WorldWideScience

Sample records for premature ist behavior

  1. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Cooper, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.

  2. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenhao; Ma, Lulin; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Yuqing; Chen, Zhenwen

    2004-05-01

    To study the efficacy of Viagra combined with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation (PE). Sixty PE patients were divided into two groups randomly: control group (behavior therapy alone) and the group of Viagra combined with behavior therapy. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the coitus satisfaction of the patient and the partner were recorded before and after treatment. The IELTs of the two groups were 0.80 +/- 0.20 and 0.73 +/- 0.24 minutes respectively before treatment, and 1.82 +/- 0.54 and 3.63 +/- 0.55 minutes respectively after treatment. As for IELT and satisfaction degree, Viagra produced better result than behavior therapy. During this clinical trial, Viagra combined with behavior therapy prolonged IELT, which suggests that Viagra may be helpful for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  3. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  4. PREMATURITY, NEONATAL HEALTH STATUS, AND LATER CHILD BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Effects of music on physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Zahra; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Eshagh Hossaini, Seyed Kamal; Sangi, Sareh

    2013-08-01

    Despite persuasive theories about the beneficial effects of music and singing in developmental care for premature infants, few small studies are available in this regard. We conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to recorded lullaby music and silence. In a randomized controlled trial, 90 premature infants in the neonatal care unit of a hospital in Qom (Iran) were randomly allocated to intervention (lullaby and silence) or control groups. Lullaby music was played via headphones at a volume of 50-60 dB. In the silence group, headphones were placed on the infants' ears while no music was played. The three groups were surveyed for physiological responses including oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates, and behavioral states every five minutes before, during, and after the intervention. The three groups were not significantly different in terms of mean values of respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states of infants. Similarly, no significant within group differences in respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states were observed at different times. Our findings did not support the beneficial effects of music for premature infants. However, music is a noninvasive, non-pharmaceutical, and relatively low-cost intervention that can be implemented at infants' bedside. Thus further research is warranted to determine whether the effects noted in previous studies can be consistently replicated in diverse settings and with diverse groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Links ist cool – Rechts ist schwul? Links ist cool—Rechts ist schwul?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Bispinck

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Sind alle Faschisten latente Homosexuelle? Gary Schmidts Studie über die Thematisierung von Homosexualität in der deutschen Nachkriegsliteratur untersucht Vorurteile gegenüber schwulen Männern in der Gesellschaft der frühen Bundesrepublik. Schmidt sucht nach homosexuellen Stereotypen in ausgewählten Werken von Wolfgang Koeppen, Alfred Andersch und Heinrich Böll. In den meisten der von ihm behandelten Romane findet Schmidt die Denktradition bestätigt, nach der ein Zusammenhang zwischen männlicher Homosexualität und Faschismus besteht. Im Gegensatz zu vielen anderen Arbeiten, die sich mit Gender-Thematik und Homosexualität befassen, ist Schmidts Studie wenig theorielastig. Das Buch ist gut und verständlich geschrieben und sei allen empfohlen, die sich für das Thema interessieren.The ritualisation of violence through the character of the victim represents an important aesthetic procedure in fin de siècle literature. Brittnacher’s work investigates the meaning of the motive of victimization in the works of Hofmannsthal, Rilke, Borchardt, Flaubert, Wilde, George, and D’Annunzio. Brittnacher succeeds at documenting that the ideology of victimization is closely linked to a gender-specific system of power in which males, unsure of their mascuilinity, look for ways to stabilize their identities.

  7. Attachment behaviors in mothers of premature infants: a descriptive study in Thai mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilokskulchai, Fongcum; Phatthanasiriwethin, Sopida; Vichitsukon, Kannikar; Serisathien, Yaowalak

    2002-12-01

    Prematurity and the associated maternal-infant separation after birth can affect the attachment process. The role of nurses in facilitating the process of attachment should be based on an understanding of these behaviors. This descriptive study explored the attachment behaviors demonstrated by mothers during their first visit with their premature infant in the neonatal care unit. The results revealed that all mothers demonstrated most attachment behaviors (ie, inspection, facial expression, touching, verbal expression, and eye-to-eye contact) except holding during their first visit. However, some mothers spent little time with their infant. The findings suggest that nurses should encourage mothers to interact with their infants in order to enhance maternal-infant attachment.

  8. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  9. Was Jugendlichen wichtig ist...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Kohler-Spiegel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Die Studie „Lebenswelten – Werthaltungen und Verhaltensbereitschaften junger Menschen in Vorarlberg 2016“, herausgegeben von Gabriele Böheim-Galehr und Helga Kohler-Spiegel, ist im Auftrag des Landes Vorarlberg im Jänner 2017 erschienen. Befragt wurden 2079 Jugendliche im Alter von 14 bis 16 Jahren zu deren Lebenswelten, Werthaltungen und Verhaltensbereitschaften in den Themenbereichen Zukunft und Ängste, Ziele und Werte, Religion, Lebensgefühl und Gesundheit, Haltungen zu Familie, Erziehung und Partnerschaft, Stellung von Mann und Frau, Politisches Interesse und Haltungen zu Demokratie, Integration und Zusammenleben verschiedener Kulturen, Schule, Freizeit, Freunde und Beruf. The study “Living environment - value system and behavioural disposition of adolescents in Vorarlberg 2016”, was published in January 2017 by Gabriele Böheim-Galehr and Helga Kohler-Spiegel on behalf of the government of the province of Vorarlberg, Austria. A total of 2079 adolescents ranging from the age of 14 to 16 were interviewed regarding their living environment, value system, and behavioural disposition on the subjects of future and anxiety, goals and values, religion, awareness of life and health, stance on family, education, and relationships, position of man and woman in society, political interestand attitude towards democracy, integration and co-existence of diverse cultures, school, recreation, friends, and professional life.

  10. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  11. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  13. Reasons for premature termination of dialectical behavior therapy for inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Roepke, Stefan; Roepke, Stefan; Kliem, Sören

    2014-09-01

    Although one of the main aims of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is to increase the retention rates, premature termination rates for DBT inpatient programs were found to be over 30%. The aim of the study was to identify the reasons for, and to analyze, patient characteristics that are associated with premature termination. We studied 541 inpatients with BPD, who were consecutively admitted for an open-door 3-month DBT inpatient treatment in Berlin, Germany. All participants completed several self-rating measures and participated in clinical interviews. Fourteen percent, who did not complete the full 84 days of assigned treatment, were expelled, mainly due to treatment-disturbing behaviors, or substance abuse or possession. Nearly 19% dropped out of treatment, mostly due to lack of motivation, arguments with others, and poor tolerance of emotional distress. Using non-parametric conditional inference trees, expulsion was associated with anorexia nervosa and alcohol abuse, whereas more than 9 suicide attempts, antisocial personality disorders, and more than 86 weeks in a psychiatric hospital were risk factors for dropout. We discussed measures and interventions that might lead to an adaptation of DBT inpatient programs. Future research should examine the symptom course and utilization of health-care services of non-completers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Voice Therapy for Dysphonia Related to Prematurity of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2017-03-01

    Dysphonia is a potential complication of prematurity. Preterm children may sustain iatrogenic laryngeal damage from medical intervention in the neonatal period, and further, adopt compensatory, maladaptive voicing behaviors. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a voice therapy protocol on voice quality in school-aged, very preterm (VP) children. Twenty-seven VP children with dysphonia were randomized to an immediate intervention group (n = 7) or a delayed-intervention, waiting list control group (n = 14). Following analysis of these data, a secondary analysis was conducted on the pooled intervention data (n = 21). Six participants did not complete the trial. Change to voice quality was measured via pre- and posttreatment assessments using the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. The intervention group did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in voice quality, whereas this was observed in the control group (P = 0.026). However, when intervention data were pooled including both the immediate and delayed groups following intervention, dysphonia severity was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the treatment group. Dysphonia in most VP children in this cohort was persistent. These pilot data indicate that some participants experienced acceptable voice outcomes on spontaneous recovery, whereas others demonstrated a response to behavioral intervention. Further research is needed to identify the facilitators of and barriers to intervention success, and to predict those who may experience spontaneous recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  16. Early behavior and development are influenced by the n-6 and n-3 status in prematures*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cohort of premature infants, consecutively included in the study at birth and followed to 18 months of age, the neonatal status of essential fatty acids and longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA were investigated and correlated to the development at 40 and 44 weeks gestational age and at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. The diet reported by the mothers contained low EFA, 98% had an intake < 1 energy% of n-3 fatty acids. Fatty acid analyses were performed in early breast milk and in mothers’ and infants’ plasma phospholipids early after birth and at gestational age 40 and 44 weeks. The development of the infants were assessed with Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS at 40 and 44 weeks and with Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development (Second Edition (BSID-II at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. At 40 weeks and 3 months videotapes were made of the infants’ spontaneous motor behavior to assess the quality of their general movements. Adjustments for confounding background factors were made in multiple logistic regression analyses and mothers’ education had the highest impact of the background variables. At all ages tested the n-6 fatty acid concentrations, expressed as total concentrations, LA, AA or as ratios to n-3 fatty acids in breast milk and early plasma phospholipids were negatively associated with development. Positive associations with LCPUFA, especially DHA, were mainly found after 10 months of age. Both mental and motor developments had similar pattern of associations, fatty acid concentrations and background factors explaining 20-50% (R2 of the developmental scores. This was only an observational study, and it cannot be excluded that the highly negative influence of n- 6 fatty acids was an effect of the low intake of n-3 fatty acids, which in the context of the changes generally seen in Western diet imply urgent need for larger studies.

  17. Wie wissenschaftlich ist der Evolutionsgedanke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    Darwin war ein besonnener Mann; alles Aufsehen war ihm zuwider. Trotzdem hat er eine Revolution ausgelöst, deren Wirkung nicht auf die Biologie beschränkt blieb. Seine Theorie lässt sich in fünf Teiltheorien zerlegen, die sich durch die Begriffe Artenwandel, Verwandtschaft alles Lebendigen und gemeinsamer Ursprung, Artenaufspaltung und Artenvielfalt, Gradualismus, natürliche Auslese charakterisieren lassen. Dadurch wurden mehrere religiöse und weitere weltanschauliche Überzeugungen in Frage gestellt. Deshalb wird die Evolutionstheorie auch heute noch vielfach kritisiert, ja bekämpft. Die Vorwürfe lassen sich ordnen nach den Kriterien, mit denen wir erfahrungswissenschaftliche Theorien beurteilen. Haltbar ist daran nur, dass es für die Evolutionstheorie zwar beliebig viele Bestätigungen gibt, aber nur wenige Widerlegungsmöglichkeiten. Durch die neuerdings entwickelten und durchgeführten Evolutionsexperimente ist die empirische Situation allerdings deutlich besser geworden. Am (erfahrungs)wissenschaftlichen Charakter der Evolutionstheorie besteht deshalb kein Zweifel.

  18. Franchising; Franchising: Nachmachen ist Trumpf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2000-08-01

    Franchising is booming. In many fields of industry, it is the optimal solution for better marketing and development of know-how. The solar industry still has a long way to go. Franchising systems offer a good option for starting one's own enterprise and also for expansion on the market. Four franchising systems are compared in detail. [German] Franchising boomt. Fuer viele Branchen scheint es die Idealloesung fuer gestiegene Ansprueche an Marketing und Knowhow-Entwicklung zu sein. Die Solarbranche steht hier erst am Anfang. Franchise-Systeme bieten also eine gute Starthilfe fuer den Sprung in die Selbststaendigkeit in der verhaeltnismaessig jungen Branche der Solartechnik. Da klassisches Franchising in erster Linie eine Strategie zur Expansion im Markt ist, kann es ebenso gut von etablierten Installationsbetrieben genutzt werden, um sich das Standbein Solartechnik mit abgeschwaechtem Risiko zusaetzlich aufzubauen. Vier Franchise-Systeme werden im Detail verglichen. (orig./AKF)

  19. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods--that is, on the positioner and mattress--using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number

  20. Multi-instantons at high energies: Premature unitarization and supercritical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Shifman, M.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the role of multi-instantons at high energies in weakly coupled theories. We perform an explicit computation of their effect and we find that they become as important as the one-instanton contribution at energies where the latter is still exponentially small (''premature unitarization''). The computation relies on various simplifying assumptions, and we discuss them. We argue, however, that premature unitarization is a phenomenon of a very general nature, which should survive our simplifying assumptions. If this is the case, there exists a critical energy where a change of regime is forced, and the dilute-instanton-gas approximation totally collapses. Possible scenarios in the critical and supercritical domain are discussed at the qualitative level

  1. Premature menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.

  2. Art ist kuku nu ut / Indrek Grigor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigor, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    Tartu kunstikuust "Art ist kuku nu ut", mis toimus 9. jaanuarist 29. veebruarini. Peakorraldaja Kaisa Eiche. Programmist, välireklaamist, kunstinäitustest, Bernard Murigneux' valgusskulptuuridest, Lemmit Kaplinski kunstikriitika töötubade sarjast "Kriitikavabrik"

  3. Case study of the interdisciplinary integration in an IST-E3 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    Case study of a specific IST-E3 project funded by the EU commissions 5th framework program. The case study highlights the difficulties in integrating different disciplinary approaches and suggests that a more openended research strategy should be applied by the commission.......Case study of a specific IST-E3 project funded by the EU commissions 5th framework program. The case study highlights the difficulties in integrating different disciplinary approaches and suggests that a more openended research strategy should be applied by the commission....

  4. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of Inservice Testing (IST) effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by ASME Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 2585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) were due to external leakage, and were excluded from this study since these events typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. Of the remaining 733 events, a review was performed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, and special testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper provides a discussion of the results of the study

  5. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing (IST) effectiveness for Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was used to provide failure reports for these components from 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time, 2,585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) resulted from external leakage. These events were excluded from the study because the typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. The remaining 733 events were reviewed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper discusses the results of the study

  6. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  7. Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Outcomes in Extremely Premature Neonates With Ventriculomegaly in the Absence of Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Shankaran, Seetha; McDonald, Scott A; Stoll, Barbara J; Laptook, Abbot R; Carlo, Waldemar A; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Hintz, Susan R; Carlson, Martha D; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Walsh, Michele C; Wyckoff, Myra H; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2018-01-01

    ultrasonograms (73%), 775 had periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (18.5%), and 73 had cystic periventricular leukomalacia (1.7%). Outcomes were available for 3008 of 3345 neonates with ventriculomegaly or normal scans (90%). Compared with normal cranial ultrasonograms, ventriculomegaly was associated with lower gestational age, male sex, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, late-onset sepsis, meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity. After adjustment, neonates with ventriculomegaly had higher odds of neurodevelopmental impairment (odds ratio [OR], 3.07; 95% CI, 2.13-4.43), cognitive impairment (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.09-4.99), moderate/severe cerebral palsy (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 2.08-6.51), death/neurodevelopmental impairment (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.62-2.91), but not death alone (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.76-1.57). Behavioral outcomes did not differ. Nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly is associated with increased odds of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm neonates.

  8. Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include the following: Anxiety about performance Guilty feelings Depression Stress Relationship problems Men who have a low amount of a special ... on your favorite sports team. Psychological assistance Anxiety, depression ... may help men who have premature ejaculation. Some antidepressants seem to ...

  9. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  10. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  11. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  12. Component unavailability versus inservice test (IST) interval: Evaluations of component aging effects with applications to check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Poole, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Methods are presented for calculating component unavailabilities when inservice test (IST) intervals are changed and when component aging is explicitly included. The methods extend usual approaches for calculating unavailability and risk effects of changing IST intervals which utilize Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods that do not explicitly include component aging. Different IST characteristics are handled including ISTs which are followed by corrective maintenances which completely renew or partially renew the component. ISTs which are not followed by maintenance activities needed to renew the component are also handled. Any downtime associated with IST, including the test downtime and the following maintenance downtime, is included in the unavailability evaluations. A range of component aging behaviors is studied including both linear and nonlinear aging behaviors. Based upon evaluations completed to date, pooled failure data on check valves show relatively small aging (e.g., less than 7% per year). However, data from some plant systems could be evidence for larger aging rates occurring in time periods less than 5 years. The methods are utilized in this report to carry out a range of sensitivity evaluations to evaluate aging effects for different possible applications. Based on the sensitivity evaluations, summary tables are constructed showing how optimal IST interval ranges for check valves can vary relative to different aging behaviors which might exist. The evaluations are also used to identify IST intervals for check valves which are robust to component aging effects. General insights on aging effects are also extracted. These sensitivity studies and extracted results provide useful information which can be supplemented or be updated with plant specific information. The models and results can also be input to PRAs to determine associated risk implications

  13. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... 3 weeks after a premature birth. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) . This is an abnormal growth of blood ...

  14. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  15. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  16. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Getting the Most from NUD*IST/Nvivo

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Alison; Sharp, John A.; Genc, S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the most problematic areas in applying NUD*IST and NVivo in management research are in using them for recording, collating, analysing and reporting interview data, this paper concentrates on the use of NUD*IST and NVivo for these purposes. It examines the problems that arise in their use at the different stages (Interviewing, Transcription, Structuring and Reporting) of three types of research project: a major research project, a specialist research project and a doctoral research proje...

  18. Apnea of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007227.htm Apnea of prematurity To use the sharing features on this page, ... down or stops from any cause. Apnea of prematurity refers to short episodes of stopped breathing in ...

  19. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  20. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  1. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  2. Comportamento de maracujazeiros (Passiflora spp. quanto à morte prematura Behavior of passionfruit (Passiflora spp.in relation to premature death of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Universidade Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, estudou-se o comportamento de Passifloráceas quanto à morte prematura de plantas, cultivadas em local com histórico da doença. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de diversos "acessos" de populações e espécies de maracujazeiros em relação a esta doença, sendo que as plantas resistentes deverão ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos de formas comerciais de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa e em programas de melhoramento genético. As espécies utilizadas foram P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida e P. capsularis. Em local com histórico da doença, plantaram-se mudas em número variável e em épocas distintas. A condução das plantas e os tratos culturais foram os recomendados para o maracujá-amarelo. A morte prematura das plantas ocorreu entre dois meses e dois anos da cultura no campo. P. giberti e P. nitida mostraram-se resistente à doença, independentemente do local de origem. Entre os demais "acessos", não se encontraram fontes promissoras de resistência. Entretanto, novos "acessos" e novas espécies deverão ser estudadas na busca da resistência.The behavior of passionfruit, cultivated in sites with disease history, as to premature death, was researched at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the behavior of acesses and passionfruit species related to this disease, whereas resistant plants are to be used as yellow passionfruit rootstocks, as well as in breeding programs. The species P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida, P. capsularis were used. In a site with a known record of the disease, the plants were planted in a variable number and at distinct times. Plant

  3. IDEALIST: Jak najít partnery pro projekty IST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří

    č. 3 (2004), s. 13 ISSN 1214-7982 R&D Projects : GA MŠk OK 441 Grant - others:IST FP6(XE) 511355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : partners searching * european projects * information technology Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  4. Der französische GAV ist unrealistisch

    CERN Multimedia

    1984-01-01

    "Seit über zwei Wochen ist bei Genf ein Arbeitskonflikt im Gang. Die Arbeiter, die für das CERN eine gigantische Forschungsanlage bauen sollen, verlangen eine bessere Entlönung. Doch das federfürende Baukonsortium will nicht darauf eingehen, und die CERN-Verantwortlichen halten sich aus der Sache raus" (1 page).

  5. European IST-programme roadmap for Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackaert, Ann; Demeester, Piet; Lagasse, Paul

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of European IST project results in the field of photonics, the OPTIMIST thematic network has produced a roadmap for optical communications. This work is described in the present article which provides scenarios for the evolution of the optical network in the coming 10 years. Predicta...

  6. Veel Dora Gordine'ist / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2006-01-01

    Skulptor Dora Gordine'ist (Gordin, Gordina), tema kohta leiduvast infost (Julius Genss, Leo Gens, Ervin Pütsep, K. G. Sauri "The Artists of the World", H. Vollmeri "Allgemaines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler"), esinemisest näitustel Eestis. Vt. ka: Kivimäe, Juta. Dora Gordini teekond suurde kunsti algas Tallinnast // Sirp, 2006, 25. august, lk. 10

  7. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  8. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  9. Premature ovarian failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José

    2011-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is characterized by secondary amenorrhea affecting a woman before the age of 40, leading to hypoestrogenism, infertility, and consequences of premature menopause, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurovegetative alterations, and others. Follicular exhaustion is due to either follicles shortage or oocytes accelerated destruction. Main causes are genetic, autoimmune and iatrogenic. Among genetic causes Xq and Xp deletions, translocations, numeric aberratio...

  10. Publikationsunterstützung: Die Bibliothek ist nicht genug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Für wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken bedeutet der Aufbau publikationsunterstützender Services eine lohnende Erweiterung ihres Aufgabengebietes, die auf ihren traditionellen Kompetenzen aufbaut. Um überzeugende und umfassende Services zum Thema wissenschaftliches Publizieren anbieten zu können ist es jedoch notwendig, noch stärker als bisher mit verschiedensten Partnern zusammenzuarbeiten. Dieser Beitrag legt dar, welche Kompetenzen es zu entwickeln und welche Partner es vorrangig anzusprechen gilt.

  11. Risk-ranking IST components into two categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ASME has utilized several schemes for identifying the appropriate scope of components for inservice testing (IST). The initial scope was ASME Code Class 1/2/3, with all components treated equally. Later the ASME Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) Committee decided to use safe shutdown and accident mitigation as the scoping criteria, but continued to treat all components equal inside that scope. Recently the ASME O ampersand M Committee decided to recognize service condition of the component, hence the comprehensive pump test. Although probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are incredibly complex plant models and computer hardware and software intensive, they are a tool that can be utilized by many plant engineering organizations to analyze plant system and component applications. In 1992 the ASME O ampersand M Committee got interested in using the PRA as a tool to categorize its pumps and valves. In 1994 the ASME O ampersand M Committee commissioned the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) to develop a process that adapted the PRA technology to IST. In late 1995 that process was presented to the ASME O ampersand M Committee. The process had three distinct portions: (1) risk-rank the IST components; (2) develop a more effective testing strategy for More Safety Significant Components; and (3) develop a more economic testing strategy for Less Safety Significant Components

  12. Justitia ist eine Frau Justice is a Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Benöhr-Laqueur

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Das reich bebilderte Buch ist der Begleitkatalog zu der Wanderausstellung „Füllhorn, Waage, Schwert – Justitia ist eine Frau“. In zwölf Kapiteln – entsprechend den „Räumen der Gerechtigkeit“ – wird der Frage nachgegangen, warum Justitia von der Frühgeschichte bis in die Gegenwart in weiblicher Gestalt abgebildet wird. Die Juristin Barbara Degen verfolgt das Ziel, den Beweis dafür zu erbringen, dass Frauen und insbesondere Mütter die Kernelemente der Gerechtigkeit verkörpern.This richly illustrated catalogue accompanies the traveling exhibition “Cornucopia, Scales, Sword—Justice is a Woman” (“Füllhorn, Waage, Schwert—Justitia ist eine Frau”. In twelve chapters, each corresponding to the “spaces of justice,” the book explores question as to why justice has been depicted as a woman from early history to today. The lawyer Barbara Degen intends to supply evidence supporting the claim that women, and mothers in particular, embody the core elements of justness.

  13. Risk-ranking IST components into two categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    The ASME has utilized several schemes for identifying the appropriate scope of components for inservice testing (IST). The initial scope was ASME Code Class 1/2/3, with all components treated equally. Later the ASME Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee decided to use safe shutdown and accident mitigation as the scoping criteria, but continued to treat all components equal inside that scope. Recently the ASME O&M Committee decided to recognize service condition of the component, hence the comprehensive pump test. Although probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are incredibly complex plant models and computer hardware and software intensive, they are a tool that can be utilized by many plant engineering organizations to analyze plant system and component applications. In 1992 the ASME O&M Committee got interested in using the PRA as a tool to categorize its pumps and valves. In 1994 the ASME O&M Committee commissioned the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) to develop a process that adapted the PRA technology to IST. In late 1995 that process was presented to the ASME O&M Committee. The process had three distinct portions: (1) risk-rank the IST components; (2) develop a more effective testing strategy for More Safety Significant Components; and (3) develop a more economic testing strategy for Less Safety Significant Components.

  14. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  15. Path analysis of risk factors leading to premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P

    1996-01-01

    The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  17. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developing severe ROP, especially those in underserved or remote areas. Currently in the U.S., evaluation of premature ... files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office ...

  18. When is cartilage repair successful?; Wann ist eine Knorpelreparatur erfolgreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-MR, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schreiner, M.M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie fokaler Knorpelschaeden ist weiterhin eine klinische Herausforderung. Nach erfolgter Sanierung gilt es daher besonders, Erfolg und Misserfolg zu evaluieren und den Verlauf standardisiert und somit reproduzierbar zu beurteilen. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Ueberblick ueber gaengige Reparaturverfahren und deren Charakteristika in der Magnetresonanztomographie. Nach einer erfolgreichen Knorpelreparatur ist eine vollstaendige, aber nicht hypertrophe Fuellung des Knorpeldefekts das primaere Kriterium. Zum umgebenden Nativknorpel ist ausserdem eine durchgehende Integration des Transplantats vordergruendig. Im weiteren postoperativen Verlauf sollte das Transplantat ausserdem ein im Vergleich zu nativem Knorpel isointenses Signalverhalten zeigen. Haeufig beobachtete Komplikationen sind zentrale Osteophyten, subchondrale Defekte, Zysten, chronifizierte Knochenmarksoedeme, Gelenkserguesse oder Adhaesionen. Die radiologische Beurteilung dieser

  19. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  20. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  1. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  2. ISTS of Fe adatoms in contact to superconducting Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamlapure, Anand; Cornils, Lasse; Wiebe, Jens; Wiesendanger, Roland [Department of Physics, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Zhou, Lihui [Department of Physics, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck Institute for Solid State-Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Khajetoorians, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Recent local scale investigations of the competition of superconductivity and magnetism in molecular systems revealed rich physics associated with a quantum phase transition. Here, we experimentally study individual Fe atoms adsorbed on a reconstructed surface of superconducting Ta by inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy (ISTS) at a temperature of 1 K and as a function of magnetic field of strength up to 3 T perpendicular to the surface. We observe strong inelastic excitations at three different adsorption sites of the Fe adatoms. The majority site shows a sharp step around 2 meV which is almost independent of the magnetic field. The other two sites exhibit excitations around 1 meV and 4 meV which have a weak magnetic field dependence indicating the magnetic origin of this excitation. In all three cases the superconducting energy gap and coherence peaks are preserved at zero magnetic field indicating very weak coupling between the magnetic moment and the cooper pairs.

  3. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52

  4. The Analysis of Heterogeneous Text Documents with the Help of the Computer Program NUD*IST

    OpenAIRE

    Plaß, Christine; Schetsche, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Anhand eines aktuellen Forschungsprojekts wird der Nutzen des Computerprogramms NUD*IST für die qualitative Dokumentenanalyse erörtert. Unser Projekt untersucht die gesellschaftliche Bewertung von spektakulären Straftaten. Dazu wurden Dokumente aus dem gesamten 20. Jahrhundert erhoben, digitalisiert und unter Einsatz von NUD*IST ausgewertet. Da öffentliche und fachliche Diskurse untersucht werden, ist das Datenmaterial des Projekts außerordentlich heterogen: fachwissenschaftliche Publikatione...

  5. Die Auswertung heterogener Textdokumente mit Hilfe des Computerprogramms NUD*IST

    OpenAIRE

    Plaß, Christine; Schetsche, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Anhand eines aktuellen Forschungsprojekts wird der Nutzen des Computerprogramms NUD*IST für die qualitative Dokumentenanalyse erörtert. Unser Projekt untersucht die gesellschaftliche Bewertung von spektakulären Straftaten. Dazu wurden Dokumente aus dem gesamten 20. Jahrhundert erhoben, digitalisiert und unter Einsatz von NUD*IST ausgewertet. Da öffentliche und fachliche Diskurse untersucht werden, ist das Datenmaterial des Projekts außerordentlich heterogen: fachwissenschaftliche Publikatione...

  6. Long-term impact of prematurity on postnatal neurohormonal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ziborova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.

  7. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  8. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... to remove damaged parts of intestine. Retinopathy of prematurity (also called ROP) . ROP affects blood vessels in ...

  9. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  10. Myopia in premature babies with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Yassur, Y; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit [es

  12. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Anderson, Peter J; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Doyle, Lex W; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004. A total of 1202 children with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g were eligible for this study; 920 (76.5%) had adequate data for the main outcome. Caffeine citrate or placebo until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. Functional impairment was a composite of poor academic performance (defined as at least 1 standard score greater than 2 SD below the mean on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4), motor impairment (defined as a percentile rank of ≤5 on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition), and behavior problems (defined as a Total Problem T score ≥2 SD above the mean on the Child Behavior Checklist). Among the 920 children (444 females and 476 males; median age, 11.4 years [interquartile range, 11.1-11.8 years]), the combined rates of functional impairment were not significantly different between the 457 children assigned to receive caffeine compared with the 463 children assigned to receive placebo (145 [31.7%] vs 174 [37.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.02; P = .07). With all available data, including those from up to 24 Swedish trial participants, the rates of poor academic performance on 1 or more of 4 subtests (66 of 458 [14.4%] vs 61 of 462 [13.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.61; P = .58) and behavior problems (52 of 476 [10.9%] vs 40 of 481 [8

  13. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T

    2015-10-01

    Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Premature emphysema in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.

    1988-01-01

    The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus

  16. Examining tissue composition, whole-bone morphology and mechanical behavior of GorabPrx1 mice tibiae: A mouse model of premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haisheng; Albiol, Laia; Chan, Wing-Lee; Wulsten, Dag; Seliger, Anne; Thelen, Michael; Thiele, Tobias; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Kornak, Uwe; Checa, Sara; Willie, Bettina M

    2017-12-08

    Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is a segmental progeroid disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the GORAB gene, associated with early onset osteoporosis and bone fragility. A conditional mouse model of GO (Gorab Prx1 ) was generated in which the Gorab gene was deleted in long bones. We examined the biomechanical/functional relevance of the Gorab Prx1 mutants as a premature aging model by characterizing bone composition, tissue-level strains, and whole-bone morphology and mechanical properties of the tibia. MicroCT imaging showed that Gorab Prx1 tibiae had an increased anterior convex curvature and decreased cortical cross-sectional area, cortical thickness and moments of inertia, compared to littermate control (LC) tibiae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging indicated a 34% decrease in mineral/matrix ratio and a 27% increase in acid phosphate content in the posterior metaphyseal cortex of the Gorab Prx1 tibiae (p finite element analysis showed ∼two times higher tissue-level strains within the Gorab Prx1 tibiae relative to LC tibiae when subjected to axial compressive loads of the same magnitude. Three-point bending tests suggested that Gorab Prx1 tibiae were weaker and more brittle, as indicated by decreasing whole-bone strength (46%), stiffness (55%), work-to-fracture (61%) and post-yield displacement (47%). Many of these morphological and biomechanical characteristics of the Gorab Prx1 tibia recapitulated changes in other animal models of skeletal aging. Future studies are necessary to confirm how our observations might guide the way to a better understanding and treatment of GO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.

  18. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend's IST program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy's Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team's mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability

  19. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, M.; McArthur, R.; Kim, B.G.; Kim, S.M.; Seo, H.-B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  20. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  1. Harlamov selgitab EAS-i nõukogule BNS-ist lahkumist / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse juhatuse esimehe kandidaadilt Oleg Harlamovilt, praeguselt majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare nõunikult, plaanitakse küsida tema BNS-ist lahkumise kohta. Lisa: Varrak: EAS pole kellegi rahapump

  2. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  3. [Retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promelle, V; Milazzo, S

    2017-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affecting extremely preterm infants exposed to high concentrations of oxygen therapy. Infants born before 32 post-menstrual weeks or with a birth weight of less than 1500g should systematically have a dilated fundus examination. The time of screening and schedule for follow-up are guided by the various risk factors. This disease results from immaturity of the peripheral retinal vessels at the time of premature birth. The classification of ROP depends on the anteroposterior extent of involvement (from center to periphery: zone I, II and III), its extension in 30° sectors (clock hours) and its stage (stage 1 to 5). "Plus" disease is defined as dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels in the posterior pole of the eye and represents a major risk factor for rapid unfavorable progression. A majority of patients will spontaneously recover, but patients with a high risk of progression will require treatment to prevent retinal detachment and blindness. The indications for treatment are threshold disease and type 1 pre-threshold disease. The current treatment of choice is peripheral retinal ablation with transpupillary laser, but ab externo cryotherapy may be used instead. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option and is currently under investigation. After laser treatment, unfavorable outcomes occur in only 9 to 14 % of eyes, but at the price of peripheral retinal destruction. For all patients, whether treated or not, a regular fundus examination should be insured until complete retinal vascularization has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  5. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mature enough to allow nonstop breathing. This causes large bursts of breath followed by periods of shallow breathing or stopped breathing. Apnea of prematurity usually ends on its own after a few ...

  6. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  7. Premature pubarche is niet altijd onschuldig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Manouk; Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Kamp, Gerdine A.

    2012-01-01

    Premature pubarche is defined as growth of pubic hair before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. In most cases, it is caused by premature adrenarche, which is a premature increased synthesis of androgens in the adrenal gland and is considered to be relatively harmless. Premature

  8. GOTHIC-IST model of ISP-47 phase B MISTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    International Standard Problem 47 examined the ability of computer codes to predict local gas distributions during experiments simulating Loss of Coolant Accidents with Loss of Emergency Core Coolant (LOCA/LOECC) or Pressurized Water Reactor severe accident scenarios that involve hydrogen release to containment. It involved three experimental test facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA and ThAI) located in France and Germany. This report documents AECL's GOTHIC-IST 6.1bp2 model of Phase B of the MISTRA experiment with steam condensation in an air-helium atmosphere. The GOTHIC-IST model used to model the TOSQAN test (open simulation) was scaled up to model the MISTRA test (blind simulation). The GOTHIC-IST results are in good agreement with the MISTRA results, except for some anomalies in the experimental results. (author)

  9. The Analysis of Heterogeneous Text Documents with the Help of the Computer Program NUD*IST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plaß

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a current research project we discuss the use of the computer program NUD*IST for the analysis and archiving of qualitative documents. Our project examines the social evaluation of spectacular criminal offenses and we identify, digitize and analyze documents from the entire 20th century. Since public and scientific discourses are examined, the data of the project are extraordinarily heterogeneous: scientific publications, court records, newspaper reports, and administrative documents. We want to show how to transfer general questions into a systematic categorization with the assistance of NUD*IST. Apart from the functions, possibilities and limitations of the application of NUD*IST, concrete work procedures and difficulties encountered are described. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003211

  10. Situation des personnes transgenres par rapport au VIH/IST en Suisse : rapid assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bize, R.; Koutaissoff, D.; Dubois-Arber, F.

    2013-01-01

    Ce rapport permet d'identifier le sous-groupe des personnes transgenres pratiquant ou ayant pratiqué le travail du sexe comme une population clairement exposée à un risque notoirement élevé d'infection par le VIH et les IST. L'ampleur rapportée du phénomène justifie pleinement l'inclusion de cette population dans le dispositif de surveillance comportementale du VIH et des autres IST, mais également la réalisation urgente d'actions de prévention communautaire. Par contre, il ne nous permet pas...

  11. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  12. Educational paper: Retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.

  13. Gefährlicher Trend : Smartphone im Strassenverkehr : auch zu Fuss ist das Ablenkungspotenzial sehr gross.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Viele Menschen, die sich zu Fuß im Straßenverkehr bewegen, nutzen dabei das Smartphone. Dies ist das Ergebnis einer Erhebung von DEKRA in sechs europäischen Hauptstädten. Von den rund 14.000 erfassten Personen nutzten fast 17 Prozent ihr Handy — für Textnachrichten, zum Telefonieren oder Musikhören.

  14. The Degree of Implementing ISTE Standards in Technical Education Colleges of Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Fuad Ismail; Ajrami, Sameh Jamil

    2017-01-01

    In light of this successive technological change, there has been an ongoing need for the development of technical education, so that the graduate is able to keep up with the requirements of the labor market on the one hand, and has a continuing education skills on the other. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) standards are…

  15. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O’Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L.; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. Methods We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. Results We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. Conclusion This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes. PMID:29389312

  16. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes.

  17. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  18. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  19. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  20. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  1. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  2. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  3. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  4. PhySIC_IST: cleaning source trees to infer more informative supertrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scornavacca, Celine; Berry, Vincent; Lefort, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Ranwez, Vincent

    2008-10-04

    Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content) criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction) to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter.Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC+PhySIC_IST infers much more informative

  5. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Premature Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.

  6. The premature necking of twinning-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.L.; Zhang, Z.J.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z.F.

    2017-01-01

    An unusual necking behavior was found in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels during tensile tests, which is quite different from that observed on most ductile metals. A sharp drop of the strain-hardening rate (Θ) arises before necking initiation, rather than after it, leading to the premature necking of TWIP steels. Through carefully examining the evolution of macroscopic defects at various tensile strains using three-dimensional X-ray tomography (3D-XRT), this premature necking behavior was attributed to the multiplication of macroscopic voids during plastic deformation. Combining with the previous theories and present characterizations on the evolution of macroscopic voids, the mechanism of the unusual necking behavior in TWIP steels was quantificationally revealed.

  7. Lack of cortical endoplasmic reticulum protein Ist2 alters sodium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, Klára; Andršová, Markéta; Sychrová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), č. článku fox011. ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Ist2 * alkali-metal- cation homeostasis * sodium tolerance * sodium uptake * alkali-metal- cation transporters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Mycology Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2016

  8. Was ist eine Frau? Sexualität, Begehren und Einschreiben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Barron

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Da die menschliche Sexualität nicht natürlich ist, reichen anatomische oder biologische Argumente nicht, um sie aufzuklären. Freud entdeckte, dass der Geschlechtsunterschied durch den Signifikanten vermittelt wird, denn Triebe als solche ignorieren die Dichotomie Mann/Frau. Jacques Lacan greift diesen vernachlässigten Aspekt auf und hebt die Schicksale des Subjekts mit der Sprache durch seine Lehre als etwas Fundamentales hervor. In Anbetracht der Prämisse, dass «die Neurose wie eine Frage strukturiert» sei, drücken die komplexen symptomatischen Manifestationen der Hysterika ihren Versuch aus, sich in einen Diskurs einzuschreiben, der von der Unmöglichkeit, eine kategoriale Antwort auf das Rätsel der Weiblichkeit zu geben, geprägt ist. Deren Frage lautet also: Was ist eine Frau? Ein Signifikant ergibt nur Sinn in Verbindung zu einem anderen Signifikanten und daher werden wir alle den durch den Signifikanten vermittelten Sachen gegenüber unabänderlich entfremdet. Aus dieser Sichtweise heraus möchte ich mich mit der Frage der Heterosexualität auseinandersetzen.

  9. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...

  10. Internationality meets locality - ART IST KUKU NU UT festival in Tartu / Tanel Rander

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rander, Tanel, 1980-

    2012-01-01

    Kunstifestivalist ART IST KUKU NU UT. Näitusest "Möh? Fui! Öäk! Ossa! Vau! Eesti kaasaegse kunsti klassika" (06.09.-18.11.2012) Tartu Kunstimuuseumis. Festivali projektijuht Kaisa Eiche, kunstiline juht ja näituse kuraator Rael Artel. Näitusel osalesid Jaan Toomik, Raul Meel, Kai Kaljo, Johnson & Johnson, Anna-Stina Treumund ja Flo Kasearu. Chris Fitzpatrick'u kureeritud näitusest "Sõida tasa üle silla" (07.-30.09.2012) galeriis Noorus. Kuku Nunnu stipendiaadi Eike Epliku isikunäitusest "Tüdruk, kes kõike arnastas" (07.09.-28.10.2012) Y-galeriis

  11. I-ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. "PINK TOMATO. PRODUCTION. CONSUMPTION. MARKET TRENDS IN CENTRAL ASIA».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Alimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 28 May 2015, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Ist International conference "Pink tomato. Production, consumption, market trends" was held. The problems of breedong, seed production of cultivars and hybrids of pink tomato, as well as increasing of consumer's demand have been considered. The conference has provided good opportunity for meetings of producers, breeders, and researchers from different countries.

  12. Interface code between WIMS-AECL and RFSP-IST for coupling computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Liangwang; Liu Yu; Jia Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    A code based on the protocols of Telnet and FTP is developed with C++ for coupling computing between WIMS-AECL and RFSP-IST. the input document of WIMS-AECL and RFSP-ISP cna be generated automatically and be submitted to server, the output document will be downloaded by the end of computing. the function of analyzing standard output document is also included in this code. After simple updating, this code can meet the requirement of other code using input document, e.g. CATHENA. A pilot study of the relation between void fraction and reactivity in TACR, some valuable conclusions has been achieved. (authors)

  13. [Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care units. Premature Eye Rescue Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János

    2015-02-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.

  14. Design considerations for the TF center conductor post for the Ignition Spherical Torus (IST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, G.R.; Haines, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A trade-off study has been carried out to compare the differential costs of using high-strength alloy copper versus oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper for the center legs of the toroidal field (TF) coils of an Ignition Spherical Torus (IST). The electrical heating, temperatures, stresses, cooling requirements, material costs, pump costs, and power to drive the TF coils and pumps are all assessed for both materials for a range of compact tokamak reactors. The alloy copper material is found to result in a more compact reactor and to allow use of current densities of up to 170 MA/m 2 versus 40 MA/m 2 for the OFHC copper. The OFHC conductor system with high current density is $24 million less expensive than more conventional copper systems with 30 MA/m 2 . The alloy copper system costs $32 million less than conventional systems. Therefore, the alloy system offers a net savings of $8 million compared to the 50% cold-worked OFHC copper system. Although the savings are a significant fraction of the center conductor post cost, they are relatively insignificant in terms of the total device cost. It is concluded that the use of alloy copper contributes very little to the economic or technical viability of the compact IST. It is recommended that a similar systematic approach be applied to evaluating coil material and current density trade-offs for other compact copper-TF-coil tokamak designs. 9 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management in Istanbul (MegaIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya Menteşe, Emin; Kılıç, Osman; Baş, Mahmut; Khazai, Bijan; Ergün Konukcu, Betul; Emre Basmacı, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers need tools to understand the priorities and to set up benchmarks and track progress in their disaster risk reduction activities, so that they can justify their decisions and investments. In this regard, Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management (MegaIST), is developed in order to be used in disaster risk management studies, for decision makers and managers to establish right strategies and proper risk reduction actions, enhance resource management and investment decisions, set priorities, monitor progress in DRM and validate decisions taken with the aim of helping disaster oriented urban redevelopment, inform investors about risk profile of the city and providing a basis for dissemination and sharing of risk components with related stakeholders; by Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM). MegaIST achieves these goals by analyzing the earthquake risk in three separate but complementary sub-categories consisting of "urban seismic risk, coping capacity and disaster risk management index" in an integrated way. MegaIST model fosters its analyses by presenting the outputs in a simple and user friendly format benefiting from GIS technology that ensures the adoptability of the model's use. Urban seismic risk analysis includes two components, namely; Physical Risk and Social Vulnerability Analysis. Physical risk analysis is based on the possible physical losses (such as building damage, casualties etc.) due to an earthquake while social vulnerability is considered as a factor that increases the results of the physical losses in correlation with the level of education, health, economic status and disaster awareness/preparedness of society. Coping capacity analysis is carried out with the aim of understanding the readiness of the Municipality to respond and recover from a disaster in Istanbul can be defined both in terms of the Municipality's operational capacities - the capacity of the

  16. Nuclear renaissance or premature try

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderch, M.

    2008-01-01

    After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)

  17. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.

  18. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  19. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prematurity. 29.1050 Section 29.1050 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1050 Prematurity. A condition of growth and development characteristic of the lower...

  20. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  1. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  2. Altered Amygdala Development and Fear Processing in Prematurely Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Anca Liliana; Gui, Laura; Vasung, Lana; Lejeune, Fleur; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Truttmann, Anita; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prematurely born children have a high risk of developmental and behavioral disabilities. Cerebral abnormalities at term age have been clearly linked with later behavior alterations, but existing studies did not focus on the amygdala. Moreover, studies of early amygdala development after premature birth in humans are scarce. Objective: To compare amygdala volumes in very preterm infants at term equivalent age (TEA) and term born infants, and to relate premature infants’ amygdala volumes with their performance on the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) fear episode at 12 months. Participants: Eighty one infants born between 2008 and 2014 at the University Hospitals of Geneva and Lausanne, taking part in longitudinal and functional imaging studies, who had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at TEA enabling manual amygdala delineation. Outcomes: Amygdala volumes assessed by manual segmentation of MRI scans; volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) automatically segmented in 66 infants; scores for the Lab-TAB fear episode for 42 premature infants at 12 months. Results: Amygdala volumes were smaller in preterm infants at TEA than term infants (mean difference 138.03 mm3, p amygdala volumes were larger than left amygdala volumes (mean difference 36.88 mm3, p Amygdala volumes showed significant correlation with the intensity of the escape response to a fearsome toy (rs = 0.38, p = 0.013), and were larger in infants showing an escape response compared to the infants showing no escape response (mean difference 120.97 mm3, p = 0.005). Amygdala volumes were not significantly correlated with the intensity of facial fear, distress vocalizations, bodily fear and positive motor activity in the fear episode. Conclusion: Our results indicate that premature birth is associated with a reduction in amygdala volumes and white matter volumes at TEA, suggesting that altered amygdala development

  3. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  4. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Simulation of IST Turbomachinery Power-Neutral Tests with the ANL Plant Dynamics Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The validation of the Plant Dynamics Code (PDC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the steady-state and transient analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems has been continued with new test data from the Naval Nuclear Laboratory (operated by Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation) Integrated System Test (IST). Although data from three runs were provided to ANL, only two of the data sets were analyzed and described in this report. The common feature of these tests is the power-neutral operation of the turbine-compressor shaft, where no external power through the alternator was provided during the tests. Instead, the shaft speed was allowed to change dictated by the power balance between the turbine, the compressor, and the power losses in the shaft. The new test data turned out to be important for code validation for several reasons. First, the power-neutral operation of the shaft allows validation of the shaft dynamics equations in asynchronous mode, when the shaft is disconnected from the grid. Second, the shaft speed control with the compressor recirculation (CR) valve not only allows for testing the code control logic itself, but it also serves as a good test for validation of both the compressor surge control and the turbine bypass control actions, since the effect of the CR action on the loop conditions is similar for both of these controls. Third, the varying compressor-inlet temperature change test allows validation of the transient response of the precooler, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The first transient simulation of the compressor-inlet temperature variation Test 64661 showed a much slower calculated response of the precooler in the calculations than the test data. Further investigation revealed an error in calculating the heat exchanger tube mass for the PDC dynamic equations that resulted in a slower change in the tube wall temperature than measured. The transient calculations for both tests were done in two steps. The

  6. Benchmark of WIMS-IST against MCNP for CANDU pressure tube fast fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Douglas, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Pressure tube fast-flux data in CANDU are currently calculated using the multi-group neutron transport code WIMS-IST. In this study, the WIMS-IST fast flux calculations are benchmarked against MCNP calculations (a Monte Carlo particle transport code), over the range of fuel burnup and coolant density in CANDU. The comparison shows good agreement between WIMS and MCNP, with WIMS fast fluxes being 1.5% to 4% lower than the MCNP values. The difference is smallest for fresh fuel, and increases with burnup. The fast flux gradient across the pressure tube (factor of 1.23 from inner edge to outer edge) is accurately calculated by WIMS. When reporting fast fluxes in pressure tubes, these are generally given as >1.000 MeV fluxes. For WIMS, this requires an extra conversion step, since the WIMS ENDF/B libraries do not have a group boundary at 1 MeV. The conversion step is based on a fictitious isotope ONEMEV in the WIMS nuclear data library. The conversion factor in WIMS was found to be about one percent too high. When providing >1 MeV fluxes from WIMS, this partially compensates for the slight under prediction of the fast flux. Pressure tube >1 MeV fluxes from WIMS are therefore 0.5% to 3% lower than MCNP values. To obtain accurate fast flux data, neutron transport calculations must be performed on a critical cell. For this study, all calculations were performed with radial albedo boundary conditions giving a critical cell. This required the use of an albedo version of MCNP, developed at AECL. (author)

  7. Warum Computerspielen trotzdem gut ist - Neutralisierungsstrategien von Computerspielabhängigen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bleckmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Im folgenden Text werden zunächst verschiedene wissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf das Phänomen der Computerspielabhängigkeit vorgestellt und die Position der Autorinnen, die Computerspielabhängigkeit in der Tradition sozialwissenschaftlicher Suchtforschung als virtuelle (Schein-Lösung verschiedener biografischer Problemkonstellationen sowie als unwahrscheinlichen Prozess verstehen, hiervon abgegrenzt. Zweitens werden innerhalb des als «unwahrscheinliche Karriere» verstanden Prozesses verschiedene hier als Neutralisierungsstrategien bezeichnete Deutungsmuster in den Fokus genommen, die zu einem Nichtergreifen von Karriereabbruchmöglichkeiten führen. Es sind vielfältige Neutralisierungsstrategien aus dem Material rekonstruierbar, mit denen Spieler/innen plausibilisieren, «warum Computerspielen trotzdem gut ist», trotz der Konflikte also, die sich zunehmend mit Normen und Werten des sozialen Umfelds oder der Gesellschaft ergeben. Dabei ist zwischen offensiveren und defensiveren, wie auch zwischen jene Normen aushebelnden oder aber diese anerkennenden Strategien zu unterscheiden, wobei verschiedene Strategien auch zugleich von ein und derselben Person eingesetzt werden. Drittens wird die Frage aufgeworfen, inwieweit die Argumentationslinien der durch Kommerzialisierungsinteressen getriebenen Medienanbieter, wie auch der Medienpädagogik und ihrer Nachbardisziplinen Parallelen zu diesen Neutralisierungsstrategien aufweisen. Kann diese gewagte Parallelisierung die Medienpädagogik zu einer kritischen Selbstreflexion anregen, um sich in einem Diskurs um Medienrisiken reflektierter positionieren zu können, statt Hinweise zu Risiken der Bildschirmmediennutzung, die vorwiegend aus anderen Disziplinen stammen, entweder zu ignorieren oder aber reflexartig zu neutralisieren, indem begründet wird, «warum Computerspielen trotzdem gut» sei?

  8. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  9. Social support for parents of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skurzak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear,  moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.

  10. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  11. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  12. Changes in family functions in patients with secondary premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Arı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to inverstigate changes in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation.Materials and methods: In the present study, study group were randomly selected from Mustafa Kemal University Medical School Research and Training Hospital Urology Department outpatients clinic. Control group were selected among healthy volunteers. Totally 30 patients were included in the PE group and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the control group. Subjects were examined by the same psychiatrist. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Family Assessment Scale were applied to both groupsResults: Compared with the control group, premature ejaculation patients had significantly higher anxiety scores (p=0.001 and more deterioration in problem solving (p=0.001, communication (p=0.022, affective responsiveness (p=0.011, behavior control (p=0.032, and affective involvement in their families (p=0.011. There were no difference in terms of roles and general functions scores (p>0.05.Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is deterioration in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation, Therefore, approaches targeting family functions may be beneficial in the treatment of these patients.

  13. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  14. Retinal vascular speed prematurity requiring treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana M; Ortega Molina, José M; Fernández, José Uberos; Escudero Gómez, Júlia; Salgado Miranda, Andrés D; Chaves Samaniego, Maria J; García Serrano, José L

    2018-03-01

    To analyse the speed of temporal retinal vascularisation in preterm infants included in the screening programme for retinopathy of prematurity. A total of 185 premature infants were studied retrospectively between 2000 and 2017 in San Cecilio University Hospital of Granada, Spain. The method of binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy with indentation was used for the examination. The horizontal disc diameter was used as a unit of length. Speed of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) was calculated as the ratio between the extent of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter) and the time in weeks. The weekly temporal retinal vascularisation (0-1.25 disc diameter/week, confidence interval) was significantly higher in no retinopathy of prematurity (0.73 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week) than in stage 1 retinopathy of prematurity (0.58 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week). It was also higher in stage 1 than in stages 2 (0.46 ± 0.14 disc diameter/week) and 3 of retinopathy of prematurity (0.36 ± 0.18 disc diameter/week). The rate of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) decreases when retinopathy of prematurity stage increases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.91) for retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment versus not requiring treatment. The best discriminative cut-off point was a speed of retinal vascularisation prematurity may be required. However, before becoming a new standard of care for treatment, it requires careful documentation, with agreement between several ophthalmologists.

  15. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  16. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  17. Důl Jeroným v Čisté, geografie, geologie, historie, současnost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, R.; Žůrek, P.; Kukutsch, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 20-22 ISSN 1803-7534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine in Čistá * stability * geomechanical monitoring * old mine workings Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  18. MRI of interstitial lung diseases. What is possible?; MRT bei interstitiellen Lungenerkrankungen. Was ist moeglich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J. [Kreisklinik Gross-Gerau, Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Wielpuetz, M.O.; Jobst, B.J.; Dinkel, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs is becoming increasingly appreciated as a third diagnostic imaging modality besides chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT). Its value is well acknowledged for pediatric patients or for scientific use particularly when radiation exposure should be strictly avoided. However, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is the biggest challenge of all indications. The objective of this article is a summary of the current state of the art for diagnostic MRI of interstitial lung diseases. This article reflects the results of a current search of the literature and discusses them against the background of the authors own experience with lung MRI. Due to its lower spatial resolution and a higher susceptibility to artefacts MRI does not achieve the sensitivity of CT for the detection of small details for pattern recognition (e.g. fine reticulation and micronodules) but larger details (e.g. coarse fibrosis and honeycombing) can be clearly visualized. Moreover, it could be shown that MRI has the capability to add clinically valuable information on regional lung function (e.g. ventilation, perfusion and mechanical properties) and inflammation with native signal and contrast dynamics. In its present state MRI can be used for comprehensive cardiopulmonary imaging in patients with sarcoidosis or for follow-up of lung fibrosis after initial correlation with CT. Far more indications are expected when the capabilities of MRI for the assessment of regional lung function and activity of inflammation can be transferred into robust protocols for clinical use. (orig.) [German] Die MRT der Lunge entwickelt sich zu einer ernstzunehmenden dritten Saeule der Thoraxdiagnostik neben dem Thoraxroentgen und der Computertomographie (CT). Ihr Wert in der paediatrischen Lungendiagnostik oder fuer den wissenschaftlichen Einsatz, insbesondere wenn eine Strahlenexposition vermieden werden soll, ist unbestritten. Von allen Indikationen stellt die Diagnostik

  19. Essential Conditions for Technology-Supported, Student-Centered Learning: An Analysis of Student Experiences with Math Out Loud Using the ISTE Standards for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie; Vasinda, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    This article explores links between student experiences with technology-rich mathematics instruction and the ISTE Standards for Students. Research methods applied constructivist grounded theory to analyze data from student interviews against the ISTE Standards for Students to identify which elements of the design of this learning environment…

  20. Sports and exercise-related tendinopathies : a review of selected topical issues by participants of the second International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium (ISTS) Vancouver 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Alex; Docking, Sean; Vicenzino, Bill; Alfredson, Hakan; Zwerver, Johannes; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Finlay, Oliver; Pollock, Noel; Cook, Jill L.; Fearon, Angela; Purdam, Craig R.; Hoens, Alison; Rees, Jonathan D.; Goetz, Thomas J.; Danielson, Patrik

    In September 2010, the first International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium (ISTS) was held in Umea, Sweden, to establish a forum for original scientific and clinical insights in this growing field of clinical research and practice. The second ISTS was organised by the same group and held in

  1. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  2. Gut gemeint ist nicht gleich gut gemacht! Meant Well is not the Same as Well Done!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lewalter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag von Manfred Becker lässt sich wohlmeinend als Plädoyer für einen pragmatischen Umgang mit dem AGG lesen. Er möchte Personaler/-innen zeigen, wie die Vorgaben des AGG im Rahmen eines Human Resources Diversity Managements positiv umgesetzt werden können. In weiten Teilen überzeugen die Ausführungen des Autors aber nicht. Gerade die Darstellung der Inhalte des AGG ist stark von seiner skeptischen Grundhaltung gegenüber dessen Zielsetzung geprägt. Auch wenn die Ausführungen zu konkreten Betriebs- und Personalmaßnahmen gelungener sind, stellt dieser Beitrag insgesamt kein überzeugendes und lesenswertes Werk dar.With the best intention, the work by Manfred Becker can be read as a plea for a pragmatic approach to the AGG. He wishes to show personnel how the guidelines of the AGG can be put into practice within the framework of Human Resources Diversity Management. However, the author’s work is often unconvincing. In particular, the presentation of the contents of the AGG is strongly influenced by his skeptical attitude toward its goals. Even when his approach to concrete company and personnel measures is more successful, the book is neither convincing nor a worthwhile read.

  3. „Das Leben ist nur ein Spiegel“ – Schopenhauers kritischer Lebensbegriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kossler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11nesp1p1   Schopenhauer gilt als Vorreiter oder erster Vertreter der Lebensphilosophie, wie sie später von Dilthey, Nietzsche, Bergson und anderen entfaltet wurde. Im Unterschied zur klassischen Lebensphilosophie und zu den an sie anknüpfenden ethischen Entwürfen wird das Leben bei Schopenhauer aber nicht als Zweck betrachtet, sondern als Mittel zu einem anderen Zweck, nämlich für die Ethik, die in der Verneinung des Willens zum Leben gipfelt. Schon in den frühesten handschriftlichen Aufzeichnungen verwendet Schopenhauer verschiedene Metaphern, um das Leben als Medium der ethischen Erkenntnis zu charakterisieren. Besonders häufig tritt dabei das Bild vom Leben als Spiegel auf, in dem der Mensch sein eigenes Wesen und damit auch das Wesen der Welt erblickt. Im Hauptwerk wird dann dieses Bild vom Begriff der Objektivation des Willens abgelöst. Insofern die höchste und deutlichste Objektivation des Willens der Lebenslauf des menschlichen Individuums darstellt, ist Schopenhauers Lebensbegriff eng mit seiner Charakterlehre verknüpft. In dem Beitrag wird das verwickelte Verhältnis von Leben, Erkennen und Ethik vor dem Hintergrund der proto-hermeneutischen Metaphysikkonzeption Schopenhauers anhand der Entwicklung der Spiegelmetapher betrachtet.

  4. Blut ist dicker als Wasser “Blood is Thicker than Water”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Benöhr-Laqueur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Band basiert auf Beiträgen des an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin angesiedelten Forschungsprojektes „Verwandtschaft als Repräsentation sozialer Ordnung und sozialer Praxis: Kulturen der Zusammengehörigkeit im Kontext sozialer und reproduktionsmedizinischer Transformationsprozesse”. In dreizehn Artikeln wird anhand der Länder Deutschland, Türkei und Großbritannien der Frage nachgegangen: „Wie macht man Verwandtschaft?“ Angesichts des unaufhaltsamen Voranschreitens der Reproduktionsmedizin ist die Lektüre dieses Bandes vorbehaltlos zu empfehlen.The volume is made up of contributions stemming from the research project, “Relations as Representation of Social Order and Social Practice: Cultures of Belonging in the Context of Social and Medical-Reproductive Transformation Processes,” based at the Humboldt University in Berlin. Thirteen articles approach the question, “how does one create relations,” focusing on Germany, Turkey, and Great Britain. The volume is a recommended read, particularly in light of the continuing progression of reproductive medicine.

  5. Soldiers, Angels and Women: the episode of the empty Tomb in Ist and IInd Century Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano SPLÉNDIDO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The narration of the Passion of the Christ was an apologetic tool essential for the ?rst christians because it provided them with a soteriologist perspective and, also, re?ected the political and social experiences of the writing communities. The episodes of Jesus’ arrest and death were accounts clearly meant for polemics not only with externals, jews and gentiles, but also with other Christian ?owings. On the basis of this notion we propose to analyse the episode of Jesus’ women disciples in front of the empty sepulchre from a historic perspective which will explain the changes that have taken place as a result of the positions and interests of the different writers. To do this, we will move around a time span which goes from the middle of the decade of the 70’s in Ist century up to the end of IInd century. We will begin the analysis with the Gospel of Mark, the ?rst testimony of the episode of the empty tomb. This episode is considered a novelty which comes from the Christian-helenistic circle of Antioch, since Paul did not seem to have known about it in his letters. Then we will proceed to consider the versions proposed by the Gospels of Matthew, Luke, John, the Epistula Apostolorum and the Gospel of Peter. As a closing element and also to provide a ?nal balance we will turn to the opinion of the pagan critic Celsus.

  6. PREMATURE BIRTH AS A MEDICAL AND SOCIAL HEALTHCARE PROBLEM. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Sakharova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality, like a frequency of long-term unfavourable psychomotor developmental outcomes is in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Now scientists give attention to the risk factors — the infection, preeclampsia, smoking, etc., to look for prevention of premature birth. The outcome of premature baby depends on the birth weight; the methodof labor and the hospital technical support also have an influence. The frequency of neurological impairments — infantile cerebral palsy, visual and hearing disorders, and probability of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia are also in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Last decade there are many scientists give attention to the cognitive deficit and behavior disorders in adolescents, born premature. Premature infants with extremely low birth weight have developmental disorders at 8-13%. Not all of cognitive and behavioral problems have symptoms in the first years of life, but have delayed unfavourable effects. The severity of cognitive deficit not always corresponds with structural impairments of brain, detected in functional studies of premature baby in the first year of life.  

  7. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  8. Data Curation oder (Retro Digitalisierung ist mehr als die Produktion von Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kempf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nahezu jede Bibliothek, die über Altbestand verfügt, beschäftigt sich heute mit dem Thema Digitalisierung. Dabei wird oftmals übersehen, dass die dauerhafte und möglichst nutzerfreundliche Bereitstellung (und letztlich die Archivierung der erzeugten Daten organisatorische Anforderungen ganz eigener Art an die bestandshaltende Institution stellt. Anders als bei analogen Materialien ist es mit dem sachgerechten Vorhalten und der Ausgabe des Sammelguts in buchklimatisch möglichst einwandfreien Räumlichkeiten nicht getan. Elektronische Dokumente, egal welcher Herkunft, welchen Umfangs, Typs und Inhalts, verlangen – weitgehend unabhängig von ihrer tatsächlichen Inanspruchnahme – ein aktives und extrem aufwändiges Datenmanagement sowie eine intensive Datenpflege. Dazu kommen der Betrieb und das regelmäßige Update der für das Datenangebot notwendigen Hard- und Software. Dieses Tun wird in der angelsächsischen Bibliothekswelt gemeinhin mit dem Begriff „digital curation“ oder „data curation“, manchmal auch mit „data stewardship“ umschrieben. Organisationsstrukturen und Arbeitsabläufe (Geschäftsgänge des digitalen Servicekonzepts der Bibliothek müssen darauf ausgelegt sein, die notwendigen personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen müssen dafür eingeplant und bereitgestellt werden. In deutschen Bibliotheken wird diesem wesentlichen Aspekt des digitalen Arbeitens nach wie vor viel zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, dabei ist er für die Qualität des (digitalen Servicekonzepts und seiner Nutzerakzeptanz von herausragender Bedeutung. In dem Beitrag sollen vor dem Hintergrund der langjährigen Erfahrungen in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (BSB die Dimension und Komplexität des Problems aufgezeigt sowie mittlerweile praxiserprobte Lösungsansätze vorgestellt werden. Today almost every library with historic collections faces the question of digitisation. However, it is often ignored that a long-term and

  9. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  10. Was ist ungerecht? Diskriminierungsebenen aus multiplen Blickwinkeln What is Unjust? Levels of Discrimination from Multiple Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Sorge

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aus einer interdisziplinären Kolloquiumsreihe im Wintersemester 2004/2005 des Cornelia Goethe Centrums für Frauenstudien und die Erforschung der Geschlechterverhältnisse (CGC ist eine Aufsatzsammlung mit acht Beiträgen entstanden, welche sich mit frauenspezifischen Unrechtserfahrungen auseinandersetzen. Der Facettenreichtum der Aufsatzthemen entspricht dem im Titelkompositum „Unrechtserfahrungen“ ausgedrückten Spannungsverhältnis: Zum einen wird anhand von konkret erlebten Einzelschicksalen und von Darstellungen in der Literatur die Erfahrung von Ungerechtigkeit und Unrecht problematisiert. Zum anderen wird die rechtliche Begrifflichkeit genauer untersucht. Die Autorinnen kommen aus den Bereichen Philologie, Rechts- und Geschichtswissenschaft. Entsprechend bietet der Band eine vielfältige und insgesamt ergiebige Gesamtschau auf die Unrechtserfahrungen von Frauen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart.This collected volume of eight essays tackles the experience of injustice specific to women. It was born out of an interdisciplinary colloquium during the winter semester of 2004/2005 at the Cornelia Goethe Center for Women’s Studies and the Study of Gender Relations (CGC. The richly varied themes of the essays correspond to the tension expressed in the composite word in the title “unjust-experience”: For one, the volume problematizes the experience of inequality and injustice through individual concrete experience and through literary presentations. In addition, it examines legal terminology in detail. The authors come from the wide-ranging areas of philology, law, and history. Accordingly, the volume offers a diverse and altogether rich overview of women’s experiences of injustice in the past and the present.

  11. Ethnographische Feldforschung in der Mathematik – oder – Ist eine Soziologie der Mathematik möglich?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Koreuber

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Die wissenschaftliche Disziplin Mathematik ist mit dem Nimbus des Objektiven und Entpersonalisierten versehen und scheint einer soziologischen Analyse nicht zugängig. Bettina Heintz fragt ausgehend von einer konstruktivistischen Wissenschaftssoziologie nach Gründen der epistemischen Besonderheit der Mathematik. Durch eine Verschiebung des Fokus vom Wissen auf das Handeln der Mathematiker und Mathematikerinnen gelingt es ihr, neue Einsichten in den Prozeß der Entstehung mathematischen Wissens zu gewinnen.

  12. Evaluation of FASP, SP3, and iST Protocols for Proteomic Sample Preparation in the Low Microgram Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielaff, Malte; Kuharev, Jörg; Bohn, Toszka; Hahlbrock, Jennifer; Bopp, Tobias; Tenzer, Stefan; Distler, Ute

    2017-11-03

    Efficient and reproducible sample preparation is a prerequisite for any robust and sensitive quantitative bottom-up proteomics workflow. Here, we performed an independent comparison between single-pot solid-phase-enhanced sample preparation (SP3), filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), and a commercial kit based on the in-StageTip (iST) method. We assessed their performance for the processing of proteomic samples in the low μg range using varying amounts of HeLa cell lysate (1-20 μg of total protein). All three workflows showed similar performances for 20 μg of starting material. When handling sample sizes below 10 μg, the number of identified proteins and peptides as well as the quantitative reproducibility and precision drastically dropped in case of FASP. In contrast, SP3 and iST provided high proteome coverage even in the low μg range. Even when digesting 1 μg of starting material, both methods still enabled the identification of over 3000 proteins and between 25 000 and 30 000 peptides. On average, the quantitative reproducibility between experimental replicates was slightly higher in case of SP3 (R 2 = 0.97 (SP3); R 2 = 0.93 (iST)). Applying SP3 toward the characterization of the proteome of FACS-sorted tumor-associated macrophages in the B16 tumor model enabled the quantification of 2965 proteins and revealed a "mixed" M1/M2 phenotype.

  13. istSOS, a new sensor observation management system: software architecture and a real-case application for flood protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cannata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available istSOS (Istituto scienze della Terra Sensor Observation Service is an implementation of the Sensor Observation Service (SOS standard from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The development of istSOS started in 2009 in order to provide a simple implementation of the SOS for the management, provision and integration of hydro-meteorological data collected in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland. istSOS is an Open Source, entirely written in Python and based on reliable software like PostgreSQL/PostGIS and Apache/mod_wsgi. This paper illustrates the latest software enhancements, including a RESTful Web service and a Web-based graphical user interface, which enable a better and simplified interaction with measurements and SOS service settings. The robustness of the implemented solution has been validated in a real-case application: the Verbano Lake Early Warning System. In this application, near real-time data have to be exchanged by inter-regional partners and used in a hydrological model for lake level forecasting and flooding hazard assessment. This system is linked with a dedicated geoportal used by the civil protection for the management, alert and protection of the population and the assets of the Locarno area. Practical considerations, technical issues and foreseen improvements are presented and discussed.

  14. Experience with Wolsong-1 Phase-B pre-simulations using WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST code suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D-H.; Kim, B-G.; Kim, S-M.; Suh, H-B.; Kim, H-S.; Kim, H-J.

    2010-01-01

    The Wolsong-1 Phase-B pre-simulations have been carried out with the exclusive use of the code suite WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST in replacement of the previous PPV/MULTICELL/RFSP code system in preparation of tests to be conducted as scheduled in December 2010 after the refurbishment. A comprehensive simulation package has been undertaken starting from the approach to first criticality to the flux measurements and scan. In order to secure the validity of the results, the simulations are performed using both the Uniform and SCM fuel tables. An elaborating contribution has been invested into the work in view of the inexperience of using WIMS/SCM fuel tables as well as incremental cross sections generated by using DRAGON-IST. The overall assessment of simulation results indicates that the newly adopted WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST code suite could be used in replacement of PPV/MULTICELL/RFSP for the verification against the Phase-B test results. (author)

  15. @neurIST: infrastructure for advanced disease management through integration of heterogeneous data, computing, and complex processing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkner, Siegfried; Arbona, Antonio; Berti, Guntram; Chiarini, Alessandro; Dunlop, Robert; Engelbrecht, Gerhard; Frangi, Alejandro F; Friedrich, Christoph M; Hanser, Susanne; Hasselmeyer, Peer; Hose, Rod D; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Köhler, Martin; Iacono, Luigi Lo; Lonsdale, Guy; Meyer, Rodolphe; Moore, Bob; Rajasekaran, Hariharan; Summers, Paul E; Wöhrer, Alexander; Wood, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The increasing volume of data describing human disease processes and the growing complexity of understanding, managing, and sharing such data presents a huge challenge for clinicians and medical researchers. This paper presents the @neurIST system, which provides an infrastructure for biomedical research while aiding clinical care, by bringing together heterogeneous data and complex processing and computing services. Although @neurIST targets the investigation and treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the system's architecture is generic enough that it could be adapted to the treatment of other diseases. Innovations in @neurIST include confining the patient data pertaining to aneurysms inside a single environment that offers clinicians the tools to analyze and interpret patient data and make use of knowledge-based guidance in planning their treatment. Medical researchers gain access to a critical mass of aneurysm related data due to the system's ability to federate distributed information sources. A semantically mediated grid infrastructure ensures that both clinicians and researchers are able to seamlessly access and work on data that is distributed across multiple sites in a secure way in addition to providing computing resources on demand for performing computationally intensive simulations for treatment planning and research.

  16. Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M

    1993-01-01

    The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...

  17. Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.

  18. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  19. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  20. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  1. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Psychological and educational correlates of prematurity in children during four periods, the last at 7 years of age, were assessed as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 241 infants classified by birth weight, gestational age, and sex to determine later functioning in school. (Author/MC)

  2. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  3. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of ... PROM (P < 0.000), latency period (P < 0.000), and birth weight (P < 0.001). ..... J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:271‑6. 25. Mercer ...

  4. The Effect of Mother Empowerment Program on Mothers’ Attachment to their Hospitalized Premature Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Karbandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth of a premature neonate is associated with hospital admission and separation from the family. Admission of the neonates intervenes on infant-mother attachment and so adversely affects on the quality of care given by the mother, and subsequently increases the risk of delayed behavioral problems in the children. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of mother empowerment program on the premature infant-mother attachment. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 70 mothers of premature infants, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Omolbanin hospital of Mashhad in 2014, were divided into of intervention and control groups. The Empowerment program was a multi-step treatment program, in which information about the premature infants was provided to mothers through an illustrated booklet with a workbook and audio file in each step. Mothers in the control group received information and routine care according to the hospital guideline. The mother-infant attachment was measured after the intervention using the maternal and neonatal behaviors Avant tool. Data analysis was performed using chi-square and t-student tests by SPSS software version 11.5. Results:The mean scores of maternal attachment behaviors after the intervention in the empowerment and control groups were (56.62±8.06 and (39.51±7.77, respectively; the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P

  5. Das Alter ist der wichtigste Risikofaktor der postoperativen erektilen Dysfunktion nach radikaler nerverhaltender Prostatektomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruschka M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die radikale Prostatektomie ohne Nerverhalt geht mit Impotenz einher. Bei nerverhaltendem Vorgehen kann das Risiko der erektilen Dysfunktion gesenkt, aber nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Die präoperative Beratung der Patienten erfordert bei nerverhaltender Prostatektomie die Kenntnis der Faktoren, die Einfluss auf die postoperative Potenz haben. Patienten & Methoden: 110 Patienten antworteten 24 Monate nach radikaler perinealer nerverhaltender Prostatektomie auf einen per Post übermittelten Fragebogen. Die Patienten wurden, entsprechend dem Erection Hardness Score, nach der Rigidität ihrer Erektionen befragt. Überwiegend erfolgte der Nerverhalt unilateral (104/110. Verschiedene potenzielle Risikofaktoren (Alter, Qualität der präoperativen Erektion, Serum-PSA, Gleason-Score, Tumorvolumen, Prostatavolumen, adjuvante Strahlentherapie, ASA-Score, Chronic Disease Score [CDS], arterielle Hypertonie, Hypercholesterinämie, Diabetes mellitus, KHK, Nikotinkonsum wurden univariat mit der postoperativ erzielten Potenz korreliert. Multivariat wurden dann jene Parameter untersucht, die in der univariaten Analyse einen signifikanten (p ≤ 0,05 oder einen tendenziellen Zusammenhang (p ≤ 0,2 mit der postoperativen erektilen Funktion aufwiesen. Ergebnisse:Das Alter (p 0,001 und der ASAScore (p = 0,018 waren in der univariaten Analyse negative Prädiktoren der postoperativen Potenz. In der multivariaten Analyse war lediglich das Alter (p = 0,028 von signifikanter Bedeutung. Mit jedem Lebensjahr der Männer steigt das Risiko einer um eine Stufe im EHS schlechteren Erektion um das 1,128-Fache an. Bei einem Altersunterschied von 10 Jahren ist das Risiko eines postoperativ schlechteren Erektionsvermögens um den Faktor 3,334 erhöht, bei einem um 20 Jahre höheren Alter beträgt dieser Faktor 11,121. Diskussion & Praxisrelevanz: Das Lebensalter der Patienten wurde im Einklang mit der Literatur als signifikanter Faktor für die postoperative Potenz identifiziert

  6. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely

  7. Comportamiento de la retinopatía de la prematuridad en el Hospital General "Iván Portuondo"en el año 2009 Behavior of the retinopathy of prematurity in "Iván Portuondo" hospital in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimik Toledo González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer el comportamiento de la retinopatía de la prematuridad en los nacidos de menos de 1750 gramos o menos de 35 semanas. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo longitudinal prospectivo de todos los niños bajo peso nacidos en el Hospital General "Iván Portuondo", desde enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2009, en el que se obtuvieron un total de 129 niños bajo peso. El protocolo de investigación está formado por los menores de 1 750 gramos de peso al nacer o con edad gestacional inferior a 35 semanas, además se valoraron algunos factores de riesgo. Se excluyeron del estudio los fallecidos en ese período. RESULTADOS: La incidencia fue de 0,24 por cada 10 000 nacidos vivos mediante examen oftalmológico. El 69,35 % de los recién nacidos pesquisados nacieron entre las 32 y las 35 semanas de gestación y 40,32 % con un peso entre 1 500-1 999 gramos. El 93,54 % de los recién nacidos presentaron retina inmadura y un 3,22 % desarrollaron retinopatía de la prematuridad. La misma cantidad de casos se trataron con láser y terapia tópica 50 %, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Los valores sobre pacientes con retinopatía de la prematuridad en Cuba se encuentran dentro de los aceptados internacionales y estos se mueven a la par con el aumento de la supervivencia de los recién nacidos. Entre los factores que influyen proporcionalmente con esta enfermedad permanecen la edad gestacional y el peso al nacer. El láser se mantiene como estándar de tratamiento.OBJECTIVES: To learn about the behavior of the retinopathy of prematurity in newborns under 1750 grams of weight or 35 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal descriptive and observational study of all low birthweighed children at "Iván Portuondo" hospital, from January to December of 2009. A total of 129 low birth weight children were detected; the research protocol was formed by under 1 750 g birth weight or gestational age under 35 weeks in addition to assessing some

  8. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D Linton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kate D Linton, Kevan R WylieSheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has been concluded. Several topical therapies have been used including severance-secret (SS cream, lignocaine spray, lidocaine-prilocaine cream and lidocaine-prilocaine spray (TEMPE. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.Keywords: premature ejaculation, topical therapies, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, dapoxetine

  9. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  10. Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines M; Doyle, Lex W; Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win; Anderson, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on neurobehavioral outcomes in 11-year-old participants of the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial. Thirteen academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden participated in this part of the 11-year follow-up of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of general intelligence, attention, executive function, visuomotor integration and perception, and behavior were obtained in up to 870 children. The effects of caffeine therapy were assessed by using regression models. Neurobehavioral outcomes were generally similar for both the caffeine and placebo group. The caffeine group performed better than the placebo group in fine motor coordination (mean difference [MD] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 to 5.1; P = .01), visuomotor integration (MD = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.0 to 3.7; P prematurity improved visuomotor, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial abilities at age 11 years. General intelligence, attention, and behavior were not adversely affected by caffeine, which highlights the long-term safety of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in very low birth weight neonates. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  12. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Joop; Drexhage, Hemmo; Hoek, Annemieke

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic...

  13. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2016-01-01

    More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804

  15. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  16. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; Pbite than boys (8% vs 6%; Pbite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.

  17. ERITYISTÄ TUKEA TARVITSEVA LAPSI VUOROHOIDOSSA : keinoja ja välineitä tukea esiopetusikäistä lasta

    OpenAIRE

    Soini, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Liisa Soini. Erityistä tukea tarvitseva lapsi vuorohoidossa, keinoja ja välineitä tukea esiopetusikäistä lasta. kevät 2013, 54s.Diakonia ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomi(AMK). Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa, millainen oli vuorohoidon työntekijän käsitys erityistä tukea tarvitsevasta lapsesta. Miten päivähoito voi vastata erityistä tukea tarvitsevan lapsen tarpeisiin ja millaisia haasteita erityisen tuen tarve toi osaamise...

  18. NUD*IST: vivo programa infórmatico para el análisis de datos en investigaciones cualitativas

    OpenAIRE

    Bausela Herreras, Esperanza

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan las posibilidades básicas y más importantes del programa NUD*IST Vivo. Es utilizado como apoyo informático en el análisis de datos de naturaleza cualitativa (transcripciones de entrevistas, diarios de campos, registros de observación...). Esta dirigido a alumnado que cursa materias relacionadas con la investigación educativa, en titulaciones como educación especial, audición y lenguaje y psicopedagogía, así, como alumnos doctorandos. Pretendemos proporciona...

  19. NUD*IST: Vivo programa informático para el análisis de datos en investigaciones cualitativas

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan las posibilidades básicas y más importantes del programa NUD*IST Vivo. Es utilizado como apoyo informático en el análisis de datos de naturaleza cualitativa (transcripciones de entrevistas, diarios de campos, registros de observación...). Esta dirigido a alumnado que cursa materias relacionadas con la investigación educativa, en titulaciones como educación especial, audición y lenguaje y psicopedagogía, así, como alumnos doctorandos. Pretendemos pr...

  20. Stability of the old mine workings in the Jeroným at Čistá, Sokolov District

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukutsch, Radovan; Žůrek, P.; Kořínek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 42 (2012), s. 67-74 ISSN 0324-9670 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine in Čistá * stability * geomechanical monitoring * old mine workings Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BPW6-0029-0005?q=bwmeta1.element.baztech-volume-0370-0798-prace_naukowe_instytutu_gornictwa_politechniki_wroclawskiej__studia_i_materialy-2012-vol__135_nr_42;4&qt=CHILDREN-STATELESS

  1. Das Höhlenlangbein Amilenus aurantiacus (Opiliones: Phalangiidae ist Höhlentier des Jahres 2016 in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenker, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the nomination of the ‘Cave Animal of the Year’ the Society of German Cave and Karst Explorers calls public and authorities’ attention to the understudied biodiversity of subterranean ecosystems. Here the Cave Animal of the Year 2016, Amilenus aurantiacus (Simon, 1881, is presented. It is the first time that a harvestman has been chosen. Ist ecology, habitat and morphology are described. New records from Hesse, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia are listed and discussed.

  2. Prematurity Affects Age of Presentation of Pyloric Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren

    2017-02-01

    Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.

  3. Was ist so Berlin? Eine kritische Rezension aktueller Linien und Fragestellungen der Stadtforschung in der deutschen Hauptstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Merrill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ende 2012 hat das Zitty Magazin des Tagesspiegels seine Werbekampagne „Das ist so Berlin“ gestartet. Seither sind kleine rot-weiße Aufkleber mit dieser Aussage überall in der Stadt aufgetaucht, auf Mülleimern, U-Bahn-Schildern und Bushaltestellen. Zum Teil als Reaktion auf diese Kampagne, fragt diese kritische, bilinguale Rezension Was ist so Berlin? um die aktuellen Linien und Fragestellungen der Stadtforschung in Berlin zu diskutieren. Dazu werden die Berlin-Sitzungen zweier internationaler Tagungen des Jahres 2013 rezensiert, die Sitzungen der Jahreskonferenz der Association of American Geographers (Los Angeles 9-13 April und es Jahrestreffen des Research Committee 21 (Berlin 29-31, sowie der Sammelband – The Berlin Reader: A Compendium on Urban Change and Activism (Transcript, 2013, herausgegeben von Matthias Bernt, Britta Grell und Andrej Holm. Im Anschluss betont die Rezension die Notwendigkeit die Vorstellungen zu Berlin und Berlins exceptionalism, die in der Stadtforschung entwickelt werden, fortlaufend so zu beleuchten, dass eine pluralistische Rhetorik, die Position und Verantwortung von Forscher_innen und wissenschaftliche Forschungslücken, berücksichtigt werden.

  4. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi Canat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014 was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies.

  5. A new way of thinking about complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tiffany A; Berger, Ann M; Wilson, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are impacted by their ability to maintain physiologic homeostasis using metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic mechanisms independent of the mother's placenta. Exploring McEwen's allostatic load model in preterm infants provides a new way to understand the altered physiologic processes associated with frequently occurring complications of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. The purpose of this article is to present a new model to enhance understanding of the altered physiologic processes associated with complications of prematurity. The model of allostatic load and complications of prematurity was derived to explore the relationship between general stress of prematurity and complications of prematurity. The proposed model uses the concepts of general stress of prematurity, allostasis, physiologic response patterns (adaptive-maladaptive), allostatic load, and complications of prematurity. These concepts are defined and theoretical relationships in the proposed model are interpreted using the four maladaptive response patterns of repeated hits, lack of adaptation, prolonged response, and inadequate response. Empirical evidence for cortisol, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses are used to support the theoretical relationships. The proposed model provides a new way of thinking about physiologic dysregulation in preterm infants. The ability to describe and understand complex physiologic mechanisms involved in complications of prematurity is essential for research. Advancing the knowledge of complications of prematurity will advance clinical practice and research and lead to testing of interventions to reduce negative outcomes in preterm infants.

  6. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  8. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  9. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  10. Human milk: medicine for premature babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sioned

    2011-12-01

    Following years of research there have been some significant developments in the understanding and subsequent support being offered to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) families. In addition, ground breaking advances in the treatment of premature infants, with specific interest in the role of human milk, are now available. New information was presented by leading international researcher, Professor Meier, at an international symposium earlier this year. This article seeks to share this insightful information and provide support to those working in or around the NICU.

  11. The economic burden of prematurity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian

    2014-04-05

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is

  12. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  13. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE REDUCTION OF PREMATURITY THROUGH PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOLOTA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from literature, especially from the US, has provided data on prediction, prevention and treatment of premature membrane rupture (RPM. RPM is a significant cause of premature birth and can cause complications of a term task. Considerable research on RPM has led to a better understanding of the mechanism of spontaneous breakage of membranes, risk factors, and good results for newborns resulting from such obstetrical events. Spontaneous rupture of the membranes increases the risk of intrauterine infection and umbilical cord compression as well as the risk of premature detachment of placenta. Newborn babies resulting from RPM have an increased risk of morbidity compared to gestational age, and the risk of infection is increased compared with other premature babies due to ancillary causes. If RPM occurs in the second trimester, there is an additional risk of pulmonary hypoplasia and hip dysplasia. Pre-term conservative treatment prolongs latency to birth. Antibiotics reduce the risk of infection while corticosteroid treatment (dexamethasone reduces respiratory complications and interventricular haemorrhage without increasing the risk of infection. Birth is necessary or unavoidable in many cases by RPMs and because conservative treatment often results in no results; That is why studies are needed to identify all risk factors and the need to treat pregnant women at risk of RPM; 17-hydroxy-progesterone is a specific treatment for preventing recurrent membrane rupture. (http://www.ginecologultau.ro/ruptura-prematura-a-membranelor, 2013.

  14. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately aft...... in the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum. Diagnosing this syndrome is important to reassure parents, obstetricians, and pediatricians about its benign course after complications in the perinatal period....

  15. 'Rush' type retinopathy of prematurity: report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Gilad, E; Cohen, S; Ben-Sira, I

    1987-01-01

    Three premature infants observed to develop severe stage III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3 to 5 weeks of age received immediate treatment by cryoablation and photocoagulation, with good results. The critical importance of the ophthalmic examination of premature babies from the age of 2 weeks, so as not to overlook such cases of 'rush' type ROP is stressed and the difficulty involved in treating such small neonates is discussed.

  16. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  17. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  18. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  19. The Neural Retina in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. PMID:27671171

  20. Computed tomography of the head of new born premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Mizobe, Naoki; Takehiro, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)

  1. Association between human breast milk and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.

  2. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (PPremature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.

  3. Ist2 in the yeast cortical endoplasmic reticulum promotes trafficking of the amino acid transporter Bap2 to the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolf

    Full Text Available The equipment of the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with specific nutrient transporters is highly regulated by transcription, translation and protein trafficking allowing growth in changing environments. The activity of these transporters depends on a H(+ gradient across the plasma membrane generated by the H(+-ATPase Pma1. We found that the polytopic membrane protein Ist2 in the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER is required for efficient leucine uptake during the transition from fermentation to respiration. Experiments employing tandem fluorescence timer protein tag showed that Ist2 was necessary for efficient trafficking of newly synthesized leucine transporter Bap2 from the ER to the plasma membrane. This finding explains the growth defect of ist2Δ mutants during nutritional challenges and illustrates the important role of physical coupling between cortical ER and plasma membrane.

  4. Waste incineration and waste prevention: not a contradiction in terms; Abfallverbrennung ist kein Gegner der Abfallvermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The paper provides a detailed analysis of the current situation on waste management in Germany and identifies 10 arguments on the issue that waste incineration and waste prevention are not contradiction in terms. The following topics are discussed within this frame: waste prevention in production and consumption; resource-efficient products; offsetting of efficiency gains by growth of volume; consumer behavior, need of waste management; influence of long-term waste management contracts; product responsibility; highest recovery rates despite incineration of residual waste; precise sorting as a prerequisite for recovery. It is concluded that waste incineration with energy generation and utilization of slag is an environmentally sound option.

  5. Flexibility instead of regulation. Is the Energy Transition bogged down?; Flexibilitaet statt Regulierung. Ist die Energiewende festgefahren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochermann, Josef [Hochschule Osnabrueck, Lingen (Germany). Professur Marketing und Technologiemanagement

    2017-07-15

    The growth in renewable energy systems is stagnating. Is the energy transition bogged down? Is the transition to the new energy world over-regulated? In addition to the regulation of the large systems at the national level, the energy users need more scope and flexibility at regional and on individual level. The present article deals with the most important criticisms regarding the energy transition and provides references on their solution. [German] Der Zuwachs an erneuerbaren Energieanlagen stagniert. Ist die Energiewende festgefahren? Wird der Uebergang in die neue Energiewelt ueberreguliert? Neben der Regulation der grossen Systeme auf nationaler Ebene braucht die Energiewende mehr Freiraum und Flexibilitaet auf regionaler und auf individualer Ebene. Der vorliegende Artikel greift die wichtigsten Kritikpunkte in Bezug auf die Energiewende auf und gibt Hinweise zu deren Loesung.

  6. Plan national stratégique de lutte contre les IST/VIH/Sida, 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ouahdi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Présente le Plan national stratégique 2008 – 2012 qui orientera la lutte contre les IST/VIH/Sida durant les cinq prochaines années. L'objectif du plan est de prévenir de nouvelles infections, d'élargir l'accès aux soins de santé et d'atténuer l'impact de l'épidémie au vu d'atteindre les objectifs de développement pour le Millénaire notamment celui consistant à stopper et commencer à inverser l'épidémie du VIH/sida d'ici à 2015.

  7. The 1997 NRC IST workshops and the status of questions and issues directed to the ASME O and M committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes the results of the four NRC Inservice Testing (IST) Workshops which were held in early 1997 pertaining to NRC Inspection Procedure P 73756, Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves. It also presents the status of the ASME code committees' resolution of certain questions forwarded to the ASME by the NRC. These questions relate to code interpretations, inconsistencies in the code, and industry concerns that are most appropriately resolved through the ASME consensus process. The ASME committees reviewed the questions at their December 1997 and March 1998 code meetings. Of particular interest are those questions for which the ASME code committees did not agree with the NRC response. These questions, as well as those which the committees provided some additional insight or input, are presented in this paper

  8. Effects of Early Sensory Stimulation on the Premature Infant as Measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kathy Kees; And Others

    Looking beyond the overall effectiveness of sensory stimulation, this study aimed to identify specific aspects of infant behavior most responsive to early stimulation. Subjects were 65 premature infants with a birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces and a gestational age under 37 weeks. Experimental group members had completed a multimodal…

  9. The Impact of Premature Birth: A Correlational Study Assessing the Need for Children to Access Educational Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Laura M.; Miller, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children born premature are at increased risk of lower cognitive abilities, poor academic performance, low social competence and behavioral problems, compared with individuals born full-term (e.g., Whitside-Mansell, Barrett, Bradley & Gargus, 2006; Litt, Taylor, Klein, & Hack, 2005). The goal of the current…

  10. Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

  11. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  12. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  14. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  15. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  16. Prematurity Stereotype: Effects of Labeling on Adults' Perceptions of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in which college students and mothers were asked to rate unfamiliar infants shown on videotapes. Infants were described as either full-term or premature and as either male or female. Infants labeled premature were rated more negatively than those labeled full-term, but infants labeled male and female were rated…

  17. Histological Chorioamnionitis: Effects on Premature Delivery and Neonatal Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Erdemir

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis not only causes premature deliveries, but is also associated with neonatal complications and increased mortality. Clinical findings and infectious markers in mother or infant do not predict the diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis. Therefore, placental histopathology may have a role in predicting neonatal outcome in premature deliveries, especially those below 30 weeks.

  18. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  19. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  20. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite

  1. Bartter syndrome: presentation in an extremely premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F X; Ojeda, F J; Calhoun, D A

    2013-08-01

    Reports of Bartter syndrome in premature neonates are rare. We describe the presentation and clinical course of a neonate born at 25.6 weeks estimated gestational age with polyuria, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria ,who was diagnosed with neonatal Bartter syndrome. The evaluation, diagnosis and management of neonatal Bartter syndrome in this premature neonate are discussed.

  2. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  3. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  4. Adequacy of published screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, Deepa A; Oh, Dickson D-S; Keane, Miriam C; Fabel, Helen; Marshall, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Criteria for screening preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity vary around the world. We aimed to analyse the efficacy of alternative screening criteria. We collected retrospective data at a tertiary level neonatal nursery. Our participants were 1007 babies, born between 1997 and 2011, at prematurity. We determined whether disease would be detected using an alternative Australian screening model (gestational age prematurity is our main outcome. Using several of the alternative criteria, two neonates with clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity, one of whom required laser treatment to preserve sight, would not have been screened, and their disease may have gone undetected. Use of prematurity may risk clinically significant cases being missed and others may screen babies unnecessarily. Alternative criteria should be considered and '<30 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birth weight' appears a viable option. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  6. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Schuster, A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  7. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  8. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Kritická místa na lokalitě Čistá, Důl Jeroným

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukutsch, Radovan; Žůrek, P.; Kořínek, R.; Augustin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-30 ISSN 1803-1447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Jeroným Mine in Čistá * critical places * geomechanical monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure www.caag.cz

  10. Proceedings of the NATO IST-128 Workshop: Assessing Mission Impact of Cyberattacks Held in Istanbul, Turkey on 15-17 June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    the NATO IST-128 Workshop: Assessing Mission Impact of Cyberattacks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...2001. [7] John Surdu, Kevin Kittka, “The Deep Green Concept,” Spring Simulation Multiconference, 2008. [8] Lieutenant General Edward Cardon

  11. Sildenafil and retinopathy of prematurity risk in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; J.N. van den Anker (John); M. Laughon (Matthew); R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; C.P. Hornik

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the effect of sildenafil therapy on development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring surgical intervention in premature infants. Study Design: We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care

  12. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  13. HEARING FUNCTION IN PREMATURE CHILDREN WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rakhmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial audiological test was performed in 136 premature children with various gestational age born from single fetation. The children were divided into 2 groups: prematures with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and prematures with normal weight for their gestational age (normotrophy. The study showed that the rate of passing the initial audiological test using the method of DPOAE was lower in both ears in children with IUGR, than in children with normotrophy. The correlation between the results of initial audiological test and birth weight was found: the lower was weight, the higher was risk of absence of acoustic response registration on initial examination.

  14. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners...... in early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  15. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery

  17. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  18. Control practices contribute to premature transformer failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  20. Apnea of prematurity--perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Juliann M; Martin, Richard J; Gauda, Estelle B

    2013-11-01

    With increased survival of preterm infants as young as 23 weeks gestation, maintaining adequate respiration and corresponding oxygenation represents a clinical challenge in this unique patient cohort. Respiratory instability characterized by apnea and periodic breathing occurs in premature infants because of immature development of the respiratory network. While short respiratory pauses and apnea may be of minimal consequence if oxygenation is maintained, they can be problematic if accompanied by chronic intermittent hypoxemia. Underdevelopment of the lung and the resultant lung injury that occurs in this population concurrent with respiratory instability creates the perfect storm leading to frequent episodes of profound and recurrent hypoxemia. Chronic intermittent hypoxemia contributes to the immediate and long term co-morbidities that occur in this population. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology leading to the perfect storm, diagnostic assessment of breathing instability in this unique population and therapeutic interventions that aim to stabilize breathing without contributing to tissue injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  2. Oral Dextrose for Pain Management during Laser Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity under Topical Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Manisha; Narang, Subina; Chawla, Deepak; Sood, Sunandan; Gupta, Parul Chawla

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate efficacy of oral dextrose, in addition to topical anesthesia in providing pain relief during laser ablation therapy of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this randomized controlled trial, neonates with type 1 ROP undergoing laser ablation of peripheral retina were randomized to receive or not to receive 2 ml of 25 % dextrose orally just before the laser therapy. In both the groups, topical anesthesia was provided by instilling paracaine eye drops twice at 10 min interval just before the laser treatment. Main outcome was Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) recorded before and 30 s after starting the laser treatment. Birth weight, gestation, stage and extent of ROP and other baseline variables were comparable among neonates randomized to dextrose (n = 12) or control (n = 12) groups. Both groups required comparable number of laser spots. PIPP scores was comparable in neonates randomized to dextrose or control groups and indicated significant amount of pain felt during laser ablation despite local anesthesia with or without oral dextrose. Single dose of oral dextrose did not significantly reduce pain during laser treatment in premature neonates. Further studies with multiple doses of dextrose and its combination with other non-pharmacological (e.g., behavioral, physical) interventions may be needed.

  3. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and premature birth, including: Connective tissue disorders, like Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (also called EDS) and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (also called vEDS). Connective tissue is tissue that ...

  4. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  5. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  6. Prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine levels and the premature infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-16

    Apr 16, 1983 ... and the premature infant ... values in cord and maternal plasma to fetal age and weight and to the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was .... thyroxine and prolactin values with an increase in weight has also.

  7. [Family participation in premature care in neonatal ICU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the family participation in the premature assistance in a university hospital neonatal ICU. Data were collected from the participant observation. Results showed that despite of the mother's presence in the daily life of their premature children placed in a hospital, family isn't inserted in the work process and mothers are the only ones who take part of the cares. This participation basically happens in the execution of maternity care, especially at the medium risk unity, the mother and premature family are less welcomed and there isn't any partnership between the care team and the family, there aren't team interventions in order to turn premature family in autonomous subject to promote health and life quality to baby's life.

  8. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is predominantly seen in premature infants and is the leading .... Because neonates are often intolerant to large enteral volumes, the ... of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics. 2005 ...

  9. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Fernandes RIBEIRO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively.

  10. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Trivli, Alexandra; Polychronaki, Maria; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Papadimas, Michail; Patelarou, Athina E.; Dermitzaki, Niki; Matalliotakis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and f...

  11. Study on biological dosimetry of premature chromosome condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo

    2005-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)

  12. Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Stage 3+ Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540

  13. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing

  14. Damage of fuel assembly premature changing in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudik, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Material balance, including energy recovery and nuclear fuel flow rate, under conditions of premature FA extraction from power reactor is considered. It is shown that in cases when before and after FA extraction reactor operates not under optimal conditions damage of FA premature changing is proportional to the first degree of fuel incomplete burning. If normal operating conditions of reactor or its operation after FA changing is optimal, the damage is proportional to the square of fuel incomplete burning

  15. Anemia of prematurity: time for a change in transfusion management?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite the use of a national transfusion guideline, we observed significant differences concerning the total amount of administered transfusions. A liberal transfusion strategy and a higher transfusion volu...

  16. Premature Growth Plate Closure in a Ballet Dancer en Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Selina

    2017-09-01

    A 13-year-old ballet dancer who had been dancing en pointe (on the tips of the toes) since 10 years presented to the clinic with a shortened right second toe. She had no previous history of pain or trauma. She was diagnosed with premature growth arrest of the second metatarsal head physes resulting in a shortened metatarsal. This is the first reported case of premature growth arrest in a ballet dancer as a result of dancing en pointe.

  17. Acute Associations Between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Elizebeth V. Issac; Sareena Gilvaz; Neetha B. George

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to Nove...

  19. [Disinfectants for the skin of premature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, G; Tuoto, M G

    2010-06-01

    Nosocomial infections are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections is based on strategies that aim to limit susceptibility to infections by enhancing host defences, interrupting trasmission of organisms by healthcare workers and by promoting the judicious use of antimicrobials. Strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infections include hand hygiene practices, prevention of central venous (cvc)-related bloodstream infections, judicious use of antimicrobials for therapy, enhancement of host defences, skin care and early enteral feeding with human milk. Major concerns about the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine are for the high risk of skin burns in extremely premature infants during the first days of life, when the skin is thin and not fully keratinesed. Aqueous chlorhexidine could be less irritant when used in very low birthweigth infants and thus could represent a good option. A recent prospective trial of adult patients showed similar effectiveness of alcoholic and aqueos solutions of chlorexidine. However, to date no study evaluated whether the aqueos formulation is less harmful and as effective as the alcoholic formulation in neonatal infants. The lack of evidence for neonatal patients prompts urgent need for large randomised controlled trials comparing effectiveness and safety of different skin disinfectants before CVC placement in neonates and particulary in very low birth-weight infants. Nosocomial infections are still of the most serious problems for the neonatal intensive care unit. Therefore every effort must be implemented to reduce the incidence of these infections, can not be considered a toll required hospitalization, as it may not be acceptable for a place of shelter and care as the hospital may itself be a source of disease.

  20. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  1. Ist Pragmatik schwer!

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    Dieser Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, in welchen Hinsichten für das Deutsche die Annahme einer Kategorie "Exklamativ-Satz" gerechtfertigt werden kann. Verschiedene grammatische und pragmatische Indizien sprechen dafür, dass die "Exklamativ-Interpretation" das Produkt heterogener grammatischer und pragmatischer Prozesse darstellt, welche nicht auf eine bestimmte Sprachbeschreibungsebene fixiert werden können. Peer Reviewed

  2. IST and METIL Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    Research Disciplines  Partners/Sponsors  Markets Impacted  Select Projects  Future Goals and Needs 3 •Orlando, FL • 3rd largest University in U.S...ARMY AIR FORCE MARINE CORPS NAVY SAIC UNIVERSITY High School Simulation and Training Technology Center (STTC) INVIVO RESEARC H INC. Joint

  3. Kirjandusklubis Banville'ist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    20. veebruaril toimub Apollo Raamatumaja Apollo Kirjandusklubi kogunemine, vesteldakse John Banville'i romaanidest "Meri" ja "Puutumatu". Vt. ka Eesti Päevaleht : Arkaadia : [kirjanduslisa], 17. veebr., lk. 2

  4. IST for KPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.

    1993-01-01

    The cauchy problem of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili I (KPI) equation (u t + 6uu x + u xxx ) x = 3u xx can be solved by the inverse scattering method with the following Lax pair iψ y + ψ xx + uψ = 0, ψ t + 4ψ xxx + 6uψ x + 3(u x - i/2∂ -1 x u y )ψ = 0. This problem has been formally solved by Zakharov and Manakov, Fokas and Ablowitz, and Boiti, Leon and Pempinelli. The work of Zakharov and Manakov contains important ideas such as triangular factorizations and the positivity of the scattering operators. The work of Fokas and Ablowitz includes the lump solutions into the inverse scattering scheme. The work of Boiti, Leon and Pempinelli derives systematically the relations among different scattering operators. Ablowitz and Fokas also pointed out recently that the operator ∂ -1 x should have the symmetric form 1/2 ∫ x ∞ -1/2 ∫ ∞ x . The author summarizes this work and other work on the inverse scattering transform for the KPI equation

  5. Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Altered Gluconeogenic Pathway in Premature Baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill-Vargas, Lisa; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Liang, Hanyu; Anzueto Guerra, Diana; Johnson-Pais, Teresa; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph; Musi, Nicolas; Blanco, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extrauterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content, and gene expression of key insulin-signaling/gluconeogenic molecules. Fetal baboons were delivered at 67%, 75%, and term gestational age and euthanized at birth. Neonatal baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation), survived for two weeks, and compared with similar postnatal term animals and underwent serial hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Premature baboons had decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) compared with term animals. Consistent with these results, the gluconeogenic molecule, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA, was decreased in preterm baboons compared with terms. Hepatic insulin signaling was altered by preterm birth as evidenced by decreased insulin receptor-β, p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, and Akt-1 under insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, preterm baboons failed to have the normal increase in glycogen synthase kinase-α from fetal to postnatal life. The blunted responses in hepatic insulin signaling may contribute to the hyperglycemia of prematurity, while impaired EGP leads to hypoglycemia of prematurity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  7. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  8. [Macronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (Pmacronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants vary significantly between colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Protein levels are significantly higher in colostrum from premature infants' mothers than in colostrum from term infants' mothers, but the significant difference is not seen for mature milk. Macronutrient and energy levels show significant differences between milk samples from mothers of premature infants with different gestational ages, so as to meet different needs of premature infants.

  9. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Kein Mensch ist ein Ich-Land [No man is an island]. The metaphorof an island in reflections on friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Roszak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In her essay, the author recalls literary contexts (including John Donne, Michel Houellebecq and Ernest Hemingway and philosophical and anthropological contexts (including Aristotle, Thomas Merton, Maurice Blanchot, Jean-Paul Sartre and Gilles Deleuze presenting the poetic “I’s” various ways of approaching friendship. The quotation from a German translation of John Donne’s poem used in the title of the article is in itself a meaningful phonetic wordplay: “Kein Mensch ist ein Ich-Land” (no man is an “I” land, no man is an island. The main part of the essay includes an interpretation of the television series Lost — Joanna Roszak investigates philosophical references in the series and indicates biblical contexts (“Am I my brother’s keeper?”. A very apt comment to many episodes in the series is, according to the author, the formula told by Z. Herbert’s Fortinbras: Ani nam witać się ani żegnać żyjemy na archipelagach/ A ta woda te słowa cóż mogą cóż mogą” [It is not for us to greet each other or bid farewell we live on archipelagos/ and that water these words what can they do what can they do prince]. It is a similar defencelessness in which the main characters of Lost try to struggle the reality, even if they live together, and die all alone. Collective memory has become a safeguard for the community in the world, which is to be destined for homelessness and forlornness. The other person though becomes a reference point — it is him or her that makes it possible to find the way home.

  11. Ecological construction methods are energy saving construction methods - experiences with the low-energy standard; Oekologisches Bauen ist energiesparendes Bauen - Erfahrungen mit dem Niedrigenergiestandard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, W. [Inst. Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Efficient energy utilisation (intelligent energy saving techniques) is characterised by the following features. When realised in new buildings using currently available techniques it can help save up to 90% of what has hitherto been considered normal energy consumption. It becomes economically efficient for reductions in energy consumption of 50% or more. In terms of cost it outcompetes all non-fossil energy carriers (i.e., excluding oil, natural gas, and coal) of the future. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Die rationelle Energienutzung (`intelligente Einspartechnik`) - kann mit heute verfuegbarer Technik beim Neubau bis ca. 90% der bisher verwendeten Energie einsparen helfen; - ist bei Energieeinsparungen von ueber 50% bereits heute wirtschaftlich vertretbar; - ist gegenueber allen Zukunftsenergietraegern, die nicht auf fossilen Brennstoffen (also Oel, Erdgas und Kohle) basieren, konkurrenzlos kostenguenstig. (orig./HW)

  12. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  13. Amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2011-12-07

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims to restore amniotic fluid volume by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for PPROM on perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with PPROM. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials but we only analysed data from four studies (with a total of 241 participants). One trial did not contribute any data to the review.Transcervical amnioinfusion improved fetal umbilical artery pH at delivery (mean difference 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.14; one trial, 61 participants) and reduced persistent variable decelerations during labour (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91; one trial, 86 participants).Transabdominal amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in neonatal death (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.66; two trials, 94 participants), neonatal sepsis (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; one trial, 60 participants), pulmonary hypoplasia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88; one trial, 34 participants) and puerperal sepsis (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; one trial, 60 participants). Women in the amnioinfusion group were also less likely to deliver within seven days of membrane rupture (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.70; one trial, 34 participants). These results should be treated with circumspection as the positive findings were mainly due to one trial with unclear allocation concealment. These results are encouraging but are limited by the sparse data and unclear methodological robustness, therefore further evidence is required before amnioinfusion for

  14. [Evaluation of maternal parameters as risk factors for premature birth (individual and combined effects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, M; Briese, V; Pietzner, V; Kirchengast, S; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S; Jorch, G

    2009-08-01

    We aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of nine maternal parameters (biological, medical, and social) on rates of prematurity. Our objective was to provide obstetricians with a way of screening women for likely premature deliveries. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the data of about 2.3 million pregnancies taken from the German perinatal statistics of 1995-2000. Rates of prematurity were calculated with single and multi-dimensional analyses on the basis of nine maternal parameters (age, weight, height, number of previous live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations of pregnancy, smoking status, previous premature delivery). The following combinations of parameters were investigated in particular: rates of prematurity according to the number of previous stillbirths, miscarriages, and terminations; rates of prematurity according to the number of previous live births and maternal age, height and weight. We also included daily cigarette consumption and previous premature deliveries in our analyses. The rate of prematurity (premature deliveries (32-36 weeks) was 5.9%, and the rate of very early premature deliveries (prematurity (prematurity of 27.5% in women with the following combination of parameters: > or =1 stillbirth, > or =2 terminations of pregnancy and > or =2 miscarriages. A rather high risk of premature delivery (>11%) was also found for elderly (> or =40 years) grand multiparous women as well as small (premature deliveries (>10%). The risk table that we present here may assist in predicting premature delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  15. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  16. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  17. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  18. Transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Alberto; Tirado, Pilar; Pérez, Isabel; López, María S; Montoya, Francisco; Cañizares, José M; Miranda, José A

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the effect of transcervical amnioinfusion on the management of labour and neonatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of the membranes. This clinical trial included 86 patients with premature rupture of the membranes between weeks 27 and 35 of gestation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amnioinfusion via a two-way catheter or to the control group. Clinical management was otherwise the same in both groups. Amnioinfusion decreased the frequency of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate (27.9% versus 53.5%, pamnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes reduced the number of interventions needed because of nonreassuring fetal status, and improved neonatal gasometric values without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity.

  19. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements

  20. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  2. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  3. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  4. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  5. DNA-Related Pathways Defective in Human Premature Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major issues in studies on aging is the choice of biological model system. The human premature aging disorders represent excellent model systems for the study of the normal aging process, which occurs at a much earlier stage in life in these individuals than in normals. The patients with premature aging also get the age associated diseases at an early stage in life, and thus age associated disease can be studied as well. It is thus of great interest to understand the molecular path...

  6. Immunology of Addison's disease and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease and autoimmune ovarian insufficiency are caused by selective targeting by T and B lymphocytes to the steroidogenic apparatus in these organs. Autoantibodies toward 21-hydroxylase are a clinically useful marker for autoimmune Addison's disease. Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase are found in premature ovarian insufficiency, but others also can be present, notably antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme. The autoimmune response primarily targets the theca cells, yielding elevated concentrations of inhibin, which is emerging as a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune etiology of ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about its immunogenetics, but in contrast to Addison's disease, several experimental models of autoimmune premature ovarian insufficiency are available for study.

  7. The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis Among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis have contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among infants. Invasive candidiasis typically occurs in the first six weeks of life and presents with non-specific signs of sepsis. Definitive diagnosis relies on growth of Candida in blood culture or cultures from other normally sterile sites, but this may identify fewer than half of cases. Improved diagnostics are needed to guide initiation of antifungal therapy in premature infants. PMID:25677999

  8. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  9. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  10. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  11. Radiation-induced life-shortening and premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Data from a number of studies on irradiated laboratory animals showed that almost none of the characteristic lesions associated with senescence that were studied adequately reflects a radiation effect analogous to premature aging. In fact, most of the age-related changes showed no effect of radiation at all, and many of those that did (for example, graying of hair, sterility, cataract formation) did not appear to be due to similar mechanisms. It is concluded that, in the light of more recent information, the hypothesis of radiation-induced premature aging requires reassessment. (80 references) (CH)

  12. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karat, C; Madhivanan, P; Krupp, K; Poornima, S; Jayanthi, N V; Suguna, J S; Mathai, E

    2006-10-01

    Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  13. Postnatal Infections and Immunology Affecting Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhuber, Gloria S

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants suffer significant respiratory morbidity during infancy with long-term negative consequences on health, quality of life, and health care costs. Enhanced susceptibility to a variety of infections and inflammation play a large role in early and prolonged lung disease following premature birth, although the mechanisms of susceptibility and immune dysregulation are active areas of research. This article reviews aspects of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses that are altered by preterm birth and that impact chronic respiratory morbidity in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: an epidemic in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Graham E; Gilbert, Clare; Darlow, Brian A; Zin, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth". We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies. Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however, there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution. ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be placed on developing approaches to prevent ROP

  15. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Social Supports Among Parents of Premature and Full-Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Premature birth is one of the most important unresolved reproductive health problems. Premature birth is often traumatic and a source of distress for parents. Increased parental stress during the first year of their infant's life is a risk factor for later behavioral problems in infants. Objectives: This study was designed to compare anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and social supports in parents of premature and mature infants. Patients and Methods: This was a comparative descriptive study conducted at healthcare centers of Qom city, in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 parents) divided into two groups including parents who have preterm and term infants. Questionnaires including items such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and post-traumatic stress disorders, Spielberger anxiety and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed two months after childbirth. Data were analyzed using χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, independent t-test, and regression logistic using SPSS18 software. Results: The levels of anxiety was not significantly different in mothers and fathers in the two groups, but the trait anxiety level of mothers (P Post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly greater in mothers of preterm infants than those of term infants (P = 0.03), but this amount was not significantly different between the two groups of fathers. Mothers' social support did not differ significantly (P = 0.08), however, it was significantly different in fathers (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Premature infants' parents are more at risk of mental disorders than term infants' parents. This result shows the need of interventions, so these parents can better deal with the problems of premature infants. PMID:24829766

  17. Effects of stress and social support on mothers and premature and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnic, K A; Greenberg, M T; Ragozin, A S; Robinson, N M; Basham, R B

    1983-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of stress and social support to maternal attitudes and early mother-infant interactive behavior. 52 mother-premature infant pairs and 53 mother-full-term infant pairs were seen for structured home interviews at 1 month, and behavioral interactions at 4 months. Maternal life stress, social support, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with parenting were assessed at the 1-month home visit. Although no group differences were found, both stress and support significantly predicted maternal attitudes at 1 month and interactive behavior at 4 months when data were pooled. Mothers with greater stress were less positive in their attitudes and behavior, while mothers with greater support were significantly more positive. Intimate support proved to have the most general positive effects. Additionally, social support moderated the adverse effects of stress on mother's life satisfaction and on several behavioral variables. Maternal social support was further found to have several significant effects on infant interactive behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the ecological significance of social support to parenting and infants' early development.

  18. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  19. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  20. Autolytic activity of human calpain 7 is enhanced by ESCRT-III-related protein IST1 through MIT-MIM interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Yohei; Maemoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Ryohei; Suzuki, Hironori; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2010-11-01

    Calpain 7, a mammalian ortholog of yeast Cpl1/Rim13 and fungal PalB, is an atypical calpain that lacks a penta-EF-hand domain. Previously, we reported that a region containing a tandem repeat of microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domains in calpain 7 interacts with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-related proteins, suggesting involvement of calpain 7 in the ESCRT system. Although yeast and fungal calpains are thought to be involved in alkaline adaptation via limited proteolysis of specific transcription factors, proteolytic activity of calpain 7 has not been demonstrated yet. In this study, we investigated the interaction between calpain 7 and a newly reported ESCRT-III family member, increased sodium tolerance-1 (IST1), which possesses two different types of MIT-interacting motifs (MIM1 and MIM2). We found that glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused tandem MIT domains of calpain 7 (calpain 7MIT) pulled down FLAG-tagged IST1 expressed in HEK293T cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assays with various deletion or point mutants of epitope-tagged calpain 7 and IST1 revealed that both repetitive MIT domains and MIMs are required for efficient interaction. Direct MIT-MIM binding was confirmed by a pulldown experiment with GST-fused IST1 MIM and purified recombinant calpain 7MIT. Furthermore, we found that the GST-MIM protein enhances the autolysis of purified Strep-tagged monomeric green fluorescent protein (mGFP)-fused calpain 7 (mGFP-calpain 7-Strep). The autolysis was almost completely abolished by 10 mmN-ethylmaleimide but only partially inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin or E-64. The putative catalytic Cys290-substituted mutant (mGFP-calpain 7(C290S)-Strep) showed no autolytic activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that human calpain 7 is proteolytically active, and imply that calpain 7 is activated in the ESCRT system. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  1. Evaluation of premature failure of a gas turbine component

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dedekind, MO

    1996-01-03

    Full Text Available A case study of certain gas turbine stator vanes which fail prematurely is presented, with a view to determining whether operational procedure might have caused the failures. The engines had been operated from a ‘hot-and-high’ environment...

  2. Resting-state functional connectivity differences in premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Damaraju

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and preterm children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: 1 increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01 – 0.06 Hz for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and 2 stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth.

  3. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the maternal outcomes of immediate induction of labor with expectant management in women presenting with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term. Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were randomized into either immediate induction of labor with oxytocin or ...

  4. Management of premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the optimal way to manage patients with premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks' gestation. Design. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing immediate induction and delayed induction after 24 • 48 hours. Setting. Tygerberg Hospital, Gape Town. Participants. Seventy ...

  5. Mothers' perceptions of their premature infant's communication: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michelle Pascoe

    through semi-structured interviews. ... helping their infants to communicate through physical contact and talking. ... They face the stress of their baby being placed in the ... premature infants to be more vulnerable when compared to ... The study used a qualitative approach to investigate the na- ... detailed notes were made.

  6. Neurological consequences of systemic inflammation in the premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aparna; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis. Underlying mechanisms may include cytokine mediated processes without direct entry of pathogens into the brain, developmental differences in immune response and complex neurovascular barrier system that play a critical role in regulating the cerebral response to various systemic inflammatory insults in premature infants. Understanding of these pathologic mechanisms and clinical correlates of such injury based on serum biomarkers or brain imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging will pave way for future research and translational therapeutic opportunities for the developing brain.

  7. Neurological consequences of systemic inflammation in the premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis. Underlying mechanisms may include cytokine mediated processes without direct entry of pathogens into the brain, developmental differences in immune response and complex neurovascular barrier system that play a critical role in regulating the cerebral response to various systemic inflammatory insults in premature infants. Understanding of these pathologic mechanisms and clinical correlates of such injury based on serum biomarkers or brain imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging will pave way for future research and translational therapeutic opportunities for the developing brain.

  8. Feeding premature neonates: Kinship and species in translational neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Juhl, Sandra M; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2017-04-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors. In the laboratory, piglets and researchers form 'interspecies-milk-kinships' that entail the intimate care crucial to keeping the compromised piglets alive during the experiments, thereby enhancing what the researchers refer to as the 'translatability' of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the 'species flexibility' of premature beings profoundly shapes the translational processes in the field of neonatology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight above 1500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify the rate and prognosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among newborn infants of birthweight of above 1500 grams, and the possible risk factors associated with the disease. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Neonatal unit at Maternity Hospital, Kuwait city, Kuwait. Methods: All low birth ...

  10. Bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP in the developing world. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a growing problem in South. Africa (SA), as it is in many parts of the developing world. The so-called 'third epidemic' of ROP is caused by a combination of high preterm birth rates, relatively good infant survival and inadequate oxygen monitoring in neonatal ...

  11. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a provincial hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging public health problem in many middle-income countries where improved neonatal survival rates coupled with inadequate health resources have created a new epidemic. There are limited available data on the magnitude of the problem, and screening in South ...

  12. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  13. On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...

  14. The progress of prophylactic treatment in retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Kun; Li, Xiao-Gang

    2018-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disorder frequently found in premature infants. Different therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat ROP. However, there are still many children with ROP suffering by severe limitations in vision or even blindness. Recently, ROP has been suggested to be caused by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature, but not simply resulted by retinal neovascularization which takes about 4 to 6wk after birth in premature infants. Thus, instead of focusing on how to reduce retinal neovascularization, understanding the pathological changes and mechanisms that occur prior to retinal neovascularization is meaningful, which may lead to identify novel target(s) for the development of novel strategy to promote the healthy growth of retinal blood vessels rather than passively waiting for the appearance of retinal neovascularization and removing it by force. In this review, we discussed recent studies about, 1) the pathogenesis prior to retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR; a ROP in animal model) and in premature infants with ROP; 2) the preclinical and clinical research on preventive treatment of early OIR and ROP. We will not only highlight the importance of the mechanisms and signalling pathways in regulating early stage of ROP but also will provide guidance for actively exploring novel mechanisms and discovering novel treatments for early phase OIR and ROP prior to retinal neovascularization in the future. PMID:29862189

  15. Congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, LM; Fleer, A; de Vries, LS; Gerards, LJ

    2004-01-01

    A case of congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) with fatal outcome in a premature infant is reported. An intrauterine infection with Staphylococcus aureus was probably the cause for the fulminant course of the disease. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the infant died within 24

  16. Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart

    Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is

  17. Evaluation by computed tomography in premature and newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckein, D.

    1981-01-01

    By means of cranio-cerebral computed tomography hypoxic brain damage of varying degrees and different types may be demonstrated in premature infants and high-risk newborns. Paraventricular leucomalacia of varying extent up to porencephalic defects are found, as well as cortical infarctions, hemorrhage into brain tissue or ventricles, cerebral atrophy, developing hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies. (orig.) [de

  18. Apnoea of prematurity – discontinuation of methylxanthines in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Methylxanthines such as caffeine have been proven to reduce apnoea of prematurity and are often discontinued at 35 weeks' corrected gestational age (GA). Objective. To ascertain whether a caffeine protocol based on international guidelines is applicable in our setting, where GA is often uncertain. Methods.

  19. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leaving hospital care prematurely could threaten the healthy survival of and expose children to a risk of harmful alternatives. It is also a concern and a challenge to healthcare providers and the health system. A better understanding of its characteristic could help mitigate the impact on children. Objective: To ...

  20. Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes be treated with antibiotics? AP Macdonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ogf.v19i2.43719 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  1. The use of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes - A multicentre, double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomised trial. R.C. Pattinson, J.D. Makin, M. Funk, S.D. Delport, A.P. Macdonald, K. Norman, G. Kirsten, C. Stewart, D. Woods, G. Moller, E. Coetzee, P. Smith, J. Anthony, M. Schoon, ...

  2. Bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a growing problem in South. Africa (SA), as it is .... detected in the serum of both infants and adults after intraocular injection,[7] ... use of anti-VEGF agents to treat macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy ...

  3. Postnatal corticosteroids and risk of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z; Spitzer, Alan R; Gewolb, Ira H

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the association between postnatal steroids and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonates born with birth weights at the limit of viability (large study cohort of critically low birth weight infants ROP was more common in neonates exposed to postnatal steroids. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma in a premature neonate: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... We report a case of CMN in a 30 week old premature female neonate seen at autopsy who was born ... is very good and in most cases, surgery alone may effect a .... CMN with intratumoral hemorrhage and all cases with large.

  5. Premature atherosclerosis after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sadurska

    2018-03-01

    Survivors of childhood ALL in the examined group demonstrated elevated concentrations of selected new biomarkers and increased IMT values, compared to controls, which may confirm the occurrence of endothelial injuries in blood vessels. This study indicates that subjects treated for childhood malignancy are at a higher risk of prematurely developing atherosclerosis.

  6. [Initial results of the Erfurt Prevention of Prematurity Campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, U B; Grosch, A; Roemer, V M; Saling, E

    1998-01-01

    Genital infection particularly bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases the relative risk of prematurity. Detection of disturbances of vaginal milieu at an early stage and the use of suitable countermeasures such as intervention with antimicrobial substances, e.g. clindamycin, can reduce the preterm birth rate, provided the diagnosis is made early enough. Since October 1996 pregnant women being given prenatal care in 16 of the 29 outpatient offices in Erfurt, have been informed about the Prematurity Prevention Programme and have been offered to take part and to perform self-measurements of their vaginal pH twice a week in order to screen for any disturbances in the vaginal milieu. Special CarePlan-VpH gloves (Selfcare, Oberhaching) were used to identify patients a risk (pH > 4.7). The pregnant women taking part in the programme were instructed to see their physician immediately, if abnormal values were present, in order to get them confirmed and to start lactobacillus acidophilus therapy (Gynoflor, Nourypharma, Oberschleissheim) or, in case of BV, to treat with clindamycin cream (Sobelin, Upjohn, Erlangen) i.vag. Patients being given prenatal care in the 13 outpatient offices not participating and other pregnant women in Erfurt who were not interested in the programme served as control group. Up to now 59 out of 314 women in the intervention group have been identified as risk cases (p > or = 4.7). 52 of them were treated with a lactobacillus preparation, and 19 additionally with clindamycin cream, 3 patients refused to have any therapy. In this ongoing study the prematurity rate was 8.3% in the self-measurement/intervention group vs. 13.0% in the control group (n = 1,842); 0.3% vs. 3.3% of the neonates belonged to the group of very early prematures with a gestational age of < 32 + 0 weeks (p < 0.01). PROM was registered in 22.3% vs. 32.1% (p < 0.001) respectively. Self-measurement of vaginal pH at close intervals, as recommended by Saling, leads to the early

  7. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  8. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological study of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Sancti Spíritus. 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive correlational study with a longitudinal projection was made in the Intensive Perinatal Cares Unit in “Camilo Cienfuegos” Hospital in Sancti Spíritus, including 524 premature children as population, according to the inclusion criteria, from January 2005 to December 2010. The objective was a clinical and epidemiological characterization of retinopathy of prematurity as a preventable cause of blindness in the province. The behavior of the illness was described taking into account social and demographic variables, also risk factors to develop the entity and the treatment applied. The sample was composed by 58 patients and the collector instrument was a validated test. There were 16 children who needed laser treatment. The main risk factors were low gestational age, extreme low weight, low apgar and the use of surfactants. The prevalence rate was statistically relevant and increased annually, giving relevance to the illness as a health problem causing preventable blindness in Sancti Spíritus Province.

  10. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  11. FOETOMATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOME OF PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumam Vilangot Nhalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane is defined as rupture of foetal membrane before onset of labour at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Incidence of PPROM is around 3-10% of all deliveries. Primary complication for mother is infection and for foetus and neonate is prematurity, foetal distress, cord compression, deformation, pulmonary hypoplasia, necrotising enterocolitis and neurologic disorders. Most likely outcome is preterm delivery within 1 week. The aim of the study is to study the foetomaternal and neonatal outcome in PPROM patients and the common prevalent organism in PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cohort study of pregnant women from 24-37 weeks with PPROM admitted to IMCH for a period of 1 year, January 2016 to December 2016. 100 patients with PPROM were taken up for the study. The data was collected using the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria are gestational age 24-37 weeks confirmed by dates, clinical examination and ultrasound with lack of uterine contractions for at least 1 hour from PPROM; single live pregnancy in vertex presentation; PPROM confirmed by direct visualisation, neonates admitted in NICU soon after delivery. RESULTS 49% of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes were from 18-24 years.68% of patients had a latency period of 3 weeks.15% of patients had maternal tachycardia, 4% had tenderness of uterus and 4% had leucocytosis and 14% had an elevated CRP. Thus, clinical chorioamnionitis was seen in 14% of patients, 38% of babies born had prematurity and 2% had sepsis and 19% had respiratory distress syndrome and hyperbilirubinaemia, 2% had perinatal asphyxia, 2% had anomalies, 1% had necrotising enterocolitis and 5% were NND. Common organisms were normal flora, E. coli, Streptococci and Enterococci. CONCLUSION PPROM increases the incidence of maternal morbidity with longer hospital stay due to chorioamnionitis. Neonatal morbidity is increased due to

  12. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. Aim. To provide a definition for lifelong premature

  13. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...

  14. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Dinlen, Nurdan Fettah; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Beken, Serdar; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2017-11-01

    Aim To evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 25 (OH) D, levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Methods and Results Serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured in 97 very low birth weight infants, prior to vitamin D supplementation. The development of retinopathy of prematurity and its treatment requirement were evaluated. At follow-up, retinopathy of prematurity developed in 71 (73.2%) infants. Serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in infants with retinopathy of prematurity than ones without retinopathy of prematurity ( P prematurity development [OR: 1.14, 95% CI (1.02-1.27), P = 0.02]. Conclusion Lower 25 (OH) D levels in the first days of life may be related to retinopathy of prematurity development and treatment requirement in premature infants.

  15. An evaluation of the screening for retinopathy of prematurity in very ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal risk factor was the supply of unmonitored ... of blindness from untreated ROP is likely to increase. It was first ... premature babies at risk of ROP, treating those premature babies .... Stage 5: complete retinal detachment. Extent.

  16. Thyroid-stimulating hormone assessments in a Dutch cohort of 620 men with lifelong premature ejaculation without erectile dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Apart from the involvement of central serotonergic neurotransmission on lifelong premature ejaculation, interference of thyroid function has been speculated. Aim. To study thyroid function in a large group of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Methods. Lifelong premature

  17. [Premature labour with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes: maternal, obstetric and neonatal features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Ana Maria Simões; Domingues, Ana Patrícia Rodrigues; Fonseca, Etelvina Morais Ferreira; Miranda, Teresa Maria Antunes; Belo, Adriana; Moura, José Paulo Achando Silva

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of maternal, obstetrics e neonatal features in both spontaneous preterm births (PTB) with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Retrospective study of single fetus pregnancies with PTB between 2003 and 2012. PTB associated with ou without PPROM. Exclusion criterias: PTB by medical indication due to fetal/maternal disease and all non accessible or incomplete clinical files. Different characteristics were compared between two groups of PTB: spontaneous PTB without PPROM (sPTB) versusPPROM. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene, χ2, t Student and Mann-Withney tests were used for statistical analysis. From 2,393 PTB of single fetus, 1,432 files were analysed, from which 596 were sPTB and 836 PPROM. The socioeconomic conditions were similar in both groups. Multiparity (50.7 versus 40.3%), personal history of previous PTB (20.8 versus10.2%), cervical length (18.2 versus27.2 mm), lower body index mass (23.4 versus 24.3 kg/m2) and higher infectious parameters (Protein C Reactive: 2.2 versus1.2 mg/L; Leukocytes: 13.3 versus 12.4 x109) were more frequent in PBTs (p<0,001). Neonatal outcomes, specially neurologic outcomes (4.7 versus2.8%, p<0,001), were worst in PBTs. PTB with or without PPROM has a complex etiology. From all evaluated features in our study, only maternal thinness, multiparity with a previous PTB, the cervical length and worst systemic infections parameters were significant in sPTB. This group also showed worst neonatal outcomes, specially on neurological outcomes.

  18. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p attachment behaviors.

  19. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  20. Prematurity and fetal lung response after tracheal occlusion in fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananes, Nicolas; Rodo, Carlota; Peiro, Jose Luis; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Favre, Romain; Joal, Arnaud; Gaudineau, Adrien; Silva, Marcos Marques da; Tannuri, Uenis; Zugaib, Marcelo; Carreras, Elena; Ruano, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the independent association of fetal pulmonary response and prematurity to postnatal outcomes after fetal tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal pulmonary response, prematurity (prematurity (prematurity was not statistically associated with mortality after controlling for fetal pulmonary response (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.12-2.30, p=0.367). Fetal pulmonary response after FETO is the most important factor associated with survival, independently from the gestational age at delivery.

  1. „lauter Erfahrungs-Sachen“ – Gerhard Tersteegens Lied „Gott ist gegenwärtig“ – Bedeutung und Rezeption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Nientiedt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymnology and hymnal studies are working interdisciplinary: History, linguistics, literary science and theology, especially the liturgical perspective, are being brought together and can provide valuable insight to social history and the history of mentality. Unfortunately this potential is rarely seen or acted upon. This paper on Tersteegens song Gott ist gegenwärtig gives an example of the possibilities of hymnology and hymnal studies. It also evinces Tersteegens interdenominational importance as a mystic. In the course of this enquiry terms like ‘pietism’ and ‘mysticism’ are outlined and set into the context of the Enlightment and the history of hymnals. Following this line of thought, it is to be ascertained how suitable the categories ‘pietist’ and ‘mystic’ are to describe Tersteegen and how important singing was to him personally. In the final analysis possible interpretations of Tersteegens song Gott ist gegenwärtig are brought to attention and the reception of his work in several hymn books is illustrated. The history of reception draws from the stock of the hymnal archive of the IAK Gesangbuchforschung.

  2. Electric power is not the same power. Why the energy transition can not succeed; Strom ist nicht gleich Strom. Warum die Energiewende nicht gelingen kann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limburg, Michael; Mueller, Fred F.

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition - the conversion of our power supply to so-called ''Renewable Energy'' - will lead to disaster, economically as well as technically. Although the concept is not technically feasible, more than 500 billion Euros were spent for this purpose already. This money our economy will miss bitterly when it is needed it to go, sweep up the future shambles. Here explain two recognized experts why. ''The book, 'electric power is not the same power' pulled himself together again on a colossal effort. It dissects technically brilliant with the tools of logic, scientific reasoning a fatal mental aberration.''- Arnold Vaatz MP. [German] Die Energiewende - die Umstellung unserer Stromversorgung auf sogenannte ''Erneuerbare Energien'' - wird in eine Katastrophe fuehren, wirtschaftlich ebenso wie technisch. Obwohl das Konzept technisch nicht machbar ist, wurden hierfuer bereits mehr als 500 Milliarden Euro ausgegeben. Dieses Geld wird unserer Volkswirtschaft bitter fehlen, wenn sie darangehen muss, den kuenftigen Scherbenhaufen zusammenzukehren. Hier erklaeren zwei ausgewiesene Fachleute, warum. ''Das Buch 'Strom ist nicht gleich Strom' rafft sich noch einmal zu einer ungeheuren Kraftanstrengung auf. Es seziert handwerklich brillant mit den Mitteln der logischen, naturwissenschaftlichen Argumentation einen fatalen geistigen Irrweg.'' - Arnold Vaatz MdB.

  3. The Mediterranean diet adherence by pregnant women delivering prematurely: association with size at birth and complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Agakidou, Eleni; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Diamanti, Elisavet

    2017-11-13

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its components. The aim was to investigate the potential association of MD adherence (MDA) during pregnancy by mothers delivering prematurely, with intrauterine growth as expressed by neonates' anthropometry at birth and complications of prematurity. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study of 82 women who delivered preterm singletons at post conceptional age (PCA) ≤ 34 weeks and their live-born neonates. Maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical data were recorded. All mothers filled in a food frequency questionnaire, and the MDA score was calculated. Based on 50th centile of MD score, participants were classified into high-MDA and low-MDA groups. The low-MDA mothers had significantly higher pregestational BMI and rates of overweight/obesity (odd ratios (OR) 3.5) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (OR 3.8). Neonates in the low-MDA group had significantly higher incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (OR 3.3) and lower z-scores of birth weight and BMI. Regarding prematurity-related complications, the low MDA-group was more likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.2, 1.3, and 1.6, respectively), while they were less likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.49), although the differences were not statistically significant. However, adjustment for confounders revealed MDA as a significant independent predictor of hypertension/preeclampsia, IUGR, birth weight z-score, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. High MDA during pregnancy may favorably affect intrauterine growth and certain acute and chronic complications of prematurity as well as maternal hypertension/preeclampsia.

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity in a cohort of neonates at Groote Schuur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable cause of visual impairment in premature ... and extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) premature infants from the West Metro ...... Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(5):645-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/.

  5. Being Small for Gestational Age: Does it Matter for the Neurodevelopment of Premature Infants? A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Bickle Graz

    Full Text Available Whether being small for gestational age (SGA increases the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants remains controversial.to study the impact of SGA (birthweight < percentile 10 on cognition, behavior, neurodevelopmental impairment and use of therapy at 5 years old.This population-based prospective cohort included infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Cognition was evaluated with the K-ABC, and behavior with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Primary outcomes were cognitive and behavioral scores, as well as neurodevelopmental impairment (cognitive score < 2SD, hearing loss, blindness, or cerebral palsy. The need of therapy, an indirect indicator of neurodevelopmental impairment, was a secondary outcome. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of SGA with neurodevelopment.342/515 (76% premature infants were assessed. SGA was significantly associated with hyperactivity scores of the SDQ (coefficient 0.81, p < 0.04, but not with cognitive scores, neurodevelopmental impairment or the need of therapy. Gestational age, socio-economic status, and major brain lesions were associated with cognitive outcome in the univariate and multivariate model, whereas asphyxia, sepsis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated in the univariate model only. Severe impairment was associated with fetal tobacco exposition, asphyxia, gestational age and major brain lesions. Different neonatal factors were associated with the use of single or multiple therapies: children with one therapy were more likely to have suffered birth asphyxia or necrotizing enterocolitis, whereas the need for several therapies was predicted by major brain lesions.In this large cohort of premature infants, assessed at 5 years old with a complete panel of tests, SGA was associated with hyperactive behavior, but not with cognition, neurodevelopmental impairment or use of therapy. Birthweight <10th percentile alone

  6. ADVANCES IN UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGEMENT OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The understanding, diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have changed in the last seventy years since the original description of retrolental fibroplasia associated with high oxygenation. It is now recognized that ROP differs in appearance world-wide and as ever smaller and younger premature infants survive. New methods are being evaluated to image the retina, diagnose severe ROP, and determine windows of time for treatment to save eyes and improve visual and neural outcomes. New treatments to promote physiologic retinal vascular development, vascular repair, and inhibit vasoproliferation by regulating proteins involved in vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, or erythropoietin signaling. Reducing excessive oxidative/nitrosative stress and understanding progenitor cells and neurovascular and glial vascular interactions are being studied. PMID:28012875

  7. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Baergen, Rebecca; Chasen, Stephen T

    2008-08-01

    To describe outcomes in twin pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Dichorionic twin pregnancies complicated by PPROM at premature rupture of membranes (PROM), latency from PROM to delivery, and infection were examined. In 49 twin pregnancies, the median gestational age at PROM was 31 weeks with a median latency between PROM and delivery of 0 days (interquartile range 0-6). Latency intervals of >or=2 and >or=7 days were achieved by 40.8% and 22.4%, respectively. PPROM at or= 2 days (70.6% vs. 25.0%) and >or=7 days (47.1% vs. 9.4%). There was a significant relationship between latency and clinical and histologic signs of infection. After 30 weeks, most twin pregnancies with PPROM delivered within 2 days. Infection appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of PPROM in most cases.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity - from recognition of risk factors to treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Reija; Vesti, Eija

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative retinal disorder diagnosed exclusively in prematurely born infants. In retinopathy of prematurity, growth of the retinal vasculature is disturbed, leading to hypoxia-induced pathological changes typical of retinopathy of prematurity, in the worst case resulting in retinal detachment. The most typical risk factors predisposing to the disease include hyperoxemia, low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and low birth weight in relation to weeks of pregnancy. Laser therapy of peripheral retina is the currently established form of treatment. Screening is applied in order to recognize the pathological changes in retinopathy of prematurity early enough.

  10. Cytogenetic Analysis of 65 Women with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Ates

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized as amenorrhea for more than 6 months, occurring before the age of 40, with an increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. The aim of our study is to determine the types and distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities among women with POI. Material and Method: The study is based on the retrospective karyotype analysis of 65 women with idiopathic POI referred to the Medical Genetics Department at the Bezmialem...

  11. Ventriculosubgaleal shunts for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian K; Kumar, Cherukuri Ravi; Wylen, Esther L; Nanda, Anil

    2005-01-01

    The early management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants is challenging and controversial. These infants need a temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure until they gain adequate weight, and the blood and protein levels in CSF are reasonably low before permanent shunt can be placed. Various options are available with their associated advantages and disadvantages. Ventriculosubgaleal shunts have been recommended as a more physiologic and less invasive means of achieving this goal. We have performed this procedure in 6 premature infants to evaluate their effectiveness and complications. Six consecutive premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts over a 1-year period of time. We reviewed their clinical and imaging progress to assess the ability of the shunt to control hydrocephalus and the complication rates. In all 6 patients, the ventriculosubgaleal shunt controlled the progression of hydrocephalus as assessed by clinical and imaging parameters. A permanent shunt was avoided in 1 patient (16.6%). However, 4 patients developed shunt infections, 1 involving the ventriculosubgaleal shunt itself, and 3 immediately after conversion to ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The total infection rate of the series was 66.6%. All infections were caused by staphylococcus species. There was only a 1% shunt infection rate in our institution for all nonventriculosubgaleal shunts during the same period of time. Placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts for interim CSF diversion in neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is effective as a temporary method of CSF diversion. However, our experience has shown that it is associated with a unacceptably high CSF infection rate. A potential cause for infection is CSF stasis just beneath the extremely thin skin of the premature infants, promoting colonization by skin flora. CSF sampling before conversion to a permanent shunt and replacement of the proximal

  12. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  13. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    significantly different from unity for people born premature or SGA. After correcting for multiple testing, 250 remained significant. The diagnoses covered diseases in most organ systems, including cardiovascular, endocrinological, infectious, neurological/neurosurgical, obstetric, orthopedic, psychiatric, lung...... & urological diseases, and occurred throughout childhood and early adulthood. Novel findings included increased risks for delayed puberty, neurofibromatosis type 1 and ileus and decreased risks of mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscesses, chronic hypothyroidism and several types of fractures and contusions later...

  14. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y; Kamali-Nia Z

    2002-01-01

    During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, shou...

  15. Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Paul W; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Sievers, Maurice L; Bennett, Peter H; Looker, Helen C

    2010-02-11

    The effect of childhood risk factors for cardiovascular disease on adult mortality is poorly understood. In a cohort of 4857 American Indian children without diabetes (mean age, 11.3 years; 12,659 examinations) who were born between 1945 and 1984, we assessed whether body-mass index (BMI), glucose tolerance, and blood pressure and cholesterol levels predicted premature death. Risk factors were standardized according to sex and age. Proportional-hazards models were used to assess whether each risk factor was associated with time to death occurring before 55 years of age. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, birth cohort, and Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian heritage. There were 166 deaths from endogenous causes (3.4% of the cohort) during a median follow-up period of 23.9 years. Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of BMI were more than double those among children in the lowest BMI quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 3.62). Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of glucose intolerance were 73% higher than those among children in the lowest quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.74). No significant associations were seen between rates of death from endogenous or external causes and childhood cholesterol levels or systolic or diastolic blood-pressure levels on a continuous scale, although childhood hypertension was significantly associated with premature death from endogenous causes (incidence-rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.24). Obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in childhood were strongly associated with increased rates of premature death from endogenous causes in this population. In contrast, childhood hypercholesterolemia was not a major predictor of premature death from endogenous causes. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  16. Effect of transient flow on premature dryout in tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigai, S.; Nakanishi, S.; Yamauchi, S.; Masuda, T.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of abrupt flow change on the critical heat flux in the high quality steam-water two-phase flow was studied mainly by experiments. The measured reduction in the critical heat flux is compared with the result of a simplified analysis based on the kinematic wave theory and the film vanishing hypothesis. It is concluded that the reduction is due to ''premature dryout'' caused by the deceleration of the liquid film. (U.S.)

  17. Impact of physiotherapy on neuromotor development of premature newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Giselle Athayde Xavier; Lemos, Daniela de Mattos; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The population of children born prematurely has increased in line with improving the quality of perinatal care. It is essential to ensure to these children a healthy development. Objective We evaluate the neuromotor development of a group of preterm infants regularly assisted by a physiotherapy service in comparison to full-term newborns, checking, so the impact of the service. Materials and methods We randomly assigned preterm and full-term infants that formed two distinct group...

  18. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-01-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in β-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by β-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered. (orig.)

  19. [Prognostic factors for laser treatment in retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talu, Simona; Cormos, Diana; Zaharia, Gabriela; Stefanut, Claudia; Popa, Monica; Lucaci, Daiana Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to determine the anatomical results of the eyes treated by laser photocoagulation for "threshold" retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to identify the potential risk factors for the unfavorable outcomes. A retrospective study including all the consecutive ROPs that were treated by laser photocoagulation between January the 1st 2006 and September the 1st 2009 has been conducted. The followed criteria has been the anatomical result after the laser treatment. The outcomes have been correlated with: the gestational ages, the birth weights, the moment of treatment (postnatal and post-conceptional ages), the sex of the premature infants, the stage and zone of ROR. RESULTS The total number of prematurely newborns that met the screening criteria for ROP in the above-mentioned period has been 474. Of these, 350 (74%) presented no ROP and the remaining 124 (26%) developed various stages of the disease. Within the ROP group, 54 patients required laser therapy (44% of the retinopathies, representing 11% of all the prematures). The anatomical outcome has been favorable in 84% of the treated eyes, the remaining 16% presenting the progression of ROP The results of the treatment depended on the type of ROP, being significantly better in the classic disease as in the agressive posterior disease (APD) (p < 0.05). The gender also influenced the outcome: the results were better in girls as compared with boys (p < 0.05). The precocity of the laser treatment (evaluated by the postnatal and postconceptional age) has positively influenced the ROP evolution (p < 0.05). Laser photocoagulation has proved its efficacy in the treatment of ROP on our cases. The factors that have negatively influenced the postlaser outcome were: the aggressive posterior disease, the delayed moment of the laser therapy and the male gender.

  20. Duration of continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamat, Nicolas; Jensen, Erik A.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for respiratory support in premature infants for more than 40 years and is now a cornerstone of modern neonatal care. Clinical research on CPAP has primarily focused on understanding which devices and pressure sources best implement this therapy. In contrast, less research has examined the optimal duration over which CPAP is administered. We review this aspect of CPAP therapy. PMID:26948885

  1. Duration of continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bamat, Nicolas; Jensen, Erik A.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for respiratory support in premature infants for more than 40 years and is now a cornerstone of modern neonatal care. Clinical research on CPAP has primarily focused on understanding which devices and pressure sources best implement this therapy. In contrast, less research has examined the optimal duration over which CPAP is administered. We review this aspect of CPAP therapy.

  2. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of the Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Emily A; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Lynch, Anne M; Palestine, Alan G; Wagner, Brandie D; Wymore, Erica; Tomlinson, Lauren A; Binenbaum, Gil

    2018-04-01

    The Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity (CO-ROP) model uses birth weight, gestational age, and weight gain at the first month of life (WG-28) to predict risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In previous validation studies, the model performed very well, predicting virtually all cases of severe ROP and potentially reducing the number of infants who need ROP examinations, warranting validation in a larger, more diverse population. To validate the performance of the CO-ROP model in a large multicenter cohort. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the Postnatal Growth and Retinopathy of Prematurity (G-ROP) Study, a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 29 hospitals in the United States and Canada between January 2006 and June 2012 of 6351 premature infants who received ROP examinations. Sensitivity and specificity for severe (early treatment of ROP [ETROP] type 1 or 2) ROP, and reduction in infants receiving examinations. The CO-ROP model was applied to the infants in the G-ROP data set with all 3 data points (infants would have received examinations if they met all 3 criteria: birth weight, large validation cohort. The model requires all 3 criteria to be met to signal a need for examinations, but some infants with a birth weight or gestational age above the thresholds developed severe ROP. Most of these infants who were not detected by the CO-ROP model had obvious deviation in expected weight trajectories or nonphysiologic weight gain. These findings suggest that the CO-ROP model needs to be revised before considering implementation into clinical practice.

  4. Neurobehavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care--potential medical and neonatal environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, J M

    2001-12-01

    There is growing evidence that a large number of very low birth weight infants are exhibiting neurobehavioral problems in the absence of cerebral palsy at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. Many clinical factors (ie, chronic lung disease, recurrent apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, nutritional deficiencies, glucocorticoid exposure), as well as stressful environmental conditions, including infant-provider interaction, constant noise, and bright light, may act in combination to impact on the developing brain, even in the absence of overt hemorrhage and/or ischemia. Any potential intervention strategy designed to prevent cognitive and behavioral problems has to account for the numerous biological and clinical conditions and/or interventions, as well as postdischarge social and environmental influences.

  5. Pathogenetic Substantiation of the Usability of the Natural Anticoagulant Sulodexide in a Combine Treatment of Pregnant Women with Premature Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mielikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical effectiveness of the Natural Anticoagulant Sulodexide at violations in system of a hemostasis at pregnant women with threat of premature births is studied. 57 pregnant women with threat of premature births are examined. At 31 women in a combine of treatment applied Sulodexide, at 26 – a heparin, at 20 the physiological current of a gestation is noted. Conducted all-clinical examination of pregnant women, estimated a condition of system of a hemostasis before combine treatment. At patients at threat of premature births essential have significant changes in the hemostatic system, manifested in thrombocyte hyper-aggregation and hyper-coagulation in the plasma link of hemostasis, as well as appearance of markers of activating the intravascular blood coagulation. Use of the natural anticoagulant sulodexide for pregnant women provided the high antithrombotic potential  and moderate anti-coagulative activity, contributed to normalization of rheological behavior of blood by influence on all links of a hemostasis, to improvement of the course of the gestational period and the functional state of the fetus.

  6. Placental telomere shortening in stillbirth: a sign of premature senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Saade, George; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence. Placentas were collected from 42 unexplained SB (>22 weeks), 43 term and 15 preterm live births, at the Policlinico Hospital of Modena (Italy). DNA extracted from placentae was studied for telomere length by real time PCR. Standard curves were generated for telomere lengths from single copy gene amplifications using a reference DNA. The telomere length for each sample was derived based on the ratio of telomere length between the sample and single copy gene standard (T/S ratio). The mean ratio of placental telomere in term live births was 5.181 ± 3.841. A twofold decrease in telomere length was seen in SBs (over all 2.455 ± 1.239; p PTBs) (6.382 ± 5.525; p < 0.01), whereas SBs telomere length were similar to those of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) (3.296 ± 3.599; p = ns). Substantial reduction in telomere length in SBs is indicative of placental senescence. These data provide mechanistic insights that premature aging may lead to placental dysfunction as an initiator of fetal demise in unexplained SBs.

  7. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.

  8. Prematurity and Programming Contribution of neonatal (NICU) interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678

  9. Predicting healthcare outcomes in prematurely born infants using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, Victoria; Lunt, Alan; Drysdale, Simon B; Yarzi, Muska N; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Greenough, Anne

    2018-05-23

    Prematurely born infants are at high risk of respiratory morbidity following neonatal unit discharge, though prediction of outcomes is challenging. We have tested the hypothesis that cluster analysis would identify discrete groups of prematurely born infants with differing respiratory outcomes during infancy. A total of 168 infants (median (IQR) gestational age 33 (31-34) weeks) were recruited in the neonatal period from consecutive births in a tertiary neonatal unit. The baseline characteristics of the infants were used to classify them into hierarchical agglomerative clusters. Rates of viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were recorded for 151 infants in the first year after birth. Infants could be classified according to birth weight and duration of neonatal invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) into three clusters. Cluster one (MV ≤5 days) had few LRTIs. Clusters two and three (both MV ≥6 days, but BW ≥or <882 g respectively), had significantly higher LRTI rates. Cluster two had a higher proportion of infants experiencing respiratory syncytial virus LRTIs (P = 0.01) and cluster three a higher proportion of rhinovirus LRTIs (P < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Readily available clinical data allowed classification of prematurely born infants into one of three distinct groups with differing subsequent respiratory morbidity in infancy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Inflammation and premature aging in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; Dekker, Marijke J; Usvyat, Len A; Kotanko, Peter; van der Sande, Frank M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Shiels, Paul G; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications, which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification, and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have a direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes, such as abnormalities in the phosphate-Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect, are abnormal or misplaced protein structures, as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserves, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relationship between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Premature ovarian failure risk factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemzadeh A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alieh Ghassemzadeh1,2, Laya Farzadi1,2, Elaheh Beyhaghi1,21Women’s Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Alzahra University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The aim of this study was to determine possible correlates of premature ovarian failure (POF in an Iranian population.Methods: In a case-control study, 80 patients with POF were compared with 80 controls enrolled from the same setting during 2007–2008. A food diary was used to assess food consumption habits.Results: Mean age of starting ovarian failure symptoms was 19.3 ± 5.7 years and mean age of menopause was 22.6 ± 6.3 years. Familial coincidence was observed in 16 POF patients versus no one in the control group (P < 0.05. POF patients had lower frequency of both eating red meat and fish when compared with controls (P < 0.001. POF and control subjects consumed similar amounts of dairy products, being 5.3 ± 3.2 times per week in POF and 5.6 ± 2.1 times in the control groups.Conclusion: In this study, an association between POF and lower red meat or fish consumption was found.Keywords: POF, etiology, case-control, nutrition, premature menopause, premature ovarian dysfunction, primary ovarian insufficiency

  12. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  13. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  14. Genetic contribution to patent ductus arteriosus in the premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet; Zhou, Gongfu; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Buhimschi, Catalin; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Heping

    2009-02-01

    The most common congenital heart disease in the newborn population, patent ductus arteriosus, accounts for significant morbidity in preterm newborns. In addition to prematurity and environmental factors, we hypothesized that genetic factors play a significant role in this condition. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns. A retrospective study (1991-2006) from 2 centers was performed by using zygosity data from premature twins born at Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by echocardiography at each center. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of specific covariates. Latent variable probit modeling was then performed to estimate the heritability of patent ductus arteriosus, and mixed-effects probit modeling was used to quantify the genetic component. We obtained data from 333 dizygotic twin pairs and 99 monozygotic twin pairs from 2 centers (Yale University and University of Connecticut). Data on chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, gestational age, body weight, gender, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, oxygen supplementation, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were comparable between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We found that gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, and institution were significant covariates for patent ductus arteriosus. After controlling for specific covariates, genetic factors or the shared environment accounted for 76.1% of the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus. Preterm patent ductus arteriosus is highly familial (contributed to by genetic and environmental factors), with the effect being mainly environmental, after controlling for known confounders.

  15. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Premature Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Guamán, Milenka; Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Cruz, Stephanie M; Griffiths, Pamela A; Welty, Stephen E; Lee, Timothy C; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2017-11-14

    Prematurity and low birth weight have been exclusion criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); however, these criteria are not evidence based. With advances in anticoagulation, improved technology, and surgical expertise, it is difficult to deny a potential therapy based on these criteria alone. We report the outcome of three neonates who were ineligible based on traditional criteria but were offered ECMO as a life-saving measure. We highlight the interdisciplinary nature of modern decision-making. All three neonates had severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed prenatally, had normal fetal karyotypes, were born prematurely, and weighed less than 2 kg. All three neonates underwent cervical venoarterial cannulation, stabilization on ECMO, and repair of their congenital diaphragmatic hernia early in their ECMO courses. All three infants had long courses of respiratory support attributable to lung hypoplasia, but there were no short- or long-term complications attributable to ECMO support directly. All three are alive at 2 years of age and were making progress developmentally. In conclusion, with interdisciplinary collaboration and clinical guidelines uniformly implemented, low birth weight infants may benefit from ECMO and should not be denied the therapy arbitrarily based on gestational age or size alone. Further research is essential to determine appropriate patient selection in premature infants.

  16. The Impact of Premature Childbirth on Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N. Hoffenkamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200 and fathers (n = 193 of full-term (n = 69, moderately premature (n = 68, and very premature infants (n = 63. During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ. Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  17. Cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Bolton, Charlotte E; Fawke, Joseph; Hennessy, Enid; Stocks, Janet; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R; Marlow, Neil

    2011-07-01

    The long-term consequences of extreme prematurity are becoming increasingly important, given recent improvements in neonatal intensive care. The aim of the current study was to examine the cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity in 11-year-olds born at or before 25 completed weeks of gestation. Age and sex-matched classmates were recruited as controls. Information concerning perinatal and maternal history was collected, and current anthropometric characteristics were measured in 219 children born extremely preterm and 153 classmates. A subset of the extremely preterm children (n = 68) and classmates (n = 90) then underwent detailed haemodynamic investigations, including measurement of supine blood pressure (BP), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, a measure of aortic stiffness) and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial pressure wave reflections). Seated brachial systolic and diastolic BP were not different between extremely preterm children and classmates (P = 0.3 for both), although there was a small, significant elevation in supine mean and diastolic BP in the extremely preterm children (P prematurity is associated with altered arterial haemodynamics in children, not evident from the examination of brachial BP alone. Moreover, the smaller, preresistance and resistance vessels rather than large elastic arteries appear to be most affected. Children born extremely preterm may be at increased future cardiovascular risk.

  18. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizebeth V. Issac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to November 2013 were included. Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane (PPROM is confirmed by history, sterile per speculum examination demonstrating pooling of fluid in posterior vaginal fornix and vaginal pH. An ultrasound examination showing oligohydramnios also supports the diagnosis. RESULTS 62% of neonates had RDS; p value <0.001, strong significance. 16% had no morbidity. 10% had late sepsis. 6% had NHB; p value 0.090, moderate significance. 6% had PHTN. CONCLUSION Relation between infection and PPROM remains an association. So patients at risk for preterm delivery need to be watched more closely for infection as it is also associated with neonatal morbidity.

  20. [Development and evaluation of an e-learning program for mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nae-Young; Kim, Young-Hae

    2008-02-01

    It has been attempted to support mother of premature infants by providing information of premature infant care using e-learning because premature infants need continuous care from birth to after discharge. The e-Learning Program for mother of premature was developed with Xpert, Namo web editor, Adobe Photoshop, and PowerPoint and applied for 4 weeks from 4 to 30 September 2006. 1) We found that the contents of information which premature infants' need when being in the hospital and after discharge were the definition of a premature infant, orientation of NICU, care of premature infants, care of premature infants' common diseases, the connection of healthcare resources, exchange of information, and the management of rearing stress. 2) The program content consisted of cause of premature birth, comparison to full-term baby, physiology character, orientation of NICU, common health problems, follow up care, infection control, feeding, normal development physically and mentally, weaning method, and vaccination. Considering the results, this program for mother of premature is a useful means to provide premature-care information to mothers. This information can be readily accessible and can be varied and complex enough to be able to help mothers to the information and assistance they require.

  1. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes; Fetale Lungenentwicklung in der MRT. Normaler Verlauf und Beeintraechtigung durch vorzeitigen Blasensprung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Helmer, H.; Langer, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [German] Die fetale Lungenentwicklung wird einerseits durch eine Vielzahl molekularer Faktoren und andererseits durch mechanisch-physiologische Kraefte beeinflusst. Ein geordnetes Zusammenspiel dieser Mechanismen fuehrt zu einem ausreichend grossen und strukturell reifen Organ, das sofort nach der Geburt das Ueberleben des Neugeborenen sicherstellt. Neben der praenatalen Ultraschalluntersuchung bietet nun auch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Moeglichkeit, die normale und pathologische fetale Lungenentwicklung zu untersuchen. Ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor fuer eine Beeintraechtigung der Lungenentwicklung ist die verminderte Fruchtwassermenge nach vorzeitigem Blasensprung. In diesen Faellen kann die MR-Volumetrie dazu eingesetzt werden, die Groesse der fetalen Lungen relativ genau zu bestimmen. Gemeinsam mit der Beurteilung der MR-Signalintensitaeten des Lungengewebes auf T2-gewichteten Sequenzen koennen Feten mit hypoplastischen Lungen mit zunehmender Sicherheit bereits praenatal identifiziert werden. (orig.)

  2. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes (PTBs, and term births. Term fetal membranes were exposed to cigarette smoke extract to induce oxidative stress. Western blots documented p-p53 and p-p38 MAPK. Transmission electron microscopy assessed cellular morphologic features in clinical and cigarette smoke extract-treated membranes. A total of 80% of pPROM cells and >60% of term cells were positive for all three senescence phenotype markers, and concentrations were higher than in PTBs (P PTBs. Histologic and biochemical resemblance of pPROM and term membranes suggests premature senescence of the membranes is a mechanistic feature in pPROM, and this can be phenocopied in an in vitro model. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stanković – Babić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains the main cause of visual impairment in preterm infants. The study was aimed to assess the impact of some of the risk factors (gestational age, body weight of children at birth, associated diseases in children, maternal age at delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancies on the occurrence of ROP in the sample of premature infants. We statistically processed the results (Student’s t test and the χ2 test of 93 preterm infants of both sexes: 39 boys and 54 girls, examined by indirect ophthalmoscope (Haine 500, Germany in mydriasis. The examination included all premature neonates with birth weight ≤ 2000g and/or gestational age ≤37 weeks, as well as neonates >37 weeks which have associated risk factors (oxygen, ventilation, sepsis, etc. Among 93 premature infants, with normal findings on the retina there were 72 children (77.42%, while in 21 (22.58% children we found ROP. Ophthalmological findings: the first stage of ROP was found in 15.05%, the second stage of ROP in 2.15% and third stage of ROP in 5.38% of the examined children. There were no patients with an aggressive form of ROP. Children with ROP were statistically of lower gestational age - 32.10 ± 2.70 compared to children without ROP - 35.37 ± 1.72 (p<0.001. Children with ROP had at birth significant lower body weight of 1741g ± 579.19 than children without ROP - 2168.75 ± 528.58 (p<0.01. Mothers of the children with ROP were, at the time of giving birth, over 29 ± 6.09 years old compared to mothers of children without ROP who were 26.42 ± 5.75 years old (p=0.0773. The presence of other diseases was significantly more prevalent in children with ROP 52.38% vs. 2.78% (p<0.001. The number of mothers of children with ROP who smoked during their pregnacy was considerable - 57.14 % vs. 37.50% (percent of non-smoking mothers, though the difference was not statistically significant. Knowing the risk factors and their

  4. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  5. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Jelena

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (% and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000. Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and

  6. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, Galina V; Sidorenko, Evgenyj I; Iosifovna, Amkhanitskaya Lyubov

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g), and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g). Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g). The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05). Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05). The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns' somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  7. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  8. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  9. „Es ist ein Kick, den man befriedigen muss!“ “It is a kick that one must satisfy!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Piechocki

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Band Jugend, Mode, Geschlecht. Die Inszenierung des Körpers in der Konsumkultur ist das Ergebnis qualitativer Feldstudien, die im Rahmen eines „interdisziplinären Seminars mit dem Titel ‚Jugendmode und Geschlechterkonstruktion‘ an der Erziehungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität zu Köln“ (S. 221 von Studierenden durchgeführt wurde. Bei den interviewten Kindern und Jugendlichen handelt es sich um „Mainstream“-Jugendliche und nicht um spezifische Jugendgruppen. Das Buch ist in vier thematische Kapitel gegliedert: „S-HE Mades“, „Angezogen: Fashion Mades“, „Anverleibt: Body Mades“ und „Angesehen: Media Mades“. Ein theoretisch orientiertes Kapitel mit Beiträgen von Wissenschaftlern aus den Bereichen Jugendkultur, Modedesign, Geschlechterforschung und Cultural Studies schließt diesen Band ab.The volume Jugend, Mode, Geschlecht. Die Inszenierung des Körpers in der Konsumkultur is the result of qualitative field studies, which were conducted by students within the framework of an “interdisciplinary seminar with the titel ‘Youth Fashion and the Construction of Gender’ of the Faculty for Educational Studies at the University of Cologne” (p. 221. The children and youth who were interviewed belong to “mainstream” youth, and not to specific youth groups. The book is divided into four thematical chapters: “S-HE Mades”, “Angezogen: Fashion Mades”, “Anverleibt: Body Mades” und “Angesehen: Media Mades”. The volume concludes with a theoretically oriented chapter that consists of contributions from scientists who work in the fields of youth culture, fashion design, gender research and cultural studies.

  10. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple’s relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods, which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE.

  11. Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc

    2015-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  13. The effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (<1500 grams or ≥1500 grams. Design This is a retrospective chart review. Methods We reviewed the charts of 137 patients who underwent open fetal/fetoscopic surgery from 1996–2004. Surgical indications included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, myelomeningocele (MMC, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT, cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP. Of these, 17 patients had local ROP examination data. Binomial tests were performed to assess whether rates of ROP in our fetal/fetoscopic surgery cohort were significantly different from published rates. Results There were 5 patients each with an underlying diagnosis of TTTS and MMC, 2 patients each with CDH and TRAP, and 1 patient each with SCT, CCAM, and mediastinal teratoma. The mean gestational age at surgery was 23 4 / 7 ± 2 3 / 7 weeks, mean gestational age at birth was 30 ± 2 5 / 7 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1449 ± 510 grams (610–2485. Compared to published rates of ROP and threshold ROP, our fetal surgery patients had significantly higher rates of ROP and threshold ROP in both the <1500 grams and the ≥1500 grams group (all p-values <0.05. Conclusions Fetal/fetoscopic surgery appears to significantly increase the rate of ROP and threshold ROP development. Greater numbers are needed to confirm these observations.

  14. Is "Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping" Beneficial for Premature Newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appropriate moment for clamping the umbilical cord is controversial. Immediate cord clamping (ICC is an item of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL. Unclamped umbilical cord may cause inconvenience in preterm neonates because they commonly need some levels of emergent services. Some studies revealed delayed cord clamping (DCC of preterm neonates results in better health conditions like lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, less morbidities in labor room and lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on premature neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this single‑center randomized control trial study, sixty premature neonates (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5–10 seconds or DCC (30–45 seconds groups and followed up in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Primary outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar score, average of level of hematocrit after birth, intra ventricle hemorrhage and need some levels of resuscitation. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics were not statistically significant. After birth, neonates who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean hematocrit after at 4-hour of birth (49.58+5.15gr/dl vs. 46.58+5.40gr/dlin DCC vs. ICC groups, respectively (P=0.031. Delayed cord clamping reduced the duration of need to nasal continues positive airway pressure (NCPAP (86.7% and 60.0% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P= 0.039. Attractively, the results showed lower incidence of clinical sepsis in delayed cord clamping neonates (53.3% vs. 23.3% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P=0.033. Conclusion: Prematurity complications might decrease by delay umbilical cord clamping which improve the hematocrit, duration of need to NCPAP and incidence of clinical sepsis. Furthermore, DCC may have no negative impact on neonatal resuscitation.

  15. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  16. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting.

  18. Unusual persistent fetal vasculature presentation in a premature baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Zahavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV is a congenital developmental disorder manifesting as a fibrovascular remnant of the embryonal hyaloid vascular system within the vitreal space. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP presents as varying degrees of non-vascularized retinal tissue with potentially devastating ocular complications. Both pathologies arise from ocular vascular system abnormalities, and various treatment modalities have been attempted in the past. In this report we describe a unique case of a late manifesting PFV that may be associated with the development of ROP, complicated by a visually significant cataract.

  19. [Macula structure and function in retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoleva, L V; Katargina, L A; Rydnitskaia, Ia L

    2011-01-01

    Macula structure and function were studied in 64 patients with retinopathy of prematurity (RP) stage I-III aged 8-17 years old using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography. Absence of foveolar depression associated with preservation of fovea layers and normal electroretinography indices were showed to be the evidence of differentiation damage and macula underdevelopment due to immaturity and to have no effect on visual acuity. Preserved or pathologic foveolar depression associated with abnormal OCT findings and central retina electrogenesis damage indicate dysfunction and morphological changes of macula due to not macula underdevelopment because of immaturity only but RP either that can lead to depression, visual function.

  20. Extreme premature with persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz-Rivera, Carlos Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Parra-Pérez, Mariana Yazmin

    2017-10-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly, that results when there is an absence of the normal regression of the left common precardinal vein during embryogenesis. Usually, this anomaly remains asymptomatic, however, when the PLSVC drains into the left atrium this could lead to a right-to-left shunt. Additionally, this can result in inadvertent delivery of air or thrombus into the systemic circulation with potential neurologic, cardiac and renal complications. In this article, we present a case of an extreme premature Mexican newborn in which the diagnosis was made after placement of a percutaneous central venues catheter.

  1. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...

  2. Zone 1 retinopathy of prematurity in a transitional economy: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Susan M; Lan, Luu Ngoc; Huynh, Tess

    2006-06-01

    To describe three low risk infants in whom severe retinopathy of prematurity developed. A prospective, observational case series. setting: National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. study population: Premature infants in the neonatal ward. observation procedure: Eye examinations. Severe retinopathy of prematurity occurred in three infants. All had zone 1 disease and other unusually severe findings, such as neovascularization of the disk. These infants would not be at risk for the development of such severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with a developed economy. Unusual characteristics of retinopathy of prematurity may be occurring in countries with transitional economies. Screening programs should be implemented and should take into consideration the possibility that retinopathy of prematurity may occur in infants who fall outside the screening guidelines that are used in the developed world.

  3. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-10

    The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province from January 2001 to December 2012. We used data from 16 monitoring sites to examine the trend and risk factors for premature birth as well as infant mortality associated with prematurity. A total of 818,481 live births were documented, including 76,923 preterm infants (94 preterm infants per 1,000 live births) and 2,248 deaths due to prematurity (2.75 preterm deaths per 1,000 live births). From 2001 to 2012, the incidence of preterm birth increased from 56.7 to 105.2 per 1,000 live births (P for trend prematurity declined from 95.0 to 13.4 per 1,000 live births (P for trend prematurity were observed in Hubei Province from 2001 to 2012. Our results provide important information for areas of improvements in reducing incidence and mortality of premature birth.

  4. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity and treatment outcome in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, L Pl; Lai, C Hy; Fan, M Cy; Wong, I Yh; Lai, J Sm

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the prevalence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in the local population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, screening, and treatment outcome of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. The study evaluated 89 premature infants who were born at the hospital and were screened for retinopathy of prematurity, in accordance with the 2008 British Guidelines, between January 2013 and December 2013. The prevalences of retinopathy of prematurity and severe retinopathy requiring treatment were studied. The mean (± standard deviation) gestational age at birth was 30 +2 weeks ± 16.5 days (range, 24 +1 to 35 +5 weeks). The mean birth weight was 1285 g ± 328 g (range, 580 g to 2030 g). A total of 15 (16.9%) infants developed retinopathy of prematurity and three (3.4%) required treatment. In a subgroup analysis of extremely-low-birth-weight infants of prematurity and 17.6% required treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested low birth weight and patent ductus arteriosus were significantly associated with development of retinopathy of prematurity (Pprematurity, all regressed successfully after one laser treatment. Retinopathy of prematurity is a significant problem among premature infants in Hong Kong, especially those with extremely low birth weight. Our screening service for retinopathy of prematurity was satisfactory and treatment results were good. Strict adherence to international screening guidelines and vigilance in infants at risk are key to successful management of retinopathy of prematurity.

  5. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  6. Long-term space changes after premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J.; Lin, Yai-Tin

    2016-01-01

    Background/purpose: The consequence of premature loss of primary teeth resulting in the need for space maintainers has been controversial for many years. There is no longitudinal long-term report in literature regarding the premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar. The aim of this study was to continue observing the long-term space changes of 19 cases following premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar during the transition from primary to permanent dentition. Materials an...

  7. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  8. Impact of physiotherapy on neuromotor development of premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Athayde Xavier Coutinho

    Full Text Available Introduction The population of children born prematurely has increased in line with improving the quality of perinatal care. It is essential to ensure to these children a healthy development. Objective We evaluate the neuromotor development of a group of preterm infants regularly assisted by a physiotherapy service in comparison to full-term newborns, checking, so the impact of the service. Materials and methods We randomly assigned preterm and full-term infants that formed two distinct groups. The group of preterm infants was inserted into a monitoring program of physiotherapy while the other infants were taken as a control group not receiving any assistance in physiotherapy. The groups were compared using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at forty-week, four and six months of corrected gestational age and the scores were compared using Student's t-test, assuming a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05. Results The preterm group had significantly lower scores at 40th week compared to the control group, but subsequent scores showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion The timely and adequate stimulation was efficient to promote the motor development of premature infants included in a follow up clinic.

  9. Mandibular function, temporomandibular disorders, and headache in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte; Ekberg, Ewacarin; Nilner, Maria; Bondemark, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headache in prematurely born 8- to 10-year-old children, and to compare the findings with matched full-term born controls. Seventy-three preterm children were selected from the Medical Birth Register--one group comprising 36 extremely preterm children born before the 29th gestational week, the other group 37 very preterm children born during gestational weeks 29 to 32. The preterm children were compared with a control group of 41 full-term children matched for gender, age, nationality, and living area. The subjective symptoms of TMD and headache were registered using a questionnaire. Mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of TMD and headache were registered. TMD diagnoses were set per Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD). No significant differences between groups or gender were found for TMD diagnoses according to RDC/TMD or for headache. The preterm children had smaller mandibular movement capacity than the full-term control group, but when adjusting for weight, height, and head circumference mostly all group differences disappeared. Prematurely born children of 8 to 10 years of age did not differ from full-term born children when considering diagnoses according to RDC/TMD, signs, and symptoms of TMD or headache.

  10. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  11. Current pharmacological agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to review and assess the update studies regarding medical treatment for premature ejaculation (PE. It is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. A wide variety of therapeutic modalities have been tried for treatment of premature ejaculation. Psychological therapies may be helpful for patients with complaint PE. Several topical therapies have been used including lidocaine cream, lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, and efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.

  12. Reevaluation of the DHA requirement for the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Jensen, Craig L

    2009-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake in preterm infants is crucial for normal central nervous system development and has the potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. While much attention has focused on improving their nutritional intake, many premature infants do not receive an adequate DHA supply. We demonstrate that enterally fed premature infants exhibit daily DHA deficit of 20mg/kg.d, representing 44% of the DHA that should have been accumulated. Furthermore, the DHA content of human milk and current preterm formulas cannot compensate for an early DHA deficit which may occur during the first month of life. We recommend breast-feeding, which supplies preformed LC-PUFA, as the preferred method of feeding for preterm infants. However, to fulfill the specific DHA requirement of these infants, we recommend increasing the DHA content of human milk either by providing the mothers with a DHA supplement or by adding DHA directly to the milk. Increasing the DHA content above 1% total fatty acids appears to be safe and may enhance neurological development particularly that of infants with a birth weight below 1250 g. We estimate that human milk and preterm formula should contain approximately 1.5% of fatty acid as DHA to prevent the appearance of a DHA deficit and to compensate for the early DHA deficit.

  13. Bilateral Coats’ Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gursoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP was applied to the left eye. Exudates involved the macula, and telangiectatic changes developed one month following LP. Additional LP was applied to the left eye combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection at 55 weeks of PMA. Disease regressed one month after the additional therapy. At the 14-month examination of the baby, telangiectatic changes and intraretinal exudates were observed in the right eye. Diode LP was applied to the right eye combined with IVB injection. Exudates did not resolve completely, and cryotherapy was applied one month following LP. Retinal findings regressed three months following the cryotherapy. Conclusion. This is the first report of presumed bilateral Coats’ disease combined with ROP. If Coats’ disease could be diagnosed at early stages, it would be a disease associated with better prognosis.

  14. Mean trombosit volume in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP with respect to development of type 1 ROP Methods: The medical records of the premature infants were evaluated. Babies with a birth weight under 1500 g and a gestational age under 32 weeks were enrolled to the study. Birth weight, gestational age, onset and grade of retinopathy, presence of plus disease were analyzed. At the time of type 1 ROP diagnosis, blood samples were obtained. In the patients without type 1 ROP the blood samples were also obtained at similar gestational age. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and MPV results were recorded. Results: Sixty-three infants were studied. 22 of them had type 1 ROP and 41 had not developed type 1 ROP. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight between groups were not statistically significant. The mean MPV values in patients with type 1 ROP and without type 1 ROP was 9,1±2,0 fL and 9,4±1,8 fL, respectively (p=0.61. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that MPV values were not associated with severity of ROP in our study population. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Molina, J. M.; Anaya-Alaminos, R.; Uberos-Fernández, J.; Solans-Pérez de Larraya, A.; Chaves-Samaniego, M. J.; Salgado-Miranda, A.; Piñar-Molina, R.; Jerez-Calero, A.; García-Serrano, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014) was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001), postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001), and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014). Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code. PMID:26089603

  16. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherin, F.; Afzal, E.; Seema, N.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  17. Early onset neonatal sepsis in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborn with various duration of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from November 2009 to November 2010. Material and Methods: Neonates of singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with delivery between 30 and 36 weeks gestation were included in the study. The overall frequency of neonatal sepsis was calculated on clinical and serological basis. Comparison of the frequency of sepsis among groups with varying duration of rupture of membranes was done. Results: Out of 164 babies, 84 (51.2%) were female and 80 (48.8%) were male. Mean maternal age was 23 years (range: 18-36 years). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (range: 30-36 weeks). Sepsis was suspected in 41(25%) babies on clinical grounds. C-reactive protein was raised in 36 (22%) neonates. There was statistically insignificant difference between clinical versus serological diagnosis (p=0.515). Frequency of neonatal sepsis was significantly higher in mothers with longer duration of rupture of membrane (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Frequency of neonatal sepsis was observed to be 22%. PPROM is an important risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. (author)

  18. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  19. Premature mortality in active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Christian; Fegan, Gregory; Chengo, Eddie; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bauni, Evasius; Neville, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W.; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We estimated premature mortality and identified causes of death and associated factors in people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in rural Kenya. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, people with ACE were identified in a cross-sectional survey and followed up regularly for 3 years, during which information on deaths and associated factors was collected. We used a validated verbal autopsy tool to establish putative causes of death. Age-specific rate ratios and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Poisson regression was used to identify mortality risk factors. Results: There were 61 deaths among 754 people with ACE, yielding a rate of 33.3/1,000 persons/year. Overall standardized mortality ratio was 6.5. Mortality was higher across all ACE age groups. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 3.37), cognitive impairment (aRR 4.55), and age (50+ years) (rate ratio 4.56) were risk factors for premature mortality. Most deaths (56%) were directly related to epilepsy, with prolonged seizures/possible status epilepticus (38%) most frequently associated with death; some of these may have been due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Possible SUDEP was the likely cause in another 7%. Conclusion: Mortality in people with ACE was more than 6-fold greater than expected. This may be reduced by improving treatment adherence and prompt management of prolonged seizures and supporting those with cognitive impairment. PMID:24443454

  20. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  1. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-08-05

    Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter - regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost - YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.

  2. Ozone Induced Premature Mortality and Crop Yield Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is a major risk factor for health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cause damage to plant and agricultural crops. But these impacts were usually evaluated separately in earlier studies. We apply Community Multi-scale Air Quality model to simulate the ambient O3 concentration at a resolution of 36 km×36 km across China. Then, we follow Global Burden of Diseases approach and AOT40 (i.e., above a threshold of 40 ppb) metric to estimate the premature mortalities and yield losses of major grain crops (i.e., winter wheat, rice and corn) across China due to surface ozone exposure, respectively. Our results show that ozone exposure leads to nearly 67,700 premature mortalities and 145 billion USD losses in 2014. The ozone induced yield losses of all crop production totaled 78 (49.9-112.6)million metric tons, worth 5.3 (3.4-7.6)billion USD, in China. The relative yield losses ranged from 8.5-14% for winter wheat, 3.9-15% for rice, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. We can see that the top four health affected provinces (Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu) are also ranking on the winter wheat and rice crop yield loss. Our results provide further evidence that surface ozone pollution is becoming urgent air pollution in China, and have important policy implications for China to alleviate the impacts of air pollution.

  3. THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN CHILDREN WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of blindness prevention and visual impairment in children with retinopathy of prematurity is a multidisciplinary medical problem, and includes the prevention of the preterm birth, the correction of terms of caring for premature babies, early detection, monitoring, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity, as well as the organization of the long clinical supervision. Patients with retinopathy of prematurity need a comprehensive approach to the prevention of the visual impairment in order to ensure high functional outcomes and improve their quality of life. 

  4. Executive Functioning, Cortisol Reactivity, and Symptoms of Psychopathology in Girls with Premature Adrenarche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Beers, Sue R.; Rose, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the interaction between early maturational timing [as measured by premature adrenarche (PA)] and executive functioning and cortisol reactivity on symptoms of psychopathology. The study included 76 girls aged 6 through 8 years (mean = 7.50; SD = .85) with PA (n = 40) and on-time adrenarche (n = 36). Girls completed a battery of psychological and neuropsychological tests and blood sampling for cortisol. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Results demonstrated that girls with PA with lower levels of executive functioning had higher externalizing and anxious symptoms compared to other girls. Additionally, girls with PA who demonstrated increases in serum cortisol had higher externalizing symptoms than those with stable patterns. Finally, girls with PA who demonstrated decreases in cortisol reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings from this study provide important information concerning the impact of cognitive functioning and stress reactivity on adjustment to early maturation in girls with PA. Results of this research may inform screening and intervention efforts for girls who may be at greatest risk for emotional and behavioral problems as a result of early maturation. PMID:22293005

  5. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrion JZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Zimmermann Carrion1, João Borges Fortes Filho2, Marcia Beatriz Tartarella3, Andrea Zin4, Ignozy Dorneles Jornada Jr41Program for the Prevention of Blindness due to Retinopathy of Prematurity, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 3Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 4Departament of Neonatology, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, 5University Luterana do Brasil School of Medicine, Canoas, BrazilAbstract: The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP

  6. Impact of enteral protein supplementation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrus DM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David M Barrus1, Joann Romano-Keeler2, Christopher Carr3, Kira Segebarth4, Betty Claxton2, William F Walsh2, Paul J Flakoll51Department of Neonatology, Saint Francis Hospital–Bartlett, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Surgery, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Bremerton, WA, 4Pediatric and Diabetes Specialists, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 5Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAObjective: The quantity of enteral protein supplementation required by premature infants to optimize growth has not been determined. This study compares the growth of premature infants fed the current standard intake of protein (3.5 g/kg/day with the growth of those fed a higher amount (4.0 g/kg/day.Study design: Fifty-two infants <1500 g and <33 weeks gestational age participated in a blinded, single-center, prospective randomized control trial to compare growth between two groups of different protein-intake levels. Primary outcomes were average daily weight gain (g/kg/day, head-circumference (cm/kg/week and linear growth velocity (cm/kg/week. Secondary outcomes were serum indices of protein tolerance and plasma amino acid concentrations.Results: Infants receiving higher amounts of protein had higher rates of growth for body weight (18.2 ± 0.7 versus 16.2 ± 1.0 g/kg/day; P < 0.05 and head circumference (0.87 ± 0.08 versus 0.62 ± 0.07 cm/kg/week; P < 0.05, with no differences in blood protein or plasma amino acid concentrations. Length of hospital stay was 14 days shorter for the higher-protein group (51.4 ± 4.0 versus 65.9 ± 6.3 days.Conclusion: Increasing premature infant enteral protein supplementation from a calculated intake of 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day improved growth in a safe manner.Keywords: human milk, human milk fortifier, growth, low birth weight

  7. 1) rheuma: komplementare therapien hoch im kurs; 2) ist der Ruckenschmerz magnetisch? 3) morbus alzheimer: unkonventionelle therapeutische Wundertute; 4) homocystein: Im westen nichts neues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch

    2000-08-01

    Wahrend in akademischen Kreisen noch ausgiebig diskutiert wird, wie Naturheilkunde, Komplementarmedizin und Alternativmedizin begrifflich fassbar gemacht, sprich definiert werden konnen, hat sich langst ein Parallelmarkt entwickelt, auf dem seriose und obskure Anbieter eine breite Palette von vermeintlich hilfreichen diagnostischen Massnahmen und Therapien feilbieten. Ohne kassenarztliche Vereinigung, ohne wissenschaftliche Fachgesellschaften, ohne amtlichen Segen. Der Markt boomt, wie das Beispiel rheumatische Erkrankungen zeigt. Das hat seine Grunde, von denen S. Hill in ihrem Kommentar einige nennt. Abstrahiert konnte man sagen, dass es offensichtlich einen grossen Bedarf in Bereichen gibt, fur die die konventionelle Medizin zu wenig zu bieten hat. Die daraus resultierende Tatsache, dass Patienten immer mehr bereit sind, zusatzlich und erganzend Leistungen einzukaufen, musste nicht weiter schrecken (und ware parteienubergreifend sogar ganz im Sinne unserer Gesundheitspolitiker), wenn man unterstellen konnte, Patienten hatten eine einigermassen verlassliche Moglichkeit, seriose Angebote von denen von Quacksalbern, Scharlatanen und miesen Geschaftemachern zu unterscheiden. Das haben Sie aber nicht. Die Beispiele in diesem Journal Club sollen aufzeigen, wie schwer es manchmal selbst dort ist, Stellung zu beziehen, wo bereits Versuche vorliegen, bestimmte Angebote zu hinterfragen. Das liegt nicht zuletzt an den ziemlich durchgangigen Defiziten, was die Forschungsqualitat in diesem Bereich anbelangt. Es scheint hochste Zeit, dass sich die akademische Medizin ihrer Verantwortung in diesem Bereich bewusst wird und sich seiner annimmt. Wer sonst sollte das tun? Copyright 2000 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  9. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Tara; Perelman, Michael A; Althof, Stanley; Giuliano, François; Martin, Mona; May, Kathryn; Abraham, Lucy; Crossland, Anna; Morris, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for clinical trial purposes has typically relied on intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) for entry, but this parameter does not capture the multidimensional nature of PE. Therefore, the aim was to develop a brief, multidimensional, psychometrically validated instrument for diagnosing PE status. The questionnaire development involved three stages: (1) Five focus groups and six individual interviews were conducted to develop the content; (2) psychometric validation using three different groups of men; and (3) generation of a scoring system. For psychometric validation/scoring system development, data was collected from (1) men with PE based on clinician diagnosis, using DSM-IV-TR, who also had IELTs or =11 PE. The development and validation of this new PE diagnostic tool has resulted in a new, user-friendly, and brief self-report questionnaire for use in clinical trials to diagnose PE.

  10. Automatic Tortuosity-Based Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Lassada; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Makhanov, Stanislav S.; Barman, Sarah; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is an infant disease characterized by increased dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels. Automatic tortuosity evaluation from retinal digital images is very useful to facilitate an ophthalmologist in the ROP screening and to prevent childhood blindness. This paper proposes a method to automatically classify the image into tortuous and non-tortuous. The process imitates expert ophthalmologists' screening by searching for clearly tortuous vessel segments. First, a skeleton of the retinal blood vessels is extracted from the original infant retinal image using a series of morphological operators. Next, we propose to partition the blood vessels recursively using an adaptive linear interpolation scheme. Finally, the tortuosity is calculated based on the curvature of the resulting vessel segments. The retinal images are then classified into two classes using segments characterized by the highest tortuosity. For an optimal set of training parameters the prediction is as high as 100%.

  11. Stress-induced premature senescence of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Patschan, Susann; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is characterized by cell cycle arrest and curtailed Hayflick limit. Studies support a central role for Rb protein in controlling this process via signaling from the p53 and p16 pathways. Cellular senescence is considered an essential contributor to the aging process and has been shown to be an important tumor suppression mechanism. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that SIPS may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases. Here, focusing on endothelial cells, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of SIPS and the pathways that trigger it, evaluate their correlation with the apoptotic response and examine their links to the development of chronic diseases, with the emphasis on vasculopathy. Emerging novel therapeutic interventions based on recent experimental findings are also reviewed.

  12. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between thigh circumference and incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and total mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic splines. SETTING: Random subset of adults...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1436 men and 1380 women participating in the Danish MONICA project, examined in 1987-8 for height, weight, and thigh, hip, and waist circumference, and body composition by impedance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year incidence of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and 12.5 years...... of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...

  13. Long term cardiovascular consequences of chronic lung disease of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chuen Yeow; Edwards, Martin Oliver; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension in preterm infant is an important consequence of chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) arising mainly due to impaired alveolar development and dysregulated angiogenesis of the pulmonary circulation. Although PA pressure and resistance in these children normalise by school age, their pulmonary vasculature remains hyper-reactive to hypoxia until early childhood. Furthermore, there is evidence that systemic blood pressure in preterm born children with or without CLD is mildly increased at school age and in young adulthood when compared to term-born children. Arterial stiffness may be increased in CLD survivors due to increased smooth muscle tone of the pre-resistance and resistance vessels rather than the loss of elasticity in the large arteries. This review explores the long term effects of CLD on the pulmonary and systemic circulations along with their clinical correlates and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Practice Bulletin No. 172: Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm delivery occurs in approximately 12% of all births in the United States and is a major factor that contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality (1, 2). Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 3% of all pregnancies in the United States (3). The optimal approach to clinical assessment and treatment of women with term and preterm PROM remains controversial. Management hinges on knowledge of gestational age and evaluation of the relative risks of delivery versus the risks of expectant management (eg, infection, abruptio placentae, and umbilical cord accident). The purpose of this document is to review the current understanding of this condition and to provide management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted outcome-based research when available. Additional guidelines on the basis of consensus and expert opinion also are presented.

  15. Wieviel ist Ästhetik und wieviel ist Rekonstruktion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term aesthetic surgery is used more and more for marketing and mercantile purposes. Our German Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery addresses the field of medically indicated surgical procedures to the benefit of the patient. The field of reconstructive orbital surgery perfectly shows the big advantages in plastic and reconstructive surgery: especially in this field the developments of computer-assisted planning, improvements in biomaterials and the aspect of biologically adequate reconstructive surgery are represented. Due to the fact that this region depends on the appropriate functioning of six cranial nerves the demand for precise reconstructive surgery is obvious. This paper contributes to the understanding of the need for precise preoperative diagnostics, accurate preoperative and virtual planning including intraoperative navigation of blueprints, advances in biomaterials and highly advanced knowledge of the interaction between soft tissue reconstruction and hard tissue reconstruction.

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity; Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyo¤lu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, related risk factors, treatment and follow-up results in cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Material and Method: Medical records of 405 premature infants who attended our clinic between August 1999 and September 2004 were retrospectively screened. Among these patients, 379 infants were followed up in our neonatology unit and 26 were referred to us from other clinics. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation and/or cryotherapy were performed when prethreshold or threshold ROP was detected. Surgery was performed in stage IV-V ROP. Results: ROP was detected in 88 out of 405 infants (21.72%. At the first examination, stage I ROP was detected in 18 eyes (10.4%, stage II - in 67 eyes (38.72%, stage III - in 82 eyes (47.39%, and stage IV-V – in 6 eyes (3.46%. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation was applied to 34 eyes with stage II and in 47 eyes with stage III ROP. Ten eyes with threshold ROP and 4 eyes which progressed to threshold ROP were treated with cryotherapy. Scleral buckling was performed in 3 eyes that progressed to stage IV ROP. At the first examination, 2 eyes with stage IV-V ROP were treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. Discussion: In our series, the most important risk factors for development and progression of ROP were found to be low birth weight, low gestational age, mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancy. Effective screening, follow-up and appropriate treatment are important for prevention of permanent damage and unfavorable outcome in ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 128-32

  17. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  18. [Natural progression of premature pubarche and underlying diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Rodríguez, María Luisa; Bueno Lozano, Gloria; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio

    2018-04-25

    Premature pubarche (PP) is generally thought to be a benign condition, but it can also be the first sign of underlying disease. To analyse the aetiology and the evolution of the anthropometric, analytical and metabolic risk parameters of a group of patients with PP. A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of 92 patients affected by PP. Anthropometry, analyses, bone age and indicators of lipid metabolism were all evaluated. The sample included 92 patients with PP (67 female and 25 male), with a mean age of 7.1±0.6 for girls and 8.3±0.7 for boys. Small for gestational age was recorded in 7.7%. There was an accelerated bone age (1.20±0.1 years). A total of 21 patients were classified as idiopathic (23%), 60 as idiopathic premature adrenarche (65%), and 11 with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%). Puberty was reached early (11+0.9 years old in boys and 9.9±0.8 in girls), as was menstruation age (11.8+1.1 years old), P<.001. The stature finally reached was close to their genetic stature. There is a positive correlation between body mass index, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol, as well as a tendency towards hyperinsulinaemia. The present study shows that PP is a benign condition in the majority of cases, but non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%) is not uncommon. Menstruation and puberty started early and bone age was accelerated. Growth was normal, and more or less in line with genetic size. PP associated with obesity is linked with analytical variations of metabolic risks. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Nutritional factors and visual function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, V C; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Tubman, R; Thurnham, D I

    2001-05-01

    Approximately 5-7% of all infants are born prematurely, and birth before 37 weeks is the most common cause of neonatal mortality, morbidity and long-term disability. Premature infants are poorly equipped for life outside the womb, and oxidant stress has been implicated in the aetiology of visual impairment in these infants, who are often exposed to increased O2 concentrations and high light intensity in neonatal units. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which give the macular area of the eye its yellow colour, are located in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye, and are believed to play a role in protecting it against oxidative and light damage. The macular pigments are of dietary origin, and green leafy vegetables are the primary source of lutein and zeaxanthin. Lutein is one of the five most common carotenoids found in the diet. There is current interest in the macular pigment in relation to age-related macular degeneration, but these pigments may also have a protective role in the retinal pigment epithelium of the newborn infant. Little information is available on blood lutein and zeaxanthin levels in neonates. Levels of lutein in human milk are two to three times higher than those of beta-carotene, whereas their concentrations in the mothers' blood are approximately the same. Human milk is the main dietary source of lutein and zeaxanthin for infants until weaning occurs. The biochemical mechanisms which mediate the transport of the macular carotenoids into the eye are not known, but tubulin has been identified as the major carotenoid-binding protein, and may play a role in the physiology of the macula.

  20. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  1. Communication-related allegations against physicians caring for premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J; Muniraman, H; Cascione, M; Ramanathan, R

    2017-10-01

    Maternal-fetal medicine physicians (MFMp) and neonatal-perinatal medicine physicians (NPMp) caring for premature infants and their families are exposed to significant risk for malpractice actions. Effective communication practices have been implicated to decrease litigious intentions but the extent of miscommunication as a cause of legal action is essentially unknown in this population. Analysis of communication-related allegations (CRAs) may help toward improving patient care and physician-patient relationships as well as decrease litigation risks. We retrospectively reviewed the Westlaw database, a primary online legal research resource used by United States lawyers and legal professionals, for malpractice cases against physicians involving premature infants. Inclusion criteria were: 22 to 36 weeks gestational age, cases related to peripartum events through infant discharge and follow-up, and legal records with detailed factual narratives. The search yielded 736 legal records, of which 167 met full inclusion criteria. A CRA was identified in 29% (49/167) of included cases. MFMp and/or NPMp were named in 104 and 54 cases, respectively. CRAs were identified in 26% (27/104) and 35% (19/54) of MFMp- and NPMp-named cases, respectively, with a majority involving physician-family for both specialties (81% and 74%, respectively). Physician-family CRAs for MFMp and NPMp most often regarded lack of informed consent (50% and 57%, respectively), lack of full disclosure (41% and 29%, respectively) and lack of anticipatory guidance (36% and 21%, respectively). This study of a major legal database identifies CRAs as significant causes of legal action against MFMp and NPMp involved in the care of high-risk women and infants delivered preterm. Physicians should be especially vigilant with obtaining genuine informed consent and maintaining open communication with families.

  2. Emerging treatments for premature ejaculation: focus on dapoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne JG Hellstrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wayne JG HellstromChief, Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is a common problem in men worldwide. It has a significant impact on affected men and their partners in terms of self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their sexual relationships, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Psychological therapies may achieve short-term improvements, but there are limited data on the long-term success of these methods. Oral therapy with long-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs improves intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, but these agents are designed to be administered daily and may be associated with unwanted sexual side effects and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI that can be taken as needed (prn by men with PE. It has been studied in five separate multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving more than 6000 men with PE. In four studies that evaluated IELT as an endpoint (N = 4843, dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg prn achieved statistically significant increases in IELT versus placebo. Dapoxetine also showed statistically significant improvements in perceived control over ejaculation, PE-related personal distress, and other patient-reported outcomes in all five trials. Dapoxetine treatment is generally well-tolerated, with low incidences of discontinuation syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and treatment-emergent mood symptoms. The most common adverse events with dapoxetine included nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and somnolence.Keywords: dapoxetine, discontinuation syndrome, premature ejaculation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  3. Diuretic exposure in premature infants from 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughon, Matthew M.; Chantala, Kim; Aliaga, Sofia; Herring, Amy H.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Hughes, Rachel; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diuretics are often prescribed off-label to premature infants, particularly to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We examined their use and safety in this group. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of infants diuretics in 333 neonatal intensive care units from 1997–2011. We examined use of acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, chlorothiazide, diazoxide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, mannitol, metolazone, or spironolactone combination. Respiratory support and FiO2 on the first day of each course of diuretic use were identified. Results Thirty-seven percent (39,357/107,542) of infants were exposed to at least 1 diuretic; furosemide was the most commonly used (93% with ≥1 recorded dose), followed by spironolactone, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, and acetazolamide. Seventy-four percent were exposed to 1 diuretic at a time, 19% to 2 diuretics simultaneously, and 6% to 3 diuretics simultaneously. The most common combination was furosemide/spironolactone, followed by furosemide/chlorothiazide and chlorothiazide/spironolactone. Many infants were not receiving mechanical ventilation on the first day of each new course of furosemide (47%), spironolactone (69%), chlorothiazide (61%), and hydrochlorothiazide (68%). Any adverse event occurred on 42 per 1000 infant-days for any diuretic and 35 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. Any serious adverse event occurred in 3.8 for any diuretic and 3.2 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. The most common laboratory abnormality associated with diuretic exposure was thrombocytopenia. Conclusion Despite no FDA indication and little safety data, over one third of premature infants in our population were exposed to a diuretic, many with minimal respiratory support. PMID:24801161

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria in Iran: new screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohipoor, Ramak; Karkhaneh, Reza; Farahani, Afsar; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Modjtahedi, Bobeck; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yaseri, Mehdi; Khodabande, Alireza; Zarei, Mohammad; Imani Fuladi, Marjan; Taheri, Arash; Riazi Esfahani, Mohammad; Loewenstein, John

    2016-07-01

    To test the applicability of existing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) guidelines on Iranian patients and to develop novel ROP screening criteria in Iran. Both eyes of 1932 infants born ≤37 weeks of gestation and/or weighting ≤3000 g were included in this prospective cohort study that was conducted across nine neonatal intensive care units and a tertiary eye hospital ROP clinic. The patients were examined for ROP and the need for treatment (type 1 ROP or worse). All the patients were screened 4 weeks after birth or at 31 weeks of postmenstrual age, whichever was later. The patients were followed until retinal vascularisation was completed or the patients reached 50 weeks of gestational age (GA) without prethreshold ROP. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best screening criteria for ROP. Screening criteria from other countries were applied to our patient data to determine their ability to appropriately detect ROP. Patients with ROP requiring treatment. The mean GA±SD and birth weight (BW)±SD of the screened patients were 32±2.7 weeks and 1713±516 g, respectively. Using criteria of GA≤32 weeks or BW ≤2000 yielded sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 26.7%, respectively, for treatment requiring ROP regardless of clinical comorbidities. Using screening recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics would miss 25.4% of ROP and 8.4%ROP requiring treatment in our cohort. Other countries screening recommendations would result in a significant amount of missed cases of treatment requiring ROP when applied to Iran. As a result, we have proposed new guidelines for premature babies in Iran. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  6. Ventilator flow data predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann H. Bentsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP. In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow–volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD. Of 33 neonates, 18 developed moderate/severe and 15 no/mild BPD. The groups did not differ in gestational age, surfactant treatment or ventilator settings. The infants who developed moderate/severe BPD had evidence of less airflow obstruction, significantly so for tidal expiratory flow at 50% of tidal expiratory volume (TEF50 expressed as a ratio of peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF (p=0.007. A compound model estimated by multiple logistic regression incorporating TEF50/PTEF, birthweight z-score and sex predicted moderate/severe BPD with good accuracy (area under the curve 0.893, 95% CI 0.735–0.973. This study suggests that flow data obtained from ventilators during the first hours of life may predict later BPD in premature neonates. Future and larger studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine their clinical usefulness.

  7. Exploring societal solidarity in the context of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Manya J; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Klein, Sabine D; Streuli, Jürg C; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Fauchère, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-21

    Extreme prematurity can result in long-term disabilities. Its impact on society is often not taken into account and deemed controversial. Our study examined attitudes of the Swiss population regarding extreme prematurity and people's perspectives regarding the question of solidarity with disabled people. We conducted a nationwide representative anonymous telephone survey with 1210 Swiss residents aged 18 years or older. We asked how people estimate their own personal solidarity, the solidarity of their social environment and the solidarity across the country with disabled persons. Spearman's correlation calculations were used to assess if a correlation exists between solidarity and setting financial limits to intensive care and between solidarity and withholding neonatal intensive care. According to 36.0% of the respondents intensive medical care should not be withheld from extremely preterm infants, even if their chances for an acceptable quality of life were poor. For 28.8%, intensive care should be withheld from these infants, and 26.9% held an intermediate position depending on the situation. A total of 31.5% were against setting a financial limit to treatment of extremely preterm newborns with an uncertain future quality of life, 34.2% were in favour and 26.9% were deliberating. A majority (88.8%) considered their solidarity toward disabled people as substantial; the solidarity of their personal environment and of the society at large was estimated as high by 79.1% and 48.6%, respectively. The Swiss population expressed a high level of solidarity which may alleviate some pressure on parents and health care providers in the decision-making process in neonatal intensive care units. In addition, there was no relationship between solidarity and people's willingness to pay for the care or withholding treatment of extremely preterm babies.

  8. Faktor Ibu yang Mempengaruhi Persalinan Prematur di RSUD Arifin Achmad Pekanbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liva Maita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Persalinan prematur atau Partus Prematurus adalah persalinan yang terjadi pada usia kehamilan kurang dari 37 minggu dihitung dari hari pertama haid terakhir. Data di RSUD Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru didapatkan data pada tahun 2010 didapatkan data jumlah persalinan sebanyak 2400 kasus, dengan persalinan prematur 190 kasus (7,91%, tahun 2011 jumlah persalinan sebanyak 2287 kasus dengan persalinan prematur 279 kasus (12% dan pada periode Januari-April 2012 jumlah persalinan prematur 780 kasus (11,5%. Tujuan penelitian adalah diketahuinya hubungan dari komplikasi kehamilan, riwayat persalinan prematur, anemia, umur dan paritas dengan persalinan prematur. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus kontrol. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh ibu bersalin di RSUD Arifin achmad Pekanbaru. Besarnya sampel terdiri dari 245 kasus dan 245 kontrol. Analisis data dilakukan secara univariat, bivariat dan multivariat dengan metode Regresi Logistic Ganda. Hasil penelitian adalah komplikasi kehamilan (95% CI: 4,09-9,21, umur (CI 95%: 1,58-3,69, dan paritas (95% CI: 1,05-2,36 berhubungan dengan persalinan prematur. Kesimpulan yaitu variabel dominan yang berhubungan dengan kejadian persalinan prematur adalah komplikasi kehamilan dan tidak ada variabel counfounding. Saran kepada ibu hamil yang mengalami komplikasi kehamilan untuk memeriksakan kehamilan secara teratur minimal 4 kali selama kehamilan; pada ibu paritas tinggi disarankan menggunakan kontrasepsi mantap; dan Kepada tenaga kesehatan dapat mengelompokkan status pasien yang berisiko untuk mempermudah pemberian KIE

  9. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marlene Coelho da; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Barbara Gastal Borges; Fortes Filho, João Borges; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight relief.

  10. An empirical operationalization study of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, M. D.; Hengeveld, M. W.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Olivier, B.

    1998-01-01

    The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculation remain to be investigated by a clinical study. A prospective study was therefore conducted to investigate the DSM-IV definition and to provide an empirical operationalization of premature ejaculation. In this study 140 men suffering from

  11. Human parechovirus type 3 infection: Cause of apnea in infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirei, Jun; Aizawa, Yuta; Okazaki, Minoru; Kobayashi, Akira; Onozuka, Junya; Numata, Osamu; Oishi, Tomohiro; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    Four infants born prematurely presented with multiple apnea episodes caused by human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection. All patients required oxygen supplementation, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. HPeV3 infection might be included in the differential diagnosis of apnea in neonates and young infants, especially those born prematurely. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Eye size in threshold retinopathy of prematurity, based on a Danish preterm infant series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans Callø; Fledelius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation.......To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation....

  13. Caffeine is a risk factor for osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ebtihal; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Moffatt, Michael; Narvey, Michael; Reed, Martin; Jiang, Depeng

    2018-01-22

    Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization. The cohort included 109 infants. 51% had osteopenia of prematurity and 8% had spontaneous rib fractures. Using the generalized linear mixed model, caffeine dose and duration of caffeine therapy showed a strong association with osteopenia of prematurity. Steroids and vitamin D were also significantly correlated with osteopenia of prematurity while diuretic use did not show a statistically significant effect. The cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine, as well as steroid are associated with osteopenia of prematurity in this cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the lowest dose of caffeine needed to treat effectively apnea of prematurity.

  14. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national registers...

  15. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  16. A new risk-based screening criterion for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.......The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark....

  17. Indices of Neonatal Prematurity as Discriminators of Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Harvey B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The comparative value of various parameters of neonatal prematurity for differentiating intellective, scholastic, and social functioning in middle childhood was assessed for a sample of 38 prematurely born and 26 maturely born subjects aged 7 to 9.5 years. (Author/JMB)

  18. The perception of partnership between parents of premature infants and nurses in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Larsen, Palle; Weis, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify how parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and nurses perceive their partnership.The review questions are: how do parents of premature infants and nurses perceive their partnership during...

  19. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW

  20. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function

  1. The role of the human leukocyte antigen system in retinopathy of prematurity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Rocha, Gustavo; Proença, Elisa; Tafulo, Sandra; Freitas, Fátima; Guimarães, Hercília

    2013-12-01

    To assess the association between the human leukocyte antigen system and retinopathy of prematurity. Neonates of prematurity. A large-scale population-based study should be performed to clarify this association. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Forensic study into the causes of premature failures in asphalt pavements in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is faced with challenges of premature failures in roads and highways. Some asphalt pavements fail prematurely in less than five years of their expected 20 years design life cycle. These failures have been identified as mostly permanent...

  3. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  4. Premature responding is associated with approach to a food cue in male and female heterogeneous stock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher P; Palmer, Abraham A; Woods, Leah C Solberg; Hawk, Larry W; Richards, Jerry B; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of behavioral regulation, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug addiction, are in part due to poor inhibitory control, attentional deficits, and hyper-responsivity to reward-associated cues. To determine whether these traits are related, we tested genetically variable male and female heterogeneous stock rats in the choice reaction time (CRT) task and Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA). Sex differences in the response to methylphenidate during the CRT were also assessed. In the CRT task, rats were required to withhold responding until one of two lights indicated whether responses into a left or right port would be reinforced with water. Reaction time on correct trials and premature responses were the operational definitions of attention and response inhibition, respectively. Rats were also pretreated with oral methylphenidate (0, 2, 4 mg/kg) during the CRT task to determine whether this drug would improve performance. Subsequently, during PavCA, presentation of an illuminated lever predicted the delivery of a food pellet into a food-cup. Lever-directed approach (sign-tracking) and food-cup approach (goal-tracking) were the primary measures, and rats were categorized as "sign-trackers" and "goal-trackers" using an index based on these measures. Sign-trackers made more premature responses than goal-trackers but showed no differences in reaction time. There were sex differences in both tasks, with females having higher sign-tracking, completing more CRT trials, and making more premature responses after methylphenidate administration. These results indicate that response inhibition is related to reward-cue responsivity, suggesting that these traits are influenced by common genetic factors.

  5. Metabolomics of prematurity: analysis of patterns of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers by categories of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Ducharme, Robin; Potter, Beth K; Little, Julian; Thébaud, Bernard; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2014-02-01

    Prematurity may influence the levels of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers obtained through newborn screening. Identifying which analytes are the most affected by degree of prematurity could provide insight into how prematurity impacts metabolism. Analytes from blood spots assayed by Newborn Screening Ontario between March 2006 and April 2009 were used in this analysis. We examined the associations between the degree of prematurity and the levels of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers in all newborns with and without adjustment for birth weight, feeding status, sample timing, transfusion, and sex. Our analysis included the following cohorts: 373,819 children born at term (>36 wk gestation), 26,483 near-term children (33-36 wk gestation), 4,354 very premature children (28-32 wk gestation), and 1,146 extremely premature children (prematurity, the levels of three amino acids (arginine, leucine, and valine) were at least 50% different between the cohorts of extremely premature and term children. The levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone increased with increasing prematurity, while thyrotropin-stimulating hormone values consistently decreased with increasing prematurity. None of the three enzyme markers we examined showed a trend in levels across categories of prematurity. This study demonstrates that children at different stages of prematurity are metabolically distinct. Future research should focus on the mechanism by which specific analytes are influenced by prematurity.

  6. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weightparents' memories and experiences, overprotection body, education, relationship with the medical practice and knowledge. The methodology used allowed to create a space for mutual recognition and reflection for participants. Prematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  7. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in premature infants using a radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Michiomi

    2001-01-01

    The cases of 36 very low birthweight infants (premature group) and 52 mature infants with birth weights as low as 1500 g (mature group) with gastro-esephageal reflux disease (GERD) were reviewed. These infants received 24 hour pH monitoring, reflux scintigraphy, gastric emptying, and antrum motility measurement. The results of 24-hour pH monitoring of the premature group are not different from these of the mature group. Time required for reflux scintigraphy of the premature group is higher than that of the mature group. Emptying time of premature group is slower than that of the mature group. Dietary management in premature infants with GERD is important. Using a nasoduodenal feeding tube is quite effective. Radionuclide method, in addition to 24-hour pH monitoring, should be used to evaluate total gastroesophageal function. (author)

  8. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Buffering capacity of the vitreous body in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amkhanitskaia, L I; Sidorenko, E I; Nikolaeva, G V; Kuznetsova, Iu D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of vitreous body changes in the pathogenesis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. The study included 60 children with stage 4-5 retinopathy of prematurity demonstrating either classical or aggressive posterior form of progression. In all cases vitreous samples for laboratory testing were taken during surgery. The study showed that aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is associated with more significant metabolic changes in comparison with classical form of the disease. The degree of biochemical imbalance of the vitreous appeared directly related to the stage of the disease, which was determined by the type and extent of retinal detachment. Volcano-shaped retinal detachment with intensive exudation within the posterior eye segment is considered the most severe variant of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is characterized by substantial disturbance of metabolism of the vitreous body, which contributes to exudation and proliferation, thus aggravating the course of the disease and worsening the prognosis.

  10. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in premature infants using a radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Michiomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital of Ohkubo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    The cases of 36 very low birthweight infants (premature group) and 52 mature infants with birth weights as low as 1500 g (mature group) with gastro-esephageal reflux disease (GERD) were reviewed. These infants received 24 hour pH monitoring, reflux scintigraphy, gastric emptying, and antrum motility measurement. The results of 24-hour pH monitoring of the premature group are not different from these of the mature group. Time required for reflux scintigraphy of the premature group is higher than that of the mature group. Emptying time of premature group is slower than that of the mature group. Dietary management in premature infants with GERD is important. Using a nasoduodenal feeding tube is quite effective. Radionuclide method, in addition to 24-hour pH monitoring, should be used to evaluate total gastroesophageal function. (author)

  11. A population study of the contribution of medical comorbidity to the risk of prematurity in blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Jurkovitz, Claudine; Hoffman, Matthew; Kroelinger, Charlan; Weintraub, William

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the higher prevalence of medical comorbidities among black women accounts for their increased risk of prematurity. A population-based regional cohort of women receiving obstetric care for singleton pregnancies at a large community hospital between 2003 and 2006 were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Data for 18,624 consecutive births found increased odds of adverse outcomes for black compared to white women: prematurity OR = 1.6 (1.4-1.8), extreme prematurity OR = 2.5 (2.0-3.2). Logistic regression modeling identified black race, age prematurity among blacks. Though there is a greater burden of health risk among black women, this did not account for the higher rates of low birthweight and prematurity.

  12. [Mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L; Wang, X; Zou, L Y; Ruan, Y; Chen, Y; Li, G H; Zhang, W Y

    2016-04-05

    Comparative study of delivery mode and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term compared to those with intact membranes. A cross sectional survey of all deliveries in 39 hospitals in 3 geographic regions of mainland China from January 1 to December 31, 2011 was carried out to investigate the demographic data and delivery outcomes. In our analysis of 103 124 pregnancies, 14 073(13.6%) were complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Compared to those with intact membrane, the risks of postpartum hemorrhage, maternal complications and neonatal complications were increased significantly for women with premature rupture of membranes at term, especially the prevalence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(NRDS) and meconium aspiration syndrome. The risk of low Apgar (premature rupture of membranes at term. The adverse perinatal outcomes are slightly higher in women with term premature rupture of membranes than those with intact membrane.

  13. Perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians concerning post-discharge care practice of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, A; Parkinson, E; Khawar, N; Elmeki, A; Narula, P; Hoang, D

    2017-01-01

    Survival rates of premature infants are at a historical high and increasingly more pediatricians are caring for former premature infants. The goal of this study was to describe the perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians, as well as, the challenges of rendering post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge care for premature infants. An anonymous 22-question web-based survey was emailed to pediatricians who are current members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and practicing in Kings County, New York. There were 148 completed surveys with 79% being general pediatricians. Of all respondents, 63% believed that premature infants should have a neonatal high risk follow-up visit within days after discharge and 64% were satisfied with the NICU discharge summary acquisition. While 74% of pediatricians felt comfortable following up with former extremely premature infants, 65% referred to specialists, most often to child development, neurology, and physical and/or occupational therapy. The majority (85%) were more likely to refer premature infants to early intervention. Participating pediatricians varied in their knowledge of immunization and breastfeeding guidelines. Finally, 88% of respondents acknowledged that caregivers of premature infants experience increased stress, with 53% stating that the stress should be addressed. Understanding the perceptions and challenges of pediatricians who care for premature infants may help improve post NICU quality of care. Transition to the outpatient setting is a crucial step in the management of premature infants and a focus on improved hand-off procedures between hospital and physicians may prove beneficial. Also, pediatricians must stay abreast of current recommendations for breastfeeding and vaccinations. Furthermore, emphasis should be given to stress reduction and management for caregivers of former premature infants.

  14. Automated [inservice testing] IST program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    There are two methods used to manage a Section XI program: Manual and Automated. The manual method usually consists of hand written records of test results and scheduling requirements. This method while initially lower in cost, results in problems later on in the life of a plant as data continues to accumulate. Automation allows instant access to forty years of test results. Due to the lower cost and higher performance of todays' personal computers, an automated method via a computer program provides an excellent method for managing the vast amount of data that accumulates over the forty year life of a plant. Through the use of a computer, special functions involving this data are available, which through a manual method would not be practical. This paper will describe some of the advantages in using a computer program to manage the Section XI 1ST program. The ISTBASE consists of program code and numerous databases. The source code is written and complied in CLIPPER (tm) language. Graphing routines are performed by dGE (tm) graphics library. Graphs are displayed in EGA form. Since it was estimated that the total complied code, would exceed 640K of ram, overlays through the use of modular programming were used to facilitate the DOS restrictions of 640K ram. The use of overlays still require the user to gain access to ISTBASE through the PASSWORD module. The database files are designed to be compatible with dBASE III+ (tm) data structure. This allows transfer of data between ISTBASE and other database managers/applications. A math co-processor is utilized to speed up calculations on graphs and other mathematical calculations. Program code and data files require a hard disk drive with at least 28 Meg capacity. While ISTBASE will execute on a 8088 based computer, an 80286 computer with a 12 MHz operating speed should be considered the minimum system configuration

  15. The Tokamak IST-TOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    A small tokamak is under construction at the Portuguese Technical Superior Institute. The main objective is to create a home based laboratory in which an independent scientific program might be developed. (L.C.J.A.). 14 refs, 6 figs

  16. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  17. Assessment of Fuel Analysis Methodology and Fission Product Release for 37-Element Fuel by Using the Latest IST Codes during Stagnation Feeder Break in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2009-09-01

    Feeder break accident is regarded as one of the design basis accident in CANDU reactor which results in a fuel failure. For a particular range of inlet feeder break sizes, the flow in the channel is reduced sufficiently that the fuel and fuel channel integrity can be significantly affected to have damage in the affected channel, while the remainder of the core remains adequately cooled. The flow in the downstream channel can be more or less stagnated due to a balance between pressure at the break on the upstream side and the reverse driving pressure between the break and the downstream end. In the extreme, this can lead to rapid fuel heatup and fuel damage and failure of the fuel channel similar to that associated with a severe channel flow blockage. Such an inlet feeder break scenario is called a stagnation break. In this report, the fuel analysis methodology and the assessment results of fission product inventory and release during the stagnation feeder break are described for conservatively assumed limiting channel. The accident was assumed to be occurred in the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 and the latest safety codes were used in the analysis. Fission product inventories during the steady state were calculated by using ELESTRES-IST 1.2 code. The whole analysis process was carried out by a script file which was programmed by Perl language. The perl script file was programmed to make all ELESTRES input files for each bundle and each ring based on the given power-burnup history and thermal-hydraulic conditions of the limiting channel and to perform the fuel analysis automatically. The fission product release during the transient period of stagnation feeder break was evaluated by applying Gehl model. The amounts of each isotope's release are conservatively evaluated for additional 2 seconds after channel failure. The calculated fission product releases are provided to the following dose assessment as a source term

  18. The preterm cervix reveals a transcriptomic signature in the presence of premature prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makieva, Sofia; Dubicke, Aurelija; Rinaldi, Sara F; Fransson, Emma; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Norman, Jane E

    2017-06-01

    Premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes accounts for 30% of all premature births and is associated with detrimental long-term infant outcomes. Premature cervical remodeling, facilitated by matrix metalloproteinases, may trigger rupture at the zone of the fetal membranes overlying the cervix. The similarities and differences underlying cervical remodeling in premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes are unexplored. We aimed to perform the first transcriptomic assessment of the preterm human cervix to identify differences between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes and to compare the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Cervical biopsies were collected following preterm labor with intact membranes (n = 6) and premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes (n = 5). Biopsies were also collected from reference groups at term labor (n = 12) or term not labor (n = 5). The Illumina HT-12 version 4.0 BeadChips microarray was utilized, and a novel network graph approach determined the specificity of changes between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting confirmed the microarray findings. Immunofluorescence was used for localization studies and gelatin zymography to assess matrix metalloproteinase activity. PML-RARA-regulated adapter molecule 1, FYVE-RhoGEF and PH domain-containing protein 3 and carcinoembryonic antigen-ralated cell adhesion molecule 3 were significantly higher, whereas N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 was lower in the premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes cervix when compared with the cervix in preterm labor with intact membranes, term labor, and term not labor. PRAM1 and CEACAM3 were localized

  19. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    Complaints of premature ejaculation (PE) and its repercussions are culture-dependent. To report the measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the impact of PE in Kermanshah, Iran. From November 1996 through October 2008, 3,458 patients presented to us with self-diagnosed PE. In the first visit, after obtaining a psychosocial and sexual history, PE-specific bother was self-rated by the patients and the patients were advised to measure their IELTs over the next 2-3 weeks. In the second visit, the measured IELTs were reported by the patients. Patients' measured IELT and bother score. Age range was 17-80 years (mean 34.1, standard deviation [SD] 9.1, median 32). Sixty-five percent were married. Primary and secondary PE was reported by 2,105 (60.8%) and 1,353 (39.1%) patients, respectively. Occasional PE was reported by 36 (0.01%). Of those with multiple partners, 6% had partner-specific PE. IELT distribution was positively skewed. Anteportal ejaculation was reported by 97 (2.8%). In 3,458 self-reported PE patients, IELT was 1-15 seconds in 542 (15.7%), 16-30 seconds in 442 (12.8%), 31-60 seconds in 978 (28.3%), > 1 2 5 minutes in 136 (3.9%). IELTs of IELT and bother (r = -0.607) was highly negative, with shorter IELTs being correlated with more bother. Six hundred forty-three patients (18.6%) always consumed opium to lengthen their IELTs. All 21 patients who started to use Tramadol as a PE treatment became addicted to it. Of 168 divorced couples due to PE, 23 divorced because the sexually dissatisfied wives became involved in extramarital affairs. Applying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for PE and a cutoff IELT point of IELTs of longer than 2 minutes, the patients with occasional PE, and the patients who reported no personal bother, of 3,458 self-reported PE patients, 2,571 (74.3%) had PE. Including the 97 patients with anteportal ejaculation, arithmetic mean IELT in 2,571 patients was 45.87 seconds, SD 36.1, median

  20. Impaired Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Neurogenesis in Diet-Induced Premature Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Stankiewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic high caloric intake (HCI is a risk factor for multiple major human disorders, from diabetes to neurodegeneration. Mounting evidence suggests a significant contribution of circadian misalignment and sleep alterations to this phenomenon. An inverse temporal relationship between sleep, activity, food intake, and clock mechanisms in nocturnal and diurnal animals suggests that a search for effective therapeutic approaches can benefit from the use of diurnal animal models. Here, we show that, similar to normal aging, HCI leads to the reduction in daily amplitude of expression for core clock genes, a decline in sleep duration, an increase in scoliosis, and anxiety-like behavior. A remarkable decline in adult neurogenesis in 1-year old HCI animals, amounting to only 21% of that in age-matched Control, exceeds age-dependent decline observed in normal 3-year old zebrafish. This is associated with misalignment or reduced amplitude of daily patterns for principal cell cycle regulators, cyclins A and B, and p20, in brain tissue. Together, these data establish HCI in zebrafish as a model for metabolically induced premature aging of sleep, circadian functions, and adult neurogenesis, allowing for a high throughput approach to mechanistic studies and drug trials in a diurnal vertebrate.

  1. Prematurity and parental expectations: too early and now too much.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maypole, Jack; Trozzi, Maria; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2011-05-01

    Hami is a 3-year-old boy who is a former premature 25-week infant with a birth weight of 1 pound 9 ounces. He had a relatively smooth Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) course; he required intubation for 1 month and went home on room air. He had a left Grade I intraventricular hemorrhage that was resolved by 2 months of life. He had 7 blood transfusions for anemia over the first 3 months of life. A brainstem auditory evoked potential test was normal at hospital discharge, and he showed no evidence of retinopathy of prematurity. He never had seizure activity.He was discharged to home at 3 months where he did well and thrived on a high calorie formula. He walked at 17 months and spoke his first words at 2 years. He was enrolled in Early Intervention at the time of discharge from hospital; monthly home visits were increased to weekly visits by an early childhood educator at 12 months. When he was 12 months, he was enrolled in a family day care with 4 other children younger than 3 years. Hami's language development was slow; at 2.5 years of age, he was beginning to make 2 word combinations. Early intervention services were increased to include an additional hour of speech and language therapy as well as a play group.Hami's mother is 33 years old, and this is her first child. She worked as an accounting assistant, but she was able to be home with Hami for the first year of his life. She returned to full-time work on his first birthday. Hami's father is 35 years old and works for the national electrical grid as a manager. They are not married but have lived together for the last 5 years. Dad works evenings and cares for Hami from 4 to 6 pm after childcare; mom returns from work at 6 pm. Dad leaves for work at 7 pm and works till 2 am. Their relationship has been strained by the child care demands, their work schedules, and Hami's developmental progress.Hami's primary care pediatrician specializes in children with complex medical problems. The parents express concern at

  2. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  3. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G. McMahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aimml To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994-2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1-3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged > 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all. The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg, dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg, and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg, and evaluation of validated rated scales

  5. Space loss following premature loss of primary second molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahwi, Hassan H; Donly, Kevin J; Contreras, Claudia I

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the amount of space loss (SL) caused by premature loss of primary second molars, determine whether the eruption status of permanent first molars is an important factor in the amount of SL, and evaluate the effectiveness of space maintainers (SMs) in SL prevention. SL associated with 100 prematurely extracted primary second molars was evaluated in 87 healthy patients. Teeth were divided into groups based on the use of SMs (36 with SM and 64 without SM). Bitewing and periapical radiographs taken before extraction and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after extraction were used to determine the amount of SL. Not every patient attended every recall appointment, so the sample size varied at different evaluation times. The most significant amount of SL occurred in the first 12 months after extraction. In patients who did not use an SM, at 6 months there was a mean SL of 2.12 mm (SD, 1.65 mm) and at 12 months there was a mean of 4.02 mm (SD, 1.65), with significantly more SL in the first 6 months (P 0.05). When patients without an SM were grouped by the eruption status of the permanent first molar, there was significantly more SL in the groups with unerupted first molars than there was in the groups with erupted first molars at both 6 months (P < 0.001) and 12 months (P < 0.05). At both 6 and 12 months, the amount of SL in patients who had an SM (n = 13 and n = 14, respectively) was not significantly different from the amount of SL in those who did not have an SM (n = 33 and n = 23, respectively). SMs should be placed as soon as possible following tooth extraction to prevent undue SL. Placement of an SM a year or more after extraction has minimal benefit, since most SL takes place within the first year. SL does occur even when SMs are used.

  6. Best practices in managing child and adolescent behavioral health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.

  7. Effects of prematurity on language acquisition and auditory maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Biaggio, Eliara Pinto Vieira; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To verify which damages prematurity causes to hearing and language. We used the decriptors language/linguagem, hearing/audição, prematurity/prematuridade in databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo. randomized controlled trials, non-randomized intervention studies and descriptive studies (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control projects). The articles were assessed independently by two authors according to the selection criteria. Twenty-six studies were selected, of which seven were published in Brazil and 19 in international literature. Nineteen studies comparing full-term and preterm infants. Two of the studies made comparisons between premature infants small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age. In four studies, the sample consisted of children with extreme prematurity, while other studies have been conducted in children with severe and moderate prematurity. To assess hearing, these studies used otoacoustic emissions, brainstem evoked potentials, tympanometry, auditory steady-state response and visual reinforcement audiometry. For language assessment, most of the articles used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. Most studies reviewed observed that prematurity is directly or indirectly related to the acquisition of auditory and language abilities early in life. Thus, it could be seen that prematurity, as well as aspects related to it (gestational age, low weight at birth and complications at birth), affect maturation of the central auditory pathway and may cause negative effects on language acquisition.

  8. Features of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Tahir, Muhammad Younis; Ayub, Muhammad Hammad; Mirza, Khurram Azam

    2015-02-01

    To study the demographic and clinical features of Retinopathy of Prematurity in urban Punjab. The cross-sectional study was performed at Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, from April 2010 to October 2013 and comprised neonates born with birth weight less than 2000 g, gestational age less than 37 weeks, or those who were considered high risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Variables recorded included history, birth weight, gestational age, oxygen supplementation, development of Retinopathy of Prematurity, and laser treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. There were 285 neonates in the study with a mean birth weight of 1280.34 ± 350.43 g and mean gestational age being 29.38 ± 3.14 weeks. Overall, 167 (58.6%) received supplemental oxygen, 86(30.2%) were anaemic and 44 (15.4%) received blood transfusion. Besides, 47 (16.5%) premature babies were product of multiple gestation, 34 (11.9%) were having respiratory distress, 25 (8.8%) had sepsis and received intravenous antibiotics, 70(24.6%) developed Retinopathy of Prematurity, and 22 (7.7%) developed threshold disease and received laser treatment at mean gestational age of 32.11 ± 2.53 weeks. Screening is key to preventing childhood blindness caused by Retinopathy of Prematurity. Prematurity, low birth weight and supplemental oxygen therapy are significant risk factors for the condition.

  9. The relationship of the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Hodges, Jennifer K; Thevarajah, Tamara S; McCourt, Emily A; Cerda, Ashlee M; Mandava, Naresh; Gibbs, Ronald S; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-09-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an adverse outcome of preterm birth and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. The relationship between the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity is understudied. To investigate whether there is a difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in infants with preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, a medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 827 infants screened for retinopathy of prematurity who were delivered at a single tertiary care center in Colorado. All infants fulfilled the American Academy of Pediatrics 2013 screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity defined as "infants with a birth weight of ≤1500 g or gestational age of 30 weeks or less (as defined by the attending neonatologist) and selected infants with a birth weight between 1500 and 2000 g or gestational age of >30 weeks with an unstable clinical course, including those requiring cardiorespiratory support and who are believed by their attending pediatrician or neonatologist to be at high risk for retinopathy of prematurity." Two independent reviewers masked to retinopathy of prematurity outcomes determined whether preterm birth resulted from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Data were analyzed with univariate and multivariable logistic regression. In our cohort, the frequency of preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes was 34%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. The mean gestational age (weeks, days) ± SD (range) in the cohort and across the preterm birth subtypes was as follows: entire cohort, 28 weeks, 6 days ± 2 weeks, 3 days (23 weeks, 3 days - 36 weeks, 4 days); spontaneous preterm labor

  10. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  11. Analysis on screening results of 2 203 premature infants with retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity(ROPin preterm infants. METHODS: The wide-field digital pediatric Retinal imaging system was used to screen 2 203 preterm infants with gestational age RESULTS: Totally 367 infants(621 eyeswere diagnosed as retinopathy among 2 203 premature infants and the incidence of ROP was 16.66%; 236 cases(399 eyesof ROP(26.61%were detected in 887 cases of premature infants in accord with screening standard of the Chinese Premature Retinopathy Screening Guidelines(2014, and 131 cases(222 eyesof ROP(9.95%was detected in 1 316 cases of premature infants outside the screening standard. In our research, the incidence of ROP was related with gestational age, birth weight, oxygen duration and mechanical ventilation. However, the relationship had not been found with artificial insemination, caesarean birth, gender, polyembryony, acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine infection, intrauterine distress, premature rupture of membrane. The incidence of ROP was statistically significant between different gestational age groups, different birth weight groups and different oxygen groups(PCONCLUSION: The incidence of ROP is 16.66% in this study, and there is still a certain proportion outside the screening standard of the Chinese Premature Retinopathy Screening Guidelines(2014. Gestational age, birth weight, oxygen duration and mechanical ventilation are high risk factors for ROP.

  12. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clinical Features, Classification, Natural History, Management and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ELKAR (L-CARNITINE IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Garina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently in Russia there is a tendency to increase the proportion of premature infants, prolonged postnatal adaptation which may be associated with carnitine deficiency Early diagnosis and correction of carnitine deficiency in premature infants is possible to reserve the prevention of pathological conditions of the prenatal period in these patients. Materials and Methods. 98 newborn infants have been examined with the help of clinical laboratory methods. Results. It has been stated that the overwhelming majority of newborn infants irrespective of their gestational age and body mass at the moment of birth had reference ranges of crude carnitine and higher degree of floating carnitine in their peripheral blood within the first days of their lives. These changes are particularly characteristic for small pre-mature infants. Statistically significant differences between the levels of crude carnitine and floating carnitine depended on the gender of newborn infants have been revealed. Directly correlated dependence of the level of crude carnitine on the body mass at the moment of birth of small premature infants has been stated. Discussion and Conclusions. It has been proved that implementing L-carnitine into the development care plan for premature infants facilitates quick body weight gain, significantly cuts down the period of tube feeding, lowers frequency of anemia development of premature infants and duration of neonatal jaundice. The ability of Elkar to correct functional diseases of cardio vascular system of premature infants has been shown.

  14. Level of C - reactive protein as an indicator for prognosis of premature uterine contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najat Nakishbandy, Bayar M; Barawi, Sabat A M

    2014-01-01

    high concentrations of maternal C-reactive protein have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and premature uterine contraction may be predicted by elevated levels of C-reactive protein. This may ultimately be simple and cost-effective enough to introduce as a low-risk screening program. an observational case control study was performed from May 1st, 2010 to December 1st, 2010 at Maternity Teaching Hospital-Erbil/ Kurdistan Region/ Iraq. The sample size was (200) cases. Hundred of them were presented with premature uterine contractions at 24(+0)-36(+6) weeks. The other hundred were control group at same gestational ages. The level of C-reactive protein was determined in both groups and both groups were followed till delivery. (93) out of (100) women with premature uterine contractions had elevated level of C-Reactive protein and 91% delivered prematurely while in the control group only (9) out of (100) women had elevated level of C-reactive protein and only 8% of them delivered preterm. Differences were statistically highly significant. C-reactive protein can be used as a biomarker in prediction of premature delivery when it is associated with premature uterine contractions. As well it can be used as a screening test to detect cases that are at risk of premature delivery.

  15. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  16. Age-Related Effect of Viral-Induced Wheezing in Severe Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanny F. Perez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Premature children are prone to severe viral respiratory infections in early life, but the age at which susceptibility peaks and disappears for each pathogen is unclear. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of the age distribution and clinical features of acute viral respiratory infections in full-term and premature children, aged zero to seven years. Results: The study comprised of a total of 630 hospitalizations (n = 580 children. Sixty-seven percent of these hospitalizations occurred in children born full-term (>37 weeks, 12% in preterm (32–37 weeks and 21% in severely premature children (<32 weeks. The most common viruses identified were rhinovirus (RV; 60% and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 17%. Age-distribution analysis of each virus identified that severely premature children had a higher relative frequency of RV and RSV in their first three years, relative to preterm or full-term children. Additionally, the probability of RV- or RSV-induced wheezing was higher overall in severely premature children less than three years old. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the vulnerability to viral infections in children born severely premature is more specific for RV and RSV and persists during the first three years of age. Further studies are needed to elucidate the age-dependent molecular mechanisms that underlie why premature infants develop RV- and RSV-induced wheezing in early life.

  17. [Estimation on the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Feng, Luzhao; Zheng, Yaming; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012. Both human capital approach and friction cost methods were used to compute the indirect economic burden of premature deaths from the following sources: mortality from the national disease surveillance system in 2012, average annual income per capita from the China Statistic Yearbook in 2012, population size from the 2010 China census, and life expectancy in China from the World Health Organization life table. Data from the Human Capital Approach Estimates showed that the indirect economic burden of premature deaths in China was 425.1 billion in 2012, accounting for 8‰ of the GDP. The indirect economic burden of chronic non-communicable diseases associated premature deaths was accounted for the highest proportion(67.1%, 295.4 billion), followed by those of injuries related premature deaths (25.6% , 108.9 billion), infectious diseases, maternal and infants diseases, and malnutrition related deaths (6.4% , 26.9 billion). The top five premature deaths that cause the indirect economic burden were malignancy, cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, intentional injuries, and diseases of the respiratory system. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the population of 20-59 year-olds. Under the Friction Cost method, the estimates appeared to be 0.11%-3.49% of the total human capital approach estimates. Premature death caused heavy indirect economic burden in China. Chronic non-communicable diseases and injuries seemed to incur the major disease burden. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the working age group.

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Na; Wei, Mei-Chen; Cui, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Medulla oblongata dysplasia is an extremely rare form of neurodevelopmental immaturity in premature infants. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants may be closely related to neurodevelopmental immaturity. We report a female premature infant who succumbed to intracranial hemorrhage caused by medulla oblongata dysplasia. The infant was born at 31 weeks gestation. The onset manifestation was symptomatic epilepsy associated with subependymal hemorrhage. Levetiracetam and sodium valproate were administered. During the hospitalization, hydrocephalus developed and the intracranial hemorrhage aggravated. The infant died on day 171 after birth. Early identification and prompt treatment should be emphasized. Clinicians should be aware of this condition, as it can potentially cause neonatal intracranial hemorrhage.

  19. [Intra-partum ethamsylate (dicynone) administration in the prevention of cerebral hemorrhage in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györe, F; Keserü, T; Gyuranecz, M; Bognár, I; Kerekes, L; Simon, G

    1990-12-16

    Dicynone has been in use in all premature births prophylactically since 1987 by the authors. The administration of the drug begins before or during delivery. The diagnoses of cerebral haemorrhage was established on autopsy and the cases were compared with the previous years when Dicynone was not administered. During prophylactic use of Dicynone the cerebral haemorrhages significantly reduced among premature babies. It is well known, that the etiology of the cerebral haemorrhages are multifactorial. Their favourable experiences confirm the literary communications, whereas use of Dicynone can be one of the efficacious preventive drug against palsy of the premature babies.

  20. Shared molecular and cellular mechanisms of premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubben, Nard; Misteli, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Ageing is the predominant risk factor for many common diseases. Human premature ageing diseases are powerful model systems to identify and characterize cellular mechanisms that underpin physiological ageing. Their study also leads to a better understanding of the causes, drivers and potential therapeutic strategies of common diseases associated with ageing, including neurological disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Using the rare premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a paradigm, we discuss here the shared mechanisms between premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases, including defects in genetic, epigenetic and metabolic pathways; mitochondrial and protein homeostasis; cell cycle; and stem cell-regenerative capacity.