared. The incidence of threshold ROP significantly decreased from 32.2% to 16.7%, after changing to the reduced oxygen protocol (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the rate of threshold ROP in infants of <33 weeks gestation was observed after implementation of the new clinical O(2) management practice.

  12. 30 CFR 57.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....14130 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors..., that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and performance requirements of...

  13. ROP GTPases act with the receptor-like protein PAN1 to polarize asymmetric cell division in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, John A; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Luo, Anding; Meeley, Robert B; Sylvester, Anne W; Fowler, John E; Smith, Laurie G

    2011-06-01

    Plant Rho family GTPases (ROPs) have been investigated primarily for their functions in polarized cell growth. We previously showed that the maize (Zea mays) Leu-rich repeat receptor-like protein PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) promotes the polarization of asymmetric subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal development. Here, we show that maize Type I ROPs 2 and 9 function together with PAN1 in this process. Partial loss of ROP2/9 function causes a weak SMC division polarity phenotype and strongly enhances this phenotype in pan1 mutants. Like PAN1, ROPs accumulate in an asymmetric manner in SMCs. Overexpression of yellow fluorescent protein-ROP2 is associated with its delocalization in SMCs and with aberrantly oriented SMC divisions. Polarized localization of ROPs depends on PAN1, but PAN1 localization is insensitive to depletion and depolarization of ROP. Membrane-associated Type I ROPs display increased nonionic detergent solubility in pan1 mutants, suggesting a role for PAN1 in membrane partitioning of ROPs. Finally, endogenous PAN1 and ROP proteins are physically associated with each other in maize tissue extracts, as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This study demonstrates that ROPs play a key role in polarization of plant cell division and cell growth and reveals a role for a receptor-like protein in spatial localization of ROPs.

  14. A distinct mechanism regulating a pollen-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rop in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop/Rac small GTPases are central to diverse developmental and cellular activities in plants, playing an especially important Role in polar growth of pollen tubes. Although it is established that a class of plant-specific RopGEFs promotes the activity of Rop/Rac through the catalytic PRONE (Plant-sp...

  15. New recombinant chimeric antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1, for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3 chimeric Toxoplasma gondii antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1 and MAG1-ROP1, in the serodiagnosis of an acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Proteins were produced as fusion proteins containing His tags ends and then further purified by metal affinity chromatography. Their application for the diagnosis of recently acquired T. gondii infection was tested in IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). At 100%, 77.3%, and 86.4%, respectively, the reactivity of the IgG ELISA using P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was significantly higher than for the samples from people with a chronic infection, at 26.2%, 36.1%, and 32.8%, respectively. Moreover, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 detected IgM antibodies with a reactivity at 81.8%, 72.7%, and 59.1%, respectively. The results presented in the article show that, particularly, P35-MAG1 may be useful in the preliminary detection of recent T. gondii infection.

  16. Determining the size of retinal features in prematurely born children by fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapi, Laura; Lehtonen, Tuomo; Vesti, Eija; Leinonen, Markku T

    2015-06-01

    The purpose was to study the effect of prematurity on the macula-disc centre distance and whether it could be used as a reference tool for determining the size of retinal features in prematurely born children by fundus photography. The macula-disc centre distance of the left eye was measured in pixels from digital fundus photographs taken from 27 prematurely born children aged 10-11 years with Topcon fundus camera. A conversion factor for Topcon fundus camera (194.98 pixel/mm for a 50° lens) was used to convert the results in pixels into metric units. The macula-disc centre distance was 4.74 mm, SD 0.29. No correlation between ametropia and the macula-disc centre distance was found (r = -0.07, p > 0.05). One child (subject 20) had high myopia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and the macula-disc centre distance was longer than average (6.35 mm). The macula-disc centre distance in prematurely born children at the age of 10-11 years provides an easy-to-use reference tool for evaluating the size of retinal features on fundus photographs. However, if complications of ROP, for example temporal macular dragging or high ametropia, are present, the macula-disc centre distance is potentially altered and a personal macula-disc centre distance should be determined and used as a refined reference tool. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS retrofit education campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Westneat, S C

    2004-05-01

    A community educational campaign implemented in two Kentucky counties was effective in influencing farmers to retrofit their tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS) to protect tractor operators from injury in the event of an overturn. This article reports on the cost-effectiveness of this program in the two counties when compared to no program in a control county. A decision analysis indicated that it would be effective at averting 0.27 fatal and 1.53 nonfatal injuries over a 20-year period, and when this analysis was extended statewide, 7.0 fatal and 40 nonfatal injuries would be averted in Kentucky. Over the 20-year period, the cost-per-injury averted was calculated to be $172,657 at a 4% annual discount rate. This cost compared favorably with a national cost of $489,373 per injury averted despite the additional program cost in Kentucky. The principle reason for the increased cost-effectiveness of the Kentucky program was the three-fold higher propensity for tractors to overturn in Kentucky. The cost-per-injury averted in one of the two counties was $112,535. This lower cost was attributed principally to incentive awards financed locally for farmers to retrofit their tractors with ROPS.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity as a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in Guadalajara city, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Romero, L C; Barrera-de-Leon, J C; Camacho-Choza, C; Gonzalez Bernal, C; Camarena-Garcia, E; Diaz-Alatorre, C; Gutierrez-Padilla, J A; Gilbert, C

    2011-11-01

    To determine the causes of blindness in students attending schools for the blind in Guadalajara city, Mexico and to assess the availability of screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in local neonatal intensive care units. Information on causes of blindness was obtained by interview with parents and teachers, review of records and examination. Causes of visual loss in children with a distance visual acuity of <6/60 (ie, severely visually impaired or blind) were determined and classified according to the WHO's classification system for children. Of 153 children in the two participating schools, 144 were severely visual impaired or blind. Their ages ranged from 4 months to 15 years and 58% were female. ROP was the most common cause of visual loss (34.7%), followed by optic nerve lesions (17.4%) and glaucoma (14.6%). 25/59 (42.3%) children aged 0-4 years were blind from ROP compared with 6/32 (18.8%) children aged 10-15 years. 78% of children blind from ROP had psychomotor delay and less than half (46%) had not received treatment for ROP. All five privately funded neonatal intensive care units in the city regularly screen for ROP compared with only four of the 12 units in the public sector. ROP is the leading cause of blindness in children in Mexico despite national guidelines being in place. Health policies promoting primary prevention through improved neonatal care need to be implemented. Advocacy is required so that the time ophthalmologists spend screening and treating ROP is included in their job description and hence salaried.

  19. Apnea after Routine Eye Examinations in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brittany; Wang, Hongyue; Guillet, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine exams for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study Design This is a retrospective review of 79 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The baseline for each infant (mean cardiorespiratory events in the 72 hours before the exam) was compared with the number of cardiorespiratory events during the subsequent 24 hours using generalized estimating equation and the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test to determine if there was an association between cardiorespiratory events and potential risk factors. Results Approximately 19 to 25% of infants experienced an increase in cardiorespiratory events in the 24 hours following their eye exams. These newborns were generally of a younger gestational age and lower birthweight. Conclusion The frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine ROP exams is similar to that following routine immunizations in this population. Thus, in infants being continuously monitored during the 24 hours after the exam, alterations in medical care in the absence of other clinical signs suggestive of sepsis or clinical deterioration may not be required, limiting unnecessary antibiotic exposure, prolonged caffeine administration, unwarranted gastroesophageal reflux treatment, and undue family stress.

  20. Efficacy and safety of green laser photocoagulation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity Eficácia e segurança da fotocoagulação com laser verde na retinopatia da prematuridade limiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the efficacy and safety of green laser photocoagulation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of the neonates who had undergone green laser photocoagulation for threshold ROP at the Federal University of Pernambuco in Brazil between January 2004 and January 2006. All procedures were conducted with local anesthetic drops. The neonates were monitored throughout the procedure by a neonatologist. A frequency-doubled solid state laser, diode-pumped, with 532 nm wavelength was used. The presence of tunica vasculosa lentis or cataract were excluded before laser treatment. The following preoperative data were obtained for each patient: age, birth weight and the grade of ROP. Postoperative data included complications associated with the laser treatment, grade of ROP and evaluation whether further surgery was necessary due to failure of laser photocoagulation. RESULTS: Twenty-two neonates underwent photocoagulation with green laser for threshold ROP. A total of 31 eyes were included in the study. The mean gestational age was 30 ± 3 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1120 ± 490 g. Regression of the disease after laser therapy was observed in 30 eyes (96.7%. Despite treatment one eye presented stage 4A. Only 7 eyes required repetitive laser therapy. No adverse effects such as burning anterior segment tissues or bleeding in the anterior chamber occurred. No posterior segment side-effects were observed. Cataract formation was not observed at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: Green laser photocoagulation remains an effective and safe alternative to red laser photocoagulation and to cryotherapy in the treatment of threshold ROP.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da fotocoagulação com laser verde na retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP limiar. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados prontuários dos neonatos submetidos à fotocoagulação com laser verde para ROP limiar, na

  1. Comparison of intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab treatment for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Methods: 36 eyes of 20 patients with type 1 ROP who received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF intravitreal injections between August 2011 and February 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 8 patients received 0.25 mg ranibizumab (group 1, and 21 eyes of 12 patients received 0.625 mg bevacizumab (group 2. Eyes were examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy on the first day, third day, first week, and first month and as required after injections. Laser photocoagulation was performed in cases with progression of ROP. Results: The mean gestation time was 26.2 ± 2.7 weeks in group 1 patients and 27.1 ± 2.5 weeks in group 2 patients. No statistical difference in the time of gestation was observed between the two groups. The mean follow-up period was 20 ± 4.5 months. Laser photocoagulation was performed in 6 of 15 eyes from group 1 and 2 of 21 eyes from group 2. No eyes developed retinal detachment during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Ranibizumab and bevacizumab showed an efficacy in the treatment of type 1 ROP. The incidence of disease relapse was higher in eyes which received ranibizumab. Further randomized, controlled clinical trials are required to compare the efficacy of ranibizumab and bevacizumab.

  2. Anatomical and refractive outcomes in patients with treated retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, M; Tuma, A; Zanolli, M; Agurto, R; Stevenson, R; Ossandón, D

    2017-10-01

    To describe the anatomical and refractive outcomes after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab or laser in a patient cohort with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A multicentre, prospective, and observational study was performed on patients with ROP treated at Hospital Roberto del Río. Those patients with less than 6months of follow-up were excluded. Cases with posterior zone II, zone I ROP, and aggressive posterior ROP (AP-ROP) were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. All other patients were treated with laser. Follow-up was performed every 3 months, and included fondo evaluation, refraction, and Teller tests. The treated group included 144 eyes of 72 patients, of whom 49 were treated with laser and 23 with intravitreal bevacizumab. One (1.4%) patient from the laser group progressed to stage 4b retinal detachment and required bilateral vitrectomy. Of the remainder, 45 cases had type 1 ROP, 16 had threshold disease, and 11 had AP-ROP. The median of gestational age was 26 weeks (range 23-30), and median of birth weight was 800g (range 405-1350). Median follow-up was 10 months (range 6-8). The Teller test median was 3.2 cycles/cm (range 0.32-13). There were 16 (22%) cases with a myopic refraction of -6 D or more. The sphere median was -1.75 D (range -16.00 to +3.50 D) and the cylindrical median was 0.00 (range -4.5 to +1.5 D). Anatomical success was achieved in 71 (98.6%) of patients. Treatment with laser or intravitreal bevacizumab is a highly successful primary treatment for ROP. Anatomical success can be achieved in most cases. Treated patients develop frequent and severe refractive defects, which should be corrected. Vision outcome, measured using the Teller preferential test, shows good results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The phosphomimetic mutation of an evolutionarily conserved serine residue affects the signaling properties of Rho of plants (ROPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor-Dunai, Csilla; Fricke, Inka; Potocký, Martin; Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Domoki, Mónika; Jurca, Manuela E; Otvös, Krisztina; Zárský, Viktor; Berken, Antje; Fehér, Attila

    2011-05-01

    Plant ROP (Rho of plants) proteins form a unique subgroup within the family of Rho-type small G-proteins of eukaryotes. In this paper we demonstrate that the phosphomimetic mutation of a serine residue conserved in all Rho proteins affects the signaling properties of plant ROPs. We found that the S74E mutation in Medicago ROP6 and Arabidopsis ROP4 prevented the binding of these proteins to their plant-specific upstream activator the plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger (PRONE)-domain-containing RopGEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein and abolished the PRONE-mediated nucleotide exchange reaction in vitro. Structural modeling supported the hypothesis that potential phosphorylation of the S74 residue interferes with the binding of the PRONE-domain to the adjacent plant-specific R76 residue which plays an important role in functional ROP-PRONE interaction. Moreover, we show that while the binding of constitutively active MsROP6 to the effector protein RIC (ROP-interactive CRIB-motif-containing protein) was not affected by the S74E mutation, the capability of this mutated protein to bind and activate the RRK1 kinase in vitro was reduced. These observations are in agreement with the morphology of tobacco pollen tubes expressing mutant forms of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP):MsROP6. The S74E mutation in MsROP6 had no influence on pollen tube morphology and attenuated the phenotype of a constitutively active form of MsROP6. The presented Medicago and Arabidopsis data support the notion that the phosphorylation of the serine residue in ROPs corresponding to S74 in Medicago ROP6 could be a general principle for regulating ROP activation and signaling in plants. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. 早产儿视网膜病变筛查的护理%Nursing for screening of retinopathy in premature in fants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2008-01-01

    @@ 早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity, ROP)是未成熟的视网膜血管异常发育和增生导致的病变,是早产儿致盲的主要原因之一[1].对低孕周和低出生体质量的早产儿开展筛查,能早期发现和治疗ROP,减少盲童发生率.

  5. 早产儿视网膜病变发病基础及其影响因素%Pathogenesis and influencing factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉娟; 茅双根

    2009-01-01

    @@ 早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)原称晶状体后纤维增生症,是一种发生于早产儿视网膜血管的增殖性病变.随着围产医学的发展,早产儿成活率越来越高,但是早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发生率也随之上升.如何防止ROP已成为医学上的迫切问题.

  6. Constitutively activated barley ROPs modulate epidermal cell size, defense reactions and interactions with fungal leaf pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathuri, Indira Priyadarshini; Zellerhoff, Nina; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Eichmann, Ruth; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2008-12-01

    RHO-like monomeric G-proteins of plants (ROPs, also called RACs), are involved in plant development and interaction with the environment. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) ROP protein HvRACB has been shown to be required for entry of the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) into living host cells. To get a deeper insight into evolutionarily conserved functions of ROPs in cell polarity and pathogen responses, we stably expressed constitutively activated (CA) mutant variants of different barley ROPs (HvRACB, HvRAC1, HvRAC3) in barley. CA HvROPs induced epidermal cell expansion and/or abolished polarity in tip growing root hairs. All three CA HvROPs enhanced susceptibility of barley to penetration by Bgh whereas only CA HvRAC1 supported whole cell H(2)O(2) production in non-penetrated cells. Despite increasing penetration by Bgh, CA HvRAC1 promoted callose deposition at sites of fungal attack and resistance to penetration by Magnaporthe oryzae. The data show an involvement of ROPs in polar growth processes of the monocot barley and in responses to fungal pathogens with different life style.

  7. Epitope analysis and protection by a ROP19 DNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used bioinformatics approaches to identify B-cell and T-cell epitopes on the ROP19 protein of Toxoplasma gondii. Then, we constructed plasmids with ROP19 (pEGFP-C1-ROP19 and injected them into BALB/c mice to test the immunoprotection induced by this vaccine candidate. The results showed that immunization with pEGFP-C1-ROP19 induced effective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice; specifically, high serum levels of T. gondii-specific IgG and increased interferon-gamma production by splenocytes. Furthermore, the mice vaccinated with pROP19 had significantly fewer brain cysts (583 ± 160 than the mice injected with phosphate-buffered saline (1350 ± 243 or with the control plasmid, pEGFP-C1 (1300 ± 167. Compared with PBS-treated mice, those immunized with pROP19 had only 43% of the number of brain cysts. These results suggest that the DNA vaccine encoding ROP19 induced a significant immune response and provided protection against a challenge with T. gondii strain PRU cysts.

  8. Modification of plant Rac/Rop GTPase signalling using bacterial toxin transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj K; Ren, Fugang; Giesemann, Torsten; Dal Bosco, Cristina; Pasternak, Taras P; Blein, Thomas; Ruperti, Benedetto; Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus; Molendijk, Arthur J; Palme, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial protein toxins which modify Rho GTPase are useful for the analysis of Rho signalling in animal cells, but these toxins cannot be taken up by plant cells. We demonstrate in vitro deamidation of Arabidopsis Rop4 by Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) and glucosylation by Clostridium difficile toxin B. Expression of the catalytic domain of CNF1 caused modification and activation of co-expressed Arabidopsis Rop4 GTPase in tobacco leaves, resulting in hypersensitive-like cell death. By contrast, the catalytic domain of toxin B modified and inactivated co-expressed constitutively active Rop4, blocking the hypersensitive response caused by over-expression of active Rops. In transgenic Arabidopsis, both CNF1 and toxin B inhibited Rop-dependent polar morphogenesis of leaf epidermal cells. Toxin B expression also inhibited Rop-dependent morphogenesis of root hairs and trichome branching, and resulted in root meristem enlargement and dwarf growth. Our results show that CNF1 and toxin B transgenes are effective tools in Rop GTPase signalling studies.

  9. Differential effects of prenylation and s-acylation on type I and II ROPS membrane interaction and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Nadav; Gutman, Orit; Bar, Einat; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Feng, Xuehui; Running, Mark P; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ori, Naomi; Sadot, Einat; Henis, Yoav I; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-02-01

    Prenylation primarily by geranylgeranylation is required for membrane attachment and function of type I Rho of Plants (ROPs) and Gγ proteins, while type II ROPs are attached to the plasma membrane by S-acylation. Yet, it is not known how prenylation affects ROP membrane interaction dynamics and what are the functional redundancy and specificity of type I and type II ROPs. Here, we have used the expression of ROPs in mammalian cells together with geranylgeranylation and CaaX prenylation-deficient mutants to answer these questions. Our results show that the mechanism of type II ROP S-acylation and membrane attachment is unique to plants and likely responsible for the viability of plants in the absence of CaaX prenylation activity. The prenylation of ROPs determines their steady-state distribution between the plasma membrane and the cytosol but has little effect on membrane interaction dynamics. In addition, the prenyl group type has only minor effects on ROP function. Phenotypic analysis of the CaaX prenylation-deficient pluripetala mutant epidermal cells revealed that type I ROPs affect cell structure primarily on the adaxial side, while type II ROPs are functional and induce a novel cell division phenotype in this genetic background. Taken together, our studies show how prenyl and S-acyl lipid modifications affect ROP subcellular distribution, membrane interaction dynamics, and function.

  10. Development and validation of a computer program to design and calculate ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangado, J; Arana, I; Jarén, C; Arnal, P; Arazuri, S; Ponce de León, J L

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, there are more than 250,000 tractors built before 1980, when it became mandatory for all new tractors to be equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS). A similar situation is found in the European Union, but the situation is worse in the U.S. and in developing countries. Directive 2003/37/EEC establishes that tractors over 800 kg weight can be homologated by using the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test), called Code 4. A ROPS attachable to the rear axle of different tractor models has been designed, and a computer program for the calculation of the ROPS design has been developed. The program, named ESTREMA, is available at: www.cfnavarra.es/insl. Using this program, it has been possible to design a ROPS for the Massey Ferguson model 178 tractor, one of the most common tractor models without a ROPS in Spain. After the tractor was equipped with the designed ROPS, it was tested at the Spanish Authorized Station for testing ROPS and passed the homologation test (OECD Code 4), the main results being a maximum distortion of 21.3 cm when the absorbed energy was 5437 N and the maximum force applied was 34 kN during loading from the side. The ROPS was improved, redesigned, and remounted on the tractor, the tractor was tested in a real overturn, and no part of the structure intruded on the driver's clearance zone during the test. In conclusion, the ESTREMA program worked correctly, and the designed ROPS was able to pass the authorized test and provide adequate protection to the operator during a real overturn.

  11. Large spot transpupillary thermotherapy: A quicker laser for treatment of high risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity - A randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare structural and functional outcome and time efficiency between standard spot sized conventional pulsed mode diode laser and continuous mode large spot transpupillary thermotherapy (LS TTT for treatment of high risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Ten eyes of five preterm babies having bilateral symmetrical high risk prethreshold ROP were included in this study. One eye of each baby was randomized to get either standard spot sized conventional pulsed mode diode laser or continuous mode LS TTT. There was no significant difference between structural or functional outcome in either group. The mean time taken for conventional diode laser was 20.07 minutes, while that for LS TTT was 12.3 minutes. LS TTT was 40% more time efficient than the conventional laser. It may be better suited for the very small fragile premature infants as it is quicker than the conventional laser.

  12. Risk factor analysis of retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病的高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑峰; 张应金; 梁凤潇; 黄润忠; 廖南萍

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解我院早产儿视网膜病(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发病状况,并对其高危因素进行分析.方法 对2010年1月至2012年12月在我院新生儿科住院的早产儿(胎龄≤36周,体重≤2.5 kg),于生后2周进行ROP筛查,并定期随访.将患儿全身状况及吸氧、母孕期吸氧、先兆子痫、胎盘早剥等因素进行分析.结果 255例患儿全部完成了眼底筛查,在周边视网膜血管化或病变退化后终止随访,发现ROP 16例(26只眼),ROP患病率为6.3%(5.1%),其中Ⅰ期12例,Ⅱ期3例,Ⅲ期1例.高危因素分析示胎龄、出生体重、吸氧时间,吸氧浓度、机械通气与ROP相关(P<0.05);母孕期吸氧、先兆子痫、胎盘早剥等因素与ROP发病无关.结论 早产、吸氧浓度高、机械通气是ROP的主要危险因素.对早产儿适时进行ROP筛查,并对发现的ROP早期进行有效视网膜激光光凝术,可控制病变,降低早产儿的致盲率.%Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in our hospital and to explore the risk factors of ROP.Methods Premature infants hospitalized in our hospital in January 2010 to December 2012 were chosen,and the gestational ages were less than 36 gestational weeks,birth weights were under 2 500 g.All the cases underwent ROP screening at two weeks after birth,and then they received regular follow-up.Children with systemic conditions and oxygen to the mother during pregnancy,oxygen,preeclampsia,placental abruption,and other factors were analyzed.Results Two hundred and fifty-five cases completed the retinal screening,terminated follow-up after the peripheral retinal neovascularization or disease degradation.We found ROP in 16 cases (26 eyes),ROP prevalence rate was 6.3% (5.1%),including phase Ⅰ 12 cases,phase Ⅱ3 cases,phase Ⅲ 1 case.Gestational age,birth weight,inhale oxygen time,oxygen concentration,mechanical ventilation were associated with ROP (P < 0.05).Mother oxygen

  13. The Rhoptry Pseudokinase ROP54 Modulates Toxoplasma gondii Virulence and Host GBP2 Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elliot W.; Nadipuram, Santhosh M.; Tetlow, Ashley L.; Barshop, William D.; Liu, Philip T.; Wohlschlegel, James A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii uses unique secretory organelles called rhoptries to inject an array of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm that hijack host cell functions. We have discovered a novel rhoptry pseudokinase effector, ROP54, which is injected into the host cell upon invasion and traffics to the cytoplasmic face of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Disruption of ROP54 in a type II strain of T. gondii does not affect growth in vitro but results in a 100-fold decrease in virulence in vivo, suggesting that ROP54 modulates some aspect of the host immune response. We show that parasites lacking ROP54 are more susceptible to macrophage-dependent clearance, further suggesting that ROP54 is involved in evasion of innate immunity. To determine how ROP54 modulates parasite virulence, we examined the loading of two known innate immune effectors, immunity-related GTPase b6 (IRGb6) and guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2), in wild-type and ∆rop54II mutant parasites. While no difference in IRGb6 loading was seen, we observed a substantial increase in GBP2 loading on the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of ROP54-disrupted parasites. These results demonstrate that ROP54 is a novel rhoptry effector protein that promotes Toxoplasma infections by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles. IMPORTANCE The interactions between intracellular microbes and their host cells can lead to the discovery of novel drug targets. During Toxoplasma infections, host cells express an array of immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) that load onto the parasite-containing vacuole to clear the parasite. To counter this mechanism, the parasite secretes effector proteins that traffic to the vacuole to disarm the immunity-related loading proteins and evade the immune response. While the interplay between host IRGs and Toxoplasma effector proteins is well understood, little is known about how Toxoplasma neutralizes the GBP response. We describe

  14. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  15. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  16. Monitoring neovascularization in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity using optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Chidambara, Lavanya; Jayadev, Chaitra; Sivakumar, Munusamy; Webers, Carroll A B; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-06-01

    We describe the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting and monitoring regression of the neovascular complex (NVC) in a case of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP). A premature Asian Indian girl with AP-ROP underwent laser photoablation at 26 days of life. Persistent NVC at the posterior border of the lasered retinal bed was detected clinically. On en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and OCTA, the NVC appeared as an arborizing vascular net in the superficial capillary plexus. The deep capillary plexus and outer retinal layers showed corresponding flow outlines that suggested deeper extensions of the lesion. Supplemental laser treatment of the NVC was performed. Ten days later repeat en face SD-OCT and OCTA of the identical retinal location revealed that the vascular tortuosity and dilatation had reduced and that the flow lesions in the deeper layers were undetectable. Our findings in this case suggest that the NVC in AP-ROP extends beyond the superficial retina.

  17. [Neurodevelopment in patients with retinopathy of prematurity treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Sarah Melania; Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Rubio-Rangel, Araceli; Rojas-Flores, Ignacio; Vieyra-López, Mayra Edith; Martínez-Castellanos, María Ana; Zavala-Martínez, María Teresa; Gómez García, Anel

    2017-01-19

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an eye disease caused by an alteration in retinal vasculogenesis that may lead to partial or complete vision loss with a harmful impact in terms of neurodevelopment. The purpose of the present study was to determine the neurodevelopment in patients with type i retinopathy of prematurity treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Case series. The inclusion criteria were: patients with type I ROP treated with a dose of 0.625mg/0.025ml of intravitreal bevacizumab. Demographic data and comorbidities were documented. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with the screening test of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID) in all patients between 11 and 28 weeks of age. Seven patients were included in the study. Four patients showed normal neurodevelopment according to the overall scores of the BSID scale. The distribution of high risk for neurodevelopmental delay in the different areas evaluated were as follows: 3 patients presented it in the cognitive area, one in the receptive communication area, one in the expressive area, one in the fine motor skills and 3 patients in the gross motor skills area. In these case series, the majority of patients treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for ROP showed normal neurodevelopment scores. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Foveal dysplasia evident by optical coherence tomography in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Franco M; Recchia, Cynthia C

    2007-01-01

    To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings for patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Clinical records, fundus photographs, and OCT findings for consecutive patients aged 8 years and older who had a history of ROP were reviewed. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness (CFT), macular anatomy, and foveal contour by OCT. Twenty eyes of 12 patients (median age, 15 years) were studied. Median gestational age at birth was 25 weeks. Six eyes had received peripheral retinal ablation for threshold ROP. Median best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 (range, 20/20 to counting fingers). CFT was >220 microm in 70% of eyes and >240 microm in 35% of eyes. In all eyes, foveal contour was abnormal, with foveal depression either absent (n = 7 [35%]) or shallow (n = 13 [65%]). Preservation of multiple inner retinal layers within the fovea was seen in 14 eyes (70%). Vitreomacular traction or subretinal fluid was not seen in any eye. Anomalies in foveal anatomy by OCT may be a vestige of prematurity, appear to be independent of prior retinopexy, and can still be associated with excellent visual acuity.

  19. 早产儿视网膜病的研究进展%Advance of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先琼; 柳国胜

    2003-01-01

    @@ 早产儿视网膜病(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是导致婴幼儿视力损伤和失明的主要原因,其发生率及严重程度在逐步上升.因此,防治ROP已成为提高早产儿生活质量的重要问题.

  20. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of NcROP2Fam-1, a member of the ROP2 family of rhoptry proteins in Neospora caninum that is targeted by antibodies neutralizing host cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, Ferial; Hemphill, Andrew; Debache, Karim; Guionaud, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Recent publications demonstrated that a fragment of a Neospora caninum ROP2 family member antigen represents a promising vaccine candidate. We here report on the cloning of the cDNA encoding this protein, N. caninum ROP2 family member 1 (NcROP2Fam-1), its molecular characterization and localization. The protein possesses the hallmarks of ROP2 family members and is apparently devoid of catalytic activity. NcROP2Fam-1 is synthesized as a pre-pro-protein that is matured to 2 proteins of 49 and 55 kDa that localize to rhoptry bulbs. Upon invasion the protein is associated with the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), evacuoles surrounding the host cell nucleus and, in some instances, the surface of intracellular parasites. Staining was also observed within the cyst wall of 'cysts' produced in vitro. Interestingly, NcROP2Fam-1 was also detected on the surface of extracellular parasites entering the host cells and antibodies directed against NcROP2Fam-1-specific peptides partially neutralized invasion in vitro. We conclude that, in spite of the general belief that ROP2 family proteins are intracellular antigens, NcROP2Fam-1 can also be considered as an extracellular antigen, a property that should be taken into account in further experiments employing ROP2 family proteins as vaccines.

  2. 早产儿视网膜病变筛查及危险因素的临床研究%Evaluation on incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and its risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪惠谦; 梁敏; 李玲丽; 刘新敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解我院早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发病状况,并对其相关危险因素进行分析探讨.方法 对2007年1月至2008年11月在我院出生的124例(248只眼)早产儿(出生体重≤2500 g或胎龄≤35周)进行ROP的筛查.所有患儿瞳孔散大后,通过巩膜外顶压详细检查患儿视网膜情况.按照ROP国际分类法的规定记录检查结果.将患儿全身状况及吸氧、母孕期吸氧、先兆子痫、胎盘早剥等因素进行统计.结果 124例患儿全部完成了眼底筛查,在周边视网膜血管化或病变退化后终止随访.9例(13只眼)出现ROP,发生率分别占患儿例数和眼数的7.26%和5.24%.其中6例(8只眼)ROP患儿未达到阈值前病变,3例(5只眼)为阈值前Ⅰ型病变,此3例ROP患儿给予间接检眼镜视网膜激光光凝术.所有激光治疗患儿术后随访观察,直至膜病变静止、消退,均未出现视网膜脱离.母孕期吸氧、先兆子痫、胎盘早剥等因素与ROP发病无关.结论低体重是ROP发生的最重要因素.对早产儿适时进行ROP筛查,并对发现的ROP早期进行有效视网膜激光光凝术,可控制病变,降低早产儿的致盲率.%Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity( ROP ) in our hospital and evaluate the correlation factors with the screening of prematurity. Methods Records of 124( 248 eyes ) premature infans who had undergo ROP( BW < 2500g or GA < 35W ) screening between January 2007 to November 2008 were analyzed. We examined the peripheral retina with sclera depressor, Recorded the result according to the national critia of ROP. Analysis the correlation factors of every pore condition、oxygen inhalation、oxygen inhalation during pregnacy、 preeclampsia、 abruption. Results All of the premature infans had been accomplished ROP screening, stopping follow-up when peripheral retinal was completely vascularized. In them 9 cases( 13 eyes ) were fund ROP, the

  3. The societal burden of blindness secondary to retinopathy of prematurity in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Hreem B; Gordillo, Luz; Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Monica S; Hubbard, G Baker; Olsen, Timothy W

    2012-10-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Lima, Peru. A cost-of-illness study (in US dollars) to determine the direct cost of treatment, the indirect lifetime cost of blindness, and the quality-adjusted life years. The direct cost of ROP-related treatment was determined by reviewing data retrospectively from a social security sector hospital. The indirect cost was determined using national economic data of Peru published by the Central Information Agency (CIA), including the per capita gross domestic product, the sex-adjusted income distribution, and years spent in the work force. Indirect costs per child that were avoided by treatment were calculated using the known natural history of ROP vs evidence-based treatment. For ROP-related neonatal blindness in Peru, we estimate the total indirect cost saving at $197,753 per child and the direct cost of laser treatment at $2496 per child. The societal lifetime cost saving per child is estimated at $195,257. The mean annual income per educated adult in Peru is $8000 and treating 1 child is equivalent to employing 24 educated Peruvians per year. The generational cost savings for society is approximately $516 million, or the equivalent of 64,500 educated Peruvian work years. The societal burden of blindness far exceeds the costs of treatment per child. Proper screening and treatment of ROP prevents blindness and leads to substantial cost savings for society. Public health policy in Peru and other middle-income countries should consider financial impact when allocating healthcare resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgery for stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity: The learning curve and evolving technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe our experience with management of eyes with stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP Methods: Closed vitreoretinal surgery was done on 96 eyes of patients with stage 5 ROP. Lens was sacrificed in all but one eye. Surgery involved an attempt to clear all preretinal tissue and open the peripheral trough all round. In most instances bimanual surgery under viscoelastic was performed. Results: At last follow up, anatomical success (defined as attached posterior pole was achieved in 22.5% cases. Significant postoperative problems included reproliferation and secondary glaucoma. Only two infants obtained mobile vision. Conclusion: Late identification of disease, lack of prior treatment such as laser or cryo, and higher incidence of narrow-narrow funnel configuration were responsible for the poor surgical results noted in this series. The poor surgical and functional results reemphasise the need for prompt screening and management of infants at risk.

  5. Comparison of structural outcome between intravitreal bevacizumab and laser treatment for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity after long-term follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-Yi Chen; Yun-Ju Chen; Yung-Ray Hsu; Fang-Ting Chen; Jia-Kang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:To compare the structural outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and laser treatment for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study. From December 2002 to April 2009, patients with type 1 ROP according to criteria of Early Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) study were treated by peripheral retinal diode laser photocoagulation in nearly confluent pattern. From May 2009 to January 2015, we performed IVB for patients with type 1 ROP. The patients were closely followed until disappearance of retinal neovascularization in the laser group and regression of avascular zone in the bevacizumab group. The demographical data, postmenstrual age (PMA) for treatment, and fundus ifndings were recorded by chart review. The difference between laser and bevacizumab groups was compared by Studentt-test and Fisher exact test. Results: We collected 43 patients (86 eyes) with type 1 ROP, including 30 male and 13 female infants. Their mean gestation age and birth body weight (BBW) were 27.5 weeks and 1,034 gm. Zone I and zone II disease were found in 8 and 35 patients. The mean PMA for treatment was 37.3 weeks. The mean follow-up period was 54.4 months. Laser treatment was administered in 26 patients, and bevacizumab injection for 17 infants. Single session of laser was performed in all patients of laser group without recurrence of retinal neovascularization. Complete regression of ROP was found in 15 infants of bevacizumab group following the ifrst IVB. Four eyes in two patients (2/17, 11.7%) had recurrence of ROP and received additional injections and adjuvant laser treatment. There was no unfavorable anatomical results such as retinal detachment or macular ectopia or complications such as cataract or endophthalmitis in either bevacizumab or laser management. Conclusions: Laser therapy and IVB were both effective treatments for type 1 ROP to cause favorable anatomical outcomes. Single session of laser ablation

  6. Prevalence of ROPS--equipped tractors and farm/farmer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Engelhardt, H L; Bean, T L; Byers, M V; Crawford, J M

    2003-05-01

    Data were collected on tractor safety status and the prevalence of ROPS as part of the Ohio Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Program (FFHHSP) "walk-around" hazard assessments of cash grain farms in central Ohio. Principal operator (PO) characteristics thought a priori to have a possible association with ROPS utilization included age, education, percent time spent farming, total years in agriculture, and previous training in occupational injury prevention. Farm characteristics of interest were farm size, acres of cropland in use, sales value during the past 12 months, and current number of farm workers. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential associations between these factors and ROPS utilization patterns. Of 1,044 tractors encountered on 306 farms, 359 (34.4%) were equipped with ROPS, 29 (9.5%) had nothing but ROPS-equipped tractors, and 117 (38.2%) did not have any ROPS-equipped tractors. The absence/presence of ROPS-equipped tractors in our sample was found to vary by several factors, and over a wide range. Results of invariable logistic regression analyses (excluding the relatively small number of tractors manufactured after 1985) indicated that younger POs with at least a high school education who spent more than half their time working in agriculture, employed three or more workers, had 500 or more acres of total farm land and cropland in use, and had a 12-month sales value exceeding $250,000 were more likely to have at least one ROPS-equipped tractor on their farms. However, time spent farming, number of workers, and the 12-month sales value were not strongly predictive in multivariable models. Although more than 20% of the POs in our sample reported having had training in occupational injury prevention, this factor had essentially no value in predicting the absence/presence of ROPS-equipped tractors on their farms. The results of this study illustrate the need for interventions to encourage ROPS

  7. Analysis of ROP signaling in the leaf epidermis of mutant tomato with low-energy ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q X; Cao, G Q; Zhao, S P; Huang, Q C; Ying, F Q; Chen, W

    2015-04-22

    The importance of the ROP small GTPase signaling pathway in the regulation of cellular polarity growth in eukaryotes has been thoroughly studied. In this study, we examined the LeROP small GTPase (related to Arabidopsis thaliana genome LeROP GTPase in tomato) signaling of cell polarity growth in the mutant (M-1) tomato. Interestingly, we detected expansive growth of epidermis cells in M-1, in which the leaves appeared slightly lobed shaped. However, we observed jigsaw puzzle shaped and deeply lobed shaped leaves in wild-type leaf epidermis cells. The t-test showed significant difference (P tomato leaf epidermis cell is related to AtROP gene signal transmission. The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of LeROP2, LeROP4, and LeROP7 in M-1 mutants were stronger than in wild-type cells. At the flowering stage, LeROP2 GTPase showed no expression in wild-type cells, but was expressed in mutant cells. This study revealed a link between the low-energy ion beam and the ROP GTPase signaling pathway in tomato. In addition, the ROP gene changes analyzed suggest a new mechanism for mutations following low-energy ion beam implantation.

  8. Local anaesthetic eye drops for prevention of pain in preterm infants undergoing screening for retinopathy of prematurity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are performed routinely in the neonatal intensive care unit and are a recognised cause of pain in the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of instillation of topical anaesthetic eye drops compared with placebo or no treatment on pain in infants undergoing ROP screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2010). We identified relevant studies by searching the following: (1) computerised bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1988 to October 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to March 2010; (2) the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We searched electronically abstracts from PAS from 2000 to 2010 and handsearched abstracts from ESPR from 2000 to 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised, or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or randomised cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies for inclusion. Both studies were randomised cross-over trials performed in single centres. Both studies used the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score as a measure of pain response. Different methods of evaluating PIPP scores are presented including the absolute PIPP score, a PIPP score > 10 or > 12 and an increase in PIPP >\\/= 4 from the baseline value. There is a nonsignificant reduction in pain scores at one minute and a nonsignificant increase at five minutes post insertion of the speculum. PIPP score > 12 at one minute resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients who experienced pain (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; typical risk difference (RD) -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.86; number needed to treat to

  9. Screening of retinopathy in 206 prematurity in Jiaxing%嘉兴市206例早产儿视网膜病变筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮清岚; 周向明; 孙琪; 王虹; 李萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解嘉兴市早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发病情况.方法 回顾分析在本院出生的ROP的发病率及其特点.结果 接受筛查的早产儿共206例,发生ROP病变16例,均为双眼发病,发病率为7.77%;出生体质量≤1 000 g组、~1 500 g组、~2 000 g组间,发病率差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.37,P0.05)、出生方式(χ2=2.68,P>0.05)、多胎与单胎(χ2=0.21,P>0.05)间发生ROP的发病率,差异无统计学意义.结论 嘉兴市ROP的发病率为7.77%,低出生体质量、低出生胎龄、吸氧、机械通气是ROP发病的重要因素.%Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Jiaxing. Methods The records of premature infants who had undergone ROP screening in the maternal and child health care hospital of Jiaxing between January 2011 and December 2011 were reviewed and analyzed. Results A total of 206 premature infants who were less than 34 weeks or whose birth weight ≤2 000 g were treated in NICU. They were screened for ROP until the retina was entirely vascularized. The prevalence of ROP in the study was 7. 77% , the prevalence of ROP in the subgroup with birth weight ≤ 1 000 g was significantly higher than that of the subgroup with weight from 1 000 to 1 500 g and that of the subgroup with birth weight from 1 500 to 2 000 g (x2= 10. 37, P 34 weeks) (x2=29. 66,P 0. 05) ,mode of parturition( x2= 2. 68, P > 0. 05 ) , multiple gestational births or single gestational birth ( x2= 0. 21, P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The incidence of ROP was 7. 77% in Jiaxing. Shorter gestational age, lower birth weight, oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation were main factors leading to ROP incidence.

  10. Dopamine and myopia in retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变患者的近视与多巴胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢黎; 王平

    2016-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是早产儿及低体重儿发生的一种异常新生血管形成和纤维组织增生性视网膜病变,被视为引起儿童视觉受损的重要疾病之一,严重病例可导致视力永久丧失.国内外大量研究发现ROP影响视网膜的发育及功能,主要影响感光细胞,且临床研究发现这种视网膜功能障碍既使早期得到控制,后续仍易发生屈光不正,尤其是近视.最新研究发现氧诱导小鼠视网膜病变(oxygeninduced induced retinopathy,OIR)的神经视网膜功能障碍可能与OIR诱导多巴胺(dopamine,DA)释放和活性的变化有关.ROP患儿早期出现近视及近视发生率高与ROP影响视网膜多巴胺的分泌及释放密切相关,深入探讨DA在ROP近视中的作用将为临床ROP患儿中近视防治提供新的思路.%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a kind of abnormal neovascularization and fibrous tissue proliferation retinopathy in premature and low birth weight infants.It is regarded as one of the important diseases causing visual impairment in children,which can lead to permanent visual loss.A large number of domestic and foreign study found that ROP affected retinal development and function,mainly affected the tight-sensitive cells,and clinical study found that the retinal dysfunction even early controlled,usually following the ametropia,especially myopia.Recent studies have found that oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) retinal dysfunction may be related to the release of dopamine (DA) and the changes in the activity of DA.Studies found that ROP early myopia and the high incidence of myopia in children with ROP were close ly related to the effect of ROP on the secretion and release of dopamine in the retina.Therefore,discussing the role of DA in ROP myopia will provide a new way of thinking for the prevention and treatment of myopia in children with ROP.

  11. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated "macular edema" detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on visual acuity (VA and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B and 17 preterms infants without ROP and without edema (Group C at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of corrected age using Teller Acuity Cards and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Sub-group analysis of the previously described pattern A and B macular edema was performed. Results: Visual acuity was lower in infants with macular edema compared with the other two control groups throughout the study period, but statistically significant only at 3 months. Visual improvement in these infants was highest between the 3 rd and 6 th month and plateaued by the end of the 1 st year with acuity comparable to the other two groups. The edema cohort was more hyperopic compared to the other two groups between 3 and 12 months of age. Pattern A edema had worse VA compared to pattern B, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: Macular edema, although transient, caused reduced VA as early as 3 months of corrected age in Asian Indian premature infants weighing <2000 g at birth. The higher hyperopia in these infants is possibly due to visual disturbances caused at a critical time of fovealization. We hypothesize a recovery and feedback mechanism based on the principles of active emmetropization to explain our findings.

  12. Prominent barriers and motivators to installing ROPS: an analysis of survey responses from Pennsylvania and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, P L; Sorensen, J A; Yoder, A; Myers, M; Murphy, D; Cook, G; Wright, F; Bayes, B; May, J J

    2012-04-01

    Tractor overturns contribute significantly to the number of work-related deaths that occur every year on U.S. farms. Although the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industries have the highest fatality rates of any industries, researchers predict that the elimination of tractor overturn fatalities could result in a noticeable reduction in the farm fatality rate. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) are 99% effective in preventing overturn fatalities. However, roughly 50% of U.S. tractors do not have a ROPS. In order to identify prominent barriers and motivators to installing ROPS, a phone survey was conducted with a random sample of farmers (n = 327) in Vermont and Pennsylvania, two states interested in developing ROPS installation programs. Results indicated that cost and perceived need were the most frequently highly rated barriers to ROPS installation in both states, while working near hills or ditches and concerns regarding liability were the most frequently highly rated motivators for installing ROPS. Additionally, older farmers identified limited use of a tractor as a highly rated barrier.

  13. ROP18 is a rhoptry kinase controlling the intracellular proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba El Hajj

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite for which the discharge of apical organelles named rhoptries is a key event in host cell invasion. Among rhoptry proteins, ROP2, which is the prototype of a large protein family, is translocated in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane during invasion. The ROP2 family members are related to protein-kinases, but only some of them are predicted to be catalytically active, and none of the latter has been characterized so far. We show here that ROP18, a member of the ROP2 family, is located in the rhoptries and re-localises at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane during invasion. We demonstrate that a recombinant ROP18 catalytic domain (amino acids 243-539 possesses a protein-kinase activity and phosphorylate parasitic substrates, especially a 70-kDa protein of tachyzoites. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of ROP18 in transgenic parasites causes a dramatic increase in intra-vacuolar parasite multiplication rate, which is correlated with kinase activity. Therefore, we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that rhoptries can discharge active protein-kinases upon host cell invasion, which can exert a long-lasting effect on intracellular parasite development and virulence.

  14. ROP GTPase-mediated auxin signaling regulates pavement cell interdigitation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deshu Lin; Huibo Ren; Ying Fu

    2015-01-01

    In multicel ular plant organs, cel shape formation depends on molecular switches to transduce developmental or environmental signals and to coordinate cel‐to‐cel communi-cation. Plants have a specific subfamily of the Rho GTPase family, usual y cal ed Rho of Plants (ROP), which serve as a critical signal transducer involved in many cel ular processes. In the last decade, important advances in the ROP‐mediated regulation of plant cel morphogenesis have been made by using Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and cotyledon pavement cel s. Especial y, the auxin‐ROP signaling networks have been demonstrated to control interdigitated growth of pavement cel s to form jigsaw‐puzzle shapes. Here, we review findings related to the discovery of this novel auxin‐signaling mecha-nism at the cel surface. This signaling pathway is to a large extent independent of the wel‐known Transport Inhibitor Response (TIR)–Auxin Signaling F‐Box (AFB) pathway, and instead requires Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) interaction with the plasma membrane‐localized, transmembrane kinase (TMK) receptor‐like kinase to regulate ROP proteins. Once activated, ROP influences cytoskeletal organization and inhibits endocytosis of the auxin transporter PIN1. The present review focuses on ROP signaling and its self‐organizing feature al owing ROP proteins to serve as a bustling signal decoder and integrator for plant cel morphogenesis.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor and retinopathy of prematurity.%血管内皮生长因子与早产儿视网膜病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮豫才

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) has been recognized as an important cause of childhood blindness. The incidence of ROP has emerged attributed to increased survival of low birth weight infants. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) is important in the development of ROP. VEGF exerts its biological functions by its specific VEGF receptors(VEGFR).Therapies for treating ROP are being developed using inhibitors of VEGF to block retinal neovascularisation.%早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)是世界儿童致盲的主要原因,其发病率随着早产儿、低出生体重儿的存活率提高而明显增加.血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在ROP的发病机制中发挥着重要作用.VEGF是通过它的特异性受体而发挥生物学效应.针对VEGF治疗ROP可能将会发展成有效的治疗手段之一.

  16. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. (Unreceptiveness in interactions with professionals: experiences of parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castanheira Facio

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. METHOD A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. RESULTS From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (unreceptiveness, Emotional (unreceptiveness, and (Unreceptiveness of rights. CONCLUSION The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach.

  18. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  19. Towards vaccine against toxoplasmosis: evaluation of the immunogenic and protective activity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 Toxoplasma gondii proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Marcin M; Dziadek, Bożena; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. An effective vaccine against human and animal toxoplasmosis is still needed to control this parasitosis. The polymorphic rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, secreted by Toxoplasma gondii during the invasion of the host cell have been recently considered as promising vaccine antigens, as they appear to be the major determinants of T. gondii virulence in mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate their immunogenic and immunoprotective activity after their administration (separately or both recombinant proteins together) with the poly I:C as an adjuvant. Immunization of BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ mice generated both cellular and humoral specific immune responses with some predominance of IgG1 antibodies. The spleen cells derived from vaccinated animals reacted to the parasite's native antigens. Furthermore, the immunization led to a partial protection against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. These findings confirm the previous assumptions about ROP5 and ROP18 antigens as valuable components of a subunit vaccine against toxoplasmosis.

  20. The Arabidopsis small GTPase AtRAC7/ROP9 is a modulator of auxin and abscisic acid signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alice Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rac-like GTPases or Rho-related GTPases from plants (RAC/ROPs) are important components of hormone signalling pathways in plants. Based on phylogeny, several groups can be distinguished, and the underlying premise is that members of different groups perform distinct functions in the plant. AtRAC7/ROP9 is phylogenetically unique among 11 Arabidopsis RAC/ROPs, and here it was shown that it functions as a modulator of auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, a dual role not previously assigned to these small GTPases. Plants with reduced levels of AtRAC7/ROP9 had increased sensitivity to auxin and were less sensitive to ABA. On the other hand, overexpressing AtRAC7/ROP9 activated ABA-induced gene expression but repressed auxin-induced gene expression. In addition, both hormones regulated the activity of the AtRAC7/ROP9 promoter, suggesting a feedback mechanism to modulate the signalling output from the AtRAC7/ROP9-controlled molecular switch. High levels of AtRAC7/ROP9 were detected specifically in embryos and lateral roots, underscoring the important role of this protein during embryo development and lateral root formation. These results place AtRAC7/ROP9 as an important signal transducer in recently described pathways that integrate auxin and ABA signalling in the plant. PMID:23918972

  1. Evaluating Recombinant Antigen ROP1 Efficacy in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Keshavarzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite with a relatively broad host range infecting both mammals and birds. Toxoplasma proteins are strong antigens that can begin strong immune reactions, among which Rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 can be named discharging from rhoptry cell-organ. ROP1 is regarded as a competitor for recombinant vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the cloning and expression of ROP1 Toxoplasma gondii in a cloning vector as well as to create this recombinant antigen in order to be applied for later uses. Methods:Genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii was removed and reproduced by PCR, then the PCR product was cloned into the EcoR1 and BamH1 sites of cloning vector, pUET1, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 plysS strain. Moreover, pcROP1 was sub-cloned into the HindIII and EcoRI sites of the pcDNA3 in order to produce recombining eukaryotic declaration vector. The cloned ROP1 was verified by PCR, limitation enzymes (HindIII and BglΙ digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Then, this recombinant antigen was covered applying IgM and ELISAIgG. Results:The study results demonstrated that a fragment of 757 bp was separated. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the ROP1 cloned in pUET1vector revealed high homology (96% with RH strain Gene Bank Accession (No. M71274. Conclusion:The recombinant ROP1 antigen in an IgM Rec-ELISA test can be replaced with the tachyzoite antigen in IgG and IgM serologic tests.

  2. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  3. Bedside ROP screening and telemedicine interpretation integrated to a neonatal transport system: Economic aspects and return on investment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Maka, Erika; Nagyjánosi, László

    Peter Cerny Ambulance Service - Premature Eye Rescue Program (PCA-PERP) uses digital retinal imaging (DRI) with remote interpretation in bedside ROP screening, which has advantages over binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) in screening of premature newborns. We aimed to demonstrate that PCA-PERP provides good value for the money and to model the cost ramifications of a similar newly launched system. As DRI was demonstrated to have high diagnostic performance, only the costs of bedside DRI-based screening were compared to those of traditional transport and BIO-based screening (cost-minimization analysis). The total costs of investment and maintenance were analyzed with micro-costing method. A ten-year analysis time-horizon and service provider's perspective were applied. From the launch of PCA-PERP up to the end of 2014, 3722 bedside examinations were performed in the PCA covered central region of Hungary. From 2009 to 2014, PCA-PERP saved 92,248km and 3633 staff working hours, with an annual nominal cost-savings ranging from 17,435 to 35,140 Euro. The net present value was 127,847 Euro at the end of 2014, with a payback period of 4.1years and an internal rate of return of 20.8%. Our model presented the NPVs of different scenarios with different initial investments, annual number of transports and average transport distances. PCA-PERP as bedside screening with remote interpretation, when compared to a transport-based screening with BIO, produced better cost-savings from the perspective of the service provider and provided a return on initial investment within five years after the project initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Raul Velez-Montoya1, Carmen Clapp2, Jose Carlos Rivera2, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre1, Virgilio Morales-Cantón1, Jans Fromow-Guerra1, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo1, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado31Retina Department Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, México City, México; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, México; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado, USAPurpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular ­endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05.Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001 in the aqueous and vitreous samples.Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no ­statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group

  5. Multicenter clinical trial of early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity%早期治疗早产儿视网膜病变的多中心临床试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 王雨生

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ablation has yet been shown to be effective in preventing blindness from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but the optimal treatment timing may be more important. The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study ( ET-ROP) sponsored by National Eye Institute (NEI) is the largest and most influential clinical trial to test whether early treatment in carefully selected cases will result in an overall better visual outcome than treatment at the conventional threshold point in the disease. Most objective and detailed results obtained form this trial has become significant evidences for our ROP clinical work.%视网膜消融是公认的治疗早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的有效方法,寻求最佳的治疗时机意义重大.在评估早期治疗的优越性和安全性的临床研究中,以美国国立眼科研究所发起的早期治疗ROP研究临床试验的规模最大,影响最深.该试验得出的客观和翔实的结果,已成为目前ROP临床工作重要的循证医学证据.

  6. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral-Pumarega M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p  Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  7. Prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors in U.S. aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Westneat, S C; Myers, J R; Cole, H P

    2009-04-01

    Aquaculture involves the production of plant and animal products that are cultured in water. The principal freshwater fishes raised in the U.S. are catfish (raised mainly in ponds) and trout (raised mostly in concrete raceways), and the principal crustaceans grown are shrimp, crayfish, oysters, and clams. Tractors are used on aquaculture farms mostly in pond culture. Ponds present overturn hazards because of the slopes of levees, slippery conditions, and nighttime driving. Protection is afforded to the tractor operator when a rollover protective structure (ROPS) is attached to the tractor. The purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors on farms engaged in aquaculture in the U.S. The analysis concluded that 78% of tractors used in aquaculture were equipped with a ROPS, in contrast with the prevalence of ROPS at 49% for all of agriculture. Moreover, 91% of the tractors in the South used for aquaculture were equipped with a ROPS. The national sample for aquaculture included 75 farms and 137 tractors, which is small, but nonetheless, several hypotheses can be generated as a result of this descriptive study.

  8. Dealing with pre-ROPS tractors: is a trade-in program the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Julie A; Conway, George A; DeSpain, Michael S; Wyckoff, Sherry; Bayes, Barbara; May, John J

    2011-01-01

    Tractor overturns are the leading cause of work-related death in an industry with the highest occupational fatality rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seatbelts are 99% effective in reducing the risk of an overturn fatality. However, kits are not available for 20% of tractors currently lacking ROPS. For these tractor owners, two potential solutions have been discussed: (1) technology for reinforcing tractor axles to accommodate ROPS and (2) a pre-ROPS tractor removal program. The purpose of this study was to conduct preliminary research to assess the feasibility of a tractor trade-in program. Focus groups were conducted with pre-ROPS tractor owners and tractor dealers. The data were analyzed using a concept development analytical approach and results were reviewed in an industry stakeholder's workgroup session. Data from the research indicates that tractor owners and dealers would need persuasive financial incentives to participate in a trade-in program. The workgroup session also indicated that it would be difficult to fund or support a large-scale initiative, and the economics of removing a large group of older tractors from the marketplace may exacerbate financial roadblocks. However, the data from this study could be used to pilot test a small-scale, focused, tractor buy-back program.

  9. ROPS retrofitting: measuring effectiveness of incentives and uncovering inherent barriers to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, E M

    2005-02-01

    Tractor overturns are the leading cause of all tractor- and machinery-related fatalities in the agricultural industry. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) on a tractor is the most effective mechanism for protecting a tractor operator's life during a tractor overturn incident. Unfortunately, about half of all tractors presently in operation in the U.S. do not have a ROPS. Retrofitting such tractors with ROPS could result in an as much as a 99% reduction in fatalities associated with tractor overturns. The overall aim of this study was to determine the level of financial incentive required to motivate the maximum number of farmers to install ROPS on non-ROPS equipped tractors and thus affect the greatest level of change within the farming community. This was done by offering a range of subsidy levels by percentage and not by specific dollar amounts to a random sampling of New York farms. A secondary goal was to find any hidden problems associated with retrofitting. Study results showed that cost was not the only factor affecting farmers' reluctance to retrofit. A perceived and actual "hassle factor" was found to be endemic to the retrofitting process and a significant obstacle to farmers' willingness to retrofit, no matter the level of financial subsidy.

  10. The Sinorhizobium meliloti essential porin RopA1 is a target for numerous bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Matthew B; Draper, Alicia L; Guillory, R Jordan; Griffitts, Joel S

    2013-08-01

    The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti harbors a gene, SMc02396, which encodes a predicted outer membrane porin that is conserved in many symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. Here, this gene (renamed ropA1) is shown to be required for infection by two commonly utilized transducing bacteriophages (ΦM12 and N3). Mapping of S. meliloti mutations conferring resistance to ΦM12, N3, or both phages simultaneously revealed diverse mutations mapping within the ropA1 open reading frame. Subsequent tests determined that RopA1, lipopolysaccharide, or both are required for infection by all of a larger collection of Sinorhizobium-specific phages. Failed attempts to disrupt or delete ropA1 suggest that this gene is essential for viability. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that ropA1 homologs in many Rhizobiales species are often found as two genetically linked copies and that the intraspecies duplicates are always more closely related to each other than to homologs in other species, suggesting multiple independent duplication events.

  11. Possible involvement of maize Rop1 in the defence responses of plants to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyong; Shi, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Cheng, Yuqin; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng

    2012-09-01

    The expression of host genes can be altered during the process of viral infection. To investigate the viral infection-induced up-regulated gene expression changes of maize at different time intervals post-inoculation with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library was constructed. A total of 454 cDNA clones were identified to be viral infection-induced up-regulated genes. The influence of Rop1 on the infection of maize by SCMV was investigated. The results showed that transient silencing of the ZmRop1 gene through virus-induced gene silencing enhanced the accumulation and systemic infection of SCMV and another potyvirus (Pennisetum mosaic virus) in maize plants, whereas transient over-expression of ZmRop1 in maize protoplasts reduced SCMV accumulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the heterologous expression of ZmRop1 impaired Potato virus X infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These data suggest that ZmRop1 may play a role in plant defence responses to viral infection.

  12. The Ectopic Expression of CaRop1 Modulates the Response of Tobacco Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum and Aphids

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    Shuilin He

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In plants, Rho-related GTPases (Rops are versatile molecular switches that regulate various biological processes, although their exact roles are not fully understood. Herein, we provide evidence that the ectopic expression of a Rop derived from Capsicum annuum, designated CaRop1, in tobacco plants modulates the response of these plants to Ralstonia solanacearum or aphid attack. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaRop1 harbors a conserved Rho domain and is highly homologous to Rops of other plant species. Transient expression of a CaRop1-GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells revealed localization of the GFP signal to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Overexpression (OE of the wild-type CaRop1 or its dominant-negative mutant (DN-CaRop1 conferred substantial resistance to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack, and this effect was accompanied by enhanced transcriptional expression of the hypersensitive-reaction marker gene HSR201; the jasmonic-acid (JA-responsive PR1b and LOX1; the insect resistance-associated NtPI-I, NtPI-II, and NtTPI; the ethylene (ET production-associated NtACS1; and NPK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK that interferes with N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated disease resistance. In contrast, OE of the constitutively active mutant of CaRop1(CA-CaRop1 enhanced susceptibility of the transgenic tobacco plants to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack and downregulated or sustained the expression of HSR201, PR1b, NPK1, NtACS1, NtPI-I, NtPI-II and NtTPI. These results collectively suggest that CaRop1 acts as a signaling switch in the crosstalk between Solanaceaes’s response to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack possibly via JA/ET-mediated signaling machinery.

  13. A Change in Ocular Circulation after Photocoagulation for Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries that occur in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are improved by therapy, and thus posttherapy changes in ocular circulation are also conceivable. We report a case of ROP in which we were able to measure the ocular circulation before and after photocoagulation therapy, using a laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG system that is modified for neonates. Case Report: A female infant was born at 25 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 808 g. We performed photocoagulation in both eyes at age 15 weeks, and we measured the ocular circulation with the “LSFG-baby” system before and at 12 weeks after the photocoagulation treatment. We also measured the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH and the relative flow volume (RFV in the retinal vessels, and we examined the change rates from before to after treatment. The changing rate of the MBR-A (the mean of all values in the ONH in the right and left eyes was 76.5 and 98.5%, respectively. The vascular RFV in the severe dilation and tortuosity quadrant also tended to decrease. Conclusions: Photocoagulation improved the dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries and reduced the ocular blood flow in this neonate with ROP. The LSFG-baby system effectively and directly revealed the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels.

  14. Programs for Detecting and Treating Retinopathy of Prematurity: Role of the Neonatal Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Katoch, Deeksha; Dogra, Mangat R; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-11-07

    High quality perinatal-neonatal care can prevent severe Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in most cases. Preterm infants who do develop retinopathy can also have good visual outcomes if screening and treatment are done timely. National Neonatology Forum published clinical practice guidelines for timely screening and treatment of ROP in neonatal care units in the country in 2010. It is also listed as one of the condition under Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram for early identification and early intervention, and is currently a focus area under the National Program for Control of Blindness. Technical and operational guidelines for screening and treatment have been released. Programs like home-based neonatal care can be utilized for ensuring timely screening and follow-up of high-risk infants. Prevention, timely diagnosis and treatment requires well-coordinated teamwork between neonatologists, ophthalmologists, nurses and obstetricians. The neonatal care team should have an evidence-based screening policy, must coordinate and facilitate screening by ophthalmologist, and provide pre and post-operative support, if treatment is required. The neonatologist also has an important responsibility of educating the healthcare workers and the families. A team approach and inter-sectoral coordination are the keys to success of a national drive to decrease the burden of preventable blindness due to ROP.

  15. A family of ROP proteins that suppresses actin dynamics, and is essential for polarized growth and cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Graham M; Baskin, Tobias I; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2015-07-15

    In plants, the ROP family of small GTPases has been implicated in the polarized growth of tip-growing cells, such as root hairs and pollen tubes; however, most of the data derive from overexpressing ROP genes or constitutively active and dominant-negative isoforms, whereas confirmation by using loss-of-function studies has generally been lacking. Here, in the model moss Physcomitrella patens, we study ROP signaling during tip growth by using a loss-of-function approach based on RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the entire moss ROP family. We find that plants with reduced expression of ROP genes, in addition to failing to initiate tip growth, have perturbed cell wall staining, reduced cell adhesion and have increased actin-filament dynamics. Although plants subjected to RNAi against the ROP family also have reduced microtubule dynamics, this reduction is not specific to loss of ROP genes, as it occurs when actin function is compromised chemically or genetically. Our data suggest that ROP proteins polarize the actin cytoskeleton by suppressing actin-filament dynamics, leading to an increase in actin filaments at the site of polarized secretion.

  16. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  17. Analysis of the screening result of retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)进行筛查,了解ROP的发病情况及其相关影响因素. [方法]对眼科门诊进行ROP筛查的早产儿及低体重儿进行回顾性调查,统计筛查情况. [结果]共计筛查239例早产儿、低体重儿,发现ROP患儿15例,发生率为6.28%.BW≤1 500 g、1 500 g<BW≤2 000 g、BW>2 000 g的ROP的发生率分别为20.59%、8.22%、1.52%,组间ROP发生率差异有统计学意义(x2=17.47,P<0.005);胎龄≤31周、31<胎龄≤34周、胎龄>34周的ROP的发生率分别为29.17%、7.25%、2.06%,组间ROP发生率差异也有统计学意义(x2=25.96,P<0.005).分析显示ROP的发生与吸氧有一定的关系. [结论]筛查显示ROP的发生率为6.28%,不规范吸氧、出生体重低及胎龄小是ROP形成的相关因素,对于低胎龄或低体重的高危早产儿应定期进行眼底筛查.%[Objective] To explore the screening of retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) ,and to understand the incidence and the related factors of ROP. [Method] On the May 10,2010 to March 31,2012 period in Qingyuan City Maternal and Child Heath Hospital outpatient department of ophthalmology for ROP screening of premature and low birth weight infants were retrospectively analyzed,statistics and analysis of screening. [Results] Screening a total of 239 cases of premature infants and low birth weight infants,ROP patients were found in 15 cases,the incidence rate of 6. 28%. Statistical analysis showed that BW≤1 500 g,l 500 g2 000 g ROP occurrence rate was respectively 20. 59% ,8. 22% , 1. 52%. There were significant differences in the morbidity(χ2 = 17. 47,P34 weeks the incidence of ROP were 29. 17% ,7. 25% ,2. 06%. There also were significant differences in the morbidity (χ2 = 25. 96,P<0. 005). The analysis also showed the occurrence of ROP and oxygen had a certain relationship. [Conclusions] Screening shows the incidence of ROP was 6. 28%,standard oxygen, low birth

  18. Influencing factors of retinopathy in prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2014-01-01

      结果:早产儿视网膜病变检出率为11.7%,多因素Logistic回归分析显示胎龄、吸氧浓度、出生体质量、机械通气、吸氧时间、贫血、颅内出血均为早产儿视网膜病变的危险因素(P  结论:低出生体质量的早产儿在吸氧浓度等因素上都与早产儿视网膜病变的发生有显著关系。%AIM:To analyze the occurrence and influencing factors of retinopathy in prematurity. METHODS: Totally, 103 premature infants born in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital Department of Ophthalmology from May 2012 to May 2013 were selected as the research objects. The incidence and risk factors of screening for ROP were checked. RESULTS: The positive rate of preterm infants was 11.7%. Logistic multivariate regression analysis results showed that the gestational age, birth weight, oxygen concentration, mechanical ventilation, oxygen time, anemia, intracranial hemorrhage were the risk factors of ROP (P CONCLUSION: Low birth weight of premature infants and oxygen concentration factors has significant relationship with the occurrence of ROP.

  19. ROP GTPases Act with the Receptor-Like Protein PAN1 to Polarize Asymmetric Cell Division in Maize[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, John A.; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Luo, Anding; Meeley, Robert B.; Sylvester, Anne W.; Fowler, John E.; Smith, Laurie G.

    2011-01-01

    Plant Rho family GTPases (ROPs) have been investigated primarily for their functions in polarized cell growth. We previously showed that the maize (Zea mays) Leu-rich repeat receptor-like protein PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) promotes the polarization of asymmetric subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal development. Here, we show that maize Type I ROPs 2 and 9 function together with PAN1 in this process. Partial loss of ROP2/9 function causes a weak SMC division polarity phenotype and strongly enhances this phenotype in pan1 mutants. Like PAN1, ROPs accumulate in an asymmetric manner in SMCs. Overexpression of yellow fluorescent protein-ROP2 is associated with its delocalization in SMCs and with aberrantly oriented SMC divisions. Polarized localization of ROPs depends on PAN1, but PAN1 localization is insensitive to depletion and depolarization of ROP. Membrane-associated Type I ROPs display increased nonionic detergent solubility in pan1 mutants, suggesting a role for PAN1 in membrane partitioning of ROPs. Finally, endogenous PAN1 and ROP proteins are physically associated with each other in maize tissue extracts, as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This study demonstrates that ROPs play a key role in polarization of plant cell division and cell growth and reveals a role for a receptor-like protein in spatial localization of ROPs. PMID:21653193

  20. The Juxtamembrane and carboxy-terminal domains of Arabidopsis PRK2 are critical for ROP-induced growth in pollen tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polarized growth of pollen tubes is a critical step for successful reproduction in angiosperms and is controlled by ROP GTPases. Spatiotemporal activation of ROP (Rho GTPases of plants) necessitates a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, in which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs)...

  1. Parental perceptions toward digital imaging and telemedicine for retinopathy of prematurity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yeon; Du, Yunling E; Coki, Osode; Flynn, John T; Starren, Justin; Chiang, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Telemedicine is an emerging technology with potential to improve care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study evaluates parental perceptions about digital imaging and telemedicine for ROP care. During a 1-year period, one parent of each infant who underwent wide-field retinal imaging for ROP was given a questionnaire designed to evaluate parental perceptions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Five items assessed perceptions toward digital retinal imaging, and ten items assessed attitudes toward telemedicine. Construct validity of the questionnaire was examined using factor analysis. Responses were summarized using descriptive and correlational statistics. Forty-two parents participated. Factor analysis extracted two factors explaining 79% of the total variance in digital retinal imaging items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.843), and three factors explaining 63% of the total variance in telemedicine items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.631). Among digital imaging items, the highest mean (+/-SD) score was for "digital pictures of my child's retinopathy should be included in the permanent medical record" (4.4 +/- 0.6), and the lowest was for "digital cameras and computers are reliable" (3.8 +/- 0.8). Among telemedicine items, the highest mean (+/-SD) score was for "technology will improve the quality of medical care for my child" (4.3 +/- 0.6), and the lowest was for "technology will make it harder for a patient and doctor to establish a good relationship" (2.6 +/- 1.1). Parents reported positive perceptions about telemedical ROP diagnosis, but expressed some preference for face-to-face care. Telemedicine has potential to alter the nature of the patient-physician relationship.

  2. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Bozena; Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity in southern Taiwan: A 10-year tertiary medical center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lun Li

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Low birth weight is a major risk factor for ROP. Infants with extremely low birth weight had a higher risk of severe ROP. Common ocular sequelae of advanced ROP were myopia and anisometropia.

  4. Refractive Outcomes of Three-Port Lens-Sparing Vitrectomy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the refractive outcomes of 3-port lens-sparing vitrectomy (LSV) for subtotal retinal detachments due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Lens-sparing vitrectomy may provide superior refractive outcomes by limiting induced myopia of prematurity. Methods: This is a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized, comparative (paired eye) study. Entrance criteria were previous complete ablative laser for threshold ROP in both eyes, followed by LSV in one eye for stage 4A traction retinal detachment. Both eyes then maintained complete retinal attachment. Main outcome variables were cycloplegic refraction, keratometry, and biometric values for axial length, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth. Results: Nine patients met inclusion criteria. Lens-sparing vitrectomy eyes were significantly less myopic than control eyes (−6.78 D vs −10.33 D, P < .005). The reduction in myopia in LSV eyes was predominantly due to increased anterior chamber depth (3.81 mm ± 0.217 vs 2.96 mm ± 0.232, P < .005). There was a minor contribution from reduced corneal power in LSV eyes (43.89 D ± 0.253 vs 44.20 D ± 0.265, P < .005). There was a minor negative impact from increased lens thickness in LSV eyes (3.85 ± 0.32 mm vs 3.74 ± 0.31, P < .005). There was no significant difference in axial length or lens power between the LSV and control groups. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that infant eyes undergoing 3-port LSV for stage 4A ROP develop less myopia than fellow eyes treated with laser alone. The difference is due to posterior displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm with a smaller contribution from reduced corneal power. The reduction in myopia may improve functional outcomes following 3-port LSV for stage 4A ROP. PMID:20126504

  5. Evaluation of Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity by ROPtool or a Lay Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Ashkan M; Besirli, Cagri G; Musch, David C; Andrews, Chris A; Capone, Antonio; Drenser, Kimberly A; Wallace, David K; Ostmo, Susan; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Paul P; Trese, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    To determine if (1) tortuosity assessment by a computer program (ROPtool, developed at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Duke University, and licensed by FocusROP) that traces retinal blood vessels and (2) assessment by a lay reader are comparable with assessment by a panel of 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) experts for remote clinical grading of vascular abnormalities such as plus disease. Validity and reliability analysis of diagnostic tools. Three hundred thirty-five fundus images of prematurely born infants. Three hundred thirty-five fundus images of prematurely born infants were obtained by neonatal intensive care unit nurses. A panel of 3 ROP experts graded 84 images showing vascular dilatation, tortuosity, or both and 251 images showing no evidence of vascular abnormalities. These images were sent electronically to an experienced lay reader who independently graded them for vascular abnormalities. The images also were analyzed using the ROPtool, which assigns a numerical value to the level of vascular abnormality and tortuosity present in each of 4 quadrants or sectors. The ROPtool measurements of vascular abnormalities were graded and compared with expert panel grades with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Grades between human readers were cross-tabulated. The area under the ROC curve was calculated for the ROPtool, and sensitivity and specificity were computed for the lay reader. Measurements of vascular abnormalities by ROPtool and grading of vascular abnormalities by 3 ROP experts and 1 experienced lay reader. The ROC curve for ROPtool's tortuosity assessment had an area under the ROC curve of 0.917. Using a threshold value of 4.97 for the second most tortuous quadrant, ROPtool's sensitivity was 91% and its specificity was 82%. Lay reader sensitivity and specificity were 99% and 73%, respectively, and had high reliability (κ, 0.87) in repeated measurements. ROPtool had very good accuracy for detection of vascular

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Single versus Multiple-Birth Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the frequency and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among singleton and multiple-birth neonates referred to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran-Iran. METHODS: In this retrospective study, records of 99 consecutive neonates from multiple-gestation pregnancies including 68 twins, 26 triplets and 5 quadruplets who were screened for ROP from 2002 to 2004 were reviewed. The frequency, severity and risk factors for ROP were determined and compared to a group of singletons who were matched in terms of gender, birth weight (BW, gestational age (GA, oxygen therapy, respiratory distress syndrome, blood transfusion, sepsis and phototherapy. RESULTS: ROP was present in 12.1% of multiple-birth neonates as compared to 15.1% of singletons (P=0.53. Threshold ROP was present in 6.1% of multiple-birth neonates versus 7.1% of singletons (P=0.62. ROP was detected in 60% of quadruplets versus 9.6% of twins and triplets; threshold disease was observed in 40% of quadruplets as compared to 4.2% of twins and triplets (P < 0.03. However, considering the effect of BW and GA, logistic regression analysis revealed no statistically significant difference in the frequency and

  7. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  8. 30 CFR 77.403-1 - Mobile equipment; rollover protective structures (ROPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.403-1 Mobile equipment... number, if any, the machine make, model or series number that the structure is designed to fit, and... professional engineer that: (1) The ROPS complies with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J 397...

  9. Improved growth and development in premature infants managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesher, Susan Lee; Domanico, Renee S

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) vs. conventional ventilation (CV) in premature infants and its effects on: 1) growth in the NICU and at follow up visits 2) neurodevelopmental outcomes measured by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) 3) the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and chronic lung disease (CLD). A retrospective chart review of two groups of NICU patients was conducted. The first group was from 1/1999-12/2000 (n = 140) and was managed by CV. The second group (n = 168) was from 1/2003-12/2004 and was managed primarily by NCPAP. Categorical variables were analyzed using Pearson Chi Square. Mean numerical values were analyzed with the student t-test. There was no statistical difference between the groups in regard to 15 demographic and interventional variables. There were significant differences between the two groups in CLD (p < 0.05) and ROP (p < 0.01), mean weight at one month (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01), length at 4-6 months (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.05), 15-18 months (p < 0.01), and 2 years (p = .05), and in BINS scores at 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01). Managing babies with NCPAP therapy when compared with CV, significantly increased the weight at one month which was sustained at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, increased length at all follow up visits, increased BINS scores at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, and decreased the incidence of ROP and CLD.

  10. Outcome of retinopathy of prematurity patients following adoption of revised indications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvoldstad David D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study (ETROP, published in 2003, established new guidelines for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and demonstrated improved outcomes compared to previous guidelines. We examined outcomes before and after implementing the ETROP recommendations. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed using records of infants who had laser ablations for ROP performed from January, 2000 through December, 2005. Data collected included date of birth; birth weight; estimated gestational age (EGA; grading of ROP; date of laser ablation; and outcome of laser surgery. Univariate association with threshold or prethreshold treatment (Pre-ETROP and Post-ETROP, respectively were assessed using t-tests or Wilcoxon tests. Additional comparison between groups was performed using Fisher's exact tests. Results 581 patients were examined before and 464 after December 2003. Of these, 29/581 (5% – Pre-ETROP Group and 53/464 (11% – Post-ETROP Group patients advanced to criteria requiring laser treatment respectively (P = 0.0001. The average estimated gestational age (EGA at birth was 26.3 and 25.2 weeks, with an average birth weight of 888 and 707 grams for Pre and Post-ETROP Groups, respectively. Stage 5 retinal detachment (RD developed in 10.3% of eyes in the Pre-ETROP Group and 1.9% of eyes in the Post-ETROP Group (P = 0.02. Conclusion After the ETROP guidelines were implemented, there was a decrease from 10.3% to 1.9% of eyes developing Stage 5 retinal detachment, despite this group having a lower average EGA and lower average birth weight. These results underscore the importance of adoption of the Revised Indications.

  11. Evaluating the protective capacity of two-post ROPS for a seat-belted occupant during a farm tractor overturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; Hsiao, H; Zwiener, J V; Current, R S; Lutz, T J; Cantis, D M; Powers, J R; Newbraugh, B H; Spahr, J S

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a commercial rollover protective structure (ROPS) and size-extended ROPS in protecting a 95th percentile male operator during tractor overturns. Six rear upset tests (commercial ROPS) and ten side upset tests (commercial and size-extended ROPS) were conducted. A 95th percentile instrumented male manikin was used in all tests. Head injury criterion (HIC15), 80 g limit on resultant head acceleration, neck injury criterion (Nij), and peak axial force (extension-compression) were employed to evaluate injury potential. In all rear tests, the manikin's head impact with the ground was within the tolerance limits for head/neck injuries. Based on limited trials in the side tests, the study observed a small to moderate chance of neck injuries under the commercial and size-extended ROPS conditions; the injury risk was not statistically significant between these two test conditions. This study identified a risk of non-fatal injuries for large-size operators in side overturns, although the prevention effectiveness of commercial versus size-extended ROPS cannot be determined without further testing. These findings may have implications for future ROPS designs.

  12. 早产儿视网膜病变视觉电生理研究进展%Current progress of visual physiology in retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 陈长征

    2011-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)是指可发生于未成熟儿的以视网膜血管异常增生为特征的视网膜血管疾病,是造成儿童视力损害的主要原因之一。ROP虽以视网膜血管发育异常为主要临床特征,但临床观察及动物实验证实,ROP同样影响视网膜视神经的发育,引起视网膜和视神经功能的异常,出现视网膜电图(ERG)暗视视杆反应、暗视振荡电位、多焦视网膜电图(mfERG)的异常,此外,对患儿屈光系统的发育也产生不同程度的影响。就ROP动物模型及ROP患者视觉电生理的特点及屈光系统的异常发育与病变之间的关系进行综述。%Retinopathy of prematurity( ROP),a leading cause of childhood visual impairment,is a vascular proliferative retinopathy in premature infants. Although the hallmark of ROP is abnormal retinal vasculature, a growing body of research in animals and observations in patients support a critical role for the neural retina in the ROP disease process. ROP can affect the foundation of the retina and optical nerve during the development duration in childhood, presenting with abnormalities in electroretinogram and multifocal electroretinogram. In addition,it was found that ROP has different degrees of influence on the development of the dioptric system ,which will result in refractive error as the child progress to adulthood. The relationship of the electrophysiology features or refractive abnormality and ROP was summarized in this article.

  13. Differential Effects of Prenylation and S-Acylation on Type I and II ROPS Membrane Interaction and Function1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Nadav; Gutman, Orit; Bar, Einat; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Feng, Xuehui; Running, Mark P.; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ori, Naomi; Sadot, Einat; Henis, Yoav I.; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Prenylation primarily by geranylgeranylation is required for membrane attachment and function of type I Rho of Plants (ROPs) and Gγ proteins, while type II ROPs are attached to the plasma membrane by S-acylation. Yet, it is not known how prenylation affects ROP membrane interaction dynamics and what are the functional redundancy and specificity of type I and type II ROPs. Here, we have used the expression of ROPs in mammalian cells together with geranylgeranylation and CaaX prenylation-deficient mutants to answer these questions. Our results show that the mechanism of type II ROP S-acylation and membrane attachment is unique to plants and likely responsible for the viability of plants in the absence of CaaX prenylation activity. The prenylation of ROPs determines their steady-state distribution between the plasma membrane and the cytosol but has little effect on membrane interaction dynamics. In addition, the prenyl group type has only minor effects on ROP function. Phenotypic analysis of the CaaX prenylation-deficient pluripetala mutant epidermal cells revealed that type I ROPs affect cell structure primarily on the adaxial side, while type II ROPs are functional and induce a novel cell division phenotype in this genetic background. Taken together, our studies show how prenyl and S-acyl lipid modifications affect ROP subcellular distribution, membrane interaction dynamics, and function. PMID:21139084

  14. 单核-巨噬细胞在早产儿视网膜病变发生中的作用%Role of monocyte/macrophages in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 王雨生

    2013-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是一种常见而复杂的视网膜新生血管性疾病,致病因素复杂,发病机制尚未阐明,治疗棘手.近年来临床和基础研究证实,感染和炎症在其发生发展中起着重要作用.单核-巨噬细胞系统(MC/MΦ)是炎症反应的中心环节,在ROP发生中具有重要作用.%Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a common and complicated retinal neovascularized disease which etiological factors and pathogenesis are still unclear.The current clinical and animal experiments show that infection and inflammation play an important role in ROP.As the monocytes/macrophages (MC/MΦ) are in the central of inflammatory responses,we review the role of the MC/MΦ in the pathogenesis of ROP.

  15. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H(+) fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11(CA)) is sensitive to the presence of NH4(+) at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3(-). The NH4(+) and NO3(-) ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4(+) and / or NO3(-). These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11 (CA) suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this Addendum article we discuss these findings and their implications.

  16. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  17. 早产儿视网膜病发病率及高危因素分析%The incidence and high risk factors analysis of retinopathy in prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 姜海涛; 陈晶; 李珊; 盛红; 卢思广

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发病情况,同时分析其发病相关危险因素.方法 回顾性分析2007年4月~2009年4月在本院新生儿重症监护室(NICU)住院的201例符合ROP筛查标准的患儿.结果 ROP发病率为19.1%,不同出生体重(BW)组间ROP发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),不同孕周组间ROP发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Logistic回归分析结果表明,低出生体重(LBW)、低胎龄(SGA)、呼吸暂停、代谢性酸中毒是形成ROP的高危因素.结论 对有高危因素的早产儿应该进行ROP筛查,临床上早期诊断、早期治疗是降低ROP危害的关键.%Objective To observe the present incidence of retinopathy of premature infants who admitted to the first People' s Hospital of Lianyungang, and to analyze the possible risk factors associated with the development of ROP. Methods 201 cases were retrospectively analyzed in the N1CU of hospital from January 2007 to January 2009 and all children patients were found compatible with the ROP screening standard. Results The overall incidence of ROP was 19.1%, the differences in prevalence of ROP among different birth weight groups and different gestational age groups were all statistical significant (all P < 0.05); low birth weight, small gestational age, apnea, metabolic acidosis were the high risk factors of ROP according to Logistic regression analysis. Conclusion These premature infants with risk factors should take regular ROP examination. Early diagnosis and cure are the keys to reduce the risk of ROP.

  18. Incorporating single detector failure into the ROP detector layout optimization for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: Doddy.Kastanya@snclavalin.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ROP TSP value needs to be adjusted when any detector in the system fails. • Single detector failure criterion has been incorporated into the detector layout optimization as a constraint. • Results show that the optimized detector layout is more robust with respect to its vulnerability to a single detector failure. • An early rejection scheme has been introduced to speed-up the optimization process. - Abstract: In CANDU{sup ®} reactors, the regional overpower protection (ROP) systems are designed to protect the reactor against overpower in the fuel which could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. In the CANDU{sup ®} 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, each of which is connected to a fast-acting shutdown system. Each ROP system consists of a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal flux detector assemblies. The placement of these ROP detectors is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In the past few years, two algorithms, DETPLASA and ADORE, have been developed to optimize the detector layout for the ROP systems in CANDU reactors. These algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. The objective of the optimization process is typically either to maximize the TSP value for a given number of detectors in the system or to minimize the number of detectors in the system to obtain a target TSP value. One measure to determine the robustness of the optimized detector layout is to evaluate the maximum decrease (penalty) in TSP value when any single detector in the system fails. The smaller the penalty, the more robust the design is. Therefore, in order to ensure that the optimized detector layout is robust, the single detector failure (SDF) criterion has been incorporated as an additional constraint into the ADORE algorithm. Results from this study indicate that there

  19. Surgical management of retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培泉

    2008-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是儿童重要的可预防的致盲性疾病,需早期发现、及时治疗,对于阈值期及阚值前I型病变首选激光光凝治疗,如果进展为视网膜脱离需进行巩膜扣带术或玻璃体手术,文章对ROP手术治疗的现状及进展进行评述.

  20. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants. Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRop1 gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen, NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRop1 may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  1. A naturally occurring mutation in ropB suppresses SpeB expression and reduces M1T1 group A streptococcal systemic virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hollands

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry kinase ROP16 activates STAT3 and STAT6 resulting in cytokine inhibition and arginase-1-dependent growth control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Butcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ROP16 kinase of Toxoplasma gondii is injected into the host cell cytosol where it activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 and STAT6. Here, we generated a ROP16 deletion mutant on a Type I parasite strain background, as well as a control complementation mutant with restored ROP16 expression. We investigated the biological role of the ROP16 molecule during T. gondii infection. Infection of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with rop16-deleted (ΔROP16 parasites resulted in increased amounts of IL-12p40 production relative to the ROP16-positive RH parental strain. High level IL-12p40 production in ΔROP16 infection was dependent on the host cell adaptor molecule MyD88, but surprisingly was independent of any previously recognized T. gondii triggered pathway linking to MyD88 (TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, TLR11, IL-1ß and IL-18. In addition, ROP16 was found to mediate the suppressive effects of Toxoplasma on LPS-induced cytokine synthesis in macrophages and on IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide production by astrocytes and microglial cells. Furthermore, ROP16 triggered synthesis of host cell arginase-1 in a STAT6-dependent manner. In fibroblasts and macrophages, failure to induce arginase-1 by ΔROP16 tachyzoites resulted in resistance to starvation conditions of limiting arginine, an essential amino acid for replication and virulence of this parasite. ΔROP16 tachyzoites that failed to induce host cell arginase-1 displayed increased replication and dissemination during in vivo infection. We conclude that encounter between Toxoplasma ROP16 and the host cell STAT signaling cascade has pleiotropic downstream effects that act in multiple and complex ways to direct the course of infection.

  3. Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity with topical ketorolac tromethamine: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafferata Maria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP is a common retinal neovascular disorder of premature infants. It is of variable severity, usually heals with mild or no sequelae, but may progress to blindness from retinal detachments or severe retinal scar formation. This is a preliminary report of the effectiveness and safety of a new and original use of topical ketorolac in preterm newborn to prevent the progression of ROP to the more severe forms of this disease. Methods From January 2001 to December 2002, all fifty nine preterm newborns with birthweight less than 1250 grams or gestational age less than 30 weeks of gestational age admitted to neonatal intensive care were eligible for treatment with topical ketorolac (0.25 milligrams every 8 hours in each eye. The historical comparison group included all 53 preterm newborns, with the same inclusion criteria, admitted between January 1999 and December 2000. Results Groups were comparable in terms of weight distribution, Apgar score at 5 minutes, incidence of sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. The duration of oxygen therapy was significantly longer in the control group. In the ketorolac group, among 43 children that were alive at discharge, one (2.3% developed threshold ROP and cryotherapy was necessary. In the comparison group 35 children survived, and six child (17% needed cryotherapy (Relative Risk 0.14, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80, p = 0.041. Adjusting by duration of oxygen therapy did not significantly change these results. Adverse effects attributable to ketorolac were not detected. Conclusions This preliminary report suggests that ketorolac in the form of an ophthalmic solution can reduce the risk of developing severe ROP in very preterm newborns, without producing significant adverse side effects. These results, although promising, should be interpreted with caution because of the weakness of the study design. This is an inexpensive and simple intervention that

  4. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  5. 早产儿视网膜病变筛查分析%A Screening Study on Premature Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟捷; 刘三梅; 唐晶; 樊映川

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发生率及危险因素.方法 收集2007年12月-2008年12月在四川省人民医院、成都市妇幼保健院、成都市妇产科医院住院的85例体重≤2 000 g或有严重疾病的早产儿,自出生后4~6周或矫正胎龄32周开始筛查,至周边视网膜血管化.结果 85例早产儿中,有9例发生ROP,发病率10.58%.其中出生体重<1 500 g的早产儿ROP发病率为17.07%,孕周<30周的早产儿ROP发病率为40%.结论 低体重、胎龄小、吸氧为早产儿发生ROP的重要危险因素;尽早进行眼底筛查是早期发现、诊断及治疗ROP的关键.

  6. Spatial control of plasma membrane domains: ROP GTPase-based symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Lavagi, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Breaking of the cell membrane symmetry to form polarized or localized domains/regions of the plasma membrane (PM) is a fundamental cellular process that occurs in essentially all cellular organisms, and is required for a wide variety of cellular functions/behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. In plants, the development of localized or polarized PM domains has been linked to a vast array of cellular and developmental processes such as polar cell expansion, asymmetric cell division, cell morphogenesis, the polarization of auxin transporters (and thus auxin polar transport), secondary cell wall patterning, cell type specification, and tissue pattern formation. Rho GTPases from plants (ROPs) are known to be involved in many of these processes. Here, we review the current knowledge on ROP involvement in breaking symmetry and propose that ROP-based self-organizing signaling may provide a common mechanism for the spatial control of PM domains required in various cellular and developmental processes in plants. PMID:23177207

  7. Risk perceptions, barriers, and motivators to tractor ROPS retrofitting in the New York state farm community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; May, J J; Jenkins, P L; Jones, A M; Earle-Richardson, G B

    2006-08-01

    The prevalence of tractor rollovers among agricultural workers has made the retrofitting of tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts a public health priority for agricultural health and safety specialists. To address this concern, the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health (NYCAMH) developed a seven-question survey, designed to assess perceptions of risk as well as potential motivators and barriers to retrofitting. Data from 465 phone surveys were gathered from New York State farmers representing various commodities and farm sizes. Analysis of responses to three qualitative questions contained in the survey indicated that most farmers in New York understand the importance of ROPS but lack the proper motivation to consider retrofitting. It appears that more convenient safety strategies, cost, and age of the tractor compete with a farmer's initiative to retrofit. In addition, survey responses illustrate that although many farmers believe ROPS are important in a general sense, many believe that this safety measure is not necessary for them in particular. Frequent motivators to retrofitting are concerns about safety, although the authors conclude that a more thorough analysis of these "general safety concerns" in qualitative interviews is important.

  8. 早产儿视网膜病变的影响因素的分析研究%Analysis of the Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲臣; 王亚军; 张秀; 赵耀

    2005-01-01

    目的早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的因素分析.方法散瞳检查早产儿眼底.根据国际对ROP的分期进行诊断,并对ROP的发生率和发病因素进行统计分析.结果:对39例(男23例,女16例)早产儿检查发现10例ROP患者,而55例(男30例,女25例)的足月做对照组无一例早产儿视网膜病变ROP.结论早产儿视网膜病变与低出生体重和短孕周相关.

  9. 早产儿视网膜病变的发病率及防治%Incidence Rate and Prevention and Cure of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽敏; 闫安; 吴素英

    2016-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)是儿童致盲的主要原因之一,无论在发达国家或发展中国家,都普遍存在视网膜致盲问题。随着新生儿重症监护技术的改善和新生儿护理技术的提高,早产儿及低出生体重儿的生存率逐步提高,早产儿视网膜病变的发病率呈逐年上升趋势。为提早预防、降低ROP发病率、改善预后提供科学的依据,现对各国ROP的发病率及防治进行综述。%The retinopathy of prematurity is one of the major causes of occoecatio in children, no matter in the developed country or in the developing country, and the retinopathy of prematurity issue is common, with the improvement of neonatal intensive care technologies and neonatal nursing technologies, the survival rate of premature and low birth weight infants gradually increases, and the incidence rate of retinopathy of prematurity shows an increasing trend annually, the paper pro-vides a scientific basis for early prevention, reducing the incidence rate of ROP and improving the prognosis and summa-rizes the incidence rate of ROP and prevention and cure.

  10. [Report on threatened premature labor: etiology, management, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzibahcian, J J; Mida, M; David, E; Weber, L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The studies on the aetiological factors of a premature delivery constitute an old fear of obstetricians and epidemiologists. However, they remain confused and the very definition of prematurity is among the first sources of confusion. There are many therapeutic methods considered as preventive. Their efficacy is debatable whilst their secondary effects are obvious. In this article, the authors report the results of a retrospective study of observations of patients who presented threats of premature labour and analyzed the epidemiological aspects, the aetiological factors and the therapeutic methods. It seems important to consider the risk factors in order to prevent premature labour. A decrease in the use of betamimetics and an increase in that of therapies said to be of replacement does not seem to be accompanied by a relative increase in the incidence of prematurity.

  11. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  12. IGF-1、TGF-β1在早产儿视网膜病中的表达及临床意义%Expression of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in retinopathy of prematurity and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健萍; 袁海超; 赵云开; 卢燕玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in retinopathy of prematurity and its clinical significance. Methods Data were from the data of premature infant in our hospital from November 2011 to October 2013. 30 cases occurred ROP were selected as ROP group, 30 cases un-occurred ROP were selected as premature control group, and 30 cases of healthy full-term newborn infants over the same period were selected as full-term control group. The contents of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in each group were compared. Results Serum contents of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 at 1 week after birth, 32 weeks of gestational age, 34 weeks of gestational age and 36 weeks of gestational age of ROP group were respectively lower than those of un-occurred ROP and full-term control group (P 0.05). Conclusion Both IGF-1 and TGF-β1 are involved in the occurrence and development of the occurrence and development of retinopathy of premature infants. By dynamic monitoring the change of IGF-1 and TGF-β1, it is benefit to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of premature infants.%目的:观察 IGF-1、TGF-β1在早产儿视网膜病中的表达及临床意义。方法资料来源于我院2011年11月~2013年10月间出生的早产儿,其中发生 ROP 组30例;未发生 ROP 30例为早产对照组,同时选择同期健康足月对照组30例。比较各组的 IGF-1、TGF-β1含量。结果 ROP 组生后1周、纠正胎龄32周、纠正胎龄34周、纠正胎龄36周的血清 IGF-1、TGF-β1含量分别低于未发生 ROP 组及健康足月对照组(P <0.05),但 ROP 组与未发生 ROP 组、健康足月对照组纠正胎龄40周的 IGF-1、TGF-β1含量比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论 IGF-1、TGF-β1均参与了早产儿视网膜病的发生发展过程,通过动态监测 IGF-1、TGF-β1的变化情况,有利于为早产儿视网膜病的诊断和治疗提供参考依据。

  13. The Arabidopsis Rho of Plants GTPase AtROP6 Functions in Developmental and Pathogen Response Pathways1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poraty-Gavra, Limor; Zimmermann, Philip; Haigis, Sabine; Bednarek, Paweł; Hazak, Ora; Stelmakh, Oksana Rogovoy; Sadot, Einat; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    How plants coordinate developmental processes and environmental stress responses is a pressing question. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Rho of Plants6 (AtROP6) integrates developmental and pathogen response signaling. AtROP6 expression is induced by auxin and detected in the root meristem, lateral root initials, and leaf hydathodes. Plants expressing a dominant negative AtROP6 (rop6DN) under the regulation of its endogenous promoter are small and have multiple inflorescence stems, twisted leaves, deformed leaf epidermis pavement cells, and differentially organized cytoskeleton. Microarray analyses of rop6DN plants revealed that major changes in gene expression are associated with constitutive salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense responses. In agreement, their free and total SA levels resembled those of wild-type plants inoculated with a virulent powdery mildew pathogen. The constitutive SA-associated response in rop6DN was suppressed in mutant backgrounds defective in SA signaling (nonexpresser of PR genes1 [npr1]) or biosynthesis (salicylic acid induction deficient2 [sid2]). However, the rop6DN npr1 and rop6DN sid2 double mutants retained the aberrant developmental phenotypes, indicating that the constitutive SA response can be uncoupled from ROP function(s) in development. rop6DN plants exhibited enhanced preinvasive defense responses to a host-adapted virulent powdery mildew fungus but were impaired in preinvasive defenses upon inoculation with a nonadapted powdery mildew. The host-adapted powdery mildew had a reduced reproductive fitness on rop6DN plants, which was retained in mutant backgrounds defective in SA biosynthesis or signaling. Our findings indicate that both the morphological aberrations and altered sensitivity to powdery mildews of rop6DN plants result from perturbations that are independent from the SA-associated response. These perturbations uncouple SA-dependent defense signaling from disease resistance execution. PMID

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity in babies weighing <1800 g; with special reference to babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g: An experience from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kapoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278. Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146. Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01, blood transfusion (P < 0.01, antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01, pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01, mechanical ventilation (MV (P < 0.01, and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01 were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01 and resuscitation (P < 0.01 were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative

  15. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  16. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha; Shampa Ghosh; Manchala Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand...

  17. PACAP Is Protective in a Rat Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarik, Timea; Mammel, Barbara; Reglodi, Dora; Kovacs, Krisztina; Werling, Dora; Bede, Brigitta; Vaczy, Alexandra; Fabian, Eszter; Toth, Gabor; Kiss, Peter; Tamas, Andrea; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Atlasz, Tamas

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is a well-established rodent model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is one of the most common causes of childhood visual impairment affecting preterm babies. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is known to have neuroprotective effects. Several studies have revealed the presence of PACAP and its receptors in the retina and reported its protective effects in ischemic and diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated whether PACAP administration can influence the vascular changes in the rat OIR model. OIR was generated by placing the animals in daily alternating 10/50 oxygen concentrations from postnatal day (PD) 0 to PD14 then returned them to room air. Meanwhile, animals received PACAP or saline intraperitoneally or intravitreally from PD1 to PD8 or on PD11, PD14, and PD17, respectively. On PD19 ± 1, the retinas were isolated and the vessels were visualized by isolectin staining. The percentage of avascular to whole retinal areas and the number of branching points were measured. Change in cytokine expression was also determined. Intravitreal treatment with PACAP remarkably reduced the extent of avascular area compared to the non- and saline-treated OIR groups. Intraperitoneal PACAP injection did not influence the vascular extent. Retinal images of room-air controls did not show vascular alterations. No changes in the number of vessel branching were observed after treatments. Alterations in cytokine profile after local PACAP injection further supported the protective role of the peptide. This is the first study to examine the effects of PACAP in ROP. Although the exact mechanism is still not revealed, the present results show that PACAP treatment can ameliorate the vascular changes in the animal model of ROP.

  18. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  19. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpashri Kesavan

    Full Text Available Apnea of Prematurity (AOP is common, affecting the majority of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age. Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH. Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development.The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing.Premature infants (23-34 wks gestational age, with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2, and breathing pauses were continuously collected.Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (p<0.005. Significantly fewer SpO2 declines occurred with vibration (p<0.05, relative to control periods. Significantly fewer bradycardic events occurred during vibration periods, relative to no vibration periods (p<0.05.In premature neonates, limb proprioceptive stimulation, simulating limb movement, reduces breathing pauses and IH episodes, and lowers the number of bradycardic events that accompany aberrant breathing episodes. This low-cost neuromodulatory procedure has the potential to provide a non-invasive intervention to reduce apnea, bradycardia and

  20. rROP2 from Toxoplasma gondii as a potential vaccine against oocyst shedding in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauton Luiz Zulpo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4. Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group. All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7% than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.

  1. Receptor-like kinases as surface regulators for RAC/ROP-mediated pollen tube growth and interaction with the pistil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanjiao; Aggarwal, Mini; Zheng, Wen-Guang; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background RAC/ROPs are RHO-type GTPases and are known to play diverse signalling roles in plants. Cytoplasmic RAC/ROPs are recruited to the cell membrane and activated in response to extracellular signals perceived and mediated by cell surface-located signalling assemblies, transducing the signals to regulate cellular processes. More than any other cell types in plants, pollen tubes depend on continuous interactions with an extracellular environment produced by their surrounding tissues as they grow within the female organ pistil to deliver sperm to the female gametophyte for fertilization. Scope We review studies on pollen tube growth that provide compelling evidence indicating that RAC/ROPs are crucial for regulating the cellular processes that underlie the polarized cell growth process. Efforts to identify cell surface regulators that mediate extracellular signals also point to RAC/ROPs being the molecular switches targeted by growth-regulating female factors for modulation to mediate pollination and fertilization. We discuss a large volume of work spanning more than two decades on a family of pollen-specific receptor kinases and some recent studies on members of the FERONIA family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Significance The research described shows the crucial roles that two RLK families play in transducing signals from growth regulatory factors to the RAC/ROP switch at the pollen tube apex to mediate and target pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte and signal its disintegration to achieve fertilization once inside the female chamber. PMID:22476487

  2. Computerized analysis of retinal vessel width and tortuosity in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Clare M; Cocker, Kenneth D; Moseley, Merrick J; Paterson, Carl; Clay, Simon T; Schulenburg, William E; Mills, Monte D; Ells, Anna L; Parker, Kim H; Quinn, Graham E; Fielder, Alistair R; Ng, Jeffrey

    2008-08-01

    To determine, with novel software, the feasibility of measuring the tortuosity and width of retinal veins and arteries from digital retinal images of infants at risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The Computer-Aided Image Analysis of the Retina (CAIAR) program was developed to enable semiautomatic detection of retinal vasculature and measurement of vessel tortuosity and width from digital images. CAIAR was tested for accuracy and reproducibility of tortuosity and width measurements by using computer-generated vessel-like lines of known frequency, amplitude, and width. CAIAR was then tested by using clinical digital retinal images for correlation of vessel tortuosity and width readings compared with expert ophthalmologist grading. When applied to 16 computer-generated sinusoidal vessels, the tortuosity measured by CAIAR correlated very well with the known values. Width measures also increased as expected. When the CAIAR readings were compared with five expert ophthalmologists' grading of 75 vessels on 10 retinal images, moderate correlation was found in 10 of the 14 tortuosity output calculations (Spearman rho = 0.618-0.673). Width was less well correlated (rho = 0.415). The measures of tortuosity and width in CAIAR were validated using sequential model vessel analysis. On comparison of CAIAR output with assessments made by expert ophthalmologists, CAIAR correlates moderately with tortuosity grades, but less well with width grades. CAIAR offers the opportunity to develop an automated image analysis system for detecting the vascular changes at the posterior pole, which are becoming increasingly important in diagnosing treatable ROP.

  3. Putative Vitis vinifera Rop- and Rab-GAP-, GEF-, and GDI-interacting proteins uncovered with novel methods for public genomic and EST database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbal, Philippe; Tesniere, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    To understand how grapevine Rop and Rab proteins achieve their functional versatility in signalling, identification of the putative VvRop- and VvRab-interacting proteins was performed using newly designed tools. In this study, sequences encoding eight full-length proteins for VvRop GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), five for VvRabGAPs, six for VvRop guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), one for VvRabGEF, five for VvRop GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and three for VvRabGDIs were identified. These proteins had a CRIB motif or PH domain, a TBC domain, a PRONE domain, a DENN domain, or GDI signatures, respectively. By bootstrap analysis, an unrooted consensus phylogenetic tree was constructed which indicated that VvRopGDIs and VvRopGEFs--but not VvRopGAP--belonged to the same clade, and that VvRabGEF1 protein was more closely related to VvRopGAPs than to the other putative VvRab-interacting proteins. Twenty-two genes out of 28 encoding putative VvRop- and VvRab-interacting proteins could be located on identified grapevine chromosomes. Generally one gene was anchored on one chromosome, but in some cases up to four genes were located on the same chromosome. Expression patterns of the genes encoding putative VvRop- and VvRab-interacting proteins were also examined using a newly developed tool based on public expressed sequence tag (EST) database analysis. Expression patterns were sometimes found to be specific to an organ or a developmental stage. Although some limitations exist, the use of EST database analysis is stressed, in particular in the case of species where expression data are obtained at high costs in terms of time and effort.

  4. Ocular Morbidity Associated With Retinopathy of Prematurity in Treated and Untreated Eyes: A Review of the Literature and Data From a Tertiary Eye-care Center in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Kara, Tulika; Gilbert, Clare

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging cause of childhood blindness in low- and middle-income countries. We review the magnitude, causes, prevention and treatment of visual impairment caused by ROP over a time span. A review of literature on short and long term structural and functional outcomes of ROP was conducted through PubMed search primarily focusing on studies published during the last decade. Additionally, we have shared data from our institute located in Southern India. Visual Impairment in ROP-treated children ranged from 4.1% to 30% in various settings, attributable mainly to refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus and perinatal neurological events followed by structural changes like macular scarring and retinal detachment. We conclude that towards an early detection and a proper management of all the above mentioned conditions, these children need to be followed-up for a long time by a committed pediatric ophthalmologist at a specifically scheduled interval. The overall success depends upon the strength of the networking system between parents/neonatologists/pediatricians/pediatric ophthalmologist and a retina specialist.

  5. Dynamics of human foveal development after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ramiro S; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Sarin, Neeru; Freedman, Sharon F; Wallace, David K; Cotten, C Michael; Winter, Katrina P; Stinnett, Sandra; Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina; Toth, Cynthia A

    2011-12-01

    To determine the dynamic morphologic development of the human fovea in vivo using portable spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Thirty-one prematurely born neonates, 9 children, and 9 adults. Sixty-two neonates were enrolled in this study. After examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), SD-OCT imaging was performed at the bedside in nonsedated infants aged 31 to 41 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (= gestational age in weeks + chronologic age) and at outpatient follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Thirty-one neonates met eligibility criteria. Nine children and nine adults without ocular pathology served as control groups. Semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation was performed. Central foveal thickness, foveal to parafoveal (FP) ratio (central foveal thickness divided by thickness 1000 μm from the foveal center), and 3-dimensional thickness maps were analyzed. In vivo determination of foveal morphology, layer segmentation, analysis of subcellular changes, and spatiotemporal layer shifting. In contrast with the adult fovea, several signs of immaturity were observed in the neonates: a shallow foveal pit, persistence of inner retinal layers (IRLs), and a thin photoreceptor layer (PRL) that was thinnest at the foveal center. Three-dimensional mapping showed displacement of retinal layers out of the foveal center as the fovea matured and the progressive formation of the inner/outer segment band in the opposite direction. The FP-IRL ratios decreased as IRL migrated before term and minimally after that, whereas FP-PRL ratios increased as PRL subcellular elements formed closer to term and into childhood. A surprising finding was the presence of cystoid macular edema in 58% of premature neonates that appeared to affect inner foveal maturation. This study provides the first view into the development of living cellular layers of the human retina and of subcellular specialization at the fovea in premature infant eyes

  6. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  7. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  8. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  9. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  10. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  11. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO YangRong; LI ZhiGang; CHEN Tao; ZHANG ZhiGang; ZHANG JinSong; CHEN ShouYi

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants.Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRopl gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen,NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The trsnsgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRopl may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  12. Use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with general anesthesia%喉罩通气道全麻用于超低出生体重儿视网膜病变激光光凝术的麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兰; 张建文; 左云霞

    2013-01-01

    报道1例胎龄27+4周,现月龄1月27 d,体重1.67 kg的超低出生体重伴双眼早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的早产儿在喉罩通气道全麻下行双眼激光光凝术治疗.%This case report describes the successful use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment.The premature infant with gestational age of 27 ~ weeks is retinopathy in both eyes,57 d old,and 1.67 kg weight.

  13. ROP Attack Detecting Method Based on DBI%一种基于DBI的ROP攻击检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志军; 郑滔

    2012-01-01

    随着Return-Oriented Programming(ROP)思想的提出,程序安全面临新的挑战.ROP攻击操作粒度细致,特征隐蔽,构造精巧,静态特征稀少,因此传统的安全防御措施很难对之有效.在这种背景下,利用执行时的动态特征去识别、防御ROP攻击变得非常重要.Dynamic Binary Instrumentation(DBI)技术的引入,为ROP攻击动态特性分析提供了有力的支持.介绍一种利用DBI分析技术识别ROP攻击序列的方法,即通过识别恶意的程序执行流,约束库函数的调用规范,来检测ROP攻击.与此同时,还设计了一套可扩展的程序防御框架,用于检测程序的扩展,由此说明该检测工具的通用性与可扩展性.%As the promotion of the idea of return-oriented programming (ROP),programs will face many new kinds of challenges from virus programs. With fine granularity, covert virus features,deliberate and sophisticated construction and rare static characteristics, ROP attack can circumvent many traditional defending measures. Under this circumstances, it's imperative to discover the dynamic features of ROP attack program, identify its characteristics and defend it when it is executed. At this time, introducing the technology of dynamic binary instrumentation provides powerful support for dynamic analysis of ROP attack. We introduced a defending measure to ROP attack with the help of DBI technology. By identifying malicious program execution flow and restricting the call specification of libraries, we detected ROP attack Furthermore, we designed an extensible defending framework over ROP attack to prove the generality and portability of our detect tool

  14. Plant small monomeric G-proteins (RAC/ROPs) of barley are common elements of susceptibility to fungal leaf pathogens, cell expansion and stomata development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathuri, Indira Priyadarshini; Eichmann, Ruth; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2009-02-01

    Small monomeric RAC/ROP GTPases act as molecular switches in signal transduction processes of plant development and stress responses. They emerged as crucial players in plant-pathogen interactions either by supporting susceptibility or resistance. In a recent publication, we showed that constitutively activated (CA) mutants of different barley (Hordeum vulgare) RAC/ROPs regulate susceptibility to barley fungal leaf pathogens of different life style in a contrasting way. This illustrates the distinctive signalling roles of RAC/ROPs for different plant-pathogen combinations. We also reported the involvement of RAC/ROPs in plant epidermis development in a monocotyledonous plant. Here we further discuss a failure of CA HvRAC/ROP-expressing barley to normally develop stomata.

  15. Recent treatment advances in retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变的治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化志娟; 江春光

    2009-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是早产儿和低体重儿发生的一种视网膜血管增生性病变.目前的治疗方法有冷凝治疗,光凝治疗,巩膜扣带术治疗,玻璃体切除术治疗,药物及基因治疗尚在动物实验研究中.

  16. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  17. Management guidelines of premature infants%早产儿管理指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会儿科学分会新生儿学组

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity is one of the leading causes of death and disability in neonates. To improve the management of premature infants, the Subspecialty Group of Neonatology, Pediatric Society, Chinese Medical Association established the guideline on the 7th National Neonatal Academic Conference in October 2004. The guideline makes references to management at birth, respiration management, prevention and treatment of cerebral injury of premature infants, prevention and treatment of infection, maintenance of stable blood glucose, nutritional management, management of feeding intolerance, fluid balance, management of patent ducts arteriosus (PDA), prevention and treatment of anemia, treatment of jaundice of prematurity, prevention and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), hearing screening, nursing and follow-up following discharge.%早产是新生儿发病和围产儿死亡最常见的因素,为提高早产儿的管理水平,降低病死率和致残率,新生儿学组经过2年多的讨论,于2004年10月第七届全国新生儿学术会议(海口)通过本指南,供各单位参考.本指南就早产儿出生时处理,呼吸管理,脑损伤的防治,感染的防治,保持血糖稳定,营养支持,消化问题的处理,液体平衡,动脉导管开放,贫血的防治,黄疸的治疗,早产儿视网膜病的防治,听力筛查,护理,出院后的随访等15个问题制定了具体的管理方案.

  18. Static load test performance of a telescoping structure for an automatically deployable ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Gillispie, A

    2002-02-01

    The automatically deployable ROPS was developed as part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against overturn fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The primary objective of this phase of the research was to build a telescoping structure that would prove that a ROPS can be built that will (1) reliably deploy on signal, (2) rise in a sufficiently short amount of time, (3) firmly latch in its deployed position, and (4) satisfy SAE J2194 testing requirements. The two-post structure had previously been found to meet deployment time criteria, and design analyses indicated that neither the slip-fit joint nor the latch pins would fail at test loading. Four directions of static loading were applied to the structure to satisfy SAE requirements. For the series of static loading tests, the raised structure was found to maintain a protective clearance zone after all loads were applied. The structure is overly stiff and should be redesigned to increase its ability to absorb ground-impact energy. Results of dynamic tests and field upset tests are reported in companion articles. The next phase of development is to optimize the structure so that it will plastically deform and absorb energy that would otherwise be transferred to the tractor chassis.

  19. Nitrogen source interacts with ROP signalling in root hair tip-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Singer, Meromit; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Root hairs elongate in a highly polarized manner known as tip growth. Overexpression of constitutively active Rho of Plant (ROP)/RAC GTPases mutants induces swelling of root hairs. Here, we demonstrate that Atrop11(CA)-induced swelling of root hairs depends on the composition of the growth medium. Depletion of ammonium allowed normal root hair elongation in Atrop11(CA) plants, induced the development of longer root hairs in wild-type plants and suppressed the effect of Atrop11(CA) expression on actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution, whereas membrane localization of the protein was not affected. Ammonium at concentrations higher than 1 mM and the presence of nitrate were required for induction of swelling. Oscillations in wall and cytoplasmic pH are known to accompany tip growth in root hairs, and buffering of the growth medium decreased Atrop11(CA)-induced swelling. Fluorescence ratio imaging experiments revealed that in wild-type root hairs, the addition of NH₄NO₃ to the growth medium induced an increase in the amplitude of extracellular and intracellular pH oscillations and an overall decrease in cytoplasmic pH at the cell apex. Based on these results, we suggest a model in which ROP GTPases and nitrogen-dependent pH oscillations function in parallel pathways, creating a positive feedback loop during root hair growth.

  20. Silencing of the Rac1 GTPase MtROP9 in Medicago truncatula stimulates early mycorrhizal and oomycete root colonizations but negatively affects rhizobial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiirika, Leonard Muriithi; Bergmann, Hannah Friederike; Schikowsky, Christine; Wimmer, Diana; Korte, Joschka; Schmitz, Udo; Niehaus, Karsten; Colditz, Frank

    2012-05-01

    RAC/ROP proteins (ρ-related GTPases of plants) are plant-specific small G proteins that function as molecular switches within elementary signal transduction pathways, including the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during early microbial infection via the activation of NADPH oxidase homologs of plants termed RBOH (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). We investigated the role of Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17 small GTPase MtROP9, orthologous to Medicago sativa Rac1, via an RNA interference silencing approach. Composite M. truncatula plants (MtROP9i) whose roots have been transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the RNA interference vector were generated and infected with the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus intraradices and the rhizobial bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti as well as with the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches. MtROP9i transgenic lines showed a clear growth-reduced phenotype and revealed neither ROS generation nor MtROP9 and MtRBOH gene expression after microbial infection. Coincidently, antioxidative compounds were not induced in infected MtROP9i roots, as documented by differential proteomics (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis). Furthermore, MtROP9 knockdown clearly promoted mycorrhizal and A. euteiches early hyphal root colonization, while rhizobial infection was clearly impaired. Infected MtROP9i roots showed, in part, extremely swollen noninfected root hairs and reduced numbers of deformed nodules. S. meliloti nodulation factor treatments of MtROP9i led to deformed root hairs showing progressed swelling of its upper regions or even of the entire root hair and spontaneous constrictions but reduced branching effects occurring only at swollen root hairs. These results suggest a key role of Rac1 GTPase MtROP9 in ROS-mediated early infection signaling.

  1. Study on the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity and maternal age,smoking during pregnancy,drugs and pregnancy complications%早产儿视网膜病变与孕妇年龄、孕期吸烟、药物、妊娠并发症的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永强; 刘生荣; 陈立宇; 吕月娥; 陈美玲; 周俊楠

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and hazard factorsduring pregnancy including maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy complications. Methods: 829 premature infants visiting the hospital from January 2008 to April 2010 received fundus examination regularly. International staging system of ROP was used for diagnosis and staging of ROP. The related clinical data of pregnant women were collected. Results: Among 829 premature infants, 97 infants were diagnosed as ROP, the incidence was 11.7%. There was no significant difference in maternal age and drug use during pregnancy, there was significant difference in smoking during pregnancy and pregnancy complicationa, multivariate logistic analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking, pregnancy complications and the occurrence of ROP. Conclusion: Smoking and pregnancy complications are important risk factors of ROP during pregnancy.%目的:探讨早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发生与孕妇年龄、孕期吸烟、药物、妊娠并发症等孕期危害因素的关系.方法:对2008年1月~2010年4月在厦门市妇幼保健院收治的829例早产儿定期进行眼底检查,根据ROP国际分期标准进行ROP的诊断和分期,并收集孕妇孕期相关临床资料.结果,829例早产儿中ROP的患儿为97例,患病率为11.70%.孕妇年龄、孕期服用药物无明显差异,而孕期吸烟和妊娠期并发症差异有统计学意义,经进一步多因素Logistic回归分析显示吸烟、妊娠并发症与ROP发生有显著相关性.结论:吸烟和妊娠并发症是孕期导致ROP发病的高危因素.

  2. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  3. Serology using rROP2 antigen in the diagnostic of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women Sorologia utilizando o antígeno recombinante ROP2 no diagnóstico da toxoplasmose em mulheres grávidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam de Souza Macre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes severe fetal disease during acute infection in pregnant women, thus demanding early diagnosis for effective treatment and fetus preservation. Fetal tests are inefficient and risky, and diagnosis is based on maternal IgM serology, which had weak screening ability due to increased sensitivity, with alternative IgG avidity tests. Here, we performed ELISA and avidity assays using a recombinant T. gondii antigen, rROP2, in samples from 160 pregnant women screened from a large public hospital who were referred due to positive IgM assays. IgG serology and avidity assays were compared using whole T. gondii extract or rROP2. ELISA IgG detection with rROP2 showed good agreement with assays performed with T. gondii extract, but rROP2 IgG avidity assays were unrelated to whole extract antigen IgG avidity, regardless of the chaotrope used. These data show that avidity maturation is specific to individual antigen prevalence and immune response during infection. ELISA rROP2 IgG assays may be an alternative serological test for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, although our data do not support their use in avidity assays.A toxoplasmose causa grave doença fetal durante a infecção aguda da gestante, assim demanda diagnóstico precoce para tratamento efetivo e preservação fetal. Os testes fetais são de baixa eficiência e o diagnóstico é baseado na sorologia para IgM materna, que tem fraca capacidade de triagem devido a sensibilidade crescente dos testes, sendo uma alternativa os testes de avidez de IgG. Apresentamos aqui um ELISA e ensaio de avidez de IgG usando antígeno recombinante de T. gondii, rROP2, em amostras de 162 gestantes triadas para um grande hospital público por uma sorologia positiva para IgM. O ELISA IgG e o ensaio de avidez de IgG foram comparados usando o antígeno rROP2 ou extrato total de T. gondii. O ELISA usando rROP2 mostrou excelente concordância com os ensaios usando extrato de T. gondii

  4. "四化"管理模式在预防早产儿视网膜病中的应用%Effects of rational nursing management model to prevent retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋芳; 邵芳; 王瑞英

    2008-01-01

    探索早产儿氧疗的管理模式,通过采取安全教育制度化、监护设备系统化、眼底筛查正规化、健康教育全程化的"四化"管理模式,提高早产儿生存质量,预防早产儿视网膜病(Retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发生.随访了52例出生体重≤1250g,出生胎龄≤32周早产儿ROP发病情况,病变分期严格按ROP国际分类标准,发现9例Ⅰ期ROP,发生率为17.3%.

  5. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  6. Studies on the Pathogenesis of Avascular Retina and Neovascularization into the Vitreous in Peripheral Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulation in the development of intravitreous neovascularization and peripheral avascular retina in peripheral severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: The rat 50/10 model of ROP mimics zone II, stage 3 severe ROP and recreates fluctuations in transcutaneous oxygen levels in preterm infants. On postnatal (p) day ages p0, p8, p11–p14, and p18, retinas from the model or room-air (RA) age-matched pups were analyzed for mRNA of VEGF splice variants and receptors using real-time polymerase chain reaction or VEGF protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: On p14, when retinas were only 70% vascularized in the model but fully vascularized in RA, VEGF164 expression was threefold greater in the model compared to RA. On p18, intravitreous neovascularization was associated with a 5-fold increase in VEGF164 mRNA in the model compared to RA. By analysis of variance, VEGF164 and VEGFR2 mRNAs were up-regulated in association with increasing developmental age (P<.0001 for both comparisons) or exposure to the model compared to RA (P<.0001 and P=.0247, respectively), whereas increasing developmental age was associated only with up-regulated VEGF120 (P=.0006), VEGF188 (P=.0256), and VEGFR1 (P<.0001) mRNAs. VEGF protein increased significantly in the model and on p14 and p18 compared to RA (P<.0001). Conclusions: The model mimics contemporary severe ROP in the United States unlike other models of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Compared to RA retinas, VEGF significantly increased in association with avascular retina and intravitreous neovascularization. A hypothesis is proposed that VEGF up-regulation plays a role in the development of both important features. PMID:21212851

  7. The Netherlands retinopathy of prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, van Arlette J.

    2014-01-01

    Bij veel te vroeg geboren kinderen blijft prematurenretinopathie (ROP) een belangrijke oorzaak van blind- en slechtziendheid. Dit ondanks uitgebreid onderzoek. De oorzaak hiervan is, dat de leeftijd, waarop deze kinderen geboren en in leven gehouden kunnen worden daalt door een betere neonatologisch

  8. ROP3 GTPase contributes to polar auxin transport and auxin responses and is important for embryogenesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-bao; Liu, Huili; Chen, Min; Li, Xiaojuan; Wang, Mingyan; Yang, Yali; Wang, Chunling; Huang, Jiaqing; Liu, Guolan; Liu, Yuting; Xu, Jian; Cheung, Alice Y; Tao, Li-zhen

    2014-09-01

    ROP GTPases are crucial for the establishment of cell polarity and for controlling responses to hormones and environmental signals in plants. In this work, we show that ROP3 plays important roles in embryo development and auxin-dependent plant growth. Loss-of-function and dominant-negative (DN) mutations in ROP3 induced a spectrum of similar defects starting with altered cell division patterning during early embryogenesis to postembryonic auxin-regulated growth and developmental responses. These resulted in distorted embryo development, defective organ formation, retarded root gravitropism, and reduced auxin-dependent hypocotyl elongation. Our results showed that the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS and root master regulators PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2 was reduced in DN-rop3 mutant embryos, accounting for some of the observed patterning defects. ROP3 mutations also altered polar localization of auxin efflux proteins (PINs) at the plasma membrane (PM), thus disrupting auxin maxima in the root. Notably, ROP3 is induced by auxin and prominently detected in root stele cells, an expression pattern similar to those of several stele-enriched PINs. Our results demonstrate that ROP3 is important for maintaining the polarity of PIN proteins at the PM, which in turn ensures polar auxin transport and distribution, thereby controlling plant patterning and auxin-regulated responses.

  9. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  10. Association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane requires a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and a proximal polybasic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Meirav; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2006-06-01

    Plant ROPs (or RACs) are soluble Ras-related small GTPases that are attached to cell membranes by virtue of the post-translational lipid modifications of prenylation and S-acylation. ROPs (RACs) are subdivided into two major subgroups called type-I and type-II. Whereas type-I ROPs terminate with a conserved CaaL box and undergo prenylation, type-II ROPs undergo S-acylation on two or three C-terminal cysteines. In the present work we determined the sequence requirement for association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane. We identified a conserved sequence motif, designated the GC-CG box, in which the modified cysteines are flanked by glycines. The GC-CG box cysteines are separated by five to six mostly non-polar residues. Deletion of this sequence or the introduction of mutations that change its nature disrupted the association of ROPs with the membrane. Mutations that changed the GC-CG box glycines to alanines also interfered with membrane association. Deletion of a polybasic domain proximal to the GC-CG box disrupted the plasma membrane association of AtROP10. A green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the C-terminal 25 residues of AtROP10, including its polybasic domain and GC-CG box, was primarily associated with the plasma membrane but a similar fusion protein lacking the polybasic domain was exclusively localized in the soluble fraction. These data provide evidence for the minimal sequence required for plasma membrane association of type-II ROPs in Arabidopsis and other plant species.

  11. 试管婴儿与自然受孕儿早产儿视网膜病变发病率的相关研究%A survey on retinopathy of prematurity of in vitro fertilization versus natural conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 郑穗联

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨自然受孕儿与试管婴儿的早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)发病率差异性及相关影响因素分析.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至2012年4月间就诊于温州医科大学附属第二医院&育英儿童医院的早产儿共1 183例的临床资料,将其中1 058例自然受孕儿设为Ⅰ组,125例试管婴儿设为Ⅱ组,将ROP筛查结果记录,对两组ROP发病率差异性进行pear-son x2检验,将胎数、出生体质量、孕周、新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、动脉导管未闭、新生儿高胆红素血症、颅内出血、新生儿窒息、先天性心脏病、新生儿贫血、新生儿败血症、支气管肺发育不良等疾病与ROP进行spearman相关性统计学分析.结果 Ⅰ组中ROP有138例,发病率为13.0%;Ⅱ组中ROP有17例,发病率为13.6%,两组ROP发病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).以胎数、出生体质量、孕周分类,两组的ROP发病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).出生体质量、孕周与ROP呈负相关(r=-0.13,-0.159,P<0.05);胎数与ROP无关(P>0.05);新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征与ROP呈正相关(r=0.096,P<0.05);动脉导管未闭等疾病与ROP均无关(P>0.05).结论 温州地区自然受孕儿与试管婴儿ROP发病率没有显著性差异.%Objective To investigate whether the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) differs between infants conceived naturally and those who were in vitro fertilization (IVF),and to analyze ROP-related factors,with a comparative case series.Methods This was a study on premature infants who required screening and treatment of ROP in the Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University,carried out between January 2008 and April 2012.One thousand and one hundred eighty three infants met the study criteria and were divided into two groups:natural conception (group Ⅰ,1058 infants) and IVF (group Ⅱ,125 infants).Multiple variables were recorded,including birth weight (BW

  12. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function du

  13. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function

  14. Recent advances of medicine treatment research in retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变药物治疗研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玲; 冯光强

    2014-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变( retinopathy of prematurity ,ROP)是一种未成熟或低体重出生婴儿的增生性视网膜病变,目前国内临床上治疗主要是冷冻治疗和激光光凝,近年来药物性治疗及基础研究已有一些报道,本文对贝伐单抗、雷珠单抗及其他几个研究性药物治疗ROP研究新进展进行综述。%Retinopathy of prematurity ( ROP) is a vasoproliferative retinopathy with unmatured and low weight infants. Now in domestic, the main treatment methods are cryotherapy and laser coagulation, there are some medication treatment researches and fundamental researches that have been reported in recent years.This review describes the application of bevacizumab, ranibizumab and other research-based drugs in new progress of the treatment study for ROP.

  15. Early nursing intervention of retinopathy of premature children%早产儿视网膜病变的早期护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋霞梅; 钟春霞; 韦素松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early screening; treatment and care methods of the retinopathy (ROP) of preterm children. Methods 210 premature children born in our hospital were selected to conduct eye screening,treatment and care from January to December 2009.The nursing key points were summarized. Results Among 210 preterm children,15 cases occurred ROP,the rate was 7.1%.Lesions appeared to be the threshold for laser treatment in 8 patients (16 eyes),accounting for 3.8%.The ROP morbidity rate was higher in birth weight ≤ 1000 g group than that in birth weight > 1000 g group,higher in gestational age ≤32-week group than that in gestational age> 32 weeks,higher in the inhalation oxygen concentration ≤ 96% group than in inhalation oxygen concentration > 96% group.Significant difference existed in ROP and non-ROP preterm children. Conclusions The incidence of retinopathy of premature children was closely related with low gestational age,low birth weight and prolonged and high-concentration oxygen inhalation,timely screening and early intervention care should be given to them.%目的 探讨早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的早期筛查、治疗及护理方法.方法 选择2009年1~12月在我院出生的210例早产儿,进行眼部筛查、治疗及护理,将护理要点进行总结.结果 210例早产儿中,有15例发生ROP,发生率为7.1%.出现阈值病变需进行激光治疗者8例(16只眼)占3.8%.出生体质量≤1000 g组的ROP患病率显著高于出生体质量>1000 g组,孕周≤32周组的ROP患病率显著高于孕周>32周组,吸氧浓度≤96%组的ROP患病率低于吸氧浓度>96%组.无ROP与有ROP的早产儿吸氧时间相比差异显著.结论 早产儿视网膜病变的发生与低胎龄、低出生体质量和高浓度、长时间吸氧关系密切,应及时筛查,早期进行护理干预.

  16. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  17. Curative effect comparison of argon ion laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity%多波长氩离子激光治疗早产儿视网膜病变的疗效对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫东; 武辉; 董宇; 李松鹤; 宋鄂

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较多波长氩离子激光治疗急进性与阈值期或阈值前期早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的临床效果.方法 临床病例回顾性对照研究.对2008年5月至2010年12月在白求恩第一医院眼科接受氩离子激光治疗的48例(94只眼)患有ROP患儿的临床资料.将其分为两组,一组:急进性早产儿视网膜病变(AP-ROP)组;二组:阈值期或阈值前期早产儿视网膜病变组.将两组ROP患儿采用多波长氩离子激光治疗的疗效及两组间各相关因素进行比较研究.结果 48例(94只眼)患儿中18例(36只眼)为AP-ROP,治愈率88.89%;30例(58只眼)为阈值期或阈值前期ROP,治愈率94.83%,两组ROP患儿的治愈率比较差异无统计学意义(x2=1.17,P=0.286,P>0.05).两组间各相关因素比较,新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(x2=11.27,P<0.05)及早产儿贫血(x2=7.27,P<0.05)两组间差异具有统计学意义.患儿的性别、胎龄、激光治疗时矫正胎龄、出生体重、败血症、新生儿肺炎、先天性心脏病等因素两组间差异无统计学意义.结论 氩离子激光治疗AP-ROP及阈值期或阈值前期ROP是安全且有效的,AP-ROP激光治疗治愈率较阈值期或阈值前期ROP低,新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征及新生儿贫血是影响ROP患儿激光光凝治愈率的危险因素.%Objective To make a comparative analysis of the clinical results with argon ion laser treatment between aggressive retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and threshold (or prethreshold) retinopathy of prematurity.Methods A retrospective comparative analysis of 48 consecutive infants with ROP (94 eyes) and all the infants had required argon ion laser treatment in our hospital.These infants were divided into 2 groups:group A carried a diagnosis of aggressive retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP) and group B of threshold (or prethreshold) retinopathy of prematurity.The association between factors relevant and the efficacy outcomes of two ROP

  18. Insight on pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation: inverse relationship between lifelong premature ejaculation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, A; Ekmekcioglu, O

    2010-01-01

    Although both biological and psychological factors are important in the etiology, the exact pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) remains to be clarified. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that contributes to many chronic diseases. Obesity is associated with erectile dysfunction, but the relationship between obesity and PE has not yet been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of these two conditions. Between January 2008 and December 2009, we evaluated consecutive patients with lifelong PE in the urology outpatient clinic. Control cases without lifelong PE were selected randomly among cases attending the department of internal medicine for a checkup procedure. The age and sex of control group were matched with that of the study group. Body mass index (BMI) of each case was calculated using the World Health Organization criteria by the measurements of the physician instead of relying on verbal expressions. The mean (+/-s.d.) age of the premature ejaculators was 31.7+/-5.7 (range 21-51) years and in the control cases it was 32.3+/-6.7 (range 22-54) years. The comparison of the mean (+/-s.d.) weight between the study (74.1+/-11.2 kg) and control groups (81.9+/-6.4 kg) revealed a significant difference (Pobese cases in the control group (n=26, 24.1%) was three times greater than the obese premature ejaculators (Pobesity, and we found that patients with lifelong PE were leaner than the healthy control cases.

  19. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  20. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  1. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  2. 早产儿视网膜病变治疗新进展%New development of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛国; 曾军

    2006-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是早产儿和低体重儿发生的一种视网膜血管增生性病变,近年来随着我国医疗条件和水平的提高,早产儿的存活率不断提高,同时ROP的发生率也相应的增加.ROP发展到晚期治疗相当棘手,早期发现,及时治疗可能挽救部分患儿的视力.治疗方法主要有冷凝治疗,光凝治疗,玻璃体切割手术治疗等方法.

  3. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  4. Development of a Model for the Simulation of ROPS Tests on Agricultural Tractors Cabin: Numerical Models and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baragetti,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is here proposed a methodology for simulation of ROPS tests (ROPS = Roll Over Protective Structure of agricultural tractor cabins. The work is based on the resolution of this problem through the use of the finite element method. In order to limit the number of nodes of the model and thus to speed up the resolution,a twodimensional finite elements model has been chosen. The method presented here solves with relative ease, even very complex structures. There are also simplest methods in literature where specially made software is based on the finite element method for simulating approval tests on ROPS structures. In this case,codes developed just for this purposeare available, and therefore very simple to use and characterized by a high speed of preparation of the model following the definition of a small number of parameters. On the other side these are codes designed for structures having a specific geometric shape and in which the user is not free to set all the parameters existing in commercial software for the structural calculation, and are not very suitable in case of complex or not conventional structures. The methodology proposed by the authors instead, although not automated, allows simulating any type of structure in acceptable times. The results were validated by full scale experimental tests. Through the interpretation of the results it is possible to identify which areais the most critical for the structure and evaluate any change, something which is not easy to do through expensive tests.

  5. Surfactant treatment in premature infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, AAE; Keli, SO; van der Meulen, GN; Wiersma, H; Arias, M; Angelista, IR; Muskiet, FD

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates has been established as an effective treatment, although significant mortality and morbidity remain. In Curacao, surfactant became available as a therapeutic option in 1994. A retrospective cohort study was

  6. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Preeti Patil; Kekunnaya, Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI). Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  7. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  8. Structural and functional results of indirect diode laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity from 1999 to 2003 in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani VB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vivek B Wani,1,2 Khalid Al Sabti,1,3 Niranjan Kumar,1 Seemant Raizada,1 Jamal Al Kandari,1 Mohammad Al Harbi,4 Rima Sawaan,5 Usha Rajaram,6 Niran Al-Naqeeb,7 Mumtaz Shukkur81Department of Ophthalmology, Al Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait city, Kuwait; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Al Adan Hospital, Al Adan, Kuwait; 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jabriya, Kuwait; 4Department of Neonatology, Al Sabah Maternity Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Department of Neonatology, Al Farwaniya Hospital, Al Farwaniya, Kuwait; 6Department of Neonatology, Al Jahra Hospital, Al Jahra, Kuwait; 7Department of Neonatology, Al Adan Hospital, Al Adan, Kuwait; 8Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jabriya, KuwaitPurpose: The purpose was to report the structural, visual, and refractive outcomes of infants treated for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP with laser and to identify the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes.Materials and methods: The charts of infants with severe ROP treated by diode laser in a tertiary center during the period April 1999 to November 2003 were reviewed. Treated infants were followed up for fundus examination, visual acuity assessment, and cycloplegic refraction. Data regarding ocular risk factors, like zones of ROP and the extent of extraretinal proliferations, and data regarding various systemic risk factors were collected. A minimum follow up of 6 months was needed for inclusion in the study of structural outcome. A minimum follow up of 24 months was needed for the study of visual and refractive outcomes. The outcomes measured were: rate of unfavorable structural outcome, unfavorable visual outcome (visual acuity < 20/40, and high myopia (myopia ≥ 5 diopters. The ocular and systemic risk factors were studied for their significance in the development of unfavorable outcomes.Results: Two hundred seventy eyes of 148 infants were treated for severe ROP, out of which 20 eyes (7.4% had unfavorable structural

  9. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of severe retinopathy of prematurity with birth mass more than 1500 g%出生体质量超过1500g早产儿严重ROP的发病特点及治疗预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 张国明; 唐松; 曾键

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究出生体质量超过1 500 g早产儿严重早产几视网膜病变(retinopathyof prematurity,ROP)发病特点及其治疗预后.方法 收集2006年1月至2009年6月在我院进行激光光凝治疗的阈值、阈值前1型或急进型后部ROP(aggressive posterior ROP,AP-ROP)患儿中,选择出生体质量>1500g患儿,对其性别、胎龄、出生体质量、母体和患儿全身疾病情况等危险因素进行分析,并对其治疗效果进行评价.结果 共收集患儿33例,男26例,女7例;胎龄28.0~34.3周,平均31.0周;出生体质量为1 500~2 000 g,平均1 700 g;割宫产19例,顺产14例.所有患儿均有吸氧史,母体合并全身疾病者27例;术前诊断13例26眼为阈值前1型ROP,3例6眼为AP-ROP,17例34眼为阈值ROP.26例52眼患儿一次光凝成功.5例10眼补充光凝成功,1例2眼经Avastin玻璃体腔注射后病变稳定,1例2眼病变发展至4期和5期行玻璃体手术后病情控制、稳定.结论 出生体质量超过1500 g早产儿惠严重ROP现象反映本地区ROP防治水平低,早产儿出生前母体全身情况不稳定是造成ROP发病的重要原因之一,该类型ROP病变一般较轻,治疗预后较好.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with birth mass more than 1 500 g. Methods From January 2006 to June 2009, the cases with birth mass greater than or equal to 1 500 g from all the infants in our hospital,who suffered from threshold,pre-threshold (type 1) or aggressive posterior ROP, were selected and underwent laser photocoagulation. The risk factors such as gender,gestational age,birth mass,maternal or infantile systemic disease were analyzed,and their therapeutic efficacy were evaluated. Results Thirty-three cases were found,26 cases were male,7 cases were female; Gestational age were from 28.0 weeks to 34.3 weeks,mean 31.0 weeks;birth mass were from 1 500 g to 2 000 g.meanl 700 g;Nineteen cases were born by caesarean

  10. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  11. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  12. 血管内皮生长因子及胰岛素样生长因子-1在早产儿视网膜病变中的作用%Roles of vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 in retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永亮

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)occurs in the premature infant especially very low birth weight infants.It is an important reason which cause vision loss in children.The main pathological feature of ROP is retinal neovascularization.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play a vital role in neovascularization by controlling the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells.In recent years many clinical studies have shown that intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF and increasing serum IGF-1 level of premature infants in early time is an effective method to prevent ROP.This article,according to the background of domestic and foreign relevant researches,reviews roles of VEGF and IGF-1 in ROP.%早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)多发生于早产儿尤其是极低出生体重儿,是导致儿童视力下降甚至失明的重要原因.视网膜新生血管形成是其主要的病理特点,血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)及胰岛素样生长因子-1(insulin like growth factor-1,IGF-1)通过控制血管内皮细胞增殖,在新生血管形成中起到了关键作用.近年来临床研究表明,玻璃体内注射VEGF抑制剂及生后早期提高早产儿血清IGF-1水平是防治ROP的有效方法.该文以国内外相关研究为背景,综述VEGF及IGF-1在早产儿视网膜病变发病过程中的作用,以及针对其作用机制而采取的防治方法.

  13. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  14. Modern Approach in Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacu Irina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy. Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.

  15. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  16. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  17. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  18. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  19. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  20. 母乳喂养对双胎早产儿视网膜病变发生率及严重程度的影响%The research on the effect of breastfeeding on retinopathy of prematurity among premature twins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战慧荣

    2014-01-01

    ObJective:To provide the evidence of developing treatment strategies which can reduce the retinopathy inci-dence and severity by observing the fundus examination results of twin premature infants who have intake the different con-tent of breast milk or formula milk. Methods:We identified VLBW infants admitted to our hospital clinic from June 2012 though June 2013. All the infants,30 twin premature infants(120 eyes),had received propaganda breast feeding and been divided into the breastfeeding group and the formula feeding group . The two groups of children was enter to be fed by the same standard on the basis of comprehensive treatment. The first ROP fundus examination began on 4 ~ 6 weeks after newborn or correction embryo age for 32 ~ 34 weeks,and following inspection was made according to the stipulation deci-sion. Children had continued follow-up examination after discharge until retinal development to meet the requirements. We established the babyˊs ROP research file and carried on the data analysis. Results:(1)There was no significant difference between the two groups of children with fundus examination results with statistically two samples were comparable. There was no significant difference in ROP lesion degree and the operation rate between the two groups,P > 0. 05,and.(2)The Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the days with oxygen and breastfeeding were associated with ROP,the number of days with oxygen was a risk factor,and breastfeeding was a protective factor. Conclusion:Oxygen is a risk factor and breastfeeding is a protection factor for premature twins retinopathy. In addition,there is a correlation between breast-feeding and the incidence,disease severity and operation rate of ROP among premature twins .%目的:通过观察摄入母乳或早产儿配方乳的双胎早产患儿眼底检查结果,评价母乳喂养对双胎早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity ,ROP)的发病率及严

  1. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  2. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  3. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  4. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  5. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  6. Clinical Evidence for the Prevention of Retinopathy of Prematurity%预防早产儿视网膜病的临床证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍金林; 熊英; 母得志

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨与早产儿视网膜病(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)预防相关的临床证据及其应用价值.方法 采用文献检索方法,检索 MEDLINE,OVID,EMBASE和Cochrane图书馆数据库收录文献中,有关预防早产儿视网膜病系统评价和随机对照研究(randomized controlled trial,RCT)或半随机对照研究(quasi-randomized controlled trial,qRCT)并进行分析.检索关键词为:premature infants;retinopathy of prematurity;ROP;prevention of ROP;light exposure reduction;oxygen therapy;indomethacin;inositol;D-penicillamine;corticosteroids;erythropoietin;vitamin E;blood transfusion;breast milk feeding;systemic review;clinical evidence;randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials;RCT.结果 10项系统评价和6项随机或半随机对照研究涉及预防早产儿视网膜病的临床试验,包括使用早期避光措施、高血氧饱和度、吲哚美辛、皮质激素、肌糖、D 青霉胺、维生素E、促红细胞生成素、输血和母乳喂养等方法,其中肌糖、D青霉胺和母乳喂养在一定程度上能降低早产儿视网膜病发病率和严重程度.结论 目前临床证据显示,对预防早产儿视网膜病尚无确切有效的可推荐方法.肌糖、D青霉胺和母乳喂养对预防早产儿视网膜病的作用,尚待更多前瞻性随机或半随机对照研究证实其安全性和有效性.

  7. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  8. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  9. Preparation of Bottlebrush Polymers via a One-Pot Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) Grafting-Through Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Matson, John B

    2016-04-01

    Bottlebrush polymers are synthesized using a tandem ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) strategy. For the first time, ROP and ROMP are conducted sequentially in the same pot to yield well-defined bottlebrush polymers with molecular weights in excess of 10(6) Da. The first step of this process involves the synthesis of a polylactide macromonomer (MM) via ROP of d,l-lactide initiated by an alcohol-functionalized norbornene. ROMP grafting-through is then carried out in the same pot to produce the bottlebrush polymer. The applicability of this methodology is evaluated for different MM molecular weights and bottlebrush backbone degrees of polymerization. Size-exclusion chromatographic and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses confirm excellent control over both polymerization steps. In addition, bottlebrush polymers are imaged using atomic force microscopy and stain-free transmission electron microscopy on graphene oxide.

  10. 早产儿视网膜病变的筛查及其相关因素研究%Screening of Retinopathy of Premature Infants and Its Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘轶文

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析早产儿视网膜病变的筛查结果及其相关因素。方法选取我院2012年1月~2016年5月收治的320例早产儿作为本次实验的目标对象,对320例早产儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,并对其实施视网膜病变筛查,分析筛查结果及其相关因素。结果320例早产儿经筛查显示,有23例(7.19%)为ROP,同时研究发现,ROP组早产儿和非ROP组早产儿之间的体质量、胎龄、机械通气、吸氧>10 d、输血治疗机率对比,差异均具有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论导致早产儿发生视网膜病变的因素主要为低体质量、小胎龄、长时间吸氧、机械通气治疗、输血治疗等。%Objective To analyze the screening results and related factors of retinopathy of premature infants.Methods From January 2012 to May 2016, 320 cases of premature infants in our hospital were selected as the experimental object, the clinical data of 320 cases of premature infants were retrospectively analyzed, and the implementation of retinopathy screening, screening results and related factors analysis.Results 320 cases of premature infants after screening showed that there were 23 cases (7.19%) of ROP, while the study found that between ROP group and non ROP preterm premature infants body weight, gestational age, mechanical ventilation, oxygen > 10 d, blood transfusion treatment, there were signiifcant differences,P< 0.05.Conclusion The main factors that lead to the occurrence of retinopathy in preterm infants are low body mass, small gestational age, long time oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion.

  11. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  12. 弓形虫ROP2基因在大肠杆菌内高效表达条件的优化%Study on the High Expression of ROP2 Gene of Toxoplasma gondii in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 赵年彪; 赵俊龙

    2007-01-01

    采用SDS-PAGE方法检测弓形虫(Toxoplasma gondii)棒状体蛋白(Rhoptry protein)ROP2基因原核表达质粒在大肠杆菌BL21CodonPlus中的表达量.通过改变菌体密度、诱导剂浓度和诱导时间进行高效表达条件的优化.结果显示,在菌体密度D600 nm为0.6、IPTG浓度为0.4 mmol·L-1和诱导表达3.5 h时,融合蛋白的表达量最大,达到 159 mg·L-1培养液.这为利用重组ROP2研究和制备弓形虫病的诊断抗原奠定基础.

  13. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit, 1985-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M; Peitersen, Birgit

    1993-01-01

    During the 7 year period 1985 to 1991, 170 infants born in Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, with birthweight out. Forty-five infants had ophthalmoscopic evidence of retinopathy......, or mode of delivery. Significant difference was found in gestational age, asphyxia, intensive treatment and complications. Particularly infants with ROP born with gestational age 27 to 29 weeks needed prolonged and more intensive treatment than infants without ROP. Infants with ROP had more frequently...

  15. Analysis of oxygen related factors about retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变吸氧相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李之喆; 强丽莉; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨苏州地区早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的发病情况以及与吸氧的相关性.方法:选择2011-05/2012-05在苏州及其周边地区符合ROP筛查标准的早产儿234例,出生体质量650~2 550g,孕周27+4~36wk,并将其分为吸氧组与未吸氧组.运用卡方检验对数据进行统计学分析.结果:吸氧和未吸氧对ROP发病率的影响无显著性差异.结论:检验结果表明在氧浓度控制后,吸氧与未吸氧对ROP的影响无显著差异.说明吸氧并非ROP发生的直接原因,限定了氧的使用并不能完全阻止ROP 的出现.

  16. Screening of Host Cell Proteins that Interact with Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 via Yeast Two-hybrid System%酵母双杂交筛选与弓形虫毒力因子ROP18相互作用的宿主蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都建; 安然; 程里; 陈滢; 沈继龙

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用酵母双杂交方法,筛选与弓形虫毒力因子ROP18相互作用的宿主蛋白. 方法 RT-PCR扩增弓形虫RH株速殖子ROP18基因片段,扩增产物经双酶切后插入酵母双杂交诱饵载体pGBKT7中,将重组质粒导入酵母AH109菌株中,检测诱饵载体有无毒性和自激活作用,利用酵母双杂交系统从人胚胎脑cDNA文库中筛选与ROP18相互作用的宿主蛋白. 结果 构建了诱饵载体pGBKT7-ROP18,ROP18具有自激活功能.用ROP1825-251aa为诱饵,筛选获得一系列与ROP18相互作用的宿主蛋白:DNA损伤特异性结合蛋白1(DDB1)、torsin A相互作用蛋白1(TOR1AIP1)、整联蛋白β31 (integrinβ1)、溶质运载蛋白3(SLC3A2)、酪氨酸硫化转移酶2(TPST2)、Derl样域家族成员2 (DERL2)和OCIA结构域蛋白1(OCIAD1). 结论 通过酵母双杂交技术筛选出与弓形虫毒力因子ROP18相互作用的多种宿主蛋白.%Objective To screen the host cell proteins that can interact with Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 by using yeast two-hybrid system. Methods The ROP18 gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR from mRNA of T. gondii RH strain. The product of RT-PCR was digested with double restriction enzyme and was subcloned into the bait vector pGBKT7. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into yeast AH109 strain. Its toxicity and the autonomous activating activity were tested. The human fetal brain cDNA library was screened with pGBKT7-ROP1825-25laa as the bait plasmid by yeast two-hybrid system. Results The bait was constructed and AH109/PGBKT7-ROP18 showed an autonomous activity. The yeast strain AH109/pGBKT7-ROP1825-251aa line was then mated with the Mate & PlateTM Human Fetal Brain cDNA library. Using the selection procedures, eight novel host cell proteins were obtained: damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), torsin A interacting protein 1 (TOR1AIP1), integrin beta 1, solute carrier family 3 (SLC3A2), tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST2), OCIA domain containing 1 (OCIAD1

  17. ROP MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ROTARY-ULTRASONIC CORE DRILLING OF BRITTLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mera Fayez Horne

    2017-03-01

    the effect of the variation of different parameters on rate of penetration performance as a first step of the investigation. It was found that the speed and WOB have significant effect on ROP while the rest of the parameter have very little or no effect.

  18. 670nm photobiomodulation as a novel protection against retinopathy of prematurity: evidence from oxygen induced retinopathy models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Natoli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate the validity of using 670nm red light as a preventative treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in two animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During and post exposure to hyperoxia, C57BL/6J mice or Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 670 nm light for 3 minutes a day (9J/cm². Whole mounted retinas were investigated for evidence of vascular abnormalities, while sections of neural retina were used to quantify levels of cell death using the TUNEL technique. Organs were removed, weighed and independent histopathology examination performed. RESULTS: 670 nm light reduced neovascularisation, vaso-obliteration and abnormal peripheral branching patterns of retinal vessels in OIR. The neural retina was also protected against OIR by 670 nm light exposure. OIR-exposed animals had severe lung pathology, including haemorrhage and oedema, that was significantly reduced in 670 nm+OIR light-exposed animals. There were no significance differences in the organ weights of animals in the 670 nm light-exposed animals, and no adverse effects of exposure to 670 nm light were detected. DISCUSSION: Low levels of exposure to 670 nm light protects against OIR and lung damage associated with exposure to high levels of oxygen, and may prove to be a non-invasive and inexpensive preventative treatment for ROP and chronic lung disease associated with prematurity.

  19. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  20. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  1. Different ventilation modes combined with ambroxol in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhai, Jing-Fang; Wu, Jie-Bin; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yan-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different modes of mechanical ventilation in combination with secretolytic therapy with ambroxol in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Seventy-three premature infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) (stage III–IV), also known as respiratory distress syndrome, who were supported by mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Xuzhou Central Hospital, were involved in the present study, between January 2013 and February 2015. Forty cases were randomly selected and treated with high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), forming the HFOV group, whereas 33 cases were selected and treated with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), forming the CMV group. Patients in the two groups were administered ambroxol intravenously at a dosage rate of 30 mg/kg body weight at the beginning of the study. The present study involved monitoring the blood gas index as well as changes in the respiratory function index in the two groups. Additionally, the incidence of complications in the premature infants in the two groups was observed prior to and following the ventilation. Pulmonary arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), the PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, the oxygenation index [OI = 100 × mean airway pressure (MAP) × FiO2/PaO2], as well as the arterial/alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio (a/APO2) = PaO2/(713 × FiO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)/0.8) of the patients in the HFOV group after 1, 12 and 24 h of treatment were significantly improved as compared to the patients of the CMV group. However, there was no significant difference between patients in the two groups with regard to the number of mortalities, complications such as pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and the time of ventilation. In conclusion, combining HFOV

  2. 早产儿视网膜病筛查及相关因素的临床分析%Clinical Evaluation on the Screening of Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Relevant Risk Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应金; 黄建伟; 黄润忠; 梁凤潇; 苏永棉; 张金凤; 廖南萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the screening of retmopathy of prematurity ( ROP) and its related risk factors.Methods From January 2009 to December 2010,a total of 250 preterm newborns were recruited into this study.The gestational ages were less than 36 gestational weeks,birth weights were under 2500 g.All the cases underwent ROP screening at one week after birth,and then received regular follow-up until peripheral retinal neovascularization or lesion degradation.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Shunde,Jinan University.Informed consent was obtained from the parents of each participating neonate.The relationship among ROP and systemic conditions and oxygen inhalation of newborns,oxygen inhalation volume of mother during pregnancy,preeclampsia,placental abruption and other factors were analyzed,respectively.Results All the 250 newborns completed the retinal screening.A total of 16 newborns (26 eyes) were found ROP,and the prevalence rate of ROP were 6.4% (16/250) and 5.2% (26/500),respectively,in which 12 cases (75.0%) of grade 1,3(18.8%) of grade 2 and 1 (6.3%)of grade 3.Univariate analysis of risk factors of ROP showed gestational age,birth weight,oxygen inhalation time,oxygen inhalation concentration,mechanical ventilation were associated with ROP (P< 0.05).Oxygen inhalation during pregnancy,preeclampsia,placental abruption had no correlation with ROP(P> 0.05).Conclusions Premature birth,high concentrations of oxygen inhalation,mechanical ventilation are major risk factors of ROP.Preterm newborns should have regular screening and follow-up in order to find the lesion as soon as possible to decrease the incidence rate of blindness.%目的 了解早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发生状况,并探讨ROP的相关危险因素.方法 选择2009年1月至2010年12月在本院新生儿科住院的250例早产儿为研究对象,胎龄≤36孕周,出生体重≤2500

  3. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  4. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  5. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  6. Correlation between pregnancy complication, perinatal infection, and retinopathy of prematurity%妊娠并发症及围产期感染与早产儿视网膜病变的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭娟; 沙翔垠; 杨瑞明; 郑瑜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between pregnancy complication , perinatal infection and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods One hundred and eighty-four infants born in our hospital between May 2009 and October 2011 were included in this study. They were screened for ROP from 4 weeks to 6 weeks of chronological age or 32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Analysis was performed about birth weight,gestational age,pregnancy complication,perinatal infection,oxygen therapy and ROP. Results Twenty-one patients were detected with ROP in 184 infants,and the incidence of ROP was 11.41%. The incidence was high in low birth weight,short gestational age infants. It was found the high incidence in the infants with pregnancy complication, and perinatal infection. There was a positive correlation between ROP and birth weight,gestational age, pregnancy complication, perinatal infection, and no correlation between ROP and gender, oxygen therapy, Apgar scores. Conclusion Low birth weight,short gestational age, pregnancy complication, and perinatal infection are risk factors for ROP.%目的 探讨妊娠并发症及围产期感染与早产儿视网膜病变发病情况的相关性.方法 收集2009年5月至2011年10月在我院出生的184例早产儿,生后4~6周矫正胎龄32周开始筛查患儿.对出生体质量、孕周、妊娠并发症、围产期感染、氧疗等与早产儿视网膜病变发病情况进行相关分析.结果 184例早产儿中检出21例早产儿视网膜病变,检出率11.41%.出生体质量低、孕周短,早产儿视网膜病变的患病率高.合并母体妊娠并发症、围产期有感染史的患儿早产儿视网膜病变发病率也明显增高.孕周、体质量、妊娠并发症和围产期感染史与早产儿视网膜病变的发病具有正相关性;性别、吸氧、出生后Apgar评分与早产儿视网膜病变无相关性.结论 低出生体质量、短孕周、妊娠期并发症及围产期感染早产儿易发生早产儿视网膜病变.

  7. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  8. 早产儿视网膜病变血清代谢通路研究进展%Research progress on serum metabonome in retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧林; 张国明; 张福燕; 曾键

    2016-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是一类发生于早产、低体质量儿的视网膜血管异常增殖性致盲眼病.目前,ROP发病机理尚不清楚.深入研究ROP病理生理变化和发病机制,并采取有效措施阻断这一过程,将有利于从根本上预防ROP或阻止ROP严重病变的发生.寻找可用于ROP诊断的潜在血清特异性标志物,可为ROP发病机制研究和临床试验奠定基础.本文对ROP血清代谢通路研究新进展进行综述.

  9. 早产儿视网膜病变模型研究进展%Research progress in model of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白贤明; 朱丹

    2011-01-01

    目前,早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)已经成为世界范围内儿童致盲的重要原因,约占儿童致盲原因的6%~18%.防治ROP以改善早产儿的生存质量已成为全球关注的焦点.因此,建立合适的视网膜新生血管动物模型已成为探讨视网膜新生血管的发生机制并评估其药物治疗效果的重要手段.本文对用各种模型模拟ROP的发生过程进行综述.

  10. 6例早产儿视网膜病变的护理%Nursing about 6 cases with retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 杨侠; 张晶; 元静; 荆利利; 张颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ 早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP),是早产、低体重儿发生的一种视网膜毛细血管发育异常的双侧眼病.根据病变的严重程度ROP可分5期:1期或2期仅需临床观察,对于阈值病变3期应尽早行激光治疗;病变进展到4期或5期后,即使手术成功也只能使患儿保留光感或较低视力[1];未治疗患儿病变进展重者可引起视网膜脱离而导致永久失明.

  11. Role of infection/inflammation in retinopathy of prematurity%感染/炎症在早产儿视网膜病变中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琴; 王雨生; 张自峰

    2015-01-01

    感染/炎症是早产的重要启动因素,同时感染也是早产儿常见的并发症.近来,临床研究提示早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)与新生儿或母体的感染/炎症相关;基础研究也发现炎症可影响视网膜血管的正常发育,参与调控视网膜新生血管的形成.了解感染/炎症在ROP中的可能作用,对于ROP的早期诊断和防治有重要意义.本文就感染/炎症与ROP的关系及相关的作用机制进行综述.

  12. A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY TREATED WITH PHOTOCOAGULATION AND CRYOTHERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWASE, SAYOKO; KANEKO, HIROKI; FUJIOKA, CHIEKO; SUGIMOTO, KOTA; KONDO, MINEO; TAKAI, YOSHIKO; KACHI, SHU; TERASAKI, HIROKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To evaluate the refractive characteristics of adults diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with ablation treatment as children, we measured best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR), spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and the corneal curvature radius (CCR) from 46 eyes, 24 patients (15–30 years old) that were diagnosed with ROP. Patients were divided into two groups dependent on the size of the treated retina at the time of ablation treatment; i.e., 360° group (treatment over the whole circumference of the retina; n=18) and partial group (treatment over part of the retina; n=28). The study showed that LT was significantly larger (P<1×10–4) and ACD was significantly shorter (P<1×10–3) in 360° group (4.26±0.40 mm and 2.92±0.48 mm, respectively) than those in partial group (3.71±0.34 mm and 3.42±0.26 mm, respectively). However, there were no differences in SER (–6.52±3.54 diopter vs. –5.95±4.12 diopter, P=0.31), AL (23.9±1.42 mm vs. 25.0±1.48 mm, P=0.08) and CCR (7.59±0.37 mm vs. 7.59±0.19 mm, P=0.86). These results indicated that the eyes in the 360° group had larger LTs but did not have extended ALs compared with the partial group. PMID:25129998

  13. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  14. Research Progress of High Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变高危因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方续兰

    2012-01-01

    In recent years as the neonatal intensive care unit( NICU )has been popularized in many countries and the increasing levels of medical care, more premature infant survived, which brings along the increasing incidence of retinopathy of prematurity( ROP )and a common concern in the society. The pathogene-sis is unclear at present,but premature birth,low birth weight,unreasonable oxygen using,etc. are the major risk factors; secondly, recombinant human erythropoietin using, infection, hyperglycemia, pregnant women smoking,racial genetic differences are associated with it closely.%近些年随着各国新生儿重症监护室的普及以及医疗救治水平的不断提高,更多的早产儿得以存活,随之早产儿视网膜病变的发病率也不断提高,已成为社会普遍关注的问题.目前发病机制还不清楚,早产、低出生体质量、不合理吸氧等为早产儿视网膜病变的主要高危因素,其次重组人促红细胞生成素的使用、感染、高血糖、孕妇吸烟、种族基因差异等因素与之密切相关.

  15. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  16. Use of the "gl1" Mutant and the "CA-rop2" Transgenic Plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in the Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of the "glabrous1 (g11)" mutant and constitutively active "(CA)-rop2" transgenic plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in teaching genetics laboratory for both high school and undergraduate students. The experiments provide students with F[subscript 1] and F[subscript 2] generations within a semester for genetic and…

  17. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  18. Progeria: a rare genetic premature ageing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Shampa; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-05-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  19. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs. As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent ′drug of hope′ for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  1. Induction of immune responses in mice by vaccination with Liposome-entrapped DNA complexes encoding Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 and ROP1 genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海峰; 陈观今; 郑焕钦; 郭红

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immune responses induced by experimental DNA construct encoding Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) surface antigen1 (SAG1) and rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1) in mice as a hybrid gene. Methods Truncated SAG1 and ROP1 DNA fragments were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inserted into pEGFP-N3 vector to construct recombinant plasmid pSAG1-ROP1. NIH3T3 mammalian cells were transiently transfected with the DNA construct. Female BALB/c mice were given three intramuscular injections of 10 μg plasmid DNA entrapped in liposome. Four weeks after the final booster injection, blood samples were collected and subjected to enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Reversal transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the transcription of inoculated DNA-liposome complex in the injected site. Dot-blot hybridization was employed in order to detect whether or not the injected DNA was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the immunized mice.Results Green fluorescence was observed in pSAG1-ROP1-transfected cells. Western blot analysis showed antibody recognition of the expressed SAG1-ROP1 was between 58 kDa and 75 kDa. No expression was observed in blank control plasmid-transfected cells. The sera of immunized mice exhibited antibodies to T.gondii tachyzoites and primarily interferon-γ and interlukin-2. RT-PCR showed that the duration of transcribed inoculated liposome entrapped DNA in the injected muscular tissue was at least ten days post the first injection. Dot-blot hybridization revealed that the presence of foreign DNA in the splenocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes was transient and that no foreign DNA had inserted into the genomic DNA of mice immunized with pSAG1-ROP1. Conclusions Immunization with a liposome-encapsulated DNA construct encoding the T.gondii SAG1 and ROP1 can induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  2. Neurogenesis continues in the third trimester of pregnancy and is suppressed by premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sabrina; Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Vose, Linnea R; Diamond, Daniel; Bhimavarapu, Bala B R; Hu, Furong; Zia, Muhammad T; Hevner, Robert; Zecevic, Nada; Ballabh, Praveen

    2013-01-09

    Premature infants exhibit neurodevelopmental delay and reduced growth of the cerebral cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Therefore, we hypothesized that neurogenesis in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortex would continue in the third trimester of pregnancy and that preterm birth would suppress neurogenesis. To test our hypotheses, we evaluated autopsy materials from human fetuses and preterm infants of 16-35 gestational weeks (gw). We noted that both cycling and noncycling Sox2(+) radial glial cells and Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors were abundant in human preterm infants until 28 gw. However, their densities consistently decreased from 16 through 28 gw. To determine the effect of premature birth on neurogenesis, we used a rabbit model and compared preterm [embryonic day 29 (E29), 3 d old] and term (E32, premature infants, preterm birth suppresses neurogenesis, and hypoxia-mimetic agents might restore neurogenesis, enhance cortical growth, and improve neurodevelopmental outcome of premature infants.

  3. Molybdenum (VI Imido Complexes Derived from Chelating Phenols: Synthesis, Characterization and ɛ-Caprolactone ROP Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of the bulky bi-phenols 2,2′-RCH[4,6-(t-Bu2C6H2OH]2 (R = Me L1MeH2, Ph L1PhH2 with the bis(imido molybdenum(VI tert-butoxides [Mo(NR1(NR2(Ot-Bu2] (R1 = R2 = 2,6-C6H3-i-Pr2; R1 = t-Bu, R2 = C6F5 afforded, following the successive removal of tert-butanol, the complexes [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62L1Me] (1, [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62L1Ph] (2 and [Mo(Nt-Bu(μ-NC6F5(L1Me]2 (3. Similar use of the tri-phenol 2,6-bis(3,5-di-tert -butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl-4-methylphenol (L2H3 with [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62(Ot-Bu2] afforded the oxo-bridged product [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,6(NCMe(μ-OL2H]2 (4, whilst use of the tetra-phenols α,α,α′,α′-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-p- or -m-xylene L3pH4/L3mH4 led to {[Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62]2(μ-L3p} (5 or {[Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62]2(μ-L3m} (6, respectively. Similar use of [Mo(NC6F52(Ot-Bu2] with L3pH4 afforded, after work-up, the complex {[Mo(NC6F5(Ot-Bu2]2(μ-L3p}·6MeCN (7·6MeCN. Molecular structures of 1, 2·CH2Cl2, 3, 4·6MeCN, 6·2C6H14, and 7·6MeCN are reported and these complexes have been screened for their ability to ring open polymerize (ROP ε-caprolactone; for comparative studies the precursor complex [Mo(NC6H3i-Pr2-2,62Cl2(DME] (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane has also been screened. Results revealed that good activity is only achievable at temperatures of ≥100 °C over periods of 1 h or more. Polymer polydispersities were narrow, but observed molecular weights (Mn were much lower than calculated values.

  4. 16家三甲医院新生儿重症监护病房早产儿用氧及早产儿视网膜病变防治现状调查%Present situation of oxygen therapy and retinopathy of prematurity management in premature infants in NICUs : A survey based on 16 tertiary class-one hospitals in the mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NICU早产儿用氧及ROP防治现状调查组

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解国内三甲医院新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)早产儿用氧及早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)防治现状,为进一步规范早产儿用氧及提高ROP防治水平提供参考依据.方法 2010年10月采取专家现场突击检查形式对国内不同地区共16家三甲医院NICU早产儿用氧及ROP筛查和治疗情况进行调查并进行汇总分析.结果 16家医院平均新生儿床位(113.0±67.0)张,2009年平均收治新生儿(3596.6±1609.8)例,其中早产儿(1030.5±580.2)例,胎龄34周以下早产儿(397.8±237.1)例.绝大部分医院对早产儿用氧进行了告知,其中11家告知率100%,但最低用氧告知率仅22.06%.9家NICU用氧指征符合率达到100%,但最低符合率仅20%.所有医院均为中心供氧,但有8家无空氧混合仪,2家无氧浓度测定仪.9家医院用氧记录不完善,6家医院经皮血氧饱和度高于95%比例超过10%,3家医院血气分析高氧分压比例超过10%.所有NICU均已开展ROP筛查,其中3家在外院进行,1家仍为直接眼底镜检查.16家医院共抽查病历1023份,其中612例(59.8%)曾行眼底检查,检出ROP69例,检出率为11.27%,其中阈值ROP 7例,检出率为1.14%.有4家可开展ROP治疗,其中3家为激光治疗,1家为冷凝治疗,8家医院早产儿出院后ROP随访率不足5成.结论 自2004年卫生部早产儿用氧及ROP防治指南颁布以来,我国三级甲等医院NICU在早产儿用氧及ROP防治方面已取得相当成绩,绝大部分对指南执行情况较好,抽检未发现致盲病例,但部分医院仍存在用氧无告知、用氧指征执行不严、氧疗设施不齐、氧浓度监测不力、记录不详、筛查率和随访率低、治疗开展不普遍等问题,有待改进.%Objective To investigate the present status of oxygen therapy and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) management in premature infants in tertiary class-one hospitals of the mainland of China.Methods A non-informed inspection on oxygen

  5. Sexuality in pregnancy and premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, P A; Dodos, D; Mechleris, D

    1984-09-01

    The relation of sexual behaviour during pregnancy to the initiation of labour was investigated in 358 patients of whom 58 were delivered after premature labour and 300 were delivered spontaneously at term. In all patients the mean weekly coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm were investigated by means of a retrospective questionnaire. There was no significant difference in coital or orgasmic frequency between the women who had a premature labour and those who had a spontaneous delivery at term. This was also true when those having premature labour were divided into those starting labour with ruptured membranes and those starting with contractions.

  6. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  7. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  8. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  9. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  10. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  11. 57例早产儿视网膜病变与氧疗危险因素的回顾性调查%Retrospective turkey of 57 cases retinopathy of premature and risk factors for oxygen therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小明; 郑穗联; 陈尚勤; 李昌崇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the occurrence of retinopathy of premature(ROP) and oxygen therapy,including duration of oxygen therapy,oxygen therapy approach,the fluctuations of SpO2,gestational age and birth weight.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007,premature infants in the newborn branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College with a birth weight less than 2 kg underwent ophthalmologie examination.Follow-ups lasted for more than 6 months.Gestational age,birth weight,duration of oxygen therapy and approach,and the fluctuations of SpO2 were recorded.Single factor chi-square test was applied to analyze the morbidity of ROP with different factors.Results Among 57 premature infants who were analyzed,the prevalence of BOP in the subgroup with the maximum of SpO2≥96% (73.1%)was significantly higher than that of the subgroup with the maximum of SpO2 32 weeks (31.8%,x2 =6.226,P = 0.013).Conclusions Shorter postconceptional age might result in higher ROP incidence.The maximum of SpO2 ≥96% or the minimum of SpO2 <70% could increase the incidence of ROP.It was suggested that SpO2 should be controlled within a range of 70% -96% in the process of oxygen therapy.%目的 探讨氧疗时间、氧疗方式以及血氧饱和度(SpO2)波动及胎龄、出生体质量与早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of premature,ROP)发生之间的相关性.方法 对2004年6月至2007年12月我院收住的出生体质量≤2 kg的早产儿进行ROP筛查,随诊6个月以上,记录患儿的胎龄、出生体质量、氧疗时间、氧疗方式以及SpO2波动,对不同因素ROP的发生率分组采用x2检验作单因数分析.结果 在接受筛查的57例患儿中,SpO2最高值≥96%的ROP发病率(73.1%)显著大于SpO2最高值<96%的ROP发病率(36.4%)(x2=6.537,P=0.011),SpO2最低值<70%的ROP发病率(75.0%)显著大于SpO2最高值≥70%的ROP发病率(44.4%)(x2=4.989,P=0.027).孕期<32周组的ROP患病率(65.7%)显著高于孕期≥32

  12. Designing ancillary ligands for heteroleptic/homoleptic zinc complex formation: synthesis, structures and application in ROP of lactides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzkiewicz, D; Ejfler, J; Gulia, N; John, Ł; Szafert, S

    2015-08-14

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of new amino-phenol/naphthol ligands (L(1,2)-H) have been developed and their respective zinc complexes ( 1 and 2-Zn ) have been synthesized. The molecular structures of L(1)-H and 1, 2-Zn were explored in detail by NMR, single-crystal X-ray studies and DFT calculations, which confirmed the existence of complexes as stabile dimers both in a solution and in the solid state. All complexes mediate the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide highly efficiently, at room temperature, in a controlled fashion. The influence of the architecture of the ligand on the desired homo/heteroleptic complex formation, as well as the relationship between the initiator design and the catalytic activity have been investigated.

  13. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida Soriano Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis.

  15. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level. The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3 and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6. It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05 between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups.

  16. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  17. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  18. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  19. 新生儿视网膜病变与妊娠期危险因素和出生后生长发育状况的关系%Study on relationship between occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity and hazard factors during pregnancy and extrauterine growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛幸

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)与妊娠期危险因素和出生后生长发育状况的关系.方法 收集632例孕妇妊娠期相关临床资料,并对这632例胎龄<34周、体质量<1500 g的早产、低体质量儿进行ROP筛查,记录符合筛查标准的早产儿的体质量,并检测其脐血和血清IGF-1的水平,运用t检验和卡方检验对数据进行统计学分析.结果 632例早产儿中ROP的患儿为79例,患病率为12.50%.孕妇产前感染、有妊娠期吸烟史和妊娠期并发症产下的早产儿ROP患病率分别为25.00%、40.00%和57.47%,明显高于无产前感染、无妊娠期吸烟史及无妊娠期并发症的患病率(2.41%、11.22%、4.59%,均为P<0.05),出生后低脐血IGF-1和低血清IGF-1水平者ROP患病率(47.62%)明显高于各项正常早产儿患病率(1.58%,均为P<0.05).结论 产前感染、妊娠期吸烟和妊娠期并发症是妊娠期导致ROP发病的高危因素,出生后发育迟缓、低脐血IGF-1和低血清IGF-1水平是影响早产儿ROP发生的高危因素.%Objective To explore the relationship between the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity ( ROP) and hazard factors during pregnancy and extrauterine growth. Methods A total of 632 cases of pregnant women associated clinical data were collected, and 632 infants born with gestation age less than 34 weeks or body weight less than 1500 g were enrolled and underwent ophthalm ologic examination. And the serum IGF-I and umbilical cord blood IGF-1 levels were determined in ROP. Results Among 632 premature infants,79 infants were diagnosed as ROP,the incidence was 12. 50% . Pregnant women with prenatal infection, smoking during pregnancy and pregnancy complications produced a significant increase in the incidence of neonatal ROP(25. 00% vs 2. 41% ,40. 00% vs 11. 22% ,57. 47% vs 4. 59% , all P < 0. 05). After the birth,extrauterine growth retardation,lower level of IGF-1 in umbilical

  20. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  2. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  3. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  4. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment...

  5. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  6. (Un)receptiveness in interactions with professionals: experiences of parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, Beatriz Castanheira; Marski, Bruna de Souza Lima; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silveira, Aline Oliveira; Wernet, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (un)receptiveness, Emotional (un)receptiveness, and (Un)receptiveness of rights. The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach. Analisar a influência do acolhimento do profissional de saúde no cuidado parental junto ao filho com retinopatia da prematuridade. Estudo qualitativo desenvolvido sob o referencial teórico do Interacionismo Simbólico e metodológico da pesquisa de narrativas. Foram entrevistados em profundidade e individualmente seis mulheres e três homens, pais de crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade. Os pais vivenciam, nos âmbitos informacional, emocional e de direitos, acolhimento com alguns profissionais e destrato com outros. A predominância da postura de desacolhimento nas narrativas parentais deu origem aos temas de análise: (Des)acolhimento informacional, (Des)acolhimento emocional, e (Des)acolhimento de direitos. O estudo oferece subsídios ao cuidado humano e integral em saúde no contexto da retinopatia da prematuridade ao apontar o processo interativo com os profissionais de saúde enquanto potencial

  7. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  8. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  9. Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of gene ROP16 of Toxoplasma Gondii with Genotype Chinese%Chinese 1基因型弓形虫棒状体蛋白 ROP16的基因克隆表达及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐媛媛; 莫绪维; 陈鹤; 李群; 蔡亦红; 沈继龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:构建弓形虫Chinese 1基因型TgCtWh3(以后均简称Wh3)株棒状体蛋白( rhoptry protein ,ROPs)16的原核和真核重组表达质粒及其3D结构。方法参照ROP16序列分别设计引物,采用PCR从弓形虫Chinese 1基因型Wh3株基因组DNA中扩增出编码ROP16的基因片段,克隆至pMD18-T载体;经PCR及测序分析鉴定;阳性克隆的质粒分别亚克隆至原核表达载体pET-28a和真核表达载体pEGFP-C2,分别转化大肠杆菌BL21和DH5α,PCR和酶切鉴定转化菌落插入的序列;将构建的原核表达菌株经IPTG诱导,SDS-PAGE和免疫印迹分析融合蛋白的表达;将构建的真核重组质粒经脂质体转染293T细胞,观察其在细胞中表达;采用生物信息学方法分析构建了蛋白的3 D结构。结果各组均PCR扩增出约2.1 kb ROP16基因的特异片段,序列检测结果均正确;分别亚克隆到原核表达载体pET-28a和真核表达载体pEGFP-C2中,成功构建了Chinese 1基因型弓形虫棒状体蛋白ROP16的原核表达质粒和真核表达质粒;原核表达质粒在大肠杆菌中表达了ROP16的融合蛋白;真核表达质粒在293T细胞中成功表达,成功构建出ROP16基因的3D结构图。结论以pET-28a和pEGFP-C2为载体,分别成功构建并表达了ROP16的原核和真核重组质粒,并构建出其3D结构图。%Objective construct the Toxoplasma Gondii with Genotype Chinese 1 Wh3 strain rhoptry protein ROP16 in prokaryotic and eukaryoticrecombinant expression plasmid and the structure of 3D .Methods according to the sequences of ROP16 primers were de-signed,from the Chinese 1 gene of Toxoplasma gondiiWh3 strain genome DNA were amplified by ROP16 gene encoded by PCR,cloned into pMD18-T vector by PCR and sequencing analysis;identification;plasmid groups of positive clones were subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a and the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C2,BL21 and DN5a were transformed into

  10. Present situation of retinopathy of prematurity management in mainland China: a survey based on 109 hospitals%国内109家医院早产儿视网膜病防治现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国内地新生儿专业发展现状调查协作组

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解国内医院早产儿视网膜病(ROP)防治现状.方法 采取调查表形式对国内22个省市共109家医院NICU ROP筛查和治疗情况进行调查并汇总分析.结果 109家医院平均新生儿床位为36张(6 ~ 300张,中位数30张),2008年平均收治1276例,其中平均收治极低出生体质量儿74例.109家医院中,57家(52.29%)可在本院开展ROP筛查,52家(47.71%)需到外院筛查.73.78%的三甲医院可自行筛查,三甲以下医院仅25.00%可自行筛查.63家医院提供了筛查手段资料,其中34家使用间接眼底镜,9家使用眼底照相机,仍有20家为直接眼底镜.59家(54.13%)医院配置有测氧仪.19家医院提供了确切的2008年≤34周早产儿的ROP检出率,为0.17%~16.31%,平均3.87%.9家(8.26%)医院可行ROP治疗,其中4家可同时开展激光及冷凝治疗,4家医院可开展激光治疗,1家可开展冷凝治疗.2004年6月至2009年6月,109家医院共12例患儿最终致盲,7家医院曾发生ROP相关纠纷共22例,其中1家医院集中发生15例纠纷.结论 调查显示国内ROP防治状况三甲医院整体好于低等级医院,但总体仍存在筛查、治疗开展率低,筛查手段落后,用氧不规范等问题,仍有ROP致盲和医疗纠纷发生,需要改进.%Objective To investigate the current situation of retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) management in mainland China.Methods ROP management data from the NICU of 109 hospitals located in 22 provinces in mainland China were collected by questionnaire and analyzed accordingly.Results The 109 hospitals had an average of 36 newborn beds (range from 6 to 300,median 30).Average admission in 2008 was 1276 newborns,among which 74 cases were very low birth weight infants.Fifty-seven(52.29%) hospitals conducted retina screening test by the same hospital staff,while the other 52(47.71%) hospitals referred the infants to outside hospital facilities to conduct the tests.The percent of 73.78 of the level-Ⅲ A

  11. Clarification of Premature Discovery in Science in Terms of Higher Education and Broader Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuigbo, Wilson I. B.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of premature discovery in science entails the publication of an important idea which remains uncited for a long period. Thereafter, a deluge of citations of its substance would occur. An overlooked example concerns the discovery in 1963 of how lung cancer cells stimulate the formation of new lymph vessels in man. Subsequently called…

  12. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Hummler, Helmut; Durrmeyer, Xavier; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Carnielli, Virgilio; Field, David; Greenough, Anne; Van Overmeire, Bart; Jonsson, Baldvin; Hallman, Mikko; Baldassarre, James

    2010-01-01

    Background In animal models, inhaled nitric oxide improved gas exchange and lung structural development, but its use in premature infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains controversial. We therefore tested the hypothesis that inhaled nitric oxide at a low concentration, start

  13. Time-frequency relationships between heart rate and respiration: A diagnosis tool for late onset sepsis in sick premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carrault, Guy; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick; Senhadji, Lotfi; Hernandez, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The diagnosis of late onset sepsis in premature infants remains difficult because clinical signs are subtle and non-specific and none of the laboratory tests, including CRP and blood culture, have high predictive accuracy. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis emerges as a promising diagnostic tool. Entropy and long-range fractal correlation are decreased in premature infants with proven sepsis. Besides this, respiration and its relations to HRV appear to be less. The ...

  14. Serum fructosamine and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Gokmen, Tulin; Tunay, Zuhal; Tok, Levent; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether serum fructosamine which is a good marker for detecting hyperglycemia during the previous 2 to 3 wk in infants could predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. One hundred sixty seven premature infants who had a birth weight of < 1500 g and a gestational age of less than 32 wk were investigated in the present study. Blood glucose was measured at the bedside and infants were recorded as hyperglycemic if their mean blood glucose levels were higher than 150 mg/dL. Serum corrected fructosamine level was obtained from the cord blood at birth and after the first month of life. The infants' eyes were examined by ophthalmologists to detect retinopathy of prematurity at the gestational age of 32 wk or at four wk after birth, whichever came first. Corrected fructosamine was 319.6 ± 59.6 and 272.8 ± 50.6 mmol/l for group 1 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively; 320 ± 61.7 and 268.2 ± 47.3 mmol/l for groups 2 + 3 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively which did not differ between groups (p = 0.766 and p = 0.665), whereas duration of hyperglycemia was 1.69 ± 1.1 day in group 1 compared with 3.05 ± 2.4 day in groups 2 + 3 which was significantly different (p = 0.019). The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the duration of hyperglycemia in days was significantly correlated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.09-9.80; p = 0.035). Although the duration of hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity, serum corrected fructosamine does not have a good predictive value in developing retinopathy of prematurity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

  15. 139例出生体重≤1500g早产儿视网膜病变筛查分析%Screening analysis of retinopathy of prematurity in 139 cases with a birth weight of 1500g or less

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓蓉; 袁高乐; 周琼; 邵毅; 黄歆; 何军荣

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解低出生体重(≤1500g)早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)发病相关情况,并分析其影响因素及预后.方法 2012年10月至2014年12月收治的出生体重≤1500g的139例早产儿进行ROP筛查.其中,男婴86例,女婴53例.孕龄26-37周,平均(31.17±2.51)周.出生体重为698-1500g,平均(1296.5±218.1)g,根据结果分为正常组和ROP组,并对两组间性别、出生体重、出生孕龄、分娩方式、吸氧情况、呼吸窘迫综合症、缺血缺氧性脑病、贫血等因素进行分析.结果 139例患儿中有57例发生不同程度的ROP,占41.0%.其中,1期病变9例,约占本组的15.78%;2期病变18例,占31.57%;3期病变29例,约占50.87%;4期病变1例,约占1.75%;无5期病变患儿.接受激光光凝治疗17只例,手术治疗1例.ROP组的平均出生体重(1237.2±182.6)g低于正常组患儿的平均出生体重(1354.1±169.4)g,ROP组的平均孕龄(29.67±2.09)周低于正常组患儿平均孕龄(32.12±2.67)周,均有显著性差异(P均5d、缺血缺氧性脑病与ROP的发生有相关性(P均0.05).结论 出生体重≤1500g早产儿ROP的发生率为41.0%;低孕龄、低出生体重、氧疗和缺血缺氧性脑病是影响ROP发生和发展的高危因素.%Objective To estimate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)in preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500g or less,to identify the related risk factors and to assess the outcome of these cases. Methods From October 2012 to De-cember 2014,A ROP screening survey was performed in a total of 139 preterm infants (86 males and 53 females) with a birth weight of 1500g or less. Their gestational ages were from 26 to 37 weeks,with a mean of (31.17±2.51) weeks,Their birth weights were from 698 to 1500 grams,with a mean of (1296.5±218.1g). According to the screening results,all cases were divided into nor-mal group and ROP group. We also assessed the risk factors for ROP:the sex,gestational age,birth weight,delivery mode,oxygen therapy

  16. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY CHANGES IN PRETERM INFANTS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a hospital based, prospective clinical study on incidence of retinopathy of prematurity changes in preterm infants and associated risk factors. METHODS: Neonates with gestational age <37wks and/ or birth weight ≤ 2500gms born over one year period were examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy between 2 to 4 weeks after birth, and followed up till retinal vascularization was complete. Maternal and neonatal risk factors were noted and data analyzed by statistical package SPSS-15. RESULTS: 100 babies were thus examined. The overall incidence of retinopathy of prematurity was 40%, 22%in babies’ ≤34wks of gestation and 52% in babies with a birth weight1500-2000g. Majority were in stage 2. Gestational age (<32weeks, Birth weight (<1500g, RDS, surfactant therapy, PDA were found to be risk factors. CONCLUSION: Meticulous fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy in all preterm babies with gestational age<37weeks and birth weight ≤ 2500gms is essential noninvasive method for early detection of ROP and its progression. Screening should be intensified in the presence of factors like RDS, oxygen administration and presence of PDA

  18. 早产儿视网膜病的治疗进展%Treatment Progress of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘罡; 伍金林

    2010-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病( retinopathy of prematurity, ROP)是当今世界范围内儿童致盲的首要因素.随着早产儿存活率的增加,早产儿视网膜病的发病率及致残率也逐年上升,但现有的治疗方法不能对其进行早期有效干预和治疗,而一些新的研究进展,则为早产儿视网膜病的药物治疗提供了新思路.本文就新近发现的靶向药物(血管内皮生长因子、胰岛素样生长因子-1和多聚不饱和脂肪酸)在治疗早产儿视网膜病的机制和应用上进行综述如下.

  19. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  20. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  1. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  2. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  3. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  4. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  5. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  6. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  7. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  8. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  10. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  11. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  12. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases. PMID:23257959

  14. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases.

  15. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  16. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  17. Effect of high and low oxygen saturation on retinopathy of premature%高和低氧饱和度对早产儿视网膜病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁国芳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 早产儿视网膜病(retinopathy of premature,ROP)是未成熟或极低出生体重早产儿在多种因素影响下发生的视网膜血管异常增殖性病变.严重的ROP可导致失明.ROP的形成是一个复杂的过程,其基本原因是早产儿视网膜未成熟,并受宫内生长和出生后救治过程中的多重因素影响.随着超低和极低出生体重儿存活率的不断提高和医学知识的普及,ROP也越来越成为家长和新生儿医生共同关注的热点.

  18. Research progress on foundation and anti-VEGF drug therapy of retinopathy of prematurity%早产儿视网膜病变发病基础及抗VEGF药物治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 董宇

    2016-01-01

    早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)是发展中及发达国家儿童致盲的主要因素.近年来,科研人员的不断努力使得ROP发病机理更加清晰地被认知,抗血管内皮生长因子药物治疗为ROP患儿带来了越发光明的世界.本文综述了ROP的发病机理、相关的血管生成因子、血小板体积、抗VEGF药物治疗等方面的研究进展.

  19. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  20. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  1. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  2. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardissone, Alexandria N; de la Cruz, Diomel M; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Rechcigl, Kevin T; Li, Nan; Drew, Jennifer C; Murgas-Torrazza, Roberto; Sharma, Renu; Hudak, Mark L; Triplett, Eric W; Neu, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth. Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches. Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of premature birth. This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  4. [Development and fate of premature infants--then and now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G

    1983-10-01

    New scientific results and progress in technology allow even premature infants with very low birth weight to survive today. A vehement discussion arouse about effectiveness and efficiency of intensive care programs for these infants. However, an appreciation of the results at present should not be made without taking note of those achieved in former decades. A. Ylppö was the first pediatrician in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century, who was working systematically for the survival of low birth weight infants. He achieved remarkable results even at that time. After World War II the chances for survival of low birth weight infants became worse because of dangerous therapeutic innovations. In the 60's the frequency of serious sequelae could be reduced by improved therapeutic approaches. Since then the mortality rate is decreasing, whereas the frequency of serious sequelae remains nearly stable during the last 15 years. We hope that clinical research and new technologies may also reduce the morbidity of surviving premature babies in the future.

  5. The prevalence of premature ejaculation in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Hirik, E; Celebi, B; Akdemir, S; Guzel, O; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in young Turkish men and to evaluate PE in a population having good physical and mental health. A total of 1230 healthy university graduates aged between 24 and 30 attending the police academy having no physical or mental problems were included in the study. To identify the presence of PE, the participants were asked to complete the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). The mean ages in the PE and non-PE group were 27.3 and 26.7 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups concerning age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and alcohol consumption (P > 0.05). The PE prevalence was found to be 9.2%. The mean PEDT score was calculated as 6.3. Of the participants, 92 scored 11 and higher (9.2%), 66 scored 9 and 10 (6.6%), and the remaining 842 obtained a score equal to or lower than 8 (84.2%). The lower prevalence of PE in young Turkish men compared to the results of studies in the literature can be attributed to the physical and mental well-being of the participants. This study showed that the prevalence of PE in young men with good physical and mental health is lower than that found in the literature.

  6. Functional vision assessment of a premature child with congenital blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Favilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the program of early intervention in occupational therapy, the assessment of functional vision and infant development of children with visual impairment contributes to improve the development of their skills. The aim of this study was to present the results of the functional vision assessment of a premature child with congenital blindness and point out the importance of the findings for planning occupational therapy intervention and family orientation. The study participant was a preterm child with 6 months of corrected age and ophthalmological diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity; she participated in the Visually Impaired Habilitation and Rehabilitation Program at a public university in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. For data collection, we used the Assessment of Functional Vision and Infant Development, an evaluation script that enables the record of children’s performance and behavior in response to different visual stimuli. We verified that, through the functional vision assessment, it is possible to learn the conditions that contribute to children’s ability to use their visual functioning and remaining sensory resources, pointing out the importance of material and environmental adaptations that favor children’s interaction with the external environment. The findings are relevant to aid in educating parents about children’s skills and understanding the different ways to encourage the use of functional vision in daily activities. Thus, the functional vision assessment of children with visual impairment is a relevant guiding parameter to complement the psychomotor development assessment in occupational therapy intervention.

  7. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  8. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for proration...

  9. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  10. Screening of 387 Cases retinopathy of Prematurity and Risk Factor Analysis%387例早产儿视网膜病变筛查情况及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳兰; 陈均; 欧小燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Investigate the Screening result of ROP and assess the risk factors for ROP .Methods:Three hundred eighty -seven cases of premature infant were screeninged who meet the ROP screening criterion .According to the screening result , premature in-fant were divided into ROP group (44 cases) and normal group (343 cases).The severity of ROP were be statisticsed , and risk factors"gender of premature infant","multiple pregnancy","hyaline membrane disease of newborn","synchronized intermittent mandatory ven-tilation","continuous positive pressure ventilation","1 min apgar Score7days", "premature rupture of memberane", "hypoglycaemia", "hyperbilirubi-nemia","hypothyroidism","anoxic ischemic encephalopathy","blood transfusion","metabolic acidosis","congenital heart disease","oxygen therapy>10 days"were also be records .Using Pearson chi square test , Yates chi square test and Logistic Regression to analyze the data.Results:Prevalence rate of ROP was 11.37%(44 cases).The Wald-value of"continuous positive pressure ventilation","anti-infective therapy","oxygen therapy>10 days"were 10.18,11.8 and 34.77, OR-value of"continuous positive pressure ventila-tion","anti-infective therapy","oxygen therapy>10 days"were 3.56 (95%CI:1.63~7.78)、5.20 (95%CI:2.03~13.32), 14. 85 (95%CI:5.06~36.42), and P-value of them were all 0.00.Conclusion:Continuous positive pressure ventilation , anti-infective therapy and oxygen therapy >10 days were independent risk factors to ROP .%目的:探讨早产儿视网膜病变( ROP)的现患率及ROP相关危险因素。方法:对符合ROP筛查标准的387例早产儿进行筛查,根据筛查结果把早产儿分为ROP组(44例)和正常组(343例),统计2组ROP的严重程度,记录危险因素“早产儿性别”、“多胎妊娠”、“新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征”、“同步间歇指令通气”、“持续正压通气”、“1分钟apgar评分<7分”、“5分钟apgar评分<7分”、“10

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  12. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  13. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers ...

  14. 基于ARM平台的ROP攻击及防御技术%ROP Attack and Defense Technology based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱逸; 王轶骏; 薛质

    2012-01-01

    With the development of mobile-phone field, ARM architecture is usually used in the mobile-phone and tablet computer, and the security issues on ARM platform always attract much attention from the researchers. ROP, a popular attack method on X86 is planted into ARM. This paper analyzes the different ROP defense methods on X86, presents the technical details of ROP attack, including specific implementation and gadgets search algorithm on ARM. Finally, a library sandbox technology is suggested to defense this kind of attack and secure the system.%随着智能手机领域的发展,几乎所有智能手机及平板电脑都采用了ARM架构,在此平台上的安全问题也越来越受到研究者的关注。X86平台上流行的返回导向编程被引入到了ARM平台上。通过研究总结X86平台上返回导向编程的攻击和防御机制,给出了该攻击移植到ARM平台上的技术细节,包括具体实现方式和gadget搜索算法的差异性,通过自动构建gadgets链加速Exploit开发,最后提出了一种系统库沙盒技术来防御此攻击。

  15. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  16. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles (Che

  17. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of KIT gene mutations in women with 46,XX spontaneous premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lawrence M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous premature ovarian failure presents most commonly with secondary amenorrhea. Young women with the disorder are infertile and experience the symptoms and sequelae of estrogen deficiency. The mechanisms that give rise to spontaneous premature ovarian failure are largely unknown, but many reports suggest a genetic mechanism in some cases. The small family size associated with infertility makes genetic linkage analysis studies extremely difficult. Another approach that has proven successful has been to examine candidate genes based on known genetic phenotypes in other species. Studies in mice have demonstrated that c-kit, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, plays a critical role in gametogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that human KIT mutations might be a cause of spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Methods and Results We examined 42 women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure and found partial X monosomy in two of them. In the remaining 40 women with known 46,XX spontaneous premature ovarian failure we evaluated the entire coding region of the KIT gene. We did this using polymerase chain reaction based single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. We did not identify a single mutation that would alter the amino acid sequence of the c-KIT protein in any of 40 patients (upper 95% confidence limit is 7.2%. We found one silent mutation at codon 798 and two intronic polymorphisms. Conclusion Mutations in the coding regions of the KIT gene appear not to be a common cause of 46,XX spontaneous premature ovarian failure in North American women.

  19. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  20. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  1. Premature loss of primary teeth with gingival erythema: An alert to dentist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature exfoliation of primary teeth is an important diagnostic event warranting urgent investigation. The majority of conditions presenting with early loss of teeth are serious and in some cases could be fatal. The most common causes of premature tooth loss are Papillion-Lefevre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, hypophosphatasia, neutropenia, leukemia and in some cases Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. LCH is a disorder of unknown cause, characterized by abnormal proliferation of histiocytes. The disease has a predilection for children, although LCH may occur in adults. Owing to the relative rarity of the condition, it remains a disease in which the diagnosis is often delayed or missed and in which many questions remain unanswered, ranging from etiology and pathogenesis to therapy. The purpose of the review is, therefore, to raise awareness of the disease and to highlight the clinical findings that should make the odontologist or primary caregiver suspect the diagnosis.

  2. Premature loss of primary teeth with gingival erythema: An alert to dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anju; Narwal, Anjali; Bharti, Achla; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary teeth is an important diagnostic event warranting urgent investigation. The majority of conditions presenting with early loss of teeth are serious and in some cases could be fatal. The most common causes of premature tooth loss are Papillion-Lefevre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, hypophosphatasia, neutropenia, leukemia and in some cases Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). LCH is a disorder of unknown cause, characterized by abnormal proliferation of histiocytes. The disease has a predilection for children, although LCH may occur in adults. Owing to the relative rarity of the condition, it remains a disease in which the diagnosis is often delayed or missed and in which many questions remain unanswered, ranging from etiology and pathogenesis to therapy. The purpose of the review is, therefore, to raise awareness of the disease and to highlight the clinical findings that should make the odontologist or primary caregiver suspect the diagnosis.

  3. A Barley ROP GTPase ACTIVATING PROTEIN Associates with Microtubules and Regulates Entry of the Barley Powdery Mildew Fungus into Leaf Epidermal Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefle, Caroline; Huesmann, Christina; Schultheiss, Holger; Börnke, Frederik; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the function of host factors involved in disease susceptibility. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) ROP (RHO of plants) G-protein RACB is required for full susceptibility of the leaf epidermis to invasion by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. Stable transgenic knockdown of RACB reduced the ability of barley to accommodate haustoria of B. graminis in intact epidermal leaf cells and to form hairs on the root epidermis, suggesting that RACB is a common element of root hair outgrowth and ingrowth of haustoria in leaf epidermal cells. We further identified a barley MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED ROP-GTPASE ACTIVATING PROTEIN (MAGAP1) interacting with RACB in yeast and in planta. Fluorescent MAGAP1 decorated cortical microtubules and was recruited by activated RACB to the cell periphery. Under fungal attack, MAGAP1-labeled microtubules built a polarized network at sites of successful defense. By contrast, microtubules loosened where the fungus succeeded in penetration. Genetic evidence suggests a function of MAGAP1 in limiting susceptibility to penetration by B. graminis. Additionally, MAGAP1 influenced the polar organization of cortical microtubules. These results add to our understanding of how intact plant cells accommodate fungal infection structures and suggest that RACB and MAGAP1 might be antagonistic players in cytoskeleton organization for fungal entry. PMID:21685259

  4. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  5. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  6. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisasue, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future.

  7. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  8. The effect of EMLA cream on minimizing pain during venipuncture in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Chen, Fan; Hsiu-Lin, Chen; Shun-Line, Chen; Tai-Ling, Tasi; Li-Jung, Wang; Hsing-I, Tseng; San-Nan, Yang

    2013-02-01

    Painful procedures for premature infants in neonatal intensive care units remain inevitable. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of an eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream for minimizing pain in premature infants during venipuncture in neonatal intensive care units. This study enrolled 32 premature infants. A repeated-measures design was used. The scores of the 'Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale' (N-PASS) of each enrolled preterm infant were measured before, during and 10 min after venipuncture without and with EMLA cream use. Paired t-tests were used to compare the difference of N-PASS scores without and with EMLA cream use. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decrease in N-PASS scores during venipuncture in infants with EMLA cream. There was no significant change of N-PASS scores before, during and 10 min after venipuncture with EMLA cream by analysis of repeated analysis of variance. EMLA cream for minimizing pain during venipuncture could be recommended for premature infants.

  9. The genetics of premature ovarian failure: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chevy Chapman, Lynsey Cree, Andrew N Shelling Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Premature ovarian failure (POF is a common cause of infertility in women, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels in women under the age of 40. Many genes have been identified over the past few years that contribute to the development of POF. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. The unbiased approaches of genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing technologies have identified several novel genes implicated in POF. As only a small proportion of genes influencing idiopathic POF have been identified thus far, it remains to be determined how many genes and molecular pathways may influence idiopathic POF development. However, owing to POF’s diverse etiology and genetic heterogeneity, we expect to see the contribution of several new and novel molecular pathways that will greatly enhance our understanding of the regulation of ovarian function. Future genetic studies in large cohorts of well-defined, unrelated, idiopathic POF patients will provide a great opportunity to identify the missing heritability of idiopathic POF. The identification of several causative genes may allow for early detection and would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help direct potential targets for future treatment. Keywords: premature ovarian failure, POF, next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, genetics, ovarian aging

  10. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  11. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  12. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  13. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  14. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  15. Prevalence and influence factors of retinopathy in premature infants and term infants less than gestational age infants%早产儿及低体质量儿视网膜疾病的发病率及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学印

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy ( ROP) in premature infants and full term infants.Methods 563 premature infants and full term infants in Weihai Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Qingdao University from January 2014 to January 2015 were selected,and the clinical data were retrospec-tively analyzed.Results 61 children with ROP,the incidence rate of ROP was 10.83%.Men incidence rate of ROP (10.68%) and female incidence of ROP (11.02%) showed no significant difference (χ2 =1.045,P>0.05).The gestational age >35 weeks, 31 -34 weeks,≤30 weeks neonatal ROP incidence rates were 1.53%, 15.04%, 35.71%,the difference between groups was statistically significant(χ2 =11.455,P2 000g,1 500g-2 000g,0.05).Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis,the independent risk fac-tors of retinal diseases for preterm and full-term children small for gestational age children were birth gestational age,birth weight,mechanical ventilation,apnea.Conclusion The age of birth,birth weight,mechanical ventilation and apnea are the risk factors of ROP.It should be attached great importance to the clinical treatment to prevent the development of the disease and improve the prognosis of patients.%目的:探索早产儿及低体质量儿视网膜病变( ROP)发病率及相关危险因素。方法选择2014年1月至2015年1月于青岛大学医学院附属威海医院行眼底筛查的563例早产儿及足月小于胎龄儿为研究对象,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果 ROP 患病61例, ROP 发病率为10.83%。男性 ROP 发病率(10.68%)与女性ROP发病率(11.02%)比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.045,P>0.05)。而出生胎龄>35周、31~34周、≤30周新生儿ROP发病率分别为1.53%、15.04%、35.71%,不同出生胎龄新生儿ROP发病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=11.455,P<0.05),且出生胎龄越小,ROP发病

  16. Mechanism of angiostatin induced reduction of vascular leakage in retina and iris of rats with retinopathy of prematurity%血管抑素降低ROP幼鼠视网膜及虹膜血管渗漏性的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马晶; Ma Jianxing; 郭疆; 罗司思; 杨浩江

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨血管抑素(angiostatin)玻璃体注射对氧诱导的早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的视网膜及虹膜血管渗漏的作用及其机制.方法:将出生7d(P7)的Brown Norway鼠置高氧环境(750mL/L O2)5d后再置正常氧环境诱导ROP,建立ROP动物模型,并以年龄相匹配的正常鼠作为正常对照.所有ROP鼠(P14)及正常鼠均右眼玻璃体腔注射血管抑素,左眼注射相同剂量的PBS(磷酸盐缓冲生理盐水)作为对照.用Evans蓝徽血管渗透性检测法及总蛋白标准化分别于注射后1,2和3d检测视网膜和虹膜的血管渗透性;用Western blot蛋白印迹分析和免疫组化方法检测注射24h后血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)在视网膜的表达.结果:ROP鼠视网膜及虹膜的血管渗透性明显增加(P<0.01);中剂量(3.75μg/眼)和高剂量(7.5μg/眼)血管抑素降低ROP鼠视网膜血管渗透性(P<0.05,P<0.01),而低剂量组(1.88μg/眼)没有引起明显改变,呈现剂量依赖型;三种不同剂量的血管抑素玻璃体注射后ROP鼠的虹膜均未发生明显的血管渗透性的改变.血管抑素注射后第1d和第2d视网膜血管渗透性明显降低(P<0.05,P<0.01).而第3d无明显降低,其作用呈现出时间进程.Western blot蛋白印迹和免疫组化分析表明血管抑素显著降低了ROP鼠视网膜的VEGF水平,但对正常鼠无影响.结论:血管抑素可以降低ROP鼠视网膜的病理性血管渗漏,其血管渗透性下降可能与血管抑素下调VEGF的表达有关.血管抑素可能对ROP等其他视网膜血管渗漏性疾病具有潜在的治疗作用.%·AIM: To study the effect of an intravitreal injection of angiostatin on vascular leakage in the retina and iris of oxygen-induced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).·METHODS: Brown Norway rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) were exposed to hyperoxia (750mL/L O2 )for 5 days (P7-12) and then returned to normoxia to induce retinopathy. Angiostatin

  17. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  20. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  1. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  2. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  3. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  4. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. Animal models of premature and retarded ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2005-06-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from animal studies using rats with normal sexual behaviour. However, none of these proposed models adequately represents human ejaculatory disorders. Based on the "ejaculation distribution theory", which postulates that the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men is represented by a biological continuum, we have developed an animal model for the research of premature and delayed ejaculation. In this model, a large number of male Wistar rats are investigated during 4-6 weekly sexual behavioural tests. Based on the number of ejaculations during 30 min tests, rapid and sluggish ejaculating rats are distinguished, each representing approximately 10% at both ends of a Gaussian distribution. Together with other parameters, such as ejaculation latency time, these rats at either side of the spectrum resemble men with premature and delayed ejaculation, respectively. Comparable to the human situation, in a normal population of rats, endophenotypes exist with regard to basal sexual (ejaculatory) performance.

  7. [Intraventricular haemorrhage in premature newborn babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, N

    This work is the product of the checking of the pathogenesis, incidence, treatment, and prognostic of the intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn. In the revised publications, that include important series of following, this pathology is present in 25% of the infants weighing less than 1,500 g, in which the mortality and morbidity is greater than that of normal newborns, since the development of intraventricular hemorrhage can produce alterations of cerebral blood flow in the immature germinal matrix and in the microvascular net. In consequence the prevention of the intraventricular hemorrhage is directly related with its pathogenesis. It is said that the use of dexamethasone steroids in low doses in the prenatal period, and low doses of indomethacin in the postnatal period, can give better neuroprotection. The surgical treatment is exceptional and has very precise indications, when a progresive hydrocephalus of later apparition is proven. Therefore in premature newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage the best actual treatment is to use an appropiate pharmacological and medical following

  8. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  9. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  10. The significance of genetics in pathophysiologic models of premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberos, Jose

    2017-05-31

    Prematurity is a major health problem in all countries, especially in certain ethic groups and increasing recurrence imply the influence of genetic factors. Published genetic polymorphisms are identified in relation to the 4 pathophysiological models of prematurity described: Chorioamniotic-decidual inflammation, premature contraction pathway, decidual haemorrhage and susceptibility to environmental toxins. 240 articles are identified, 52 articles are excluded because they are not original, not written in English or duplicated. From them 125 articles were included in qualitative analysis This review aims to update recent knowledge about genes associated with premature birth.

  11. Infection and prematurity and the role of preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kalache, Karim

    2002-08-01

    This article reviews the role of infection in spontaneous premature parturition, the pathways of ascending intrauterine infection, microbiology, and the frequency of intra-amniotic infection in obstetrical complications leading to premature delivery. The evidence that infection is causally linked to premature birth is critically examined, as is the relationship between urogenital tract infection/colonization with microorganisms and the risk of preterm birth. The effect of antibiotic administration in perinatal outcome in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, asymptomatic bacteriuria, Group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas of the lower genital tract, and bacterial vaginosis are critically examined.

  12. Analysis on screening results of prematurity retinopathy of preterm infants in Jilin Province%吉林省早产儿视网膜病变筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕明超; 李松鹤; 陆成伟; 李笑红; 宋鄂

    2014-01-01

    Objective To learn the screening results and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the preterm infants in Jilin Province.Methods From July 2007 to May 2012,2352premature infants with birth weight ≤2000g or gestational age 37 weeks or the ones having severe systemic disease in the First Hospital of Jilin University were screened for ROP with Retcam Ⅱ.Results Of 479 infants were diagnosed as retinopathy at different degrees among 2352 premature infants,the incidence of retinopathy was 20.37% (479/2352); the infants with small gestational age and low birth weight had high incidence of retinopathy; 24 probable effect factors of retinopathy were involved into single factor analysis,and the results indicated that gestational age,birth weight,oxygen duration,anemia,blood transfusion,pneumonia,asphyxia,ARDS,congenital heart disease,breast-feeding,septicemia and premature rupture of membrane were related to incidence of retinopathy closely.There was no correlation between gender,infection,polyembryony,caesarean birth,hypertension and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy,test-tube baby,purpura,placenta praevia,placental abruption,cord around the neck,jaundice neonatal acidosis and incidence of retinopathy; multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age,birth weight,oxygen duration,blood transfusion,septicemia,breast-feeding and premature rupture of membrane were the most relative factors and they were high risk factors of retinopathy.Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the present study is 20.37% (479/2352).Gestational age,birth weight,oxygen duration,blood transfusion,septicemia,breast-feeding and premature rupture of membrane are high risk factors to affect ROP incidence.%目的 了解吉林省早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的患病情况及相关危险因素.方法 对2007年7月至2012年5月在吉林大学第一医院儿科收治的孕周<37周或出生体重≤2 000 g的早产儿或超过以上范围但患有严重疾病的2

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Colombia, 1998-2007: The double burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arroyave (Ivan); A. Burdorf (Alex); D. Cardona (Doris); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Non-communicable diseases have become the leading cause of death in middle-income countries, but mortality from injuries and infections remains high. We examined the contribution of specific causes to disparities in adult premature mortality (ages 25-64) by educational level

  14. Type I retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight less than 1251 g: Incidence and risk factors for its development in a nursery in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek B Wani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The rate of Type I ROP in this study is higher than that in previous studies due to the higher number of infants with BW <1000 g in our cohort and the treatment of more eyes with stage 2+ ROP. However, all the treated eyes had a favorable outcome. Gestational age at birth and number of ventilated days were independent risk factors for the development of Type I ROP.

  15. Bevacizumab treatment reduces retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; Feng; Yan; Cheng; Qing-Huai; Liu

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To evaluate the effect of different bevacizumab concentrations on retinal neovascularization in a retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) mouse model.·METHODS: A total of 60 of C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 75% ±2% oxygen from postnatal d7 to postnatal d12. Fifteen nonexposed mice served as negative controls(group A). On d12, 30 mice(group C)were injected with 2.5 μg intravitreal bevacizumab(IVB),30 mice(group D) were injected with 1.25 μg IVB in one eye. The contralateral eyes were injected with balanced salt solution(BSS)(control group =group B). The adenosine diphosphatase(ADPase) histochemical technique was used for retinal flat mount t