WorldWideScience

Sample records for premature translational termination

  1. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for proration...

  2. Claustrophobia and premature termination of magnetic resonance imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence of MRI-related claustrophobia and prematurely terminated MRI (ptMRI) examinations due to claustrophobia in a large-scale cohort study. The hospital's computerized radiology information system (RIS) was retrospectively analyzed for all 1.5-Tesla MRI examinations and reports during the year 2004. Data collected included demographic information, body part examined, known claustrophobia, and whether the examination was prematurely terminated. All information available on the MRI examinations and the patient-based data (i.e., excluding any additional examinations per patient) were analyzed. A total of 5798 MRI reports of 4821 patients were evaluated. A total of 95 patients (1.97%) suffered from claustrophobia and 59 (1.22%) prematurely terminated the examination due to claustrophobia. The incidence of ptMRI was higher in women than men (no statistical significance). The majority of patients with ptMRI were between 20 and 80 years old. Patients undergoing head MRI showed the highest incidence of ptMRI and those undergoing extremity, breast, or pelvic MRI had the lowest. Prone compared to supine positioning results in the lowest ptMRI incidence (P Claustrophobic reactions cause a relatively low incidence of ptMRI and are influenced by sex, body part examined, and positioning within the MR scanner. Sedation and prone positioning might help overcome these reactions. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Philip C; Perlman, Christopher M; Ross, Stuart A; Gates, April L

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed.

  4. Reading the Road Signs: The Utility of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form Validity Scales in Prediction of Premature Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Finn, Jacob A; Gottfried, Emily; Arbisi, Paul A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Validity Scales in prediction of premature termination in a sample of 511 individuals seeking services from a university-based psychology clinic. Higher scores on True Response Inconsistency-Revised and Infrequent Psychopathology Responses increased the risk of premature termination, whereas higher scores on Adjustment Validity lowered the risk of premature termination. Additionally, when compared with individuals who did not prematurely terminate, individuals who prematurely terminated treatment had lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores at both intake and termination and made fewer improvements. Implications of these findings for the use of the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales in promoting treatment compliance are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Predicting Premature Termination within a Randomized Controlled Trial for Binge-Eating Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Christoph; Meyer, Andrea; Wampold, Bruce E.; Gassmann, Daniel; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Munsch, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the dropout rates of efficacious forms of psychotherapy for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) is an unsolved problem within this increasing population. Up until now the role of psychotherapy process characteristics as predictors of premature termination has not been investigated in the BED literature. Within a randomized…

  6. Mental Health Services in a Rural Clinic: A Retrospective Study of Length of Stay and Premature Termination in Psychotheraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines relationship of client and therapist characteristics to length of stay and premature treatment termination in 595 psychotherapy cases at a rural Arizona community health clinic. Finds results similar to those obtained in urban settings: small number of psychotherapy sessions attended and tendency to premature termination unrelated to…

  7. Cpeb4-mediated translational regulatory circuitry controls terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-09-29

    While we have considerable understanding of the transcriptional networks controlling mammalian cell differentiation, our knowledge of posttranscriptional regulatory events is very limited. Using differentiation of primary erythroid cells as a model, we show that the sequence-specific mRNA-binding protein Cpeb4 is strongly induced by the erythroid-important transcription factors Gata1 and Tal1 and is essential for terminal erythropoiesis. By interacting with the translation initiation factor eIF3, Cpeb4 represses the translation of a large set of mRNAs, including its own mRNA. Thus, transcriptional induction and translational repression combine to form a negative feedback loop to control Cpeb4 protein levels within a specific range that is required for terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides an example of how translational control is integrated with transcriptional regulation to precisely control gene expression during mammalian cell differentiation.

  8. Premature termination of transcription by RNAP II: the beginning of the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Xavier; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Transcription elongation is now recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation in eukaryotes. A large number of genes undergo an early step in transcription that is rate limiting for expression. Genome-wide studies showing that RNA polymerase II accumulates to high densities near the promoters of many genes has led to the idea that promoter-proximal pausing of transcription is a widespread, rate-limiting step in early elongation. Recent evidence suggests that much of this paused RNA polymerase II is competent for transcription elongation. Here, we discuss recent studies suggesting that RNA polymerase II that accumulates nearby the promoter of a subset of genes is undergoing premature termination of transcription.

  9. Limited premature termination codon suppression by read-through agents in cystic fibrosis intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer-van Ommen, D D; Vijftigschild, L A W; Kruisselbrink, E; Vonk, A M; Dekkers, J F; Janssens, H M; de Winter-de Groot, K M; van der Ent, C K; Beekman, J M

    2016-03-01

    Premature termination codon read-through drugs offer opportunities for treatment of multiple rare genetic diseases including cystic fibrosis. We here analyzed the read-through efficacy of PTC124 and G418 using human cystic fibrosis intestinal organoids (E60X/4015delATTT, E60X/F508del, G542X/F508del, R1162X/F508del, W1282X/F508del and F508del/F508del). G418-mediated read-through induced only limited CFTR function, but functional restoration of CFTR by PTC124 could not be confirmed. These studies suggest that better read-through agents are needed for robust treatment of nonsense mutations in cystic fibrosis.

  10. Premature chain termination is a unifying mechanism for COL1A1 null alleles in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, M.C.; Deschenes, S.P.; Roberts, E.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Nonsense and frameshift mutations, which predict premature termination of translation, often cause a dramatic reduction in the amount of transcript from the mutant allele (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). In some genes, these mutations also influence RNA splicing and induce skipping of the exon that contains the nonsense codon. To begin to dissect how premature termination alters the metabolism of RNA from the COL1A1 gene, we studied nonsense and frameshift mutations distributed over exons 11-49 of the gene. These mutations were originally identified in 10 unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. We observed marked reduction in steady-state amounts of mRNA from the mutant allele in both total cellular and nuclear RNA extracts of cells from affected individuals, suggesting that nonsense-mediated decay of COL1A1 RNA is a nuclear phenomenon. Position of the mutation within the gene did not influence this observation. None of the mutations induced skipping of either the exon containing the mutation or, for the frameshifts, the downstream exons with the new termination sites. Our data suggest that nonsense and frameshift mutations throughout most of the COL1A1 gene result in a null allele, which is associated with the predictable mild clinical phenotype, OI type I. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Identification of a premature termination of DNA polymerization in vitro by Klenow fragment mutants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guojie Zhao; Hua Wei; Yifu Guan

    2013-06-01

    DNA polymerization products by Klenow fragment (KF) are blunt-ended. In the present study, we found that the Klenow fragment mutants with partial deletions of thumb subdomain were unable to extend primers to the 5′ terminal of templates, thus creating 5′ overhanging sticky ends 2 nt long. We termed this phenomenon as PmTP (premature termination of polymerization). The KF mutants produced homogenous sticky-ended products only under mild reaction conditions, whereas under vigorous reaction conditions, the sticky ends were prone to be blunt-ended. It was also identified that deletions of more than four residues of KF thumb subdomain could induce PmTP, and two-residue deletion of KF thumb subdomain only induced PmTP in a lower-concentration situation. Structure modelling analysis suggested that shortening or destruction of helix H1 at the tip of the thumb subdomain was crucial to PmTP, while the conserved residues in front of helix was less important. PmTP might be caused by the reduced DNA-binding affinity of the mutants. The sticky ends made by PmTP have potential applications in gene splicing and molecular cloning techniques.

  12. Premature translation of protamine 1 mRNA causes precocious nuclear condensation and arrests spermatid differentiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Haugen, H S; Clegg, C H; Braun, R E

    1995-01-01

    Translational control is a major form of regulating gene expression during gametogenesis and early development in many organisms. We sought to determine whether the translational repression of the protamine 1 (Prm1) mRNA is necessary for normal spermatid differentiation in mice. To accomplish this we generated transgenic animals that carry a Prm1 transgene lacking its normal 3' untranslated region. Premature translation of Prm1 mRNA caused precocious condensation of spermatid nuclear DNA, abnormal head morphogenesis, and incomplete processing of Prm2 protein. Premature accumulation of Prm1 within syncytial spermatids in mice hemizygous for the transgene caused dominant male sterility, which in some cases was accompanied by a complete arrest in spermatid differentiation. These results demonstrate that correct temporal synthesis of Prm1 is necessary for the transition from nucleohistones to nucleoprotamines. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618919

  13. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of chimpanzee genes with premature termination codons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavelier Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature termination codons (PTCs cause mRNA degradation or a truncated protein and thereby contribute to the transcriptome and proteome divergence between species. Here we present the first genome-wide study of PTCs in the chimpanzee. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genome sequences we identify and characterize genes with PTCs, in order to understand the contribution of these mutations to the transcriptome diversity between the species. Results We have studied a total of 13,487 human-chimpanzee gene pairs and found that ~8% were affected by PTCs in the chimpanzee. A majority (764/1,109 of PTCs were caused by insertions or deletions and the remaining part was caused by substitutions. The distribution of PTC genes varied between chromosomes, with Y having the highest proportion. Furthermore, the density of PTC genes varied on a megabasepair scale within chromosomes and we found the density to be correlated both with indel divergence and proximity to the telomere. Within genes, PTCs were more common close to the 5' and 3' ends of the amino acid sequence. Gene Ontology classification revealed that olfactory receptor genes were over represented among the PTC genes. Conclusion Our results showed that the density of PTC genes fluctuated across the genome depending on the local genomic context. PTCs were preferentially located in the terminal parts of the transcript, which generally have a lower frequency of functional domains, indicating that selection was operating against PTCs at sites central to protein function. The enrichment of GO terms associated with olfaction suggests that PTCs may have influenced the difference in the repertoire of olfactory genes between humans and chimpanzees. In summary, 8% of the chimpanzee genes were affected by PTCs and this type of variation is likely to have an important effect on the transcript and proteomic divergence between humans and chimpanzees.

  15. Ataluren and similar compounds (specific therapies for premature termination codon class I mutations) for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Aisha A; Higgins, Colin; Sinha, Ian P; Southern, Kevin W

    2017-01-19

    Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance. The resulting thick mucus makes the airway prone to chronic infection and inflammation, which consequently damages the structure of the airways, eventually leading to respiratory failure. Additionally, abnormalities in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein lead to other systemic complications including malnutrition, diabetes and subfertility.Five classes of mutation have been described, depending on the impact of the mutation on the processing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein in the cell. In class I mutations, the presence of premature termination codons prevents the production of any functional protein resulting in a severe cystic fibrosis phenotype. Advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis has led to the development of novel mutation-specific therapies. Therapies targeting class I mutations (premature termination codons) aim to mask the abnormal gene sequence and enable the normal cellular mechanism to read through the mutation, potentially restoring the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This could in turn make salt transport in the cells function more normally and may decrease the chronic infection and inflammation that characterises lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. To evaluate the benefits and harms of ataluren and similar compounds on clinically important outcomes in people with

  16. Position-dependent termination and widespread obligatory frameshifting in Euplotes translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobanov, Alexei V.; Heaphy, Stephen M.; Turanov, Anton A.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Devaraj, Raghul R.; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Klobutcher, Lawrence A.; Atkins, John F.; Miceli, Cristina; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-11-21

    The ribosome can change its reading frame during translation in a process known as programmed ribosomal frameshifting. These rare events are supported by complex mRNA signals. However, we found that the ciliates Euplotes crassus and Euplotes focardii exhibit widespread frameshifting at stop codons. 47 different codons preceding stop signals resulted in either +1 or +2 frameshifts, and +1 frameshifting at AAA was the most frequent. The frameshifts showed unusual plasticity and rapid evolution, and had little influence on translation rates. The proximity of a stop codon to the 3' mRNA end, rather than its occurrence or sequence context, appeared to designate termination. Thus, a ‘stop codon’ is not a sufficient signal for translation termination, and the default function of stop codons in Euplotes is frameshifting, whereas termination is specific to certain mRNA positions and probably requires additional factors.

  17. Terminal Pregnancy Complicated by Measles and Premature Labor:a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Measles infection in pregnant women is a very dangerous clinical condition. Patients usually had complicated pneumonia, and virus could pass through the placenta to the fetus and lead to premature delivery, stillbirth, miscarriage and neonatal measles. In this report, one such case, which was diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms, clinical and laboratory examination was described. After proper therapeutic treatment, the infection was well-controlled and a baby was born by nature labor.

  18. Kinetic analysis reveals the ordered coupling of translation termination and ribosome recycling in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, Christopher J.; Green, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although well defined in bacterial systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cells have only begun to be explored. Recent studies have proposed a direct role for eukaryotic termination factors eRF1 and eRF3 (and the related factors Dom34 and Hbs1) in downstream recycling processes; however, our understanding of the connection between termination and recycling in eukaryotes is limited. Here, using an in vitro reconstituted yeast translation system, we identi...

  19. λ N gene expression regulated by translation termination in ribosome L24 mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Muyang; (李沐阳); HU; Qirui; (胡其锐); XUAN; Jinsong; (宣劲松); DENG; Daiyong; (邓代永); WENG; Manli; (翁曼丽)

    2003-01-01

    Besides transcription regulation, gene expression is also regulated at translation level. Although translation regulation is mainly mediated by translation initiation, an abundance of evidence shows that the termination phase of translation is also important for gene expression. The expression of λN gene is down regulated at translation level in L24 mutant, however the precise mechanism still remains unknown. We report here that in an L24 mutant strain, the expression of lac-λN and GST-λN is decreased to 25% and 50% of that in wild type T83 strain respectively. Strikingly, the yield of GST-λN fusion protein in L24 mutant can be restored to the level as in T83 wild type strain by changing the two codons upstream λN stop codon. These findings imply that the stop codon and its context are involved in the translation regulation. The possible reason is that the translation termination complex containing L24 mutant ribosome may not dissociate properly in stop code region. This failure of disengagement from mRNA will slow down the process of following ribosomes, and consequently decrease the efficiency of λN gene expression.

  20. The mutational spectrum in Treacher Collins syndrome reveals a predominance of mutations that create a premature-termination codon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.J.; Gladwin, A.J.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. The TCS locus has been mapped to human chromosome 5q31.3-32 and the mutated gene identified. In the current investigation, 25 previously undescribed mutations, which are spread throughout the gene, are presented. This brings the total reported to date to 35, which represents a detection rate of 60%. Of the mutations that have been reported to date, all but one result in the introduction of a premature-termination codon into the predicted protein, treacle. Moreover, the mutations are largely family specific, although a common 5-bp deletion in exon 24 (seven different families) and a recurrent splicing mutation in intron 3 (two different families) have been identified. This mutational spectrum supports the hypothesis that TCS results from haploin-sufficiency. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A murine Zic3 transcript with a premature termination codon evades nonsense-mediated decay during axis formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir N. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    The ZIC transcription factors are key mediators of embryonic development and ZIC3 is the gene most commonly associated with situs defects (heterotaxy in humans. Half of patient ZIC3 mutations introduce a premature termination codon (PTC. In vivo, PTC-containing transcripts might be targeted for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD. NMD efficiency is known to vary greatly between transcripts, tissues and individuals and it is possible that differences in survival of PTC-containing transcripts partially explain the striking phenotypic variability that characterizes ZIC3-associated congenital defects. For example, the PTC-containing transcripts might encode a C-terminally truncated protein that retains partial function or that dominantly interferes with other ZIC family members. Here we describe the katun (Ka mouse mutant, which harbours a mutation in the Zic3 gene that results in a PTC. At the time of axis formation there is no discernible decrease in this PTC-containing transcript in vivo, indicating that the mammalian Zic3 transcript is relatively insensitive to NMD, prompting the need to re-examine the molecular function of the truncated proteins predicted from human studies and to determine whether the N-terminal portion of ZIC3 possesses dominant-negative capabilities. A combination of in vitro studies and analysis of the Ka phenotype indicate that it is a null allele of Zic3 and that the N-terminal portion of ZIC3 does not encode a dominant-negative molecule. Heterotaxy in patients with PTC-containing ZIC3 transcripts probably arises due to loss of ZIC3 function alone.

  2. Quantitative characterization of Tob interactions provides the thermodynamic basis for translation termination-coupled deadenylase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lin; Osawa, Masanori; Hosoda, Nao; Imai, Shunsuke; Machiyama, Asako; Katada, Toshiaki; Hoshino, Shin-ichi; Shimada, Ichio

    2010-09-03

    Translation termination-coupled deadenylation is the first and often the rate-limiting step of eukaryotic mRNA decay in which two deadenylases, Ccr4-Caf1 and Pan2, play key roles. One of the deadenylases, Caf1, associates with Tob, which recruits Caf1 to the poly(A) tail through interactions with a cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABPC1). We previously proposed that the competition between Tob and eRF3 (a translation termination factor that interacts with PABPC1) is responsible for the regulation of deadenylase activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the regulation should be addressed by investigating the binding affinity and the cellular levels of these proteins. In this work, we characterized the human Tob interactions with Caf1 and a C-terminal domain of PABPC1 (PABC). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Western blot analyses revealed that Tob consists of a structured N-terminal BTG-Tob domain and an unstructured C-terminal region with two conserved PAM2 (PABPC1-interacting motif 2) motifs. The BTG-TOB domain associates with Caf1, whereas the C-terminal PAM2 motif binds to PABC, with a K(d) value of 20 microM. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the levels of eRF3 and Tob in HeLa cells are 4-5 microM and less than 0.2 microM, respectively. On the basis of these results, we propose a thermodynamic mechanism for the translation termination-coupled deadenylation mediated by the Tob-Caf1 complex.

  3. Expression of the VP2 protein of murine norovirus by a translation termination-reinitiation strategy.

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    Sawsan Napthine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of the minor virion structural protein VP2 of the calicivirus murine norovirus (MNV is believed to occur by the unusual mechanism of termination codon-dependent reinitiation of translation. In this process, following translation of an upstream open reading frame (ORF and termination at the stop codon, a proportion of 40S subunits remain associated with the mRNA and reinitiate at the AUG of a downstream ORF, which is typically in close proximity. Consistent with this, the VP2 start codon (AUG of MNV overlaps the stop codon of the upstream VP1 ORF (UAA in the pentanucleotide UAAUG. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we confirm that MNV VP2 expression is regulated by termination-reinitiation and define the mRNA sequence requirements. Efficient reintiation is dependent upon 43 nt of RNA immediately upstream of the UAAUG site. Chemical and enzymatic probing revealed that the RNA in this region is not highly structured and includes an essential stretch of bases complementary to 18S rRNA helix 26 (Motif 1. The relative position of Motif 1 with respect to the UAAUG site impacts upon the efficiency of the process. Termination-reinitiation in MNV was also found to be relatively insensitive to the initiation inhibitor edeine. CONCLUSIONS: The termination-reinitiation signal of MNV most closely resembles that of influenza BM2. Similar to other viruses that use this strategy, base-pairing between mRNA and rRNA is likely to play a role in tethering the 40S subunit to the mRNA following termination at the VP1 stop codon. Our data also indicate that accurate recognition of the VP2 ORF AUG is not a pre-requisite for efficient reinitiation of translation in this system.

  4. A Premature Termination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcription in Escherichia coli

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    Jihene Elloumi-Mseddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our success in producing an active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli encouraged us to express the full-length receptor in the same host. Despite its large size, we were successful at producing the full-length EGFR protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST that was detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, we obtained a majoritarian truncated GST-EGFR form detectable by gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This truncated protein was purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to belong to the N-terminal extracellular region of the EGFR fused to GST. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts suggesting the occurrence of a transcriptional arrest.

  5. Readthrough of premature termination codons in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene restores its biological activity in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Floquet

    Full Text Available The APC tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated in human colorectal cancer, with nonsense mutations accounting for 30% of all mutations in this gene. Reintroduction of the WT APC gene into cancer cells generally reduces tumorigenicity or induces apoptosis. In this study, we explored the possibility of using drugs to induce premature termination codon (PTC readthrough (aminoglycosides, negamycin, as a means of reactivating endogenous APC. By quantifying the readthrough of 11 nonsense mutations in APC, we were able to identify those giving the highest levels of readthrough after treatment. For these mutations, we demonstrated that aminoglycoside or negamycin treatment led to a recovery of the biological activity of APC in cancer cell lines, and showed that the level of APC activity was proportional to the level of induced readthrough. These findings show that treatment with readthrough inducers should be considered as a potential strategy for treating cancers caused by nonsense mutations APC gene. They also provide a rational basis for identifying mutations responsive to readthrough inducers.

  6. Effect of Readthrough Treatment in Fibroblasts of Patients Affected by Lysosomal Diseases Caused by Premature Termination Codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalonga, Leslie; Arias, Ángela; Tort, Frederic; Ferrer-Cortés, Xènia; Garcia-Villoria, Judit; Coll, Maria Josep; Gort, Laura; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin, may induce premature termination codon (PTC) readthrough and elude the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay mechanism. Because PTCs are frequently involved in lysosomal diseases, readthrough compounds may be useful as potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify patients responsive to gentamicin treatment in order to be used as positive controls to further screen for other PTC readthrough compounds. With this aim, fibroblasts from 11 patients affected by 6 different lysosomal diseases carrying PTCs were treated with gentamicin. Treatment response was evaluated by measuring enzymatic activity, abnormal metabolite accumulation, mRNA expression, protein localization, and cell viability. The potential effect of readthrough was also analyzed by in silico predictions. Results showed that fibroblasts from 5/11 patients exhibited an up to 3-fold increase of enzymatic activity after gentamicin treatment. Accordingly, cell lines tested showed enhanced well-localized protein and/or increased mRNA expression levels and/or reduced metabolite accumulation. Interestingly, these cell lines also showed increased enzymatic activity after PTC124 treatment, which is a PTC readthrough-promoting compound. In conclusion, our results provide a proof-of-concept that PTCs can be effectively suppressed by readthrough drugs, with different efficiencies depending on the genetic context. The screening of new compounds with readthrough activity is a strategy that can be used to develop efficient therapies for diseases caused by PTC mutations.

  7. Nuclear matrix, nuclear envelope and premature aging syndromes in a translational research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Pierre; Navarro, Claire; Harhouri, Karim; Roll, Patrice; Sigaudy, Sabine; Kaspi, Elise; Perrin, Sophie; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Lévy, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Lamin A-related progeroid syndromes are genetically determined, extremely rare and severe. In the past ten years, our knowledge and perspectives for these diseases has widely progressed, through the progressive dissection of their pathophysiological mechanisms leading to precocious and accelerated aging, from the genes mutations discovery until therapeutic trials in affected children. A-type lamins are major actors in several structural and functional activities at the nuclear periphery, as they are major components of the nuclear lamina. However, while this is usually poorly considered, they also play a key role within the rest of the nucleoplasm, whose defects are related to cell senescence. Although nuclear shape and nuclear envelope deformities are obvious and visible events, nuclear matrix disorganization and abnormal composition certainly represent the most important causes of cell defects with dramatic pathological consequences. Therefore, lamin-associated diseases should be better referred as laminopathies instead of envelopathies, this later being too restrictive, considering neither the key structural and functional roles of soluble lamins in the entire nucleoplasm, nor the nuclear matrix contribution to the pathophysiology of lamin-associated disorders and in particular in defective lamin A processing-associated aging diseases. Based on both our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and the biological and clinical consequences of progeria and related diseases, therapeutic trials have been conducted in patients and were terminated less than 10 years after the gene discovery, a quite fast issue for a genetic disease. Pharmacological drugs have been repurposed and used to decrease the toxicity of the accumulated, unprocessed and truncated prelaminA in progeria. To date, none of them may be considered as a cure for progeria and these clinical strategies were essentially designed toward reducing a subset of the most dramatic and morbid features

  8. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  9. New roles for old modifications: emerging roles of N-terminal post-translational modifications in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, John G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2014-12-01

    The importance of internal post-translational modification (PTM) in protein signaling and function has long been known and appreciated. However, the significance of the same PTMs on the alpha amino group of N-terminal amino acids has been comparatively understudied. Historically considered static regulators of protein stability, additional functional roles for N-terminal PTMs are now beginning to be elucidated. New findings show that N-terminal methylation, along with N-terminal acetylation, is an important regulatory modification with significant roles in development and disease progression. There are also emerging studies on the enzymology and functional roles of N-terminal ubiquitylation and N-terminal propionylation. Here, will discuss the recent advances in the functional studies of N-terminal PTMs, recount the new N-terminal PTMs being identified, and briefly examine the possibility of dynamic N-terminal PTM exchange.

  10. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elgamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P, an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified.

  11. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgamal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified. PMID:27624127

  12. A novel post-translational modification in nerve terminals: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Bache, Nicolai;

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation and glycosylation are the most common post-translational modifications observed in biology, frequently on the same protein. Assembly protein AP180 is a synapse-specific phosphoprotein and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified glycoprotein. AP180 is involved...... in the assembly of clathrin coated vesicles in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Unlike other types of O-glycosylation, O-GlcNAc is nucleocytoplasmic and reversible. It was thought to be a terminal modification, that is, the O-GlcNAc was not found to be additionally modified in any way. We now show that AP180......NAc-P to a Thr residue was confirmed by electron transfer dissociation MS. A second AP180 tryptic peptide was also glycosyl phosphorylated, but the site of modification was not assigned. Sequence similarities suggest there may be a common motif within AP180 involving glycosyl phosphorylation and dual flanking...

  13. Translation complex profile sequencing to study the in vivo dynamics of mRNA-ribosome interactions during translation initiation, elongation and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Archer, Stuart K; Beilharz, Traude H; Powell, David; Preiss, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) translation is a tightly controlled process that is integral to gene expression. It features intricate and dynamic interactions of the small and large subunits of the ribosome with mRNAs, aided by multiple auxiliary factors during distinct initiation, elongation and termination phases. The recently developed ribosome profiling method can generate transcriptome-wide surveys of translation and its regulation. Ribosome profiling records the footprints of fully assembled ribosomes along mRNAs and thus primarily interrogates the elongation phase of translation. Importantly, it does not monitor multiple substeps of initiation and termination that involve complexes between the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) and mRNA. Here we describe a related method, termed 'translation complex profile sequencing' (TCP-seq), that is uniquely capable of recording positions of any type of ribosome-mRNA complex transcriptome-wide. It uses fast covalent fixation of translation complexes in live cells, followed by RNase footprinting of translation intermediates and their separation into complexes involving either the full ribosome or the SSU. The footprints derived from each type of complex are then deep-sequenced separately, generating native distribution profiles during the elongation, as well as the initiation and termination stages of translation. We provide the full TCP-seq protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae liquid suspension culture, including a data analysis pipeline. The protocol takes ∼3 weeks to complete by a researcher who is well acquainted with standard molecular biology techniques and who has some experience in ultracentrifugation and the preparation of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries. Basic Bash and UNIX/Linux command skills are required to use the bioinformatics tools provided.

  14. Heat shock-induced accumulation of translation elongation and termination factors precedes assembly of stress granules in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grousl

    Full Text Available In response to severe environmental stresses eukaryotic cells shut down translation and accumulate components of the translational machinery in stress granules (SGs. Since they contain mainly mRNA, translation initiation factors and 40S ribosomal subunits, they have been referred to as dominant accumulations of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Here we present evidence that the robust heat shock-induced SGs of S. cerevisiae also contain translation elongation factors eEF3 (Yef3p and eEF1Bγ2 (Tef4p as well as translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45p and eRF3 (Sup35p. Despite the presence of the yeast prion protein Sup35 in heat shock-induced SGs, we found out that its prion-like domain is not involved in the SGs assembly. Factors eEF3, eEF1Bγ2 and eRF1 were accumulated and co-localized with Dcp2 foci even upon a milder heat shock at 42°C independently of P-bodies scaffolding proteins. We also show that eEF3 accumulations at 42°C determine sites of the genuine SGs assembly at 46°C. We suggest that identification of translation elongation and termination factors in SGs might help to understand the mechanism of the eIF2α factor phosphorylation-independent repression of translation and SGs assembly.

  15. Novel role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in regulating the initiation of cap-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish R; Sadiq, Ahad A; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Jirakulaporn, Tanawat; Jacobson, Blake A; Farassati, Faris; Bitterman, Peter B; Kratzke, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    Initiation of protein translation by the 5' mRNA cap is a tightly regulated step in cell growth and proliferation. Aberrant activation of cap-dependent translation is a hallmark of many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. The canonical signaling mechanisms leading to translation initiation include activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in response to the presence of nutrients and growth factors. We have previously observed that inhibition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) leads to inactivation of cap-dependent translation in mesothelioma cells. Since JNK is involved in the genesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we hypothesized that JNK could also be involved in activating cap-dependent translation in NSCLC cells and could represent an alternative pathway regulating translation. In a series of NSCLC cell lines, inhibition of JNK using SP600125 resulted in inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and a decrease in formation of the cap-dependent translation complex, eIF4F. Furthermore, we show that JNK-mediated inhibition of translation is independent of mTOR. Our data provide evidence that JNK is involved in the regulation of translation and has potential as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

  16. Control of mRNA Export and Translation Termination by Inositol Hexakisphosphate Requires Specific Interaction with Gle1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Román, Abel R.; Bolger, Timothy A.; Wente, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    The unidirectional translocation of messenger RNA (mRNA) through the aqueous channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by interactions between soluble mRNA export factors and distinct binding sites on the NPC. At the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, the conserved mRNA export factors Gle1 and inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) play an essential role in mRNA export by activating the ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5, promoting localized messenger ribonucleoprotein complex remodeling, and ensuring the directionality of the export process. In addition, Dbp5, Gle1, and IP6 are also required for proper translation termination. However, the specificity of the IP6-Gle1 interaction in vivo is unknown. Here, we characterize the biochemical interaction between Gle1 and IP6 and the relationship to Dbp5 binding and stimulation. We identify Gle1 residues required for IP6 binding and show that these residues are needed for IP6-dependent Dbp5 stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Gle1 is the primary target of IP6 for both mRNA export and translation termination in vivo. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, the IP6-binding mutants recapitulate all of the mRNA export and translation termination defects found in mutants depleted of IP6. We conclude that Gle1 specifically binds IP6 and that this interaction is required for the full potentiation of Dbp5 ATPase activity during both mRNA export and translation termination. PMID:20371601

  17. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  18. Computer-Aided Clinical Trial Recruitment Based on Domain-Specific Language Translation: A Case Study of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reusing the data from healthcare information systems can effectively facilitate clinical trials (CTs. How to select candidate patients eligible for CT recruitment criteria is a central task. Related work either depends on DBA (database administrator to convert the recruitment criteria to native SQL queries or involves the data mapping between a standard ontology/information model and individual data source schema. This paper proposes an alternative computer-aided CT recruitment paradigm, based on syntax translation between different DSLs (domain-specific languages. In this paradigm, the CT recruitment criteria are first formally represented as production rules. The referenced rule variables are all from the underlying database schema. Then the production rule is translated to an intermediate query-oriented DSL (e.g., LINQ. Finally, the intermediate DSL is directly mapped to native database queries (e.g., SQL automated by ORM (object-relational mapping.

  19. Computer-Aided Clinical Trial Recruitment Based on Domain-Specific Language Translation: A Case Study of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reusing the data from healthcare information systems can effectively facilitate clinical trials (CTs). How to select candidate patients eligible for CT recruitment criteria is a central task. Related work either depends on DBA (database administrator) to convert the recruitment criteria to native SQL queries or involves the data mapping between a standard ontology/information model and individual data source schema. This paper proposes an alternative computer-aided CT recruitment paradigm, based on syntax translation between different DSLs (domain-specific languages). In this paradigm, the CT recruitment criteria are first formally represented as production rules. The referenced rule variables are all from the underlying database schema. Then the production rule is translated to an intermediate query-oriented DSL (e.g., LINQ). Finally, the intermediate DSL is directly mapped to native database queries (e.g., SQL) automated by ORM (object-relational mapping).

  20. Further characterisation of the translational termination-reinitiation signal of the influenza B virus segment 7 RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Powell

    Full Text Available Termination-dependent reinitiation is used to co-ordinately regulate expression of the M1 and BM2 open-reading frames (ORFs of the dicistronic influenza B segment 7 RNA. The start codon of the BM2 ORF overlaps the stop codon of the M1 ORF in the pentanucleotide UAAUG and ∼10% of ribosomes terminating at the M1 stop codon reinitiate translation at the overlapping AUG. BM2 synthesis requires the presence of, and translation through, 45 nt of RNA immediately upstream of the UAAUG, known as the 'termination upstream ribosome binding site' (TURBS. This region may tether ribosomal 40S subunits to the mRNA following termination and a short region of the TURBS, motif 1, with complementarity to helix 26 of 18S rRNA has been implicated in this process. Here, we provide further evidence for a direct interaction between mRNA and rRNA using antisense oligonucleotide targeting and functional analysis in yeast cells. The TURBS also binds initiation factor eIF3 and we show here that this protein stimulates reinitiation from both wild-type and defective TURBS when added exogenously, perhaps by stabilising ribosome-mRNA interactions. Further, we show that the position of the TURBS with respect to the UAAUG overlap is crucial, and that termination too far downstream of the 18S complementary sequence inhibits the process, probably due to reduced 40S tethering. However, in reporter mRNAs where the restart codon alone is moved downstream, termination-reinitiation is inhibited but not abolished, thus the site of reinitiation is somewhat flexible. Reinitiation on distant AUGs is not inhibited in eIF4G-depleted RRL, suggesting that the tethered 40S subunit can move some distance without a requirement for linear scanning.

  1. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  2. The role of n terminal - probrain natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of hemodynamic persistent asrteriosus ductus in premature neonates patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasraf, D.; Djer, M. M.; Advani, N.

    2017-08-01

    Persistent ductus arteriosus is one of the most frequent congenital heart diseases found in infants, mainly in preterms. Echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hs-PDA) in preterm neonates. A few studies have suggested that the use of a simple blood assay to detect N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be useful in determining the diagnosis and management of hs-PDA. No such studies have been conducted in Indonesia, although the assay kit and characteristics of the patient (gestational age and chronological age) influence the accuracy of NT-proBNP levels in determining hs-PDA. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the NT-proBNP level and the prevalence of hs-PDA in an Indonesian patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. PDA was determined using echocardiography in 49 preterm neonates (gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2000 g). Subsequently, these patients were divided into three groups: non-PDA, non-hsPDA, and hs-PDA. The blood NT-proBNP level was then determined in the non-hsPDA and hs-PDA groups, and between-group differences were compared. Among the 49 neonates, 33 patients had PDA, and 16 of these had hs-PDA. The results revealed a significant association between the NT-proBNP level and hs-PDA (p < 0.001).

  3. Constitutive CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminates germinal center response and leads to augmented plasma cell production in T cell areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Anna; Long, Eugene; Stapler, Dale; Cascalho, Marilia; Tsubata, Takeshi; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko

    2010-07-01

    CD40/CD40L engagement is essential to T cell-dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of CD40 signaling through cognate T-B interaction in the generation of germinal center and memory B cells is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, a B cell-specific CD40L transgene (CD40LBTg) was introduced into mice with B cell-restricted MHC class II deficiency. Using this mouse model, we show that constitutive CD40L expression on B cells alone could not induce germinal center differentiation of MHC class II-deficient B cells after immunization with T cell-dependent Ag. Thus, some other MHC class II-dependent T cell-derived signals are essential for the generation of germinal center B cells in response to T cell-dependent Ag. In fact, CD40LBTg mice generated a complex Ag-specific IgG1 response, which was greatly enhanced in early, but reduced in late, primary response compared with control mice. We also found that the frequency of Ag-specific germinal center B cells in CD40LBTg mice was abruptly reduced 1 wk after immunization. As a result, the numbers of Ag-specific IgG1 long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells were reduced. By histology, large numbers of Ag-specific plasma cells were found in T cell areas adjacent to Ag-specific germinal centers of CD40LBTg mice, temporarily during the second week of primary response. These results indicate that CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminated their ongoing germinal center response and produced plasma cells. Our results support the notion that CD40 signaling is an active termination signal for germinal center reaction.

  4. A lack of premature termination codon read-through efficacy of PTC124 (Ataluren in a diverse array of reporter assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P McElroy

    Full Text Available The drug molecule PTC124 (Ataluren has been described as a read-through agent, capable of suppressing premature termination codons (PTCs and restoring functional protein production from genes disrupted by nonsense mutations. Following the discovery of PTC124 there was some controversy regarding its mechanism of action with two reports attributing its activity to an off-target effect on the Firefly luciferase (FLuc reporter used in the development of the molecule. Despite questions remaining as to its mechanism of action, development of PTC124 continued into the clinic and it is being actively pursued as a potential nonsense mutation therapy. To thoroughly test the ability of PTC124 to read through nonsense mutations, we conducted a detailed assessment comparing the efficacy of PTC124 with the classical aminoglycoside antibiotic read-through agent geneticin (G418 across a diverse range of in vitro reporter assays. We can confirm the off-target FLuc activity of PTC124 but found that, while G418 exhibits varying activity in every read-through assay, there is no evidence of activity for PTC124.

  5. A lack of premature termination codon read-through efficacy of PTC124 (Ataluren) in a diverse array of reporter assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Stuart P; Nomura, Toshifumi; Torrie, Leah S; Warbrick, Emma; Gartner, Ulrike; Wood, Gavin; McLean, W H Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The drug molecule PTC124 (Ataluren) has been described as a read-through agent, capable of suppressing premature termination codons (PTCs) and restoring functional protein production from genes disrupted by nonsense mutations. Following the discovery of PTC124 there was some controversy regarding its mechanism of action with two reports attributing its activity to an off-target effect on the Firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter used in the development of the molecule. Despite questions remaining as to its mechanism of action, development of PTC124 continued into the clinic and it is being actively pursued as a potential nonsense mutation therapy. To thoroughly test the ability of PTC124 to read through nonsense mutations, we conducted a detailed assessment comparing the efficacy of PTC124 with the classical aminoglycoside antibiotic read-through agent geneticin (G418) across a diverse range of in vitro reporter assays. We can confirm the off-target FLuc activity of PTC124 but found that, while G418 exhibits varying activity in every read-through assay, there is no evidence of activity for PTC124.

  6. Adaptation and Diversification of an RNA Replication System under Initiation- or Termination-Impaired Translational Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation to various environments is a remarkable characteristic of life. Is this limited to extant complex living organisms, or is it also possible for a simpler self-replication system to adapt? In this study, we addressed this question by using a translation-coupled RNA replication system that comprised a reconstituted translation system and an RNA "genome" that encoded a replicase gene. We performed RNA replication reactions under four conditions, under which different components of translation were partly inhibited. We found that replication efficiency increased with the number of rounds of replication under all the tested conditions. The types of dominant mutations differed depending on the condition, thus indicating that this simple system adapted to different environments in different ways. This suggests that even a primitive self-replication system composed of a small number of genes on the early earth could have had the ability to adapt to various environments.

  7. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  8. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  9. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice Increases Hepatic Expression of Genes Carrying a Premature Termination Codon via a Nutritional Status-Independent GRP78-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Nagakatsu; Okuyama, Maiko; Yoshikatsu, Aya; Yamamoto, Hironori; Ishiwata, Saori; Hamada, Chikako; Hirose, Tomoyo; Shono, Masayuki; Kuroda, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Rie; Takeo, Jiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) degrades mRNAs carrying a premature termination codon (PTC) in eukaryotes. Cellular stresses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inhibit NMD, and up-regulate PTC-containing mRNA (PTC-mRNA) levels in several cell lines. However, whether similar effects exist under in vivo conditions that involve systemic nutritional status is unclear. Here, we compared the effects of pharmacological induction of ER stress with those of nutritional interventions on hepatic PTC-mRNA levels in mice. In mouse livers, the ER stress inducer tunicamycin increased PTC-mRNA levels of endogenous marker genes. Tunicamycin decreased body weight and perturbed nutrient metabolism in mice. Food restriction or deprivation mimicked the effect of tunicamycin on weight loss and metabolism, but did not increase PTC-mRNA levels. Hyperphagia-induced obesity also had little effect on hepatic PTC-mRNA levels. Meanwhile, in mouse liver phosphorylation of eIF2α, a factor that regulates NMD, was increased by both tunicamycin and nutritional interventions. Hepatic expression of GRP78, a central chaperone in ER stress responses, was increased by tunicamycin but not by the nutritional interventions. In cultured liver cells (Hepa), exogenous overexpression of a phosphomimetic eIF2α failed to increase PTC-mRNA levels. However, GRP78 overexpression in Hepa cells increased PTC-mRNA and PTC-mRNA-derived protein levels. ER stress promoted localization of GRP78 to mitochondria, and exogenous expression of a GRP78 fusion protein targeted to mitochondria mimicked the effect of wild type GRP78. These results indicate that GRP78, but not nutritional status, is a potent up-regulator of hepatic PTC-mRNA levels during induction of ER stress in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3810-3824, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Skipping of exons by premature termination of transcription and alternative splicing within intron-5 of the sheep SCF gene: a novel splice variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM, SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (- or soluble (+ forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin of white merino sheep via cloning and sequencing. Reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR and molecular prediction revealed two different cDNA products of SCF. Full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and molecular prediction revealed that the primary 1519 base pair (bp cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 274 amino acids (aa, commonly known as 'soluble' isoform. In contrast, the shorter (835 and/or 725 bp cDNA was found to be a 'novel' mRNA splice variant. It contains an open reading frame (ORF corresponding to a truncated protein of 181 aa (vs 245 aa with an unique C-terminus lacking the primary proteolytic segment (28 aa right after the D(175G site which is necessary to produce 'soluble' form of SCF. This alternative splice (AS variant was explained by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering exon 5-intron (5-exon 6 (948 bp with a premature termination codon (PTC whereby exons 6 to 9/10 are skipped (Cassette Exon, CE 6-9/10. We also demonstrated that the Northern blot analysis at transcript level is mediated via an intron-5 splicing event. Our data refine the structure of SCF gene; clarify the presence (+ and/or absence (- of primary proteolytic-cleavage site specific SCF splice variants. This work provides a basis for understanding the functional role and regulation of SCF in hair follicle melanogenesis in sheep beyond what was known in mice, humans and other mammals.

  12. The combination of plant translational enhancers and terminator increase the expression of human glucocerebrosidase in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limkul, Juthamard; Misaki, Ryo; Kato, Ko; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2015-11-01

    Gaucher's disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase). It is currently treated by enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant GCase expressed in mammalian cells. Plant production systems are among the most attractive alternatives for pharmaceutical protein production due to such advantages as low-cost, high-scalability, and safety from human pathogen contamination. Because of its high biomass yield, Nicotiana benthamiana could be an economical recombinant GCase production system. In this study, a translational enhancer and suitable terminator were utilized to obtain a powerful expression system for GCase production in N. benthamiana plants. Six plasmid constructs were used. The highest activity of 44.5units/mg protein (after subtraction of endogenous glucosidase activity of the wild-type plant) was observed in transgenic plants transformed with pAt-GC-HSP combined with a 5' untranslated region of the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase gene with the Arabidopsis heat shock protein terminator. These transgenic plant lines could pave the way to a stable plant-production system for low-cost, high-yield human GCase production.

  13. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE para o português do Brasil Traducción y adaptación cultural del Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE al portugués de Brasil Translation and cultural adaptation of the Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítor Finotelli Júnior

    2012-12-01

    ó cualitativamente las divergencias y consolidó la versión aplicada en la muestra. Después de esa aplicación, algunas sugerencias fueron incorporadas y se constituyó la versión final. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios en la comprensión del lenguaje empleado. Para esa versión se conservó el nombre en inglés, añadiéndose al final "adaptación brasileña".The present study translated and adapted the Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE into Brazilian Portuguese, by the method of semantic equivalence. The IPE is a self-report scale composed by 10 items that assesses criteria such as sense of control, sexual satisfaction and distress. This process was composed by 11 professionals qualified for such method and a sample of 50 participants for the evaluation of intelligibility. The stages were translation, back-translation, assessment of semantic equivalence, final critique by experts and version pre-test. The results for the assessment of semantic equivalence presented significant agreement among the judges. This assessment classified the items as unchanged or slightly changed. The final critique by experts evaluated qualitatively the divergences and consolidated the version applied in the sample. After this application, some suggestions were incorporated and these constituted the final version. The results were satisfactory in the comprehension of the adopted language. For this version, the name was kept in English and "Brazilian Adaptation" was added to the end.

  14. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  15. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5'-Terminal Cap and Hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Nadejda L; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E

    2016-02-12

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F.

  16. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  17. Distinct response of yeast ribosomes to a miscoding event during translation

    OpenAIRE

    Eyler, Daniel E.; Green, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have evolved to control the accuracy of translation, including a recently discovered retrospective quality control mechanism in bacteria. This quality control mechanism is sensitive to perturbations in the codon:anticodon interaction in the P site of the ribosome that trigger a dramatic loss of fidelity in subsequent tRNA and release factor selection events in the A site. These events ultimately lead to premature termination of translation in response to an initial miscodi...

  18. Restoration of APC gene function in colorectal cancer cells by aminoglycoside- and macrolide-induced read-through of premature termination codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Alona; Lahav, Lital; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2010-04-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional tumour suppressor protein that negatively regulates the Wnt signalling pathway. The APC gene is ubiquitously expressed in tissues and organs, including the large intestine and central nervous system. The majority of patients with sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer have mutations in the gene encoding APC. Approximately 30% of these mutations are single nucleotide changes that result in premature stop codons (nonsense mutations). A potential therapeutic approach for treatment of this subset of patients is the use of aminoglycosides and macrolides that induce nonsense mutation read-through and restore levels of full-length protein. We have used reporter plasmids and colorectal cancer cell lines to demonstrate that several aminoglycosides and tylosin, a member of the macrolide family, induced read-through of nonsense mutations in the APC gene. In xenograft experiments and in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model, these compounds ameliorated the tumorigenic clinical symptoms caused by nonsense mutations in the APC gene.

  19. The Role of Structural Elements of the 5'-Terminal Region of p53 mRNA in Translation under Stress Conditions Assayed by the Antisense Oligonucleotide Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Swiatkowska

    Full Text Available The p53 protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and stress response. In the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA, an IRES element has been found which takes part in the translational regulation of p53 expression. Two characteristic hairpin motifs are present in this mRNA region: G56-C169, with the first AUG codon, and U180-A218, which interacts with the Hdm2 protein (human homolog of mouse double minute 2 protein. 2'-OMe modified antisense oligomers hybridizing to the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA were applied to assess the role of these structural elements in translation initiation under conditions of cellular stress. Structural changes in the RNA target occurring upon oligomers' binding were monitored by the Pb2+-induced cleavage method. The impact of antisense oligomers on the synthesis of two proteins, the full-length p53 and its isoform Δ40p53, was analysed in HT-29, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, under normal conditions and under stress, as well as in vitro conditions. The results revealed that the hairpin U180-A218 and adjacent single-stranded region A219-A228 were predominantly responsible for high efficacy of IRES-mediated translation in the presence of stress factors. These motifs play a role of cis-acting elements which are able to modulate IRES activity, likely via interactions with protein factors.

  20. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  1. Variable expression of cerebral cavernous malformations in carriers of a premature termination codon in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamero Miguel A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM present as either sporadic or autosomal dominant conditions with incomplete penetrance of symptoms. Differences in genetic and environmental factors might be minimized among first-degree relatives. We therefore studied clinical expression in a family with several affected members. Methods We studied a three-generation family with the onset of CCM as a cerebral haemorrhage in the younger (four-year-old sibling. Identification and enumeration of CCMs were performed in T2-weighted or gradient-echo MRIs of the whole brains. Genetic analysis comprised SCCP, sequencing and restriction polymorphism of the Krit1 gene in the proband and at risk relatives. Results The phenotypes of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs in carriers of Krit1 mutations were very variable. We identified a novel frameshift mutation caused by a 1902A insertion in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene, which leads to a premature TAA triplet and predicts the truncating phenotype Y634X. A very striking finding was the absence of both clinical symptoms and CCMs in the eldest sibling harbouring the 1902insA. Conclusions Patients in this family, harbouring the same mutation, illustrate the very variable clinical and radiological expression of a Krit1 mutation. The early and critical onset in the proband contrasts with minor clinical findings in affected relatives. This consideration is important in genetic counselling.

  2. Cryoelectron Microscopic Structures of Eukaryotic Translation Termination Complexes Containing eRF1-eRF3 or eRF1-ABCE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Preis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Termination and ribosome recycling are essential processes in translation. In eukaryotes, a stop codon in the ribosomal A site is decoded by a ternary complex consisting of release factors eRF1 and guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound eRF3. After GTP hydrolysis, eRF3 dissociates, and ABCE1 can bind to eRF1-loaded ribosomes to stimulate peptide release and ribosomal subunit dissociation. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM structures of a pretermination complex containing eRF1-eRF3 and a termination/prerecycling complex containing eRF1-ABCE1. eRF1 undergoes drastic conformational changes: its central domain harboring the catalytically important GGQ loop is either packed against eRF3 or swung toward the peptidyl transferase center when bound to ABCE1. Additionally, in complex with eRF3, the N-terminal domain of eRF1 positions the conserved NIKS motif proximal to the stop codon, supporting its suggested role in decoding, yet it appears to be delocalized in the presence of ABCE1. These results suggest that stop codon decoding and peptide release can be uncoupled during termination.

  3. On the pH dependence of class-1 RF-dependent termination of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrisiunaite, Gabriele; Pavlov, Michael Y; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-05-08

    We have studied the pH dependence of the rate of termination of bacterial protein synthesis catalyzed by a class-1 release factor (RF1 or RF2). We used a classical quench-flow technique and a newly developed stopped-flow technique that relies on the use of fluorescently labeled peptides. We found the termination rate to increase with increasing pH and, eventually, to saturate at about 70 s(-1) with an apparent pKa value of about 7.6. From our data, we suggest that class-1 RF termination is rate limited by the chemistry of ester bond hydrolysis at low pH and by a stop-codon-dependent and pH-independent conformational change of RFs at high pH. We propose that RF-dependent termination depends on the participation of a hydroxide ion rather than a water molecule in the hydrolysis of the ester bond between the P-site tRNA and its peptide chain. We provide a simple explanation for why the rate of termination saturated at high pH in our experiments but not in those of others.

  4. Regulation of the cardiomyocyte transcriptome vs translatome by endothelin-1 and insulin: translational regulation of 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP mRNAs by insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugden Peter H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cellular phenotype result from underlying changes in mRNA transcription and translation. Endothelin-1 stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with associated changes in mRNA/protein expression and an increase in the rate of protein synthesis. Insulin also increases the rate of translation but does not promote overt cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. One mechanism of translational regulation is through 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tracts (TOPs that, in response to growth stimuli, promote mRNA recruitment to polysomes for increased translation. TOP mRNAs include those encoding ribosomal proteins, but the full panoply remains to be established. Here, we used microarrays to compare the effects of endothelin-1 and insulin on the global transcriptome of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and on mRNA recruitment to polysomes (i.e. the translatome. Results Globally, endothelin-1 and insulin (1 h promoted >1.5-fold significant (false discovery rate 1.25-fold significant changes in expression in total and/or polysomal RNA induced by endothelin-1 or insulin, respectively, of which ~35% of endothelin-1-responsive and ~56% of insulin-responsive transcripts were translationally regulated. Of mRNAs for established proteins recruited to polysomes in response to insulin, 49 were known TOP mRNAs with a further 15 probable/possible TOP mRNAs, but 49 had no identifiable TOP sequences or other consistent features in the 5' untranslated region. Conclusions Endothelin-1, rather than insulin, substantially affects global transcript expression to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Effects on RNA recruitment to polysomes are subtle, with differential effects of endothelin-1 and insulin on specific transcripts. Furthermore, although insulin promotes recruitment of TOP mRNAs to cardiomyocyte polysomes, not all recruited mRNAs are TOP mRNAs.

  5. Regulation of the cardiomyocyte transcriptome vs translatome by endothelin-1 and insulin: translational regulation of 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) mRNAs by insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in cellular phenotype result from underlying changes in mRNA transcription and translation. Endothelin-1 stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with associated changes in mRNA/protein expression and an increase in the rate of protein synthesis. Insulin also increases the rate of translation but does not promote overt cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. One mechanism of translational regulation is through 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tracts (TOPs) that, in response to growth stimuli, promote mRNA recruitment to polysomes for increased translation. TOP mRNAs include those encoding ribosomal proteins, but the full panoply remains to be established. Here, we used microarrays to compare the effects of endothelin-1 and insulin on the global transcriptome of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and on mRNA recruitment to polysomes (i.e. the translatome). Results Globally, endothelin-1 and insulin (1 h) promoted >1.5-fold significant (false discovery rate 1.25-fold significant changes in expression in total and/or polysomal RNA induced by endothelin-1 or insulin, respectively, of which ~35% of endothelin-1-responsive and ~56% of insulin-responsive transcripts were translationally regulated. Of mRNAs for established proteins recruited to polysomes in response to insulin, 49 were known TOP mRNAs with a further 15 probable/possible TOP mRNAs, but 49 had no identifiable TOP sequences or other consistent features in the 5' untranslated region. Conclusions Endothelin-1, rather than insulin, substantially affects global transcript expression to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Effects on RNA recruitment to polysomes are subtle, with differential effects of endothelin-1 and insulin on specific transcripts. Furthermore, although insulin promotes recruitment of TOP mRNAs to cardiomyocyte polysomes, not all recruited mRNAs are TOP mRNAs. PMID:20509958

  6. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  7. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  8. Premature Termination of MexR Leads to Overexpression of MexAB-OprM Efflux Pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Choudhury

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the mutations that are present in mexR gene of multidrug resistant (MDR isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from a tertiary referral hospital of north east India.76 MDR clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from the patients who were admitted to or attended the clinics of Silchar medical college and hospital. They were screened phenotypically for the presence of efflux pump activity by an inhibitor based method. Acquired resistance mechanisms were detected by multiplex PCR. Real time PCR was performed to study the expression of mexA gene of MexAB-OprM efflux pump in isolates with increase efflux pump activity. mexR gene of the isolates with overexpressed MexAB-OprM efflux pump was amplified, sequenced and analysed.Out of 76 MDR isolates, 24 were found to exhibit efflux pump activity phenotypically against ciprofloxacin and meropenem. Acquired resistance mechanisms were absent in 11 of them and among those isolates, 8 of them overexpressed MexAB-OprM. All the 8 isolates possessed mutation in mexR gene. 11 transversions, 4 transitions, 2 deletion mutations and 2 insertion mutations were found in all the isolates. However, the most significant observation was the formation of a termination codon at 35th position which resulted in the termination of the polypeptide and leads to overexpression of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump.This study highlighted emergence of a novel mutation which is probably associated with multi drug resistance. Therefore, further investigations and actions are needed to prevent or at least hold back the expansion and emergence of newer mutations in nosocomial pathogens which may compromise future treatment options.

  9. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  10. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  11. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  12. Rapid detection of translation-terminating mutations at the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene by direct protein truncation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Luut, R.; Khan, P.M.; Van Leeuwen, C.; Tops, C.; Roest, P.; Den Dunnen, J. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is usually associated with protein truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The APC mutations are known to play a major role in colorectal carcinogensis. For the identification of protein truncating mutations of the APC gene, the authors developed a rapid, sensitive, and direct screening procedure. The technique is based on the in vitro transcription and translation of the genomic PCR products and is called the protein truncation test. Samples of DNA from individual FAP patients, members of a FAP family, colorectal tumors, and colorectal tumor-derived cell lines were used to show the effectiveness of this method. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Chemical footprinting reveals conformational changes of 18S and 28S rRNAs at different steps of translation termination on the human ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, Konstantin N; Bartuli, Yulia S; Malygin, Alexey A; Graifer, Dmitri M; Frolova, Ludmila Yu; Karpova, Galina G

    2016-02-01

    Translation termination in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors: eRF1, which is responsible for stop codon recognition and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, and GTPase eRF3, which stimulates peptide release. Here, we have utilized ribose-specific probes to investigate accessibility of rRNA backbone in complexes formed by association of mRNA- and tRNA-bound human ribosomes with eRF1•eRF3•GMPPNP, eRF1•eRF3•GTP, or eRF1 alone as compared with complexes where the A site is vacant or occupied by tRNA. Our data show which rRNA ribose moieties are protected from attack by the probes in the complexes with release factors and reveal the rRNA regions increasing their accessibility to the probes after the factors bind. These regions in 28S rRNA are helices 43 and 44 in the GTPase associated center, the apical loop of helix 71, and helices 89, 92, and 94 as well as 18S rRNA helices 18 and 34. Additionally, the obtained data suggest that eRF3 neither interacts with the rRNA ribose-phosphate backbone nor dissociates from the complex after GTP hydrolysis. Taken together, our findings provide new information on architecture of the eRF1 binding site on mammalian ribosome at various translation termination steps and on conformational rearrangements induced by binding of the release factors. © 2016 Bulygin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. Novel Escherichia coli RF1 mutants with decreased translation termination activity and increased sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of the bacterial toxins Kid and RelE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Mora, Liliana; Buckingham, Richard H; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Lemonnier, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Novel mutations in prfA, the gene for the polypeptide release factor RF1 of Escherichia coli, were isolated using a positive genetic screen based on the parD (kis, kid) toxin-antitoxin system. This original approach allowed the direct selection of mutants with altered translational termination efficiency at UAG codons. The isolated prfA mutants displayed a approximately 10-fold decrease in UAG termination efficiency with no significant changes in RF1 stability in vivo. All three mutations, G121S, G301S and R303H, were situated close to the nonsense codon recognition site in RF1:ribosome complexes. The prfA mutants displayed increased sensitivity to the RelE toxin encoded by the relBE system of E. coli, thus providing in vivo support for the functional interaction between RF1 and RelE. The prfA mutants also showed increased sensitivity to the Kid toxin. Since this toxin can cleave RNA in a ribosome-independent manner, this result was not anticipated and provided first evidence for the involvement of RF1 in the pathway of Kid toxicity. The sensitivity of the prfA mutants to RelE and Kid was restored to normal levels upon overproduction of the wild-type RF1 protein. We discuss these results and their utility for the design of novel antibacterial strategies in the light of the recently reported structure of ribosome-bound RF1.

  15. A systematic computational analysis of the rRNA–3′ UTR sequence complementarity suggests a regulatory mechanism influencing post-termination events in metazoan translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Josef; Kolář, Michal; Herrmannová, Anna; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequence complementarity underlies many fundamental biological processes. Although first noticed a long time ago, sequence complementarity between mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs still lacks a meaningful biological interpretation. Here we used statistical analysis of large-scale sequence data sets and high-throughput computing to explore complementarity between 18S and 28S rRNAs and mRNA 3′ UTR sequences. By the analysis of 27,646 full-length 3′ UTR sequences from 14 species covering both protozoans and metazoans, we show that the computed 18S rRNA complementarity creates an evolutionarily conserved localization pattern centered around the ribosomal mRNA entry channel, suggesting its biological relevance and functionality. Based on this specific pattern and earlier data showing that post-termination 80S ribosomes are not stably anchored at the stop codon and can migrate in both directions to codons that are cognate to the P-site deacylated tRNA, we propose that the 18S rRNA–mRNA complementarity selectively stabilizes post-termination ribosomal complexes to facilitate ribosome recycling. We thus demonstrate that the complementarity between 18S rRNA and 3′ UTRs has a non-random nature and very likely carries information with a regulatory potential for translational control. PMID:27190231

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity (ROP) Facts About Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) This information was developed by the National Eye ... blind from ROP. Are there different stages of ROP? Yes. ROP is classified in five stages, ranging ...

  17. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin N Leen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652-1132. Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy.

  18. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  19. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  20. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  1. 面向移动终端的统计机器翻译解码定点化方法%A Fixed Point Decoding Approach for Statistical Machine Translation on Mobile Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 徐金安; 姜文斌; 吕雅娟; 刘群

    2011-01-01

    面向移动终端的统计机器翻译需求越来越多,但无浮点运算单元的处理器限制了翻译速度.该文提出了一种对统计机器翻译解码运算的定点化运算方法,缓解了无浮点运算单元的处理器对翻译速度的影响.基于PC和移动终端的实验表明,在保证翻译质量的情况下,利用定点处理浮点运算的解码器的运算速度较编译器模拟的浮点运算速度提高135.6%.因此,该方法可以有效地提高浮点运算能力薄弱的移动终端统计机器翻译速度.%The demand for statistical machine translation (SMT) on mobile terminals is increasing, but the processor without floating point unit (FPU) restricts the translation speed. This paper proposes an approach to switch floating point operation to fixed point operation for decoder of SMT system on mobile terminals, and increase the translation speed on the processor without FPU. The experiments based on PC and mobile terminal show while this approach assures the quality of translation, the speed of our approach is 135.6% faster than the speed of floating point operation emulated by compiler. Therefore, this approach can efficiently increase the translation speed of SMT system on mobile terminals with weak ability in floating point operation.

  2. Post-translational processing of surfactant protein-C proprotein: targeting motifs in the NH(2)-terminal flanking domain are cleaved in late compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Braidotti, P; Pietra, G G; Russo, S J; Kabore, A; Wang, W J; Beers, M F

    2001-03-01

    Rat surfactant protein (SP)-C is a 3.7-kD hydrophobic lung-specific protein generated from proteolytic processing of a 21-kD propeptide (SP-C(21)). We have demonstrated that initial post-translational processing of SP-C(21) involves two cleavages of the COOH-terminus (Beers and colleagues, J. Biol. Chem. 1994;269:20,318--20,328). The goal of the current study was to define processing and function of the NH(2)-terminal flanking domain. Epitope-specific antisera directed against spatially distinct regions of the NH(2) terminus, NPROSP-C(2-9) (epitope = D(2)-L(9)) and NPROSP-C(11-23) (= E(11)-Q(23)) were produced. By Western blotting, both antisera identified SP-C(21) in microsomes. A 6-kD form (SP-C(6)), enriched in lamellar bodies (LBs), was detected only by NPROSP-C(11-23) and not extractable with NaCO(3) treatment. Immunogold staining of ultrathin lung sections with NPROSP-C(11-23) identified proSP-C in both multivesicular bodies (mvb) and LBs whereas NPROSP-C(2-9) labeled only mvb. (35)S-pulse chase analysis demonstrated synthesis of SP-C(21) and three intermediate forms (SP-C(16), SP-C(7), and SP-C(6)). Complete processing involved four separate cleavages with a precursor- product relationship between the low molecular weight forms SP-C(7) and SP-C(6). Fluorescence microscopy of A549 cells expressing fusion proteins of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and proSP-C NH(2)-terminal deletion mutants showed targeting of EGFP/SP-C(1-194) and EGFP/SP-C(10-194) to early endosomal antigen-1-negative, CD-63-positive cytoplasmic vesicles whereas EGFP/SP-C(19-194), EGFP/SP-C(Delta 10-18), and EGFP/SP-C(24-194) were restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We conclude that synthetic processing includes a previously unrecognized cleavage of the proximal NH(2) terminus (M(1)-L(9)), which occurs after removal of COOH-flanking domains (H(59)-I(194)) but before packaging in LBs, and that the region M(10)-T(18) is required for targeting of proSP-C to post-ER vesicular

  3. The processed isoform of the translation termination factor eRF3 localizes to the nucleus to interact with the ARF tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Kumagai, Naomichi; Hosoda, Nao; Hoshino, Shin-ichi, E-mail: hoshino@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • So far, eRF3 has been thought to function exclusively in the cytoplasm. • eRF3 is a nucleo-cutoplasmic shuttling protein. • eRF3 has a leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES). • Removal of NES by proteolytic cleavage allows eRF3 to translocate to the nucleus. • The processed eRF3 (p-eRF3) interacts with a nuclear tumor suppressor ARF. - Abstract: The eukaryotic releasing factor eRF3 is a multifunctional protein that plays pivotal roles in translation termination as well as the initiation of mRNA decay. eRF3 also functions in the regulation of apoptosis; eRF3 is cleaved at Ala73 by an as yet unidentified protease into processed isoform of eRF3 (p-eRF3), which interacts with the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). The binding of p-eRF3 with IAPs leads to the release of active caspases from IAPs, which promotes apoptosis. Although full-length eRF3 is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 localizes in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. We here focused on the role of p-eRF3 in the nucleus. We identified leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES) at amino acid residues 61–71 immediately upstream of the cleavage site Ala73. Thus, the proteolytic cleavage of eRF3 into p-eRF3 leads to release an amino-terminal fragment containing NES to allow the relocalization of eRF3 into the nucleus. Consistent with this, p-eRF3 more strongly interacted with the nuclear ARF tumor suppressor than full-length eRF3. These results suggest that while p-eRF3 interacts with IAPs to promote apoptosis in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 also has some roles in regulating cell death in the nucleus.

  4. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  5. The 5' untranslated region and Gag product of Idefix, a long terminal repeat-retrotransposon from Drosophila melanogaster, act together to initiate a switch between translated and untranslated states of the genomic mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meignin, Carine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Arnaud, Frédérick; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal

    2003-11-01

    Idefix is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon present in Drosophila melanogaster which shares similarities with vertebrates retroviruses both in its genomic arrangement and in the mechanism of transposition. Like in retroviruses, its two LTRs flank a long 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and three open reading frames referred to as the gag, pol, and env genes. Here we report that its 5'UTR, located upstream of the gag gene, can fold into highly structured domains that are known to be incompatible with efficient translation by ribosome scanning. Using dicistronic plasmids analyzed by both (i) in vitro transcription and translation in rabbit reticulocyte or wheat germ lysates and (ii) in vivo expression in transgenic flies, we show that the 5'UTR of Idefix exhibits an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that is able to promote translation of a downstream cistron in a cap-independent manner. The functional state of this novel IRES depends on eukaryotic factors that are independent of their host origin. However, in vivo, its function can be down-regulated by trans-acting factors specific to tissues or developmental stages of its host. We identify one of these trans-acting factors as the Gag protein encoded by Idefix itself. Our data support a model in which nascent Gag is able to block translation initiated from the viral mRNA and thus its own translation. These data highlight the fact that LTR-retrotransposons may autoregulate their replication cycle through their Gag production.

  6. Stochastic sequence-level model of coupled transcription and translation in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yli-Harja Olli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In prokaryotes, transcription and translation are dynamically coupled, as the latter starts before the former is complete. Also, from one transcript, several translation events occur in parallel. To study how events in transcription elongation affect translation elongation and fluctuations in protein levels, we propose a delayed stochastic model of prokaryotic transcription and translation at the nucleotide and codon level that includes the promoter open complex formation and alternative pathways to elongation, namely pausing, arrests, editing, pyrophosphorolysis, RNA polymerase traffic, and premature termination. Stepwise translation can start after the ribosome binding site is formed and accounts for variable codon translation rates, ribosome traffic, back-translocation, drop-off, and trans-translation. Results First, we show that the model accurately matches measurements of sequence-dependent translation elongation dynamics. Next, we characterize the degree of coupling between fluctuations in RNA and protein levels, and its dependence on the rates of transcription and translation initiation. Finally, modeling sequence-specific transcriptional pauses, we find that these affect protein noise levels. Conclusions For parameter values within realistic intervals, transcription and translation are found to be tightly coupled in Escherichia coli, as the noise in protein levels is mostly determined by the underlying noise in RNA levels. Sequence-dependent events in transcription elongation, e.g. pauses, are found to cause tangible effects in the degree of fluctuations in protein levels.

  7. Stochastic sequence-level model of coupled transcription and translation in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Jarno; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Yli-Harja, Olli; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2011-04-26

    In prokaryotes, transcription and translation are dynamically coupled, as the latter starts before the former is complete. Also, from one transcript, several translation events occur in parallel. To study how events in transcription elongation affect translation elongation and fluctuations in protein levels, we propose a delayed stochastic model of prokaryotic transcription and translation at the nucleotide and codon level that includes the promoter open complex formation and alternative pathways to elongation, namely pausing, arrests, editing, pyrophosphorolysis, RNA polymerase traffic, and premature termination. Stepwise translation can start after the ribosome binding site is formed and accounts for variable codon translation rates, ribosome traffic, back-translocation, drop-off, and trans-translation. First, we show that the model accurately matches measurements of sequence-dependent translation elongation dynamics. Next, we characterize the degree of coupling between fluctuations in RNA and protein levels, and its dependence on the rates of transcription and translation initiation. Finally, modeling sequence-specific transcriptional pauses, we find that these affect protein noise levels. For parameter values within realistic intervals, transcription and translation are found to be tightly coupled in Escherichia coli, as the noise in protein levels is mostly determined by the underlying noise in RNA levels. Sequence-dependent events in transcription elongation, e.g. pauses, are found to cause tangible effects in the degree of fluctuations in protein levels.

  8. Active and accurate trans-translation requires distinct determinants in the C-terminal tail of SmpB protein and the mRNA-like domain of transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenares, Devin; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Svetlanov, Anton; Karzai, A Wali

    2013-10-18

    Unproductive ribosome stalling in eubacteria is resolved by the actions of SmpB protein and transfer messenger (tm) RNA. We examined the functional significance of conserved regions of SmpB and tmRNA to the trans-translation process. Our investigations reveal that the N-terminal 20 residues of SmpB, which are located near the ribosomal decoding center, are dispensable for all known SmpB activities. In contrast, a set of conserved residues that reside at the junction between the tmRNA-binding core and the C-terminal tail of SmpB play an important role in tmRNA accommodation. Our data suggest that the highly conserved glycine 132 acts as a flexible hinge that enables movement of the C-terminal tail, thus permitting proper positioning and establishment of the tmRNA open reading frame (ORF) as the surrogate template. To gain further insights into the function of the SmpB C-terminal tail, we examined the tagging activity of hybrid variants of tmRNA and the SmpB protein, in which the tmRNA ORF or the SmpB C-terminal tail was substituted with the equivalent but highly divergent sequences from Francisella tularensis. We observed that the hybrid tmRNA was active but resulted in less accurate selection of the resume codon. Cognate hybrid SmpB was necessary to restore activity. Furthermore, accurate tagging was observed when the identity of the resume codon was reverted from GGC to GCA. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of the tmRNA ORF and the selection of the correct translation resumption point are distinct activities that are influenced by independent tmRNA and SmpB determinants.

  9. DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 connects CRM1-dependent nuclear export and translation of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA through its N-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Alvaro; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Pereira-Montecinos, Camila; Dellarossa, Alessandra; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Prades-Pérez, Yara; García-de-Gracia, Francisco; Garcés-Alday, Andrea; Rubilar, Paulina S; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Ohlmann, Théophile; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication and thus, a potential target for novel therapies aimed to overcome viral resistance. Previous studies have shown that DDX3 promotes nuclear export and translation of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA. Although the function of DDX3 during both processes requires its catalytic activity, it is unknown whether other domains surrounding the helicase core are involved. Here, we show the involvement of the N- and C-terminal domains of DDX3 in the regulation of HIV-1 unspliced mRNA translation. Our results suggest that the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of DDX3 regulates its functions in translation by acting prior to the recruitment of the 43S pre-initiation complex onto the viral 5'-UTR. Interestingly, this regulation was conserved in HIV-2 and was dependent on the CRM1-dependent nuclear export pathway suggesting a role of the RNA helicase in interconnecting nuclear export with ribosome recruitment of the viral unspliced mRNA. This specific function of DDX3 during HIV gene expression could be exploited as an alternative target for pharmaceutical intervention.

  10. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  11. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  12. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  13. N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins are convenient translation enhancers in a human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tominari; Machida, Kodai; Masutani, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Imataka, Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis systems are useful for the production of recombinant proteins. Productivity can be increased by supplementation with GADD34, a protein that is difficult to express in and purify from E. coli. Deletion of the N-terminal 120 or 240 amino acids of GADD34 improves recovery of this protein from E. coli without compromising its ability to boost protein synthesis in an in vitro protein synthesis system. The use of N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins in place of full-length GADD34 should improve the utility of human cell-based cell-free protein synthesis systems.

  14. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) represses terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNA translation downstream of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Bruno; Zakaria, Chadi; Jia, J J

    2015-01-01

    to repress TOP mRNA translation; and (iv) LARP1 competes with the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G for TOP mRNA binding. Importantly, from a drug resistance standpoint, our data also show that reducing LARP1 protein levels by RNA interference attenuates the inhibitory effect of rapamycin, Torin1...

  15. Specialized yeast ribosomes: a customized tool for selective mRNA translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann W Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence is now accumulating that sub-populations of ribosomes - so-called specialized ribosomes - can favour the translation of subsets of mRNAs. Here we use a large collection of diploid yeast strains, each deficient in one or other copy of the set of ribosomal protein (RP genes, to generate eukaryotic cells carrying distinct populations of altered 'specialized' ribosomes. We show by comparative protein synthesis assays that different heterologous mRNA reporters based on luciferase are preferentially translated by distinct populations of specialized ribosomes. These mRNAs include reporters carrying premature termination codons (PTC thus allowing us to identify specialized ribosomes that alter the efficiency of translation termination leading to enhanced synthesis of the wild-type protein. This finding suggests that these strains can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets in the ribosome. To explore this further we examined the translation of the mRNA encoding the extracellular matrix protein laminin β3 (LAMB3 since a LAMB3-PTC mutant is implicated in the blistering skin disease Epidermolysis bullosa (EB. This screen identified specialized ribosomes with reduced levels of RP L35B as showing enhanced synthesis of full-length LAMB3 in cells expressing the LAMB3-PTC mutant. Importantly, the RP L35B sub-population of specialized ribosomes leave both translation of a reporter luciferase carrying a different PTC and bulk mRNA translation largely unaltered.

  16. Global and local depletion of ternary complex limits translational elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Fedyunin, Ivan; Miekley, Oskar; Valleriani, Angelo; Moura, Alessandro; Ignatova, Zoya

    2010-08-01

    The translation of genetic information according to the sequence of the mRNA template occurs with high accuracy and fidelity. Critical events in each single step of translation are selection of transfer RNA (tRNA), codon reading and tRNA-regeneration for a new cycle. We developed a model that accurately describes the dynamics of single elongation steps, thus providing a systematic insight into the sensitivity of the mRNA translation rate to dynamic environmental conditions. Alterations in the concentration of the aminoacylated tRNA can transiently stall the ribosomes during translation which results, as suggested by the model, in two outcomes: either stress-induced change in the tRNA availability triggers the premature termination of the translation and ribosomal dissociation, or extensive demand for one tRNA species results in a competition between frameshift to an aberrant open-reading frame and ribosomal drop-off. Using the bacterial Escherichia coli system, we experimentally draw parallels between these two possible mechanisms.

  17. Attenuation of disease phenotype through alternative translation initiation in low-penetrance retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Weekes, Daniel B; Beneyto, Magdalena; Prieto, Félix; Nájera, Carmen; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2007-02-01

    Hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma (RB) is caused by germline mutations in the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene and transmits as an autosomal dominant trait. In the majority of cases disease develops in greater than 90% of carriers. However, reduced penetrance with a large portion of disease-free carrier is seen in some families. Unambiguous identification of the predisposing mutation in these families is important for accurate risk prediction in relatives and their genetic counseling but also provides conceptual information regarding the relationship between the RB1 genotype and the disease phenotype. In this study we report a novel mutation detected in 10 individuals of an extended family, only three of whom are affected by RB disease. The mutation comprises a 23-basepair (bp) duplication in the first exon of RB1 (c.43_65dup) producing a frameshift in exon 1 and premature chain termination in exon 2. Mutations resulting in premature chain termination classically are associated with high penetrance disease, as message translation may not generate functional product and nonsense mediated RNA decay (NMD) frequently eliminates the mutant transcript. However, appreciable NMD does not follow from the mutation described here and transcript expression in tissue culture cells and translation in vitro reveals that alternative in-frame translation start sites involving Met113 and possibly Met233 are used to generate truncated RB1 products (pRB94 and pRB80), known and suspected to exhibit tumor suppressor activity. These results strongly suggest that modulation of disease penetrance in this family is achieved by internal translation initiation. Our observations provide the first example for rescue of a chain-terminating mutation in RB1 through alternative translation initiation.

  18. Distinct response of yeast ribosomes to a miscoding event during translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Daniel E; Green, Rachel

    2011-05-01

    Numerous mechanisms have evolved to control the accuracy of translation, including a recently discovered retrospective quality control mechanism in bacteria. This quality control mechanism is sensitive to perturbations in the codon:anticodon interaction in the P site of the ribosome that trigger a dramatic loss of fidelity in subsequent tRNA and release factor selection events in the A site. These events ultimately lead to premature termination of translation in response to an initial miscoding error. In this work, we extend our investigations of this mechanism to an in vitro reconstituted Saccharomyces cerevisiae translation system. We report that yeast ribosomes do not respond to mismatches in the P site by loss of fidelity in subsequent substrate recognition events. We conclude that retrospective editing, as initially characterized in Escherichia coli, does not occur in S. cerevisiae. These results highlight potential mechanistic differences in the functional core of highly conserved ribosomes.

  19. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  20. Riboswitch control of Rho-dependent transcription termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Kerry; Proshkin, Sergey; Sklyarova, Svetlana; Epshtein, Vitaly; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2012-04-03

    Riboswitches are RNA sensors that regulate gene expression upon binding specific metabolites or ions. Bacterial riboswitches control gene expression primarily by promoting intrinsic transcription termination or by inhibiting translation initiation. We now report a third general mechanism of riboswitch action: governing the ability of the RNA-dependent helicase Rho to terminate transcription. We establish that Rho promotes transcription termination in the Mg(2+)-sensing mgtA riboswitch from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and the flavin mononucleotide-sensing ribB riboswitch from Escherichia coli when the corresponding riboswitch ligands are present. The Rho-specific inhibitor bicyclomycin enabled transcription of the coding regions at these two loci in bacteria experiencing repressing concentrations of the riboswitch ligands in vivo. A mutation in the mgtA leader that favors the "high Mg(2+)" conformation of the riboswitch promoted Rho-dependent transcription termination in vivo and in vitro and enhanced the ability of the RNA to stimulate Rho's ATPase activity in vitro. These effects were overcome by mutations in a C-rich region of the mRNA that is alternately folded at high and low Mg(2+), suggesting a role for this region in regulating the activity of Rho. Our results reveal a potentially widespread mode of gene regulation whereby riboswitches dictate whether a protein effector can interact with the transcription machinery to prematurely terminate transcription.

  1. Termination Casts: A Flexible Approach to Termination with General Recursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Stump

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a type-and-effect system called Teqt, which distinguishes terminating terms and total functions from possibly diverging terms and partial functions, for a lambda calculus with general recursion and equality types. The central idea is to include a primitive type-form "Terminates t", expressing that term t is terminating; and then allow terms t to be coerced from possibly diverging to total, using a proof of Terminates t. We call such coercions termination casts, and show how to implement terminating recursion using them. For the meta-theory of the system, we describe a translation from Teqt to a logical theory of termination for general recursive, simply typed functions. Every typing judgment of Teqt is translated to a theorem expressing the appropriate termination property of the computational part of the Teqt term.

  2. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  3. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  4. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  5. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  6. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  7. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  8. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  9. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  10. J point elevation as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z; Petriashvili, Sh; Archvadze, A; Azaladze, I

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. 36 patients were included in this observation. There are 36 patients (19-68 years old) with early repolarization ECG patterns. All this 36 patients were divided into two groups according to their level of J point elevation. First group consisted of 12 patients with J point elevation ≥0,15 mV; second group - of 24 patients with J point elevation premature ventricular beat during 24 h. Before and during this monitoring patients don't take any antyarrhythmic drugs. In the first group (J point elevation ≥0,15 mV) sum of premature ventricular beats were 27432, in the second group (J point elevation premature ventricular beats were 31 896. The results of this observational study shows that there is 1,72 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in first group. So, J point elevation equal or more then 0,15 mV, is more arrhythmogenic and induces premature ventricular beats. This is principally new and very important result.

  11. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  12. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.

  13. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  14. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  15. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  16. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  18. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  19. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  20. Tandem transcription termination sites in the dnaN gene of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengod, M E; García-Sogo, M; Pérez-Roger, I; Macián, F; Navarro-Aviñó, J P

    1991-10-15

    The dnaN gene of Escherichia coli encodes the beta-subunit of DNA polymerase III and maps between the dnaA and recF genes. We demonstrated previously that dnaN and recF constitute a transcriptional unit under control of the dnaN promoters. However, the recF gene has its own promoter region located in the middle of the dnaN structural gene. In this report, we use S1 mapping of mRNAs, transcriptional and translational fusions to the galK and lacZ genes, and in vitro mutagenesis to identify and characterize three tandem transcription termination sites responsible for transcriptional polarity in the dnaN-recF operon. These sites are located in the dnaN gene, downstream from the recF promoter region. Cumulatively, they terminate about 80% of the untranslated transcripts started at the recF promoters. As expected, they do not reduce transcription coming from the dnaN promoters unless dnaN translation was prematurely disrupted by the presence of a nonsense codon. The particular arrangement of regulatory elements (promoters and terminators) in the dnaN-recF region provides an exceptional in vivo system to confirm the latent termination site model of transcriptional polarity. In addition, our results contribute to the understanding of the complex regulation of the dnaA, dnaN, and recF genes. We propose that these three genes constitute an operon and that the terminators described in this work could be used to reduce expression of the distal genes of the operon under circumstances in which the dnaN translation happens to be slowed down.

  1. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  2. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  3. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  4. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  5. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  6. Human SNPs resulting in premature stop codons and protein truncation

    OpenAIRE

    Savas Sevtap; Tuzmen Sukru; Ozcelik Hilmi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of genetic variation in humans. SNPs introducing premature termination codons (PTCs), herein called X-SNPs, can alter the stability and function of transcripts and proteins and thus are considered to be biologically important. Initial studies suggested a strong selection against such variations/mutations. In this study, we undertook a genome-wide systematic screening to identify human X-SNPs using the dbSNP databa...

  7. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  8. HemK, a class of protein methyl transferase with similarity to DNA methyl transferases, methylates polypeptide chain release factors, and hemK knockout induces defects in translational termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahigashi, Kenji; Kubo, Naoko; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Shimaoka, Takeshi; Goto, Simon; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Maeda, Maki; Wada, Chieko; Inokuchi, Hachiro

    2002-02-05

    HemK, a universally conserved protein of unknown function, has high amino acid similarity with DNA-(adenine-N6) methyl transferases (MTases). A certain mutation in hemK gene rescues the photosensitive phenotype of a ferrochelatase-deficient (hemH) mutant in Escherichia coli. A hemK knockout strain of E. coli not only suffered severe growth defects, but also showed a global shift in gene expression to anaerobic respiration, as determined by microarray analysis, and this shift may lead to the abrogation of photosensitivity by reducing the oxidative stress. Suppressor mutations that abrogated the growth defects of the hemK knockout strain were isolated and shown to be caused by a threonine to alanine change at codon 246 of polypeptide chain release factor (RF) 2, indicating that hemK plays a role in translational termination. Consistent with such a role, the hemK knockout strain showed an enhanced rate of read-through of nonsense codons and induction of transfer-mRNA-mediated tagging of proteins within the cell. By analysis of the methylation of RF1 and RF2 in vivo and in vitro, we showed that HemK methylates RF1 and RF2 in vitro within the tryptic fragment containing the conserved GGQ motif, and that hemK is required for the methylation within the same fragment of, at least, RF1 in vivo. This is an example of a protein MTase containing the DNA MTase motif and also a protein-(glutamine-N5) MTase.

  9. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  10. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  11. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  12. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  13. Patient reported outcomes in the assessment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    The term 'Patient Reported Outcome', abbreviated as PRO, was introduced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which proposed guidance on the development and validation of PROs. Previously PROs were known as self-report diaries, event-logs, self-administered questionnaires, and clinician administered rating scales. PROs seek to capture the subjective perceptions of patients and/or partner's related to their specific symptoms, degree of bother, efficacy of a medication or psychotherapy intervention, and quality of life issues related to a specific condition. This article reviews the essential psychometric and regulatory agency requirements in the development of PROs. The constructs of reliability, various forms of validity, sensitivity, and specificity as well as concerns with translating a PRO into a different language are reviewed. Three PROs, the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), the Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) all used in the assessment of premature ejaculation (PE) are discussed. These questionnaires meet or exceed all the psychometric requirements and have been employed in clinical trials and observational studies of men with PE. The article concludes on discussing some of the limitations of PRO use and recommendations for the future.

  14. Multiple mechanisms repress N-Bak mRNA translation in the healthy and apoptotic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, M; Jakobson, M; Llano, O; Palgi, J; Arumäe, U

    2013-08-22

    N-Bak is a neuron-specific BH3-only splice variant of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak. We have shown that its mRNA is stable in the neurons, whereas the protein cannot be detected by antibodies, suggesting a strong translational arrest of the mRNA. Here we identify two regulatory elements in the N-Bak mRNA that significantly repress translation in the luciferase reporter assay: an upstream open reading frame in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and naturally spliced exon-exon junction downstream of the premature translation termination codon in the 3'UTR. We also show that N-Bak mRNA is stored in granular structures in the sympathetic neurons and stays in these granules during intrinsic apoptosis. Finally, we confirm the absence of N-Bak protein by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis in the healthy, apoptotic or stressed sympathetic and cortical neurons. We conclude that N-Bak mRNA is translationally repressed by multiple mechanisms, and the protein does not participate in the classical apoptosis or cellular stress response.

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  16. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  17. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  20. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  1. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  2. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  3. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  4. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  5. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  6. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    , on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac......A in the lac operon was measured, demonstrated that Rho dependent transcriptional pre-termination correlated with ribosome translation initiation frequency. It was further shown that Rho terminates RNA polymerases during transcription on messengers normally considered stable, suggesting Rho transcriptional pre...... pulls out the nascent transcript. Finally this thesis also focussed on the cell stress caused by an artificial and very strong RNA psudoknot used in a fusion gene. The technique of ribosomal foot printing and whole transcriptome deep sequencing was employed to facilitate an overview of the changes...

  7. Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis: The Prediction of Premature Withdrawal from Behavioral Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, William G.; Johnson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Predictors of premature withdrawal from a 12-week program of behavioral conditioning for childhood nocturnal enuresis were examined for 47 children (ages 5-14). The function containing number of previous techniques used, presence of child behavior problems, and parent tolerance of enuresis was a significant predictor of early termination of…

  8. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  9. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  10. The epidemiology of premature aging and associated comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppedè F

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Coppedè Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome and Werner syndrome, also known as childhood- and adulthood-progeria, respectively, represent two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. The discovery of their genetic basis has led to the identification of several gene mutations leading to a spectrum of progeroid phenotypes ranging from moderate and mild–severe to very aggressive forms. In parallel, the creation of disease registers and databases provided available data for the design of relatively large-scale epidemiological studies, thereby allowing a better understanding of the nature and frequency of the premature aging-associated signs and symptoms. The aim of this article is to review the most recent findings concerning the epidemiology of premature aging disorders, their genetic basis, and the most recent reports on the frequency of associated diseases. Keywords: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome, Werner syndrome, premature aging disorders, epidemiology, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, genetics, sign and symptoms

  11. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  12. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  13. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  14. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  15. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  16. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  17. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  18. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  19. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    , on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac......-termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  20. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  1. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  2. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  4. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  5. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  6. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  7. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  8. The 5′ Untranslated Region and Gag product of Idefix, a Long Terminal Repeat-Retrotransposon from Drosophila melanogaster, Act Together To Initiate a Switch between Translated and Untranslated States of the Genomic mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Meignin, Carine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Arnaud, Frédérick; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal

    2003-01-01

    Idefix is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon present in Drosophila melanogaster which shares similarities with vertebrates retroviruses both in its genomic arrangement and in the mechanism of transposition. Like in retroviruses, its two LTRs flank a long 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and three open reading frames referred to as the gag, pol, and env genes. Here we report that its 5′UTR, located upstream of the gag gene, can fold into highly structured domains that are known to be i...

  9. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  10. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  11. Translational research into sexual disorders : Pharmacology and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Johnny S. W.; Olivier, Berend; de Jong, Trynke R.; Snoeren, Eelke M. S.; Kooijman, Elke; van Hasselt, Felisa N.; Limpens, Jules H. W.; Kas, Martien J. H.; Waldinger, Marcel D.; Oosting, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of sexual dysfunctions in men, including premature and retarded ejaculation poses challenges to develop translational models in rats that may help in improving treatment and delineate the neural mechanisms of action. Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy a

  12. Translational research into sexual disorders : pharmacology and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; de Jong, Trynke R; Snoeren, Eelke M S; Kooijman, Elke; van Hasselt, Felisa N; Limpens, Jules H W; Kas, Martien J H; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of sexual dysfunctions in men, including premature and retarded ejaculation poses challenges to develop translational models in rats that may help in improving treatment and delineate the neural mechanisms of action. Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy a

  13. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Sexuality in pregnancy and premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, P A; Dodos, D; Mechleris, D

    1984-09-01

    The relation of sexual behaviour during pregnancy to the initiation of labour was investigated in 358 patients of whom 58 were delivered after premature labour and 300 were delivered spontaneously at term. In all patients the mean weekly coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm were investigated by means of a retrospective questionnaire. There was no significant difference in coital or orgasmic frequency between the women who had a premature labour and those who had a spontaneous delivery at term. This was also true when those having premature labour were divided into those starting labour with ruptured membranes and those starting with contractions.

  15. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  16. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  17. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  18. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  19. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  20. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  1. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  2. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  3. Friedreich's ataxia--a case of aberrant transcription termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Napierala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein Frataxin (FXN) is the underlying cause of Friedreich's ataxia. We propose a model of premature termination of FXN transcription induced by pathogenic expanded GAA repeats that links R-loop structures, antisense transcription, and heterochromatin formation as a novel mechanism of transcriptional repression in Friedreich's ataxia.

  4. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  5. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  6. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  7. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  8. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  9. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  10. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  11. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  12. Research on Web Resources Translate Tool Based on Mobile-learning Terminal%基于移动学习终端的Web内容转换工具的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲蕴慧; 白新国

    2011-01-01

    文章以移动学习的应用为研究背景,试图为Web内容应用于移动学习探索了一种新的转换方法;在代理服务器的基础上,对不规范的HTML文档进行裁剪和格式清洗,使之成为XHTMLMP所要求的严格遵循格式定义的文档,研究的内容主要集中于对Web内容转换工具的设计与实现上.%Base on mobile-learning application, this paper tries to find out a new transform method which can convert web resources to mobile learning, to implement the transform rules by cut-off and format the HTML document, the paper research focus on the design and realization of web resources translate tool.

  13. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  14. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  15. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  16. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  17. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  18. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  19. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  20. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  1. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  2. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  3. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  4. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  5. [Role of rheobase measurement in recording and controlling premature labour (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, U; Seidenschnur, G

    1980-01-01

    A rise in the rate of premature childbirth from six to eight per cent was recordable in some region of the GDR, in recent years. This figure added to the statistical record of perinatal mortality and accounts for something between 60 and 80 per cent. -- Aggravating neurovegetative irritability, next to foetal and maternal causes as well as to factors of the environment, has been quoted as the major cause of premature onset of labour. Rise in vegetative tension may be determined by means of rheobase measurement of neuromuscular excitability, on the basis of central nervous coupling of the striated muscle. -- Rheobase measurements were applied to pregnant women and statistically evaluated, between 1977 and 1979. -- The RS 12-1 electrostimulator and AP 202 arterial pulse indicator were used for rheobase measurement proper. Contractions were recorded by means of the DT-500 tocograph and Hewlett-Packard cardiotocograph. -- As a whole, 167 rheobase data were recorded from 101 patients. The rheobase data recorded from patients with premature onset of labour were significantly below those obtained from women with normal course of pregnancy. The rheobase threshold (critical value) may be defined as 3.5 mA. Statistical evaluation of follow-up rheobase measurements on pregnant women with premature labour showed that the values underwent significant change towards the normal in response to tocolytic therapy. Decline in rheobase in response to tocolytic therapy will be followed, with high probability, by termination of pregnancy. -- Rheobase is a parameter which was found to correlate properly with the risk of premature childbirth and, therefore, should be used in diagnosis (score to determine risk of premature childbirth) and therapy (supervision of tocolytic treatment).

  6. Serum fructosamine and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Gokmen, Tulin; Tunay, Zuhal; Tok, Levent; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether serum fructosamine which is a good marker for detecting hyperglycemia during the previous 2 to 3 wk in infants could predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. One hundred sixty seven premature infants who had a birth weight of < 1500 g and a gestational age of less than 32 wk were investigated in the present study. Blood glucose was measured at the bedside and infants were recorded as hyperglycemic if their mean blood glucose levels were higher than 150 mg/dL. Serum corrected fructosamine level was obtained from the cord blood at birth and after the first month of life. The infants' eyes were examined by ophthalmologists to detect retinopathy of prematurity at the gestational age of 32 wk or at four wk after birth, whichever came first. Corrected fructosamine was 319.6 ± 59.6 and 272.8 ± 50.6 mmol/l for group 1 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively; 320 ± 61.7 and 268.2 ± 47.3 mmol/l for groups 2 + 3 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively which did not differ between groups (p = 0.766 and p = 0.665), whereas duration of hyperglycemia was 1.69 ± 1.1 day in group 1 compared with 3.05 ± 2.4 day in groups 2 + 3 which was significantly different (p = 0.019). The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the duration of hyperglycemia in days was significantly correlated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.09-9.80; p = 0.035). Although the duration of hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity, serum corrected fructosamine does not have a good predictive value in developing retinopathy of prematurity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

  7. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  8. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  9. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  10. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  11. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  12. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  13. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  14. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  15. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  16. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  17. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  18. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  19. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  20. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  1. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  2. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  3. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  4. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  5. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  6. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  7. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  8. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  9. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  11. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  12. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  13. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  14. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  15. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  16. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  17. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  18. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  19. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  20. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. mRNA for N-Bak, a neuron-specific BH3-only splice isoform of Bak, escapes nonsense-mediated decay and is translationally repressed in the neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, M; Lintulahti, A; Arumäe, U

    2012-02-02

    mRNA for neuronal Bak (N-Bak), a splice variant of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak is expressed in the neurons. Surprisingly the endogeneous N-Bak protein cannot be demonstrated in the neurons, although the antibodies recognize N-Bak protein from in vitro translation or transiently transfected cells. As N-Bak mRNA contains premature termination codon (PTC) at 89 nucleotides upstream from the last exon-exon junction, it could be degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) during the pioneer round of translation thus explaining the absence of the protein. We show here that the endogeneous neuronal N-Bak mRNA is not the NMD substrate, as it is not accumulating by cycloheximide treatment, it has a long lifetime, and even prevention of PTC by interfering with the alternative splicing did not lead to translation of the Bak mRNA. N-Bak protein is also not revealed by proteasome inhibitors. Our data suggest strong translational arrest of N-Bak mRNA in the neurons. We show that this arrest is partially mediated by 5'-untranslated region of Bak mRNA and it is not released during mitochondrial apoptosis.

  2. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  3. Translating biological parameters into clinically useful diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-08-01

    Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.

  4. contemporary translation studies and bible translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the source text to the translation process, the product and/or reception of ... The methodological impact was a shift from normative linguistic-based ... ary Society Period, with formal-equivalent translations being made by mis- ... the theoretical foundation of the functional-equivalent approach problem- ... After a review of.

  5. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  6. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  7. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  8. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  9. A susceptibility gene for premature ovarian failure (POF) maps to proximal Xq28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Francesca; Rizzolio, Flavio; Pramparo, Tiziano; Sala, Cinzia; Bione, Silvia; Bernardi, Franca; Goegan, Mara; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Toniolo, Daniela

    2004-10-01

    Terminal deletions of the long arm of the human X chromosome have been described in women with premature ovarian failure (POF). We report here the molecular characterization of an inherited deletion in two affected women and in their mother. The two daughters presented secondary amenorrhea at 17 or 22 years respectively, while the mother was fertile. She had four children, but she eventually had premature menopause at 43 years of age. The fine molecular analysis of the deletion showed that the three women carried an identical deletion. We conclude that the phenotypic difference within the family must be attributed to genetic or environmental factors and not to the presence of different extent deletions. By comparison with other deletions in the region, we map a susceptibility gene for POF to 4.5 Mb, in the distal part of Xq.

  10. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord.

  11. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  12. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  13. Innate Immunity and Human Milk MicroRNAs Content: A New Perspective for Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cione

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context The premature newborns are prone to develop both early onset and late onset neonatal sepsis. The major causes of this phenomenon rely on the immaturity of the immune system, which has reduced capability to respond adequately to pathogens. Evidence Acquisition Titles and abstracts of previous papers were scanned before reading the full-text, in order to retrieve appropriate information. The databases used for searching were PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase for articles published before 1st of July, 2016. Secondary search for articles cited in reference lists were identified by the primary search. This review focused on neonatal sepsis incidence and the associated immune response with regards to microRNAs of human milk as a new microelement that enables regulation of innate immunity functions. Results Since human milk is a valuable source of microRNAs, a better understanding of its content will open a new therapeutic avenue for the clinical management of infectious diseases affecting premature newborns. The variation in miRNAs quantity in human milk needs to be considered. Mother’s milk can have different amounts of miRNAs and the identification of a microMilk batch richer of miRNAs can be a nutrition intervention method for modulating innate immunity in clinical management of premature newborns. Conclusions Routine translation of the microMilk concept for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, in the management of premature newborns could be a way of defending premature newborns and Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants from both early and late sepsis.

  14. Enhancement of premature stop codon readthrough in the CFTR gene by Ataluren (PTC124) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibiri, Ivana; Lentini, Laura; Melfi, Raffaella; Gallucci, Giulia; Pace, Andrea; Spinello, Angelo; Barone, Giampaolo; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2015-08-28

    Premature stop codons are the result of nonsense mutations occurring within the coding sequence of a gene. These mutations lead to the synthesis of a truncated protein and are responsible for several genetic diseases. A potential pharmacological approach to treat these diseases is to promote the translational readthrough of premature stop codons by small molecules aiming to restore the full-length protein. The compound PTC124 (Ataluren) was reported to promote the readthrough of the premature UGA stop codon, although its activity was questioned. The potential interaction of PTC124 with mutated mRNA was recently suggested by molecular dynamics (MD) studies highlighting the importance of H-bonding and stacking π-π interactions. To improve the readthrough activity we changed the fluorine number and position in the PTC124 fluoroaryl moiety. The readthrough ability of these PTC124 derivatives was tested in human cells harboring reporter plasmids with premature stop codons in H2BGFP and FLuc genes as well as in cystic fibrosis (CF) IB3.1 cells with a nonsense mutation. Maintaining low toxicity, three of these molecules showed higher efficacy than PTC124 in the readthrough of the UGA premature stop codon and in recovering the expression of the CFTR protein in IB3.1 cells from cystic fibrosis patient. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with mutated CFTR mRNA fragments and active or inactive derivatives are in agreement with the suggested interaction of PTC124 with mRNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  16. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  17. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  18. Stylistics in Translation Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmkjaer, Kirsten

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that trainee translators can be helped to move between the basic and advanced stages of training through practice in collocational translational stylistics. Describes the method and outlines its differences from monolingual stylistics. Illustrates the method with an example. (HB)

  19. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  20. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  1. Bssiness Correspondence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2009-01-01

    It is widely-acknowtedged that business correspondence works as a bridge between the writer and the reader.Taking its characteristics into consideration,this essay illustrates how to do business correspondence translation.Only by abiding by all those fcatures can the translator achieve the aim of translation.

  2. Translation is Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟婧妤

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the art in translation.First,the translation and art are defined and some historic views are illustrated.Then the author lays emphasis on how to convey the artistic information and provides some methods on how to achieve artistic effect in translation.

  3. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  4. Found in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators(FIT) is bound to increase China’s international exposure.Shortly before the congress,Guo Xiaoyong,Executive Vice President of the Translators Association of China(TAC),spoke to Beijing Review about his expectations for the event and his evaluation of translation and interpretation services in China.

  5. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  6. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  7. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha; Shampa Ghosh; Manchala Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand...

  8. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers ...

  9. Selective translational repression of truncated proteins from frameshift mutation-derived mRNAs in tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Tae You

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Frameshift and nonsense mutations are common in tumors with microsatellite instability, and mRNAs from these mutated genes have premature termination codons (PTCs. Abnormal mRNAs containing PTCs are normally degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD system. However, PTCs located within 50-55 nucleotides of the last exon-exon junction are not recognized by NMD (NMD-irrelevant, and some PTC-containing mRNAs can escape from the NMD system (NMD-escape. We investigated protein expression from NMD-irrelevant and NMD-escape PTC-containing mRNAs by Western blotting and transfection assays. We demonstrated that transfection of NMD-irrelevant PTC-containing genomic DNA of MARCKS generates truncated protein. In contrast, NMD-escape PTC-containing versions of hMSH3 and TGFBR2 generate normal levels of mRNA, but do not generate detectable levels of protein. Transfection of NMD-escape mutant TGFBR2 genomic DNA failed to generate expression of truncated proteins, whereas transfection of wild-type TGFBR2 genomic DNA or mutant PTC-containing TGFBR2 cDNA generated expression of wild-type protein and truncated protein, respectively. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of gene expression regulation for PTC-containing mRNAs in which the deleterious transcripts are regulated either by NMD or translational repression.

  10. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  3. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. ksoa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. paom Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. khya Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kjfk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kpie Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kpns Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ksat Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kcid Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. ksny Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. klch Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. khnd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. ksaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...