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Sample records for premature infants effects

  1. Premature infant

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    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

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    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  3. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-hong; WANG Dan-hua; DONG Mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Glutamine, proposed to be conditionally essential for critically ill patients, is not added routinely to parenteral amino acid formulations for premature infants and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral feeding is Iow. Parenteral feeding is the basic way of nutrition in the first days of life of premature infants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for premature infants on growth and development, feeding toleration, and infective episodes.Methods From December 2002 to July 2006, 53 premature infants were given either standard or glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for more than 2 weeks. Twenty-eight infants were in glutamine supplemented group, whose gestational age (31.4±2.0) weeks, birth weight range (1386±251) g; twenty-five infants were in control group, gestational age (31.1 ± 1.7) weeks, with birth weight range (1346± 199) g. There were no differences between the two groups. Various growth and biochemical indices were monitored throughout the duration of hospital stay. Data between groups were analyzed with Student's t test. Nonparametric data were analyzed using a Chi-square test. A two-tailed P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The level of serum albumin was lower in the glutamine groups on the second week (3.0 vs 3.2 g/dl, P=0.028), and blood urea nitrogen was higher in glutamine groups on the fourth week (8.1 vs 4.9 mg/dl, P=0.014), but normal. Glutamine group infants took fewer days to regain birth weight (8.1 vs 10.4 days, P=0.017), required fewer days on parenteral nutrition (24.8 vs 30.8 days, P=0.035), with shorter stays in hospital (32.1 vs 38.6 days, P=0.047). Episodes of hospital acquired infection in glutamine supplemented infants were lower than that in control group (0.96 vs 1.84 times, P=0.000).Conclusion Parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants can shorten days on parenteral nutrition and

  4. Effect of vocal stimulation on responses of premature infants

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    Zahra Alipour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There are studies that support music and singing as appropriate developmental care for premature infants, thus, we conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to Quran recitation, lullaby music and silence. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial (2011-2012,120 premature infants in the Neonatal Unit (NNU at Izadi Hospital, were randomly assigned to experimental (holy Quran recitation, lullaby music and silence and control groups. The four groups were surveyed for physiological responses including, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate and behavioral states. The data were analyzed using SPSS-PC software and quantitative tests. Results: 66females and 54 male infants with gestational age 28- 36 weeks entered into the study. The fourgroupswere not significantly different in terms of demographic variables (P>0.05. The comparisonofchangesinthe infant’s responsesintheendof the intervention comparedtothebase lines, showedno statistically significant differencesbetweengroups(P>0.05. Repeated measures ANOVA and Friedman test did notindicate any significant differences in the mean ofresponseswithinanyof the four groups during the courseof study (P>0.05. Conclusion: Although fluctuations were observed in the mean of physiological responses and behavioral states in premature infants who listened to the recitation of the holy Quran and lullaby music, but these fluctuations were not significant. Findings of this study demonstrated that the preterm infants did not display any adverse reactions to the carefully designed acoustic intervention.

  5. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW 78

  6. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

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    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Nest Posture on the Sleep-wake State of Premature Infants

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    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature birth is a major cause of infant mortality in developed countries. Newborns confined to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs are in a rapid stage of brain development. As such, sleep plays a pivotal role in the proper brain development of newborns. However, this developmental aspect is often disregarded due to the lack of information. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nest posture on the sleep-wake state of premature infants. Method: This cross-over clinical trial was conducted on 60 premature infants admitted in the NICU of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. Infants were divided into two groups of experimental and control. Data were collected using the Assessment of Premature Infants' Behavior (APIB. Neonates in the control group were placed in an incubator, and neonates in the experimental group were positioned in a nest. Between-group comparison was performed using paired-samples T-test for normal variables and Wilcoxon test for non-normal variables. Results: In this study, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the scores of deep sleep state before (P=0.50 and after the intervention (P=0.59. However, during the intervention, mean score of deep sleep was higher in the experimental group (P=0.08. Moreover, mean score of slow wake state had no significant difference between the study groups before (P=0.67, after (P=0.86, and during the intervention (P=0.81. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, nest posture increased the deep sleep hours of premature infants as the most imperative state of brain development. Therefore, it is recommended that nest posture be used to improve the deep sleep state of premature infants.

  8. The effect of EMLA cream on minimizing pain during venipuncture in premature infants.

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    Hui-Chen, Fan; Hsiu-Lin, Chen; Shun-Line, Chen; Tai-Ling, Tasi; Li-Jung, Wang; Hsing-I, Tseng; San-Nan, Yang

    2013-02-01

    Painful procedures for premature infants in neonatal intensive care units remain inevitable. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of an eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream for minimizing pain in premature infants during venipuncture in neonatal intensive care units. This study enrolled 32 premature infants. A repeated-measures design was used. The scores of the 'Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale' (N-PASS) of each enrolled preterm infant were measured before, during and 10 min after venipuncture without and with EMLA cream use. Paired t-tests were used to compare the difference of N-PASS scores without and with EMLA cream use. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decrease in N-PASS scores during venipuncture in infants with EMLA cream. There was no significant change of N-PASS scores before, during and 10 min after venipuncture with EMLA cream by analysis of repeated analysis of variance. EMLA cream for minimizing pain during venipuncture could be recommended for premature infants.

  9. The effects of music listening on inconsolable crying in premature infants.

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    Keith, Douglas R; Russell, Kendra; Weaver, Barbara S

    2009-01-01

    Over the decades, medical staff have developed strategies to manage crying episodes of the critically ill and convalescing premature infant. These episodes of crying occur frequently after infants are removed from ventilation, but before they are able to receive nutrition orally. Not only are these episodes stressful to infants and upsetting to parents, but they are also stressful and time consuming for the staff that take care of these patients. Although the literature supports the benefits of music therapy in regard to physiological and certain behavioral measures with premature infants, no research exists that explores the use of music therapy with inconsolability related to the "nothing by mouth" status. This study explored the effects of music therapy on the crying behaviors of critically ill infants classified as inconsolable. Twenty-four premature infants with gestational age 32-40 weeks received a developmentally appropriate music listening intervention, alternating with days on which no intervention was provided. The results revealed a significant reduction in the frequency and duration of episodes of inconsolable crying as a result of the music intervention, as well as improved physiological measures including heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, and mean arterial pressure. Findings suggest the viability of using recorded music in the absence of a music therapist or the maternal voice to console infants when standard nursing interventions are not effective.

  10. Effects of music therapy on oxygen saturation in premature infants receiving endotracheal suctioning.

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    Chou, Lih-Lih; Wang, Ru-Hwa; Chen, Shu-Jen; Pai, Lu

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how premature infants' oxygen saturation changed in response to music therapy while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning. A convenience sample of 30 premature infants was selected from three neonatal intensive care units. A one-group repeated measures design was adopted for this study. The oxygen saturation of all subjects was first measured while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning during a four-hour control period with regular care. Then, four hours after the control period was completed, an experimental period began in which the music " Transitions " was played. One minute before suctioning, the level of oxygen saturation was measured to provide the baseline data. During a period of 30 minutes after suctioning, the oxygen saturation was recorded every minute to analyze the clinical effects of music therapy. The results showed that premature infants receiving music therapy with endotracheal suctioning had a significantly higher SPO(2); than that when not receiving music therapy (p music therapy (p music therapy as developmental care to premature infants when performing any nursing intervention may enhance not only the quality of nursing care but also quality of the infant's life.

  11. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

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    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  12. [Clinical effect of latamoxef on newborn and premature infants].

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    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Tsuchida, A; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1983-09-01

    Eleven infants ranging 2 days to 3 months of age were studied for clinical evaluation. Ten of them were diagnosed as sepsis or suspected to be septic. Another one contracted umbilical infection. In 7 of 10 cases, causative bacteria were detected by blood culture, that is S. epidermidis in 3 cases, E. cloacae in 2 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 case and A. calcoaceticus in another. Those infants were treated by parenteral LMOX. Dosage was 30 to 75 mg/kg per day. Clinical results were excellent in 6 cases (3 cases of S. epidermidis, 2 of E. cloacae and 1 of K. pneumoniae) and good in another case (A. calcoaceticus). The other 3 infants clinically diagnosed as sepsis but not proven by blood culture were also treated successfully. The result of the umbilical infection in 1 case was good. Another group of 5 infants ranging 4 to 22 days of age were also treated by LMOX because of suspected bacterial infections. With these infants pharmacokinetic study was done. Peak serum levels after 1 hour drip infusion of 20 mg/kg ranged from 43 to 53 micrograms/ml. Average of half-lives was 2.7 hours. Estimation of distribution volume resulted in 350 to 523 ml/kg body weight.

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ELKAR (L-CARNITINE IN PREMATURE INFANTS

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    Svetlana V. Garina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently in Russia there is a tendency to increase the proportion of premature infants, prolonged postnatal adaptation which may be associated with carnitine deficiency Early diagnosis and correction of carnitine deficiency in premature infants is possible to reserve the prevention of pathological conditions of the prenatal period in these patients. Materials and Methods. 98 newborn infants have been examined with the help of clinical laboratory methods. Results. It has been stated that the overwhelming majority of newborn infants irrespective of their gestational age and body mass at the moment of birth had reference ranges of crude carnitine and higher degree of floating carnitine in their peripheral blood within the first days of their lives. These changes are particularly characteristic for small pre-mature infants. Statistically significant differences between the levels of crude carnitine and floating carnitine depended on the gender of newborn infants have been revealed. Directly correlated dependence of the level of crude carnitine on the body mass at the moment of birth of small premature infants has been stated. Discussion and Conclusions. It has been proved that implementing L-carnitine into the development care plan for premature infants facilitates quick body weight gain, significantly cuts down the period of tube feeding, lowers frequency of anemia development of premature infants and duration of neonatal jaundice. The ability of Elkar to correct functional diseases of cardio vascular system of premature infants has been shown.

  14. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

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    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  15. Effect of mouse nerve growth factor on brain development in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ban; Zhong-He Wan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period on brain development in premature infants.Methods:A total of 37 cases of premature infants given birth in our hospital from 1st January, 2015 to 30th December, 2015 were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group (n=18) and control group (n=19) according to different ways of intervention. Control group didn’t receive exogenous drugs, observation group received mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment in neonatal period, and then differences in results of brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, brainstem auditory evoked potential, scores of Gesell developmental scale, levels of NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α and levels of TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18 and so on of two groups after intervention were compared.Results:Proportions of normal MRI, EEG and BAEP of observation group were higher than those of control group, and proportions of severely abnormal were significantly lower than those of control group; scores of Gesell developmental scale motor, adaptive behavior, language and social skills of observation group in 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were higher than those of control group; serum NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α levels of observation group after 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group ; serum TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18, NF-κB and MMP-9 levels of observation group after 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group, and levels of EGF and SOD were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period of premature infants helps to promote nerve cell growth and development and optimize brain function of premature infants, and it has active clinical significance.

  16. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

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    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  17. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  20. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  1. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

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    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  2. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  3. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition: effect of L-carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D; Wolf, H

    1983-06-01

    To investigate whether L-carnitine supplementation may correct nutritional carnitine deficiency and associated metabolic disturbances in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition, an intravenous fat tolerance test (1 gm/kg Intralipid over four hours) was performed in 29 premature infants 6 to 10 days of age (15 receiving carnitine supplement 10 mg/kg . day L-carnitine IV, and 14 receiving no supplement). Total carnitine plasma values were normal or slightly elevated in supplemented but decreased in nonsupplemented infants. In both groups, fat infusion resulted in an increase in plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, and short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine, but total carnitine values did not change. After fat infusion, the free fatty acids/D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ratios were lower and the increase of acylcarnitine greater in supplemented infants of 29 to 33 weeks' gestation than in nonsupplemented infants of the same gestational age. This study provides evidence that premature infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation requiring total parenteral nutrition develop nutritional carnitine deficiency with impaired fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Carnitine supplementation improves this metabolic disturbance.

  4. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. II. Increased severity of apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K E

    1975-01-01

    Apneic spells were recorded in 8 of 19 premature infants nursed in high and low humidity alternately in servocontrol incubators. A significantly greater proportion of severe apnea occurred in low than in high humidity. It is postulated that this frequency and severity was due to the increased (as well as widely fluctuating) ambient temperature during low humidity.

  5. The effects of massage therapy on physical growth and gastrointestinal function in premature infants: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Oh, Jina; Lee, Myung-Nam; Kim, SungHee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2016-09-01

    To promote the growth and development of premature infants, effective and tender care is required in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to test the potential effects of massage therapy on increasing physical growth and promoting gastrointestinal function in premature infants. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups in the NICU of one general hospital located in South Korea. The experimental group (n = 10) were given massage therapy and the control group (n = 10) received routine care. Massage therapy was performed twice daily for 14 days, for 15 minutes per session. In the physical growth, height and chest circumference were significantly increased in the experimental group. In assessing gastrointestinal function, frequency of pre-feed gastric residual was significantly decreased and numbers of bowel movements were significantly increased in the experimental group. This study showed massage therapy has the potential effects on increasing physical growth and gastrointestinal function in premature infants. The massage in the NICU might be utilized as a part of developmental care, but more research needs to be done. NICU nurses need to be trained in massage therapy techniques to provide more effective clinical care for premature infants.

  6. Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development.

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    Walworth, Darcy D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy intervention on premature infants' and full term infants' developmental responses and parents' responsiveness. Subjects (n=56) were parent-infant dyads who attended developmental music groups or a control condition assessing responsiveness during toy play. All subjects were matched according to developmental age and were also matched by group for socioeconomic status and for maternal depression. Types of infant play and parent responsiveness were measured using observation of a standardized toy play for parent-infant dyads. Observations were coded with the number of seconds spent in each behavior using the SCRIBE observation program. Parents completed a questionnaire on the perception of their infant's general development, interpretations of their child's needs, the purpose of using music with their child, and their child's response to music. The infants attending the developmental music groups with their parents demonstrated significantly more social toy play (p music groups. While not significant, graphic analysis of parent responsiveness showed parents who attended the developmental music groups engaged in more positive and less negative play behaviors with their infants than parents who did not attend the music groups. This study demonstrates the first findings of positive effects of developmental music groups on social behaviors for both premature and full term infants under 2 years old.

  7. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri (DSM 17938 on the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nouri Shadkam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feeding intolerance is a common problem among premature infants. There is limited information on the safety and effects of oral probiotic supplements, especially products containing Lactobacillus reuteri, and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in low birth weight preterm infants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on the gastrointestinal complications and feeding tolerance in premature infants. Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 premature infants divided into two groups of intervention and placebo. Subjects in the intervention group received one drop/kg of supplementary oral probiotic with 0.5 ml of distilled water, and infants in the placebo group only received 0.5 ml of distilled water. Probiotic administration continued to reach full enteral feeding. Results: In this study, mean time to reach full enteral feeding was 12.83 and 16.75 days in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, which was indicative of a significant difference (P=0.01. However, mean of neonatal weight at discharge had no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, 6.7% and 36.7% of infants in the intervention and placebo groups were diagnosed with NEC, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P=0.005. Also, prevalence of jaundice and sepsis was not significantly different between the study groups. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the time to reach full enteral feeding while diminishing the incidence of NEC in very low birth weight premature infants.

  8. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Malihe; Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT) techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session) for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026). Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants. PMID:27752484

  9. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gestational age of 31,7±2,7 weeks and a birth-weight of 1561.0±379.3 g were included in the study. Axial length measurements were done at a mean postconceptional age of 35.8 ±2.6 (31-40 and 39.8±2.7 (35-44 weeks, consecutively. The mean axial length at first and second visits were 16.43±0.42 mm (15.28-17.13 and 16.69±0.41 mm (15.60-17.70, consecutively (p

  10. The effect of music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking on nipple feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne M; Cassidy, Jane; Grant, Roy; Cevasco, Andrea; Szuch, Catherine; Nguyen, Judy; Walworth, Darcy; Procelli, Danielle; Jarred, Jennifer; Adams, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    In this randomized, controlled multi-site study, the pacifier-activated-lullaby system (PAL) was used with 68 premature infants. Dependent variables were (a) total number of days prior to nipple feeding, (b) days of nipple feeding, (c) discharge weight, and (d) overall weight gain. Independent variables included contingent music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking for PAL intervention at 32 vs. 34 vs. 36 weeks adjusted gestational age (AGA), with each age group subdivided into three trial conditions: control consisting of no PAL used vs. one 15-minute PAL trial vs. three 15-minute PAL trials. At 34 weeks, PAL trials significantly shortened gavage feeding length, and three trials were significantly better than one trial. At 32 weeks, PAL trials lengthened gavage feeding. Female infants learned to nipple feed significantly faster than male infants. It was noted that PAL babies went home sooner after beginning to nipple feed, a trend that was not statistically significant.

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

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    Melissa Thoene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars to help meet protein needs. The use of powdered products is discouraged in neonatal intensive care units (NICU due to concern for invasive infection. The use of a commercially available acidified liquid product with higher protein content was implemented to address these two concerns. During the course of this implementation, poor growth and clinically significant acidosis of infants on Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF was observed. The purpose of this study was to quantify those observations by comparing infant outcomes between groups receiving the ALHMF vs. infants receiving powdered HMF (PHMF. A retrospective chart review compared outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants <2000 g receiving the ALHMF (n = 23 and the PHMF (n = 46. Infant growth, enteral feeding tolerance and provision, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, metabolic acidosis, and diaper dermatitis were compared between the two groups. No infants were excluded from this study based on acuity. Use of ALHMF resulted in a higher incidence of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.002. Growth while on HMF as measured in both g/kg/day (10.59 vs. 15.37, p < 0.0001 and in g/day (23.66 vs. 31.27, p = 0.0001 was slower in the ALHMF group, on increased mean cal/kg/day (128.7 vs. 117.3, p = 0.13 with nearly twice as many infants on the ALHMF requiring increased fortification of enteral feedings beyond 24 cal/ounce to promote adequate growth (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.10. Although we were not powered to study NEC as a primary outcome, NEC was significantly increased in the ALHMF group. (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.03. Use of a LHMF in an unrestricted NICU population resulted in an increase in clinical complications within a high

  13. Effects of white matter injury on resting state fMRI measures in prematurely born infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Smyser

    Full Text Available The cerebral white matter is vulnerable to injury in very preterm infants (born prior to 30 weeks gestation, resulting in a spectrum of lesions. These range from severe forms, including cystic periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, to minor focal punctate lesions. Moderate to severe white matter injury in preterm infants has been shown to predict later neurodevelopmental disability, although outcomes can vary widely in infants with qualitatively comparable lesions. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly utilized in neurodevelopmental investigations and may provide complementary information regarding the impact of white matter injury on the developing brain. We performed resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent postmenstrual age in fourteen preterm infants with moderate to severe white matter injury secondary to periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. In these subjects, resting state networks were identifiable throughout the brain. Patterns of aberrant functional connectivity were observed and depended upon injury severity. Comparisons were performed against data obtained from prematurely-born infants with mild white matter injury and healthy, term-born infants and demonstrated group differences. These results reveal structural-functional correlates of preterm white matter injury and carry implications for future investigations of neurodevelopmental disability.

  14. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  15. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  16. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. I. Decrease in rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K

    1975-01-01

    19 small premature infants in servocontrol incubators, whose abdominal skin temperature was 36.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, were subjected to alternate high- and low-humidity environments. With low humidity, rectal temperature dropped significantly below abdominal skin temperature. Skin was the predominant site of evaporative heat loss. The temperature was lower on naked skin than on an area covered by adhesive tape. Thus, servocontrol with low humidity increases evaporative heat loss and engenders a cycle of events that results in paradoxical body temperature decrease as the incubator temperature increases.

  17. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    of behavior state changes than the nonsurgical infants. The percentage of time in observed deep sleep and quiet sleep was correlated with both percentage sleep efficiency (r = 0.78) and fewer state shifts per hour (r = -0.65) from electroencephalogram (EEG). Sleep efficiency by EEG was greater on CP versus SP. The CP enabled sleep compared with the standard mattress (SP) over 30-minute observation periods. Sleep status from behavioral observation was verified by standard EEG-based sleep techniques. Behavioral observation of sleep states may be a useful strategy for measuring the effectiveness of strategies to facilitate sleep in premature infants. Surgical subjects may benefit from additional interventions to promote sleep.

  18. The effect of maternal presence on premature infant response to recorded music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearn, Trish; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of maternal presence on the physiological and behavioral status of the preterm infant when exposed to recorded music versus ambient sound. Repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. Special care nursery (SCN) in a tertiary perinatal center. Clinically stable preterm infants (22) born at > 28 weeks gestation and enrolled at > 32 weeks gestation and their mothers. Infants were exposed to lullaby music (6 minutes of ambient sound alternating with 2x 6 minutes recorded lullaby music) at a volume within the recommended sound level for the SCN. The mothers in the experimental group were present for the first 12 minutes (baseline and first music period) whereas the mothers in the control group were absent overall. There was no discernible infant response to music and therefore no significant impact of maternal presence on infant's response to music over time. However during the mothers' presence (first 12 minutes), the infants exhibited significantly higher oxygen saturation than during their absence p = .024) and less time spent in quiet sleep after their departure, though this was not significant. Infants may have been unable to detect the music against the ambient soundscape. Regardless of exposure to music, the infants' physiological and behavioral regulation were affected by the presence and departure of the mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  20. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  1. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  3. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53±5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  4. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  6. Necrotizing enterocolitis and cytomegalovirus infection in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lynn; Ferris, Michael; Norori, Johana; Stark, Matthew; Craver, Randall; Dowd, Scot; Penn, Duna

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The etiology is considered multifactorial. Risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeding, hypoxia, and bacterial colonization. The etiologic role of viruses is unclear. We present a case of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with cytomegalovirus and Proteobacteria in a 48-day-old, ex-premature infant and discuss the effects of potential viral-bacterial interactions on host susceptibility to this disease.

  7. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  8. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  9. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  10. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  11. [Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various schedules of phototherapy in premature newborn infants with hyperbilirubinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, E B; Kalinicheva, V I

    1990-01-01

    As many as 118 premature neonates weighing from 900 to 2500 g at birth, afflicted with hyperbilirubinemia were examined. In 80 children, the use of phototherapy (PT) appeared an indispensable condition of the treatment of jaundice. The regimen of radiation varied: 28 children received intermittent treatment lasting 24 hours; 52 children were given continuous treatment, with the period of radiation amounting to 48 or 72 hours. Part of the children were on PT combined with alpha-tocopherol acetate. Bilirubin concentration in the blood serum, lipid peroxidation, the lipid and phospholipid spectra of red blood cell membranes were used as criteria for the treatment efficacy. The highest therapeutic effect was attained in the children who received continuous radiation lasting 48 hours. The efficacy of PT turned out enhanced on its combination with alpha-tocopherol acetate.

  12. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. A Program of Stimulation for Infants Born Prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kathryn

    Examined was the effect of low frequency auditory and kinesthetic stimulation on the sleep behavior of seven premature normal infants. Stimulation consisted of positioning in a rockerbed and exposure to a recorded heartbeat for 15 minutes an hour. Measured were Ss's sleep wakefulness, weight change, and gestational development. Analysis of the…

  14. Nutrition of premature infants after hospital discharge. Effect on growth and the risk of allergic disease within the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Færk, Jan; Halken, Susanne

    to continue with fortification or premature formula after hospital discharge. The aim of the study is to describe breast-feeding rate at discharge among very preterm infants, whether it is possible to supply breastfeeding with fortification after discharge, eating habits after discharge, growth...... Background and Aims: Human milk offers many advantages for the premature infant, but the content of macro-nutrients might be inadequate. Fortification of mothers own milk or premature formula have shown to improve growth among premature infants while they are hospitalized. It might be beneficial......-velocity and registration of allergic symptoms within the first year of life among premature infants. Methods: The study is a randomized controlled study where premature infants born with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 32+0 weeks are fed premature formula or (if the mother is breastfeeding) randomized to either breastfeeding...

  15. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  16. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

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    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  17. Cholesterol synthesis and de novo lipogenesis in premature infants determined by mass isotopomer distribution analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renfurm, LN; Bandsma, RHJ; Verkade, HJ; Hulzebos, CV; Van Dijk, T; Boer, T; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Sauer, PJJ

    2004-01-01

    Premature infants change from placental supply of mainly carbohydrates to an enteral supply of mainly lipids earlier in their development than term infants. The metabolic consequences hereof are not known but might have long-lasting health effects. In fact, knowledge of lipid metabolism in premature

  18. Late-onset blueberry muffin lesions following recombinant erythropoietin administration in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishal; Dummula, Krishna; Fraga, Garth; Parimi, Prabhu

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant erythropoietin is being used in premature population for anemia of prematurity. It is considered very safe in this population, although risks are still being evaluated. We report the first case of dermal erythropoiesis as a side effect of recombinant erythropoietin in an extremely prematurely born infant presenting with late-onset blueberry muffin lesions.

  19. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  20. The effect of neutral oligosaccharides on fecal microbiota in premature infants fed exclusively with breast milk: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Sadeghnia, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Mirlohi, Maryam; Feizi, Awat; Salehimehr, Nima; Torkan, Moloud; Shirani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of enteral supplementation of a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS) on faecal microbiota in very premature infants who fed exclusively with human-milk. Methods: This double-center randomized control trial was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Fifty preterm infants (birth weight ≤1500 g who were not fed with formula) were randomly allocated to have enteral (tube feeding) supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS; 9:1) or receive no prebiotics. Findings: The primary outcome (e.g., the effect of the prebiotic mixture on fecal microbiota pattern) was clearly different between the two groups. Despite greater coliforms colony counts in first stool cultures in the prebiotic group (Group P) (P = 0.67), coliforms were significantly lower in the third stool cultures in the Group P (P < 0.001). Furthermore, despite the much higher Lactobacillus colony counts, in the first stool cultures, in the control group (Group C) (P = 0.005); there was a trend toward significantly increased Lactobacillus colony counts in the Group P during the study, but the difference between Lactobacillus colony counts, in the third stool cultures, between two groups was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.11). Interestingly, the median length of hospital stay was significantly less in the Group P (16 [12.50–23.50] vs. 25 [19.50–33.00] days; P = 0.003). Conclusion: This suggests that it might have been “the complete removal of formula” which manifests a synergistic effect between nonhuman neutral oligosaccharides (prebiotics) and human oligosaccharides, which in turn, led to the rapid growth of beneficial Lactobacillus colonies in the gut of breast milk-fed preterm infants, while decreasing the number of pathogenic coliforms microorganisms. Therefore, further studies with larger sample sizes are

  1. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  2. Nutritional care of premature infants: microminerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Microminerals, including iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, iodine, chromium and molybdenum, are essential for a remarkable array of critical functions and need to be supplied in adequate amounts to preterm infants. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants carry a very high risk of developing iron deficiency which can adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, a too high iron supply in iron-replete VLBW infants may induce adverse effects such as increased infection risks and impaired growth. Iron needs are influenced by birth weight, growth rates, blood losses (phlebotomy) and blood transfusions. An enteral iron intake of 2 mg/kg/day for infants with a birth weight of 1,500-2,500 g and 2-3 mg/kg/day for VLBW infants is recommended. Higher doses up to 6 mg/kg/day are needed in infants receiving erythropoietin treatment. Regular monitoring of serum ferritin during the hospital stay is advisable. Routine provision of iron with parenteral nutrition for VLBW infants is not recommended. Less certainty exists for the advisable intakes of other microminerals. It appears prudent to provide enterally fed VLBW infants with daily amounts per kilogram body weight of 1.4-2.5 mg zinc, 100-230 μg copper, 5-10 μg selenium, 1-15 μg manganese, 10-55 μg iodine, 0.03-2.25 μg chromium, and 0.3-5 μg molybdenum. Future scientific findings may justify deviations from these suggested ranges.

  3. Detecting rickets in premature infants and treating them with calcitriol: experience from two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Li-Chien; Yek, Yung-Lee; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2012-08-01

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. Rickets is a bone disease characterized by growth retardation due to the expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate and a failure to mineralize bone. Consequently, the bone is soft and permits marked bending and distortion. Although the incidence of rickets in preterm infants is lower due to improvements in health care and nutrition, there are still infants at high risk for this disease. However, few reports are available regarding the treatment of rickets in premature infants. Furthermore, published case studies on experiences with using calcitriol as a potential therapeutic for rickets in premature infants are very rare. Herein, we describe the detection of rickets in premature infants and our experience with calcitriol treatment in two premature infants. We recommended the use of oral calcitriol at a dose of 0.03-0.125 μg/kg/day, in addition to an appropriate formula that provides an adequate amount of calcium and phosphate intake. One patient was prescribed calcitriol for 40 days and the other for 37 days. The two infants gradually recovered and were discharged without any obvious side effects. It is recommended that alkaline phosphatase levels be monitored within 1 month after birth in premature infants with a birth weight of <1000 g. Infants presenting with high alkaline phosphatase levels are candidates for a long bone survey.

  4. Clinical effect of caffeine citrate on primary premature apnea in premature infants%枸橼酸咖啡因在早产儿原发性呼吸暂停中的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强; 宋红; 李志洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine citrate on pri-mary premature apnea in premature infants.Methods Ninety premature infants with primary premature apnea were divided into treatment group and control group.Premature infants in control group were treated by loading dose of 5 mg· kg -1 of amnophyllinea, maintaining doses of 2.5 mg· kg-1.Premature infants in treatment group were treated by loading dose of 20 mg· kg-1 of caffeine citrate, maintaining doses of 5 mg· kg-1.The treatment lasted for 5 days.Effective rate,the disappearance time of clinical symptoms, length of hospital, expense and mortality between 2 groups were analyzed and compared before and after treatment.Results The effective rate of treatment group was 95.2%, which was higher than that of control group (77.0%, P0.05).Conclusion The short course of caffeine citrate on premature infants with primary premature apnea has better effects without obvious adverse drug reaction, and finally relieves patients’ financial burden.%目的:观察短疗程枸橼酸咖啡因在早产儿原发性呼吸暂停中的疗效。方法90例原发性呼吸暂停的早产儿分为试验组42例和对照组48例。对照组给予首剂量氨茶碱5 mg· kg-1,12 h后给予维持量2.5 mg· kg-1,每日2次;试验组给予首剂量枸橼酸咖啡因20 mg· kg-1,24 h后给予维持量5 mg· kg-1,每日1次,均连续给药5 d,比较2组有效率、临床症状消失时间,住院时间、住院费用及死亡率。结果治疗后,试验组有效率(95.2%)显然高于对照组(77.0%)。试验组临床症状消失时间、住院时间及住院费用均低于对照组(P<0.05),2组死亡率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论短疗程枸橼酸咖啡因治疗早产儿原发性呼吸暂停疗效较好,未增加明显不良反应,又减轻患者负担。

  5. Periodic heart rate decelerations in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Abigail A; Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B

    2010-04-01

    The pacemaking system of the heart is complex; a healthy heart constantly integrates and responds to extracardiac signals, resulting in highly complex heart rate patterns with a great deal of variability. In the laboratory and in some pathological or age-related states, however, dynamics can show reduced complexity that is more readily described and modeled. Reduced heart rate complexity has both clinical and dynamical significance - it may provide warning of impending illness or clues about the dynamics of the heart's pacemaking system. In this paper, we describe simple and interesting heart rate dynamics that we have observed in premature human infants - reversible transitions to large-amplitude periodic oscillations - and we show that the appearance and disappearance of these periodic oscillations can be described by a simple mathematical model, a Hopf bifurcation.

  6. 音乐干预对早产儿生长发育的影响%Effects of music intervention on growth and development of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小华; 周雪梅; 王芳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of music intervention on growth and development of premature infants. Methods 112 premature infants were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 56 cases in each. The control group received conventional nursing measures, and the observation group was simultaneously given music intervention besides the conventional routine nursing measures. Weight increase, hospitalization time, milk-intake volume and feeding tolerance were compared between the two groups. Results The weight increase in the observation group was higher than that in the control group. Hospitalization time and rate of feeding intolerance for the observation group was lower compared with that of the control group. The premature infants in the observation group took in more milk than those in the control group. Conclusions Music intervention can elevate feeding tolerance, facilitate nutrition and increase weight of premature infant, so it is beneficial to the growth and development of premature infant.%目的 探讨音乐干预对早产儿生长发育的影响.方法 将112例早产儿随机分为观察组和对照组各56例,对照组给予早产儿常规护理,观察组在此基础上实施音乐干预,比较2组早产儿每日体质量增长、住院时间、进奶量及喂养耐受情况.结果 观察组每日体质量增长高于对照组,住院时间短于对照组,进奶量较对照组显著增加,发生喂养不耐受明显减少.结论 音乐干预能提高早产儿喂养耐受性,增进营养,加快体质量增长,有利于早产儿的生长发育.

  7. [Development and fate of premature infants--then and now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G

    1983-10-01

    New scientific results and progress in technology allow even premature infants with very low birth weight to survive today. A vehement discussion arouse about effectiveness and efficiency of intensive care programs for these infants. However, an appreciation of the results at present should not be made without taking note of those achieved in former decades. A. Ylppö was the first pediatrician in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century, who was working systematically for the survival of low birth weight infants. He achieved remarkable results even at that time. After World War II the chances for survival of low birth weight infants became worse because of dangerous therapeutic innovations. In the 60's the frequency of serious sequelae could be reduced by improved therapeutic approaches. Since then the mortality rate is decreasing, whereas the frequency of serious sequelae remains nearly stable during the last 15 years. We hope that clinical research and new technologies may also reduce the morbidity of surviving premature babies in the future.

  8. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  9. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  10. The effects of oral sucrose on pain due to nasogastric tube insertion in premature infants: A crossover clinical trial

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    Jebreili M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Pain in neonates may have adverse impacts. Therefore, relieving pain through harmless, simple, and applicable methods, in order to prevent its dangerous consequences, is of great importance. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of oral sucrose on relieving nasogastric tube insertion pain in premature neonates. Materials and Method: The present study is a crossover clinical trial on 38 preterm infants (gestational age between 28-34 weeks hospitalized in Bistonoh-e-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling and divided into two groups using randomized block design. In the first group, nasogastric tube insertion was carried out in the routine way for the first time, and for the second time, by administration of oral sucrose. In the second group, the procedure was performed in the reverse order of that in the first group. In both groups the emerging pain was measured by the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP tool 2 minutes before, during, and 5 minutes after the procedure. Data were analyzed using, chi-square t-test, Students' independent test, paired t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS version 18 to examine the trend of change in pain in time. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that oral sucrose reduces the pain response of infants. The mean pain score during the insertion of nasogastric tube and administration of oral sucrose was 5.95 ± 2.35 and during routine procedures was 9.93 ± 2.89 (P < 0.001. The mean pain score 5 minutes after insertion of nasogastric tube with administration of oral sucrose was 3.66 ± 0.57 and routine procedure was 6.38 ± 0.83 (P = 0.017. Conclusion: It was revealed that oral sucrose can relieve pain caused by nasogastric tube insertion. Therefore, its implementation as a harmless and simple method can reduce pain in preterm infants.

  11. Management of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rama; Das, Utpala G

    2015-01-01

    Patency of the ductus arteriosus is required for fetal survival in utero. In infants born prematurely, ductus fails to close and shunt reverses from left to right. Incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is inversely proportional to the gestational age. A large PDA (>1.5 mm diameter) with left to right shunt in very low birth weight infants can cause pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, pulmonary hemorrhage and increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Attempts to prevent or close the duct by pharmacological or surgical methods have not changed the morbidity or the long term outcome. Pharmacological treatment with indomethacin or ibuprofen is successful in 75 to 80 % of infants but its use also exposes these infants to undesirable side effects like gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic therapy with indomethacin or ibuprofen to prevent PDA has not altered the morbidity or long term outcome. Currently, there is a dilemma as to how to treat, when to treat and whom to treat. Recent literature suggests a trial of conservative management during the first week followed by selective use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical ligation is reserved for infants who fail medical therapy and still remain symptomatic. Spontaneous closure of the PDA has been reported in up to 40-67 % of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants by 7 d. In this review authors discuss these controversies and propose a more rational approach.

  12. Effect of liquid milk on the nutritional status in premature infants%液态奶喂养对早产儿营养状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁贵龙; 黄文珍; 李盛强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of liquid milk on the nutritional status in premature infants with a gestational age of less than 36 weeks and give some suggestions on feeding in premature infants. Methods Ninety-five premature infants were divided into full -term in fant formula feeding group and liquid milk in premature feeding group. The rates of weight gain, length increment, head circumference increment and the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) were observed and compared between two groups before and after the time of full enteral feeding. Results The average daily weight gain[( 12. 1 ±2. 3 )g/( kg · d)v. s( 10. 5±2. 1)g/(kg· d),P< 0.01 ),head circumference increment[(0. 85 +0.29)v. s (0.71 +0.31)cm/W,P <0. 05 ) and length increment[(0. 76 + 0. 24) v. s ( 0. 65 + 0. 27 ) cm/W, P < 0. 05 ) were significantly better in the infants fed with liquid milk in premature compared with the infants fed with full - term children formula. There was obvious difference in the incidence of EUGR between two groups ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The growth and development of premature infants fed with liquid milk in premature were better than those of full - term in fant formula.%研究液态奶喂养对胎龄< 36周早产儿营养状况的影响,并对早产儿喂养方式提出建议。方法2009年11月至2010年5月收住我科治疗的符合标准的95例早产儿研为究对象,将其分为两组,分别应用足月儿配方奶粉喂养(48例)及早产儿液态奶喂养(47例),观察在达到全肠道营养前后两组早产儿的体质量、身长及头围增长速度,并作组间比较;同时比较两组早产儿宫外生长迟缓的发生率。结果液态奶喂养组和配方奶粉喂养组的体质量平均增加速度分别为(12.1 +2.3)g/(kg·d)和(10.5±2.1)g/(kg·d)(P<0.01),每周头围增长速度分别为(0.85±0.29 )cm和(0.71 +0.31) cm (P<0.05),每周身长增长速度分别为(0.76±0.24) cm和(0.65

  13. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  14. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  15. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  16. Nurses' expectations of using music for premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne; Laukkala, Helena

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' expectations of using music for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to find out about the related background factors. The subjects consisted of 210 Finnish nurses who were recruited from the country's five university hospitals providing premature infant care in NICU. The data were collected by validated questionnaire, and the response rate was 82%. Most nurses preferred recorded music to live music in the NICU. They expected that music would have positive effects on premature infants, parents, and staff. Few demographic and many background factors of the respondents' music-related experiences correlated significantly with the expectations concerning their preference. In conclusion, the nurses' expectations were positive regarding the use of music in the NICU, which supports evidence regarding the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants.

  17. Retinopathies in premature infants, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Analysis of incidence and accompanying states, detection of risk factors of retinopathies in premature infants (RN, dynamic monitoring and improvement of medical actions. Material and Methods: 134 children have been surveyed in the group of risk on development of RN for the last 2 years. Results: From 134 surveyed infants with gestation from 22 to 37 weeks and body weight at birth from 750 to 2500 kg. At 56 children (41,8% the retinopathy of various degree of expressiveness has been revealed. 38 children with RN of 1-2 stages (67,8% from which at 22 (39,3% —the disease ended with the induced regress after a course of «retinalamin», at 16 (28,6% of RN — spontaneous regress. 4 children (7,1% had RN 2-3 of the Art., 3-4 Art. at 12 (21,4%, and 5 Art. a cicatricial phase with retinal detachment — 2 (3,5%. In 12 cases the laser photocoagulation in the eye centers is carried out. Conclusion: The revealed relationship of cause and effect of risk factors of formation of RN with features of a current ofthe neonatal period at patients with RN, promoted development of the system of monitoring, implementation of the program of treatment and rehabilitation of prematurely born children suffering RN. Ophthalmologic screening of premature infants with the use of the ophthalmologic digital pediatric camera "Ret Cam 3" allows to diagnose a retinopathy at early stages, in due time to hold preventive an3 medical measures that allows to lower the invalidization of this group of children.

  18. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batton, G.D.; DiCarmine, F.; Boal, D.K.

    1988-04-01

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae.

  19. Congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, LM; Fleer, A; de Vries, LS; Gerards, LJ

    2004-01-01

    A case of congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) with fatal outcome in a premature infant is reported. An intrauterine infection with Staphylococcus aureus was probably the cause for the fulminant course of the disease. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the infant died within 24

  20. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  1. Preventing respiratory syncytial virus in homebound premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the home health nurse's role in preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among premature infants. Thousands of children infected with RSV require hospitalization each year. Consistent contact with the infant alerts the nurse to subtle signs and symptoms of RSV infection, which may include nasal congestion, cough, low-grade fever, and malaise. By developing patient and caregiver trust, the home health nurse can implement an RSV prevention plan, leading to a decrease in hospitalization episodes of premature infants with RSV. Identification of patient risk factors contributing to RSV together with caregiver education is addressed in this article.

  2. Evaluation and Treatment of Anemia in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Cengic, Nermana; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Heljic, Jasmina; Lutolli, Ismail; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia in preterm infants is the pathophysiological process with greater and more rapid decline in hemoglobin compared to the physiological anemia in infants. There is a need for transfusions and administration of human recombinant erythropoietin. Aim: To determine the frequency of anemia in premature infants at the Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, as well as parameter values in the blood count of premature infants and to explore a relationship between blood transfusions with the advent of intraventricular hemorrhage (determine treatment outcome in preterm infants). Patients and methods: Research is retrospective study and it included the period of six months in year 2014. Research included 100 patients, gestational age < 37 weeks (premature infants). Data were collected by examining the medical records of patients at the Pediatric Clinic, UCCS. Results: The first group of patients were premature infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks (62/100) and the second group were premature infants of gestational age 33-37 weeks (38/100). Among the patients, 5% were boys and 46% girls. There was significant difference in birth weight and APGAR score among the groups. In the first group, there were 27.42% of deaths, while in the second group, there were only 10.53% of deaths. There was a significant difference in the length of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in the need for transfusion among the groups. 18 patients in the first group required a transfusion, while in the second group only 3 patients. Conclusions: Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks are likely candidates for blood transfusion during treatment. Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks have the risk of intracranial bleeding associated with the application of blood transfusion in the first week of life. PMID:28210010

  3. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne M

    2002-04-01

    This meta-analysis on music research with premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) showed an overall large, significant, consistent effect size of almost a standard deviation (d =.83) (Cohen, 1998). Effects were not mediated by infants' gestational age at the time of study, birthweight, or type of music delivery nor by physiologic, behavioral, or developmental measures of benefit. The homogeneity of findings suggests that music has statistically significant and clinically important benefits for premature infants in the NICU. The unique acoustic properties that differentiate music from all other sounds are discussed and clinical implications for research-based music therapy procedures cited.

  4. Pigtail Catheters Versus Traditional Chest Tubes for Pneumothoraces in Premature Infants Treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wei

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Pigtail catheters are a safe and effective alternative to traditional chest tubes for premature infants receiving treatment for pneumothoraces in a neonatal intensive care unit. Placement of pigtail catheters is an easy and quick bedside procedure and is particularly useful for premature infants who require immediate air drainage.

  5. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue are very pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus, we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates wound healing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.MethodsThe study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of full-thickness skin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition. The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.ResultsMost of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by wound contraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resulted in 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with less granulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to the relaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars. There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over two thirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients' parents were satisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.ConclusionsFull-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by wound contraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skin mobility.

  6. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue arevery pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus,we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates woundhealing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.Methods The study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of fullthicknessskin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition.The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatoryagents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.Results Most of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by woundcontraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resultedin 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with lessgranulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to therelaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars.There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over twothirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients’ parents weresatisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.Conclusions Full-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by woundcontraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skinmobility.

  7. Prematurity stereotyping and mothers' interactions with their premature and full-term infants during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine; McIntosh, Bonnie; Moritzen, Sara; Olexa, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    To longitudinally assess stability and correlates of prematurity stereotyping and perceptions of infant vulnerability in mothers of premature (N = 56) and full-term (N = 59) infants. At 5, 9, and 12 months, mothers rated videotapes of unfamiliar infants with a full-term label (FTL) or a preterm label (PL), interacted with their own infant, and completed other questionnaires. A subgroup of infants were administered a developmental assessment at 32 months. Mothers rated PL infants more negatively than FTL infants at each age. Individual differences in stereotyping were not stable. Mothers who negatively rated infants labeled with the same birth status of their own infants exhibited more negative interactive behaviors with their infants. Mothers who viewed their own infant as more vulnerable and who showed more prematurity stereotyping at 5 months had infants with lower 32-month mental scores. The results suggest an association between early maternal cognitions and both contemporaneous maternal behavior and later child developmental outcomes.

  8. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Weiss, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The term "encephalopathy of prematurity" encompasses not only the acute brain injury [such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)] but also complex disturbance on the infant's subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD), and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP, and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9, and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after PHVD. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  9. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  10. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  11. Breastfeeding the premature infant and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda

    2012-02-01

    Research indicates that feeding preterm infants at the breast is physiologically less stressful than bottle-feeding. Poor sucking reflexes make it difficult to initiate breastfeeding for these high-risk infants. Mothers need to understand the difficulties of breastfeeding, as well as the advantages for herself and her baby. It is important for nurses to be well educated on how preterm infants are breastfed and how to best support the mother through her experience. The nurse must focus on caring for the infant as well as fostering the mother-infant connection to promote breastfeeding. A mother will need continual support, encouragement, and advice from the nurse, while teaching her baby how to breastfeed.

  12. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-01-01

    Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs), and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefit...

  13. The hematology of bacterial infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, A; Palko, J; Milner, R; Akenzua, G I

    1976-06-01

    A series of premature infants was studied for the presence of bacterial infection. On the basis of clinical evidence and bacteriological studies, they were divided into three groups in which sepsis was considered to be proven, possible, or unlikely. Band neutrophil counts were elevated most frequently in the "sepsis-proven" group and the elevation occurred usually within 24 hours of onset of signs of disease. Qualitative changes in neutrophils (Döhle bodies, toxic granulation, and vacuolization) were more frequent in the sepsis-proven group and, together with the band count, provided valuable techniques for the diagnosis of bacterial infections. Thrombocytopenia occurred frequently in the sepsis-proven group and seemed to result from increased utilization or destruction of platelets rather than failure of production. In such cases, evidence of intravascular coagulation was minimal and it was concluded that thrombocytopenia had resulted from a direct effect of the bacteria or its products on platelets and/or endothelium.

  14. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial 1

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso; Leiliane Martins Farias; Gleicia Martins de Melo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music), 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose), 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose). All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby wa...

  15. The effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development%早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟青; 许欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development, and find a more rational treatment. Methods Selected 183 cases eligible premature infants that borned in march 2008-July 2009 from our hospital or other hospitals. During which 111 cases were intervention group. The intervention group received normal parental guidance and early intervention. 72 cases were non-intervention group. This group only received normal parental guidance. The intervention group used early intervention according to 0-2-years-age outline of early intervention, such as massage, neurodevelopmental therapy, and multiple sensory stimuli. Results There were 4 cases with cerebral palsy, 2 cases with mental retardation, and 5 cases with motion retardation in intervention group; while there were 9 cases with cerebral palsy, 6 cases with mental retardation, and 9 cases with motion retardation in non-intervention group. The differences were significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion Early intervention can reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy, mental retardation of premature infants. Therefore, early intervention on the brain development of premature infants can improve the quality of long-term survival of this group.%目的 探讨早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响,以寻找更合理的治疗方法.方法 将2008年3月-2009年7月在我院出生和外院转入NICU的符合条件的183例早产儿列入本研究中;111例早产儿新生儿期病情稳定后,除接受一般育儿指导外,均进行早产儿早期干预,为干预组;72例早产儿在新生儿期病情稳定后,因各种原因仅接受了一般的育儿指导,未进行早产儿早期干预,为未干预组.干预组按0~2岁早期干预大纲进行早期干预,采用按摩、神经发育疗法、多种感觉刺激等方法.结果 干预组出现脑性瘫痪、智力低下、运动低下的患儿分别有4、2、5例,未干预组分别有9、6、9例,干预组的发生率均较未

  16. Metabolic studies of transient tyrosinemia in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbach, S. A.; Summons, R. E.; Pereira, W. E.; Duffield, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The recently developed technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry supported by computer has considerably improved the analysis of physiologic fluids. This study attempted to demonstrate the value of this system in the investigation of metabolite patterns in urine in two metabolic problems of prematurity, transient tyrosinemia and late metabolic acidosis. Serial 24-hr urine specimens were analyzed in 9 infants. Transient tyrosinemia, characterized by 5- 10-fold increases over basal excretion of tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, and p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in urine, was noted in five of the infants. Late metabolic acidosis was seen in four infants, but bore no relation to transient tyrosinemia.

  17. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, H

    1980-03-01

    Carnitine plays a significant role in fatty acid utilization and ketone body production. Its availability is especially important during the immediate postnatal period. To determine whether low birth weight infants who cannot be orally fed are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, we compared the carnitine blood levels and urinary excretion of 12 premature infants (Group A) receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with those of 8 infants of similar gestational age and birth weight (Group B) who received carnitine-containing milk formulas. In Group A, serum levels of total and free carnitine fell after 5 days of carnitine-deficient parenteral nutrition, and urinary excretion was significantly reduced. Serum levels and urinary excretion increased after the onset of oral feedings. The control Group B exhibited no significant changes in carnitine blood levels between the first and fifth days of life, but did show a later increase. Children in Group A had lower carnitine blood levels compared to those in Group B on the fifth day of life. These findings suggest that premature infants are not able to synthesize enough carnitine to maintain blood levels, and that carnitine deficiency can occur following TPN. Further investigation of metabolic consequences secondary to deficient carnitine intake in premature infants is necessary before carnitine supplementation should be considered.

  18. Role of Early Onset Neutropenia in Development of Candidemia in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramy, Nermin; Hashim, Mohamed; Abou Hussein, Heba; Sawires, Happy; Gaafar, Maha; El Maghraby, Ayat

    2017-04-24

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, drugs as corticosteroids and others. Candidemia was assessed by Bactec and then seminested polymerase chain reaction for culture negatives. Candidemia developed in 28 neutropenic preterms and in 8 non-neutropenics (odds ratio  = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 2.61-17.1, p  candidemia in multivariate regression analysis included EON, mechanical ventilation and steroid therapy. EON is an independent risk factor for candidemia in premature infants.

  19. Study on the Effects of Prone Nursing on Heart and Lung Function and Sleep in Premature Infants%俯卧护理对早产儿心肺功能及睡眠的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同体位护理对早产儿心肺功能及睡眠影响。方法选取90例早产儿作为研究对象,随机分为 A、B、C 三组各30例;A 组给予俯卧护理,B 组给予侧卧护理;C 组给予仰卧护理;比较三组早产儿心肺功能及睡眠情况。结果A 组、B 组心率、呼吸均明显好于 C 组,睡眠时间长于 C 组,且 A 组略好于 B 组。结论俯卧护理有助于改善早产儿心肺功能,提高睡眠质量,护理期间应及时调整护理角度以及患儿睡眠姿势,以确保早产儿健康发育。%Objective To analyze the effects of prone nursing on heart and lung function and sleep in premature infants. Meth-ods 90 premature infants were as the research objects,were randomly divided into three groups(group A,B and C),30 cases in each group. Premature infants in group A were given prone nursing,premature infants in group B were given lateral prone nursing,premature infants in group C were given supine nursing. heart and lung function and sleep in the three group were compared. Results Heart rate and breathing in group A and B was significantly better than group C,the sleep time was longer than that in group C,and group A was better than B group. Conclusion Prone nursing helps to improve heart and lung function of premature infants,improve sleep quality, should adjust the point of nursing and children sleep posture during nursing,to ensure the healthy development of premature infants.

  20. Auditory brain stem responses of premature infants to bone-conducted stimuli: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, R G; Weber, B A

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of bone conduction auditory brain stem response (ABR) audiometry in intensive care nursery neonates was investigated. Forty premature infants were tested with both air- and bone-conducted stimuli. Bone-conducted stimuli resulted in more identifiable ABRs and a greater number of subjects passing the hearing screening. The findings of this study suggest that bone conduction ABR audiometry is a feasible technique with premature infants. Due to the lower frequency composition of the bone-conducted click, it may be more effective than an air-conducted click when the immature cochlea is being evaluated.

  1. Effect of closed endotracheal suction in high-frequency ventilated premature infants measured with electrical impedance tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, M.B.; Miedema, M.; de Jongh, F.H.C.; van der Lee, J.H.; Frerichs, I.; van Kaam, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the global and regional changes in lung volume during and after closed endotracheal tube (ETT) suction in high-frequency ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design: Prospective observational clinical study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care

  2. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia; Pfister, Riccardo E; Karam, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks' gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was -0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of -4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  3. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  4. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level. The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3 and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6. It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05 between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups.

  5. Oxygen resuscitation and oxidative-stress biomarkers in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar VH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasanth HS Kumar,1 Vivien Carrion,1 Karen A Wynn,1 Lori Nielsen,1 Anne Marie Reynolds,1 Rita M Ryan2 1Department of Pediatrics, The Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 2Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Background: Resuscitation of premature infants with 100% O2 may initiate significant oxidant stress during development, predisposing them to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In the study reported here, we examined the effects of three different oxygen concentrations at resuscitation on oxygen saturations (SpO2 and oxidant stress in premature infants. Study design: Infants <32 weeks gestational age were randomized to 21%, 40%, or 100% O2 and resuscitated as per 2005 neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Oxygen groups and SpO2 were unmasked at 10 minutes of age and FiO2 adjusted to maintain an SpO2 of 85%–95% for the next 20 minutes. Blood was collected at 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks for measurement of the oxidative-stress markers, such as a reduced glutathione (GSH to oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio (GSH/GSSG, nitrotyrosine levels, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. The study was stopped at 30% enrollment following publication of the 2010 neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Results: We enrolled 18 patients during the study period. SpO2 increased over time (P<0.0001; however, this increase was not different among the three oxygen groups in the first 10 minutes after birth. FiO2 was significantly higher in the 100% O2 group, despite weaning (P<0.02 to maintain target saturations at 30 minutes of age. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower in the 100% O2 group at 24 hours than in the other groups (P<0.01. Plasma nitrotyrosine was significantly higher in the 40% and 100% O2 groups over time (P<0.01. Levels of 8-OHdG were significantly higher at 4 weeks compared with at 24 hours, independent of the oxygen group (P<0.0001. Conclusion: In this study, we defined the natural

  6. Thermoregulation in premature infants: A mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Heimann, Konrad; Czaplik, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, approximately 14.9 million babies (11.1%) were born preterm. Because preterm infants suffer from an immature thermoregulatory system they have difficulty maintaining their core body temperature at a constant level. Therefore, it is essential to maintain their temperature at, ideally, around 37°C. For this, mathematical models can provide detailed insight into heat transfer processes and body-environment interactions for clinical applications. A new multi-node mathematical model of the thermoregulatory system of newborn infants is presented. It comprises seven compartments, one spherical and six cylindrical, which represent the head, thorax, abdomen, arms and legs, respectively. The model is customizable, i.e. it meets individual characteristics of the neonate (e.g. gestational age, postnatal age, weight and length) which play an important role in heat transfer mechanisms. The model was validated during thermal neutrality and in a transient thermal environment. During thermal neutrality the model accurately predicted skin and core temperatures. The difference in mean core temperature between measurements and simulations averaged 0.25±0.21°C and that of skin temperature averaged 0.36±0.36°C. During transient thermal conditions, our approach simulated the thermoregulatory dynamics/responses. Here, for all infants, the mean absolute error between core temperatures averaged 0.12±0.11°C and that of skin temperatures hovered around 0.30°C. The mathematical model appears able to predict core and skin temperatures during thermal neutrality and in case of a transient thermal conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NURSING AND CARING OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Eva; Hall, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    of attention-related behaviours, and the infant’s competences to have self-control, growth, breath function and time for discharge. Variables and the mothers: maternal self-esteem; staffs support to the parents; parents support from different networks and a demographic data. The study includes 60 children...... quantitatively. The data collecting will take place from the 19. Of October 2005 and one year forward. The expectations of the results are to find a significant advantage in the intervention group showing that the infants will be more mature; more stable in their self control; the mothers will be more competent...

  8. [Developmental amnesia in the premature infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouron, V; Hays, S; Gonzalez-Monge, S

    2010-02-01

    All types of memory disorders have been observed in children, although these reports are rare. Developmental amnesia selectively involves episodic daily life memory while semantic learning is respected and general intelligence is not affected. Daily life is severely disturbed by this cognitive disorder usually occurring after hypoxic ischemic injury with bilateral hippocampal atrophy on MRI. Memory disorders are underdiagnosed in at-risk patients and rarely reported. We report on a former small-for-gestational-age preterm infant with no obvious hypoxic event during perinatal life. The follow-up was normal until elementary school. He had to spend 2 years in 1st grade and exhibited some behavioral troubles. At the age of 9, he was suspected of suffering from dyspraxia and was referred to a pediatrics rehabilitation center. IQ and neuropsychological tests were administered and showed selective autobiographical memory impairment defining developmental amnesia. Despite a typical clinical presentation, brain MRI was normal, including the hippocampal area. This observation underlines the need for a prolonged follow-up until school age to assess the outcome of preterm infants. Otherwise, the evaluation will be limited to motor impairment. Particular attention should be paid to memory during the follow-up to avoid misdiagnoses and to plan and adapt these children's educational strategies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). RESULTS: A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were......INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  10. [Maintenance of lactation: a challenge for hospitalized premature infant's mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Melissa; Mendes, Eliane Norma Wagner

    2008-03-01

    Preterm birth is a difficult situation for all family members, interfering with the establishment of parental bonding and attachment with the baby. This paper is a qualitative and collective case study, carried out with the purpose of identifying the perception of mothers concerning the maintenance of lactation during the hospital stay of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Clinic Hospital of Porto Alegre), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected from March to April/2006 through interviews and observations and resulted in four categories. This article focuses only on the categories that refer to the mechanisms used by mothers to maintain lactation during hospitalization: beliefs and attitudes related to maintenance of lactation and breast milk expression at the human milk bank. The maintenance of lactation constitutes a complex process to be learnt by mothers involved with their infant's prematurity and hospitalization.

  11. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  12. Analysis on effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants%胎龄和出生体重对早产儿预后影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫雅蓉; 章恒; 许兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄及出生体重对早产儿预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析无锡市妇幼保健院2008年1月~2009年12月间分娩的217例早产儿资料.结果:早产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率分别为43.8%和2.3%.早产儿并发症和死亡主要发生于胎龄<32周或出生体重<1 500 g的极低体重儿.缺氧缺血性脑病、窒息、呼吸窘迫综合症发生率和死亡率随胎龄或出生体重增加均呈下降趋势.结论:出生前加强孕期保健,尽可能延长胎龄,促进肺成熟;出生后防止早产儿窒息和加强低出生体重儿监护,将降低早产儿并发症发生率和死亡率.%Objective: To explore the effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants. Methods: The clinical data of 217 premature infants born in the hospital from January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants were 43.8% and 2. 3%, respectively; the premature infants less than 32 gestational weeks or birth weight < 1 500 g had high incidence of complication and high mortality; the incidences of complications ( including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome) and mortality of premature infants showed a decreasing trend with fetal age and the increase of birth weight. Conclusion: Enhancing pregnant health care before delivery, prolonging fetal age as far as possible,promoting fetal lung maturity, preventing neonatal asphyxia and strengthening the monitoring on low birth weight infants may reduce the incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants.

  13. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  14. Effect of closed endotracheal suction in high-frequency ventilated premature infants measured with electrical impedance tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. van Veenendaal; M. Miedema; F.H.C. de Jongh; J.H. van der Lee; I. Frerichs; A.H. van Kaam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the global and regional changes in lung volume during and after closed endotracheal tube (ETT) suction in high-frequency ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design: Prospective observational clinical study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care uni

  15. Prostaglandin E2 and patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammading,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is a congenital heart disease most commonly occurring in premature infants. Spontaneous ductus arteriosus (DA closure in premature infants has been suggested to be associated with duct lumen maturity and the DA sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between serum PGE2 levels and PDA size in premature infants. Methods This observational study using repeated measurements on premature infants with PDA detected at days 2-3 of life was undertaken in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Fatmawati Hospital, Jakarta, from April to May 2014. The PDA was diagnosed using 2-D echocardiography and PGE2 levels were measured by immunoassay. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate a possible correlation between PGE2 level and DA diameter. Results Thirty-three premature infants of median gestational age 31 (range 28-32 weeks and median birth weight 1,360 (range 1,000-1,500 grams were enrolled. Almost two-thirds of the subjects were male. Almost all (30/33 subjects had spontaneous DA closure before the age of 10 days. Subjects’ mean DA diameter was 2.9 (SD 0.5 mm with maximum flow velocity of 0.2 (SD 0.06 cm/sec, and left atrial-to-aortic root ratio (LA/Ao of 1.5 (SD 0.2. Their mean PGE2 levels at the ages of 2-3, 5-7, and after 10 days were 5,238.6 (SD 1,225.2, 4,178.2 (SD 1,534.5, and 915.2 (SD 151.6 pg/mL, respectively. The PGE2 level at days 2-3 was significantly correlated with DA diameter (r = 0.667; P < 0.001, but not at days 5-7 (r = 0.292; P = 0.105 or at day 10 (r = 0.041; P = 0.941. Conclusion There is a strong, positive correlation between the PGE2 level and DA diameter in preterm infants at 2-3 days of age. However, there is no significant correlation between PGE2 level and persistence of PDA.

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  17. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections in...... in neonatology....

  18. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections...

  19. Effect of Rood Therapy Intervened Very Early on Premature Infants%Rood疗法超早期干预早产儿的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴满红; 常燕群; 彭武江; 李容汉; 曾柳苑; 黄智能

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Rood therapy intervened very early on development of premature infants. Methods 148 hospital-born infants gestated 32 weeks with high risk of brain injury were divided into intervention group (n=74) and control group (n=74). All the cases accepted routine treatment and nursing, and the intervention group accepted Rood therapy in addition. They were followed up to 28th day, assessed with Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA). Results The NBNA score was more in the intervention group than in the control group (P32周的148例高危脑损伤早产儿,分为干预组(n=74)和常规组(n=74)。常规组进行常规诊治、早产儿日常护理及早产儿饮食。干预组在常规组的基础上,生命体征稳定后即给予Rood疗法干预。所有研究对象在28 d(校正胎龄达足月)时用新生儿行为神经测定(NBNA)进行测试。结果干预组NBNA评分高于常规组(P0.05)。结论 Rood疗法对促进早产高危脑损伤儿的行为神经发育有着积极的作用。

  20. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants Notice Notice is hereby given of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ``NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants'' to... ``premature'' or ``preterm'' and face increased risk for a variety of complications. Babies born before the...

  1. Apnea after Routine Eye Examinations in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brittany; Wang, Hongyue; Guillet, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine exams for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study Design This is a retrospective review of 79 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The baseline for each infant (mean cardiorespiratory events in the 72 hours before the exam) was compared with the number of cardiorespiratory events during the subsequent 24 hours using generalized estimating equation and the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test to determine if there was an association between cardiorespiratory events and potential risk factors. Results Approximately 19 to 25% of infants experienced an increase in cardiorespiratory events in the 24 hours following their eye exams. These newborns were generally of a younger gestational age and lower birthweight. Conclusion The frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine ROP exams is similar to that following routine immunizations in this population. Thus, in infants being continuously monitored during the 24 hours after the exam, alterations in medical care in the absence of other clinical signs suggestive of sepsis or clinical deterioration may not be required, limiting unnecessary antibiotic exposure, prolonged caffeine administration, unwarranted gastroesophageal reflux treatment, and undue family stress.

  2. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs, and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefits from music Quality of medical services is evaluated by benchmarks of benefit that are also economical and efficient. NICU-MT is underutilized and improves both medical and developmental outcomes for infants while reducing medical costs. For these reasons, it is an important new benchmark of quality NICU care. It behooves the profession to describe and promulgate specialized NICU-MT treatment techniques. Because of the extreme fragility and unique needs of premature infants still undergoing fetal development, it is also timely that the music therapy profession begins to develop specialized training for clinical treatment in this area. This article offers a perspective on NICU-MT by integrating music research with developmental theory, medical treatment, and MT clinical practice. It also provides suggestions for development of the specialization of NICU-MT.

  3. Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, Adam [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Yusof, Rozarina Md [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Everdell, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Hillman, Elizabeth M C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom); Meek, Judith H [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom); Wyatt, John S [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-07

    For the first time, three-dimensional images of the newborn infant brain have been generated using measurements of transmitted light. A 32-channel time-resolved imaging system was employed, and data were acquired using custom-made helmets which couple source fibres and detector bundles to the infant head. Images have been reconstructed using measurements of mean flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom, and using a head-shaped 3D finite-element-based forward model with an external boundary constrained to match the measured positions of the sources and detectors. Results are presented for a premature infant with a cerebral haemorrhage predominantly located within the left ventricle. Images representing the distribution of absorption at 780 nm and 815 nm reveal an asymmetry consistent with the haemorrhage, and corresponding maps of blood volume and fractional oxygen saturation are generally within expected physiological values.

  4. Results of Thyroid Function Tests in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the rate, etiology and morbidity association of disorders of thyroid function tests (TFTs in premature babies. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 premature babies who were admitted to Uludag University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2009 and January 2012 were included in this study. Prenatal, natal and postnatal characteristics along with TFTs results were recorded. TFTs were performed for all patients in the first and third weeks of life. Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH values of >10 IU/L was considered elevated. Free T3 and T4 levels were evaluated according to laboratory cut-off values. Weight, height and head circumference values of all individuals with and without the diagnosis of hypothyroidism on the 6th, 12th, and 18th months of their polyclinic follow-ups.Results: Abnormal TFTs were detected in 41 (24% patients. Twenty two patients (53% had transient TSH elevation, 9 (22% had primary hypothyroidism, 9 (22% had non-thyroidal disease and 1 (2.4% had transient hypothyroxinemia. Among morbidities, respiratory distress syndrome rate was found to be significantly higher in patients with thyroid function disorders (p=0.007. The rate of thyroid function disorders in patients with mothers with hypothyroidism was significantly more frequent compared to patients without maternal hypothyroidism (p=0.049. The mean head circumference in 18 month was significantly lower in patients with abnormal TFTs (p=0.047. Conclusions: Thyroid function disorders are common morbidities in premature babies and are important for neuromotor development. Maternal thyroid function disorder can lead to impairment of TFTs in infants. Thyroid function tests should be performed in all premature babies and hypotyhroidism should be treated. Avoidance of iodine exposure in premature infants can reduce the rate of abnormal TFTs and transient hypothyroidism.

  5. Effects of different feeding modes on growth and development of premature infants%不同喂养方式对早产儿生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善昌; 尹莉蓉; 冯永萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨早产儿住院期间开奶时间及出院后喂养方式对其生长发育的影响.方法:选择张掖市人民医院102例早产儿,其中7天内禁食者45例,生后72 h经母乳喂养或早期微量喂养者67例,出院后纯母乳喂养者64例,早产配方奶喂养3月者13例,生后即足月配方奶喂养25例.所有早产儿出院后3月、1岁、3岁分别测量体重、身高、头围3项生长指标,按7日内开始喂养、7日后开始喂养和母乳喂养、早产配方奶喂养、足月配方奶喂养分类进行统计分析,观察不同开始喂养时间和不同喂养方式对早产儿体格发育的影响.结果:住院期间7日内开始喂养的早产儿出院后3月时的体重、身高和头围明显高于住院期间7日后开始喂养的早产儿(P<0.05);出院后采用早产儿配方奶、母乳喂养和足月配方奶喂养的早产儿,其3月及1岁时的体重、身高和头围依次降低,3组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),q检验进一步显示,早产儿配方奶、母乳喂养和足月配方奶喂养者体重、身高、头围比较有统计学差异(P<0.01),3组3岁时体格生长指标比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:对住院的早产儿,开始喂养时间早,可以促进3月内的婴儿的体格生长,出院后的用早产儿配方奶能促进1岁内的体格生长,优于母乳喂养,而母乳喂养优于足月配方奶喂养,出院后首选早产儿配方奶或母乳喂养.%Objective; To explore the effect of the starting feeding time in hospital and the feeding modes after leaving the hospital of premature infants on growth and development of them. Methods: A total of 102 premature infants were selected from the hospital, including 45 infants with absolute diet within seven days, 67 infants with breast feeding or early minimal feeding within 72 hours after birth, 64 infants with pure breast feeding after leaving the hospital, 13 infants fed with preterm formula milk, and 25 infants fed with full

  6. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Janaillac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2, compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2. Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks’ gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g, providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson’s R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  7. Erythrocyte incorporation and absorption of 58Fe in premature infants treated with erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widness, J A; Lombard, K A; Ziegler, E E; Serfass, R E; Carlson, S J; Johnson, K J; Miller, J E

    1997-03-01

    We hypothesized that treatment of very low birth weight premature infants with r-HuEPO would increase erythrocyte incorporation and gastrointestinal absorption of iron. Infants with birth weights absorption of 58Fe was not different between the epo and placebo groups after both early dosing (30 +/- 22% versus 34 +/- 8%) and late dosing (32 +/- 9% versus 31 +/- 6%). Absorption of nonlabeled elemental iron and 58Fe were significantly correlated with one another. The percentage of the absorbed 58Fe dose incorporated into Hb was not different between groups. We conclude that, although erythropoietin treatment stimulates erythrocyte iron incorporation in premature infants, it has no effect on iron absorption at the r-HuEPO dose studied.

  8. NURSING AND CARING OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Eva; Hall, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The study is a control quasi-experimental intervention. The investigation is a multi-centre study, involving two different and similar Neonatal Care Units on University Hospital in DK. The aim is to investigate which effects systematically intervention of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care...

  9. Congenital Heart Disease in Premature Infants 25-32 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Patricia Y; Li, Jennifer S; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Hornik, Christoph P; Hill, Kevin D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) across the spectrum of common defects in very/extremely premature infants and to compare mortality rates between premature infants with and without CHDs. The Kids' Inpatient Databases (2003-2012) were used to estimate the birth prevalence of CHDs (excluding patent ductus arteriosus) in very/extremely premature infants born between 25 and 32 weeks' gestational age. Birth prevalence was compared with term infants for a subset of "severe" defects expected to be near universally diagnosed in the neonatal period. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate aORs of mortality comparing very and extremely premature infants with vs without CHDs. We identified 249 011 very/extremely premature infants, including 28 806 with CHDs. The overall birth prevalence of CHDs was 116 per 1000 very/extremely premature births. Severe CHDs had significantly higher birth prevalence in very/extremely premature infants when compared with term infants (7.4 per 1000 very/premature births vs 1.5 per 1000 term births; P premature infants with severe CHDs had an overall 26.3% in-hospital mortality and a 7.5-fold increased adjusted odds of death compared with those without CHDs. Mortality varied widely by defect in very/extremely premature infants, ranging from 12% for interrupted aortic arch to 67% for truncus arteriosus. Given the increased birth prevalence of severe CHDs in very/extremely premature infants, and significantly higher mortality, there is justification for intensive interventions aimed at decreasing the likelihood of premature delivery for patients where CHD is diagnosed in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity and oxygen saturation > 94% in room air : The High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, ML; Bremer, DL; Cole, C; McClead, RE; Phelps, DL; Fellows, RR; Oden, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the rate of progression from prethreshold to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants excluded from Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP) because their median arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))

  11. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  12. Glycerin enemas and suppositories in premature infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael H; Shawyer, Anna C; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Williams, Connie; Jones, Sarah A; Walton, J Mark

    2015-06-01

    Premature infants are often given glycerin enemas or suppositories to facilitate meconium evacuation and transition to enteral feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the available evidence for this treatment strategy. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Central, and trial registries for randomized controlled trials of premature infants treated with glycerin enemas or suppositories. Data were extracted in duplicate and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We identified 185 premature infants treated prophylactically with glycerin enemas in one trial (n = 81) and suppositories in two other trials (n = 104). All infants were less than 32 weeks gestation and had no congenital malformations. Treatment was associated with earlier initiation of stooling in one trial (2 vs 4 days, P = .02) and a trend towards earlier meconium evacuation in another (6.5 vs 9 days, P = .11). Meta-analysis demonstrated no effect on transition to enteral feeding (0.7 days faster, P = .43) or mortality (P = 0.50). There were no reports of rectal bleeding or perforation but there was a trend towards increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with glycerin enemas or suppositories (risk ratio = 2.72, P = .13). These three trials are underpowered and affected by one or more major methodological issues. As a result, the quality of evidence is low to very low. Three other trials are underway. The evidence for the use glycerin enemas or suppositories in premature infants in inconclusive. Meta-analyzed data suggest that treatment may be associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Careful monitoring of ongoing trials is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  14. Correspondence: Probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Mandal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We read with great interest the article by Jerković Raguž et al. published in the latest issue of your journal. First, we would like to commend the authors for their endeavor. We have comments regarding the methodological issues which require further clarification by the authors for the benefit of the readers of JPNIM. This corrispondence refers to the following article:Jerković Raguž M, Brzica J, Rozić S, Šumanović Glamuzina D, Mustapić A, Novaković Bošnjak M, Božić T. The impact of probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis on the treatment, course and outcome of premature infants in the Intensive Care Unit in Mostar. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(2:e050228. doi: 10.7363/050228.Authors’ reply can be found in the following article:Jerković Raguž M, Brzica J, Rozić S, Šumanović Glamuzina D, Mustapić A, Novaković Bošnjak M, Božić T. Correspondence: Probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in premature infants – Authors’ reply. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2017;6(1:e060130. doi: 10.7363/060130.

  15. 发展性照顾对早产儿胃肠功能成熟度的影响%Effect of developmental care on the maturity of gastrointestinal function of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟红; 刘永琴; 徐芬; 焦小英; 杨倩

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨发展性照顾对早产儿胃肠功能成熟度的影响.方法:将100例早产儿按出生顺序随机分为实验组和常规组各50例,两组早产儿均给予常规护理、治疗.常规组在不能经口喂养期间给予非营养性吸吮,实验组给予疼痛干预、音乐疗法等发展性照顾.比较两组早产儿血液中胃泌素(GAS)水平、体重增长速度及喂养不耐受发生率.结果:实验组早产儿出生后5d、10 d GAS水平均高于常规组(P<0.05),恢复出生体重时间早于常规组(P<0.05),喂养不耐受发生率低于常规组(P<0.05).结论:发展性照顾可促进早产儿GAS释放,促进胃肠功能成熟及体重增长,降低喂养不耐受发生率.%Objective:To explore the effect of developmental care on the maturity of gastrointestinal function of premature infants.Methods:100 premature infants were randomly divided into the experimental group and the routine nursing group (50 cases in each group) according to the birth order.The premature infants in both groups were given routine nursing care and therapy.The premature infants in the routine nursing group were given non-nutritive sucking when they could not be given oral feeding and the developmental care like pain intervention and music therapy was provided for the premature infants in the experimental group.The level of blood gastrin (GAS),body weight growth rate and the incidence of feeding intolerance were compared between the two groups.Results:The level of GAS of premature infants in 5 and 10 days after birth was higher in the experimental group than the routine nursing group (P <0.05) ;the time to resume birth weight was earlier in the experimental group than the routine nursing group (P < 0.05) ; the incidence of feeding intolerance was lower in the experimental group than the routine nursing group (P < 0.05).Conclusion:The developmental care can promote the release of GAS/,the maturity of gastrointestinal function and body weight

  16. Effects of poverty on home environment: an analysis of three-year outcome data for low birth weight premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J E; Kirby, R S; Kelleher, K J; Bradley, R H

    1996-06-01

    Investigated the relationship between poverty and parenting in a sample of low birth weight (poverty levels, poor families scored lower on the HOME inventory (used to measure the caregiving environment) than nonpoor families. A regression model including poverty, race, site, and representative environmental, maternal, and child variables accounted for 60% of variance in total HOME scores. Poverty and maternal IQ had significant and independent effects on HOME scores, whereas maternal distress accounted for little of the variance. In a LBWPT sample, our results find a strong relationship between parenting and poverty, suggest a modest role for maternal psychological distress in this relationship, and indicate that the influence of poverty likely extends beyond commonly measured environmental, maternal, and child factors.

  17. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Alku, Paavo; Kushnerenko, Elena; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Luotonen, Mirja; Kaukola, Tuula; Tolonen, Uolevi; Hallman, Mikko

    2010-07-30

    Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories) at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The results hence suggest that language problems related to

  18. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suominen Kalervo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Results Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Conclusion Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The

  19. The perception of partnership between parents of premature infants and nurses in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Larsen, Palle; Weis, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify how parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and nurses perceive their partnership.The review questions are: how do parents of premature infants and nurses perceive their partnership during hospita...

  20. Effect of early comprehensive intervention on physical and intelligence development of premature infants%早期综合干预对早产儿体格和智力发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董荣芝; 张晓丽; 姜桂芳; 郭丽萍; 徐冲峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of early comprehensive intervention on physical and intelligence development of premature infants. Methods:80 premature infants who would be discharged from hospital were randomly divided into the intervention group ( n = 42 ) and the control group ( n = 38 ). The traditional discharge guidance was given to the parents in the control group and early comprehensive intervention was implemented in the intervention group. The physical growth level of premature infants like body weight, body length and head circumference ( measured at birth,3 months,6 months,and 12 months ) were observed in both groups and the infant intelligence development scale ( CDCC ) was utilized to evaluate the intelligence and psychomotor development of premature infants( at birth, 3,6,12 months ) in the two groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison of body weight, body length and head circumference between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ); the body weight, body length and head circumference of premature infants (6,12 months after birth ) were superior in the intervention group to those in the control group ( P<0. 05,P<0.01 );MDI and PDI ( 12 months after birth ) were significantly better in the intervention group than the control group ( P < 0. 01 ); the incidence of cerebral palsy ( 12 months after birth ) was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion:The early comprehensive intervention can promote the physical growth and intelligence development of premature infants and decrease the incidence of mental retardation and cerebral palsy so as to improve their quality of life.%目的:探讨早期综合干预对早产儿体格和智力发育的影响.方法:将80例出院早产儿随机分为干预组42例和对照组38例,对照组给予传统出院指导,干预组给予早期综合干预.观察两组早产儿出生时、出生3、6、12个月的体重、身长和头

  1. TAC-TIC therapy with premature infants: a series of investigative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Róiste, Aine

    2004-12-01

    This article provides a synopsis of a series of studies exploring the effects of TAC-TIC (Touching And Caressing-Tender In Caring) therapy with premature infants. Study 1 looked at the short and long-term effects and found enhanced mental development in the stroked infants at 15 months. In study 2 the physiological effects of an abbreviated version of TAC-TIC with high-risk ventilated infants were examined and it was concluded that TAC-TIC exerted no harm to these vulnerable infants. The behavioural reactions of a sample of premature and low birthweight infants to TAC-TIC and parental responses to administering it were explored in study 3. The infants were found to respond predominantly with arm and leg movements to TAC-TIC while fathers and mothers reported enjoying performing TAC-TIC and elicited a similar pattern and frequency of behavioural reactions. In study 4 the question of whether TAC-TIC benefits preterm infant learning and/or sucking behaviour was investigated. The conclusion reached was that TAC-TIC may potentially benefit cognitive performance within the neonatal period and that this may be an early indicator of long-term cognitive gains reported by previous studies. Using a matched subjects design, study 5 explored the impact of TAC-TIC upon the digestive system by analysing gastric aspirates before and after TAC-TIC and a control period of time. It was concluded that TAC-TIC appeared to induce a more suitable stomach environment for digestion.

  2. Effects of flow amplitudes on intraprong pressures during bubble versus ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Doron J; Habib, Robert H; Courtney, Sherry E

    2008-11-01

    The goal were to characterize the flow dependence of bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery in a cohort of preterm infants and to compare the actual (delivered) intraprong continuous positive airway pressure with the intended (set) nasal continuous positive airway pressure for both ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure and bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery. A range of set values and constant flow rates were studied in the same preterm infants. For 12 premature infants of pressures were measured at 3 increasing flow settings, repeated for set nasal continuous positive airway pressures (or desired immersion depths) of 4 and 6 cm H(2)O. Next, intraprong pressures were measured at bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure expiratory tubing submersion depths and ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure set expiratory pressures of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 cm H(2)O while the flow rate was held constant. Actual (delivered) intraprong pressure during bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery was highly flow dependent and increased as the flow rate increased. During ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery, actual pressure at the nasal prongs closely approximated the pressure set at the ventilator. During bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery at constant flow rate, the average delivered prong pressure was 1.3 cm H(2)O (range: 0.5-2.2 cm H(2)O) higher than that set through submersion of the expiratory tubing, and the relative difference between the set and actual pressures increased at lesser immersion depths. Prong pressure during bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery is highly variable and depends on the interaction of submersion depth and flow amplitudes.

  3. The effect of decibel level of music stimuli and gender on head circumference and physiological responses of premature infants in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jane W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine different protocols with regard to the presentation of music stimuli and compare gender differential reactions to those stimuli. Subjects for this study (N = 63) were premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the gestational ages of 28 and 33 weeks. Half of the experimental infants listened to 20 mins of lullaby music (female voice with orchestral background) on 2 days followed by 20 mins of classical music (Mozart string music) on 2 days. The other half listened to the same music in the reverse order. One quarter of the males and one quarter of the females listened to music presented at an average of 65 dB, one quarter at an average of 70 dB, one quarter at an average of 75 dB, and one quarter did not listen to any music and served as control subjects. Head circumference data were collected four times by the researcher: (a) upon receipt of parental consent, (b) on the first day of music presentation (1 week after consent), (c) on the last day of music presentation, and (d) 1 week after music presentation. Physiological data (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) were recorded by the researcher at 2-minute intervals starting 4 minutes prior to and ending 4 minutes after music presentation. There was a significant difference (p < .0001) in average daily head growth across time, but this seems unrelated to the music condition as the same curvilinear trend (larger gain during days of treatment, smaller gain during baseline before and after treatment) was noted for control infants who did not listen to music. Results indicate a significant (p = .002), but biologically unimportant, decrease in heart rate over the course of data collection. No differences due to gender were noted.

  4. 早期干预对早产儿精神运动发育的影响%The Effects of early intervention on premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常燕群; 柯海劲; 李贤英; 钟青; 徐宁; 杨杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早期干预对早产儿体格、智能发育及运动发育的影响,寻找更合理的治疗流程.方法 将183例早产儿列入本研究中,其中111例早产儿除接受一般育儿指导外,均进行早产儿早期干预,为干预组.72例因各种原因仅接受一般育儿指导和定期复查,为未干预组.干预组按0~2岁早期干预大纲[1]进行早期系统干预,均由同一组治疗师进行,专人进行体格发育、神经系统检查、发育商测定等.结果 干预组与未干预组患儿在12月、18月时身长、体重、头围比较,差异均无显著性(P均>0.05);智力发育指数(MDI)比较:6月龄时,干预组比非干预组高4.5分,差异无显著性(P>0.05);12月龄、18月龄时干预组比未干预组分别高6.3分和7.4分,差异均有显著性(P均<0.05).运动发育指数(PDI)比较,6月龄、12月龄、18月龄时干预组较未干预组分别高8.3分、9.3分、和11.3分,差异均有显著性(P均<0.05).干预组脑性瘫痪、智力低下、运动低下的发生率都较未干预组低,差异均有显著性(P均<0.05).结论 早期系统干预早产儿可促进其智力和运动发育,减少脑瘫、智力低下、运动低下的发生率,应及早对早产儿进行早期系统干预治疗,提高早产儿的远期生存质量.%Objective; To study the effects of early intervention on premature infants. Methods; In 183 preterm infants, 111 pre-term infants were received in the treated group, and 72 patients were received in the control group, respectively. The physical and neurological conditions, Vojta posture reflex and intelligence test (Bayley) were studied. The treated group was gived early intervention methods included Bobath therapy, neurodevelopmental therapy and other methods, and the control group only received health introduction. Results; (1) Intelligence development; At six month the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotive development index (PDI) in treated group showed

  5. Early discharge of premature infants. A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddish, M; Merritt, T A

    1998-06-01

    Although significant advances in the medical management of acutely ill preterm infants have resulted in unprecedented rates of survival, issues surrounding the convalescent care, discharge preparation, and readiness of parents or other caregivers have been less well studied and represent the art of medicine. Recent consensus statements provide a degree of content validity; however, important areas of scientific inquiry remain. Much is left to understand about the pathophysiology, management, and outcomes of apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation episodes continuing at term. Why do the most immature infants have a delay in the maturation of respiratory control? Do breathing studies really provide information that predicts subsequent respiratory control abnormalities? If methylxanthines are used at discharge, what criteria should be adhered to regarding their discontinuation? How is nutrition best provided while transitioning to home? In infants whose mothers desire exclusive breast-feeding, should gavage feeds be used to supplement in order to avoid bottle-feedings? How long should breast milk be fortified, and when should supplemented artificial milks be used and for what period of time postdischarge should these more expensive special-discharge artificial milks be used? What other supplements, such as inositol, vitamins, or antioxidants, should be provided in order to achieve optimal growth and development? Technology-dependent infants pose even greater complexities. Some infants and families adapt to extensive use of technology in the home. In other situations, basic infant care is difficult to achieve. What are the essential components for successful early discharge, and how can the studies involving selected families be made universal? How can NICUs better prepare fathers and mothers for premature parenthood? To what extent are we overwhelming families with additional responsibilities and expectations that may compromise their competency in basic parenting

  6. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drysdale, Simon B.; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants bo

  7. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  8. Umbilical cord milking improves transition in premature infants at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Katheria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord milking (UCM improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC. The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. METHODS: Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR, SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP, and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC. RESULTS: 41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC. CONCLUSIONS: UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434732.

  9. Umbilical Cord Milking Improves Transition in Premature Infants at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, Anup; Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord milking (UCM) improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC). The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. Methods Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR), SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP), and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC. Results 41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC. Conclusions UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434732 PMID:24709780

  10. Umbilical cord care in premature infants: the effect of two different cord-care regimens (salicylic sugar powder vs chlorhexidine) on cord separation time and other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzati, Marco; Rossi, Sauro; Tronchin, Michele; Dani, Carlo; Filippi, Luca; Rubaltelli, Firmino F

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of 2 cord-care regimens (salicylic sugar powder vs chlorhexidine as a 4% detergent water solution) on cord separation time and other outcomes in preterm infants. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 244 preterm newborns with a gestational age of powder (6 +/- 2 days) than in infants who were treated with chlorhexidine (9 +/- 2 days). The programmed cord-care regimen was changed in a significantly higher number of newborns in the chlorhexidine group (17) than in the salicylic sugar group (3). None of the newborns died, and we found only sporadic cases of sepsis (1 patient in each group) and omphalitis (1 patient in the chlorhexidine group). A significantly higher percentage of nurses were satisfied with the salicylic sugar powder treatment (98%) than with the chlorhexidine treatment (67%), notwithstanding a more frequent occurrence of slight cord scar bleeding in the salicylic sugar group (7.8%) than in the chlorhexidine group (4%). The rate of negative umbilical swabs was significantly higher in infants treated with salicylic sugar powder (73.1%) than with chlorhexidine (53%). In neonatal intensive care units and neonatal special care units of developed countries, salicylic sugar powder can be used effectively and safely for UC care of preterm infants.

  11. Presentation of Aural Stimuli to Newborns and Premature Infants: An Audiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.

  12. Assessing the need for transfusion of premature infants and role of hematocrit, clinical signs, and erythropoietin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, W G; Donohue, P K; Spivak, J L; Jones, M D; Oski, F A

    1989-09-01

    There are no clear criteria for administration of blood to premature infants. In the past, indications for transfusion have included tachypnea, tachycardia, poor weight gain, apnea, bradycardia, pallor, lethargy, decreased activity, or poor feeding. Some have suggested that erythropoietin levels may also be useful in determining the need for transfusion. Data were studied from 11 premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 g collected throughout 469 hospital days. During that period the infants received a total of 37 blood transfusions. No overall relationship was found between hematocrit of 19% to 64% and heart rate, respiratory rate, or the occurrence of bradycardia; ie, these variables proved to be clinically unreliable as indicators of hematocrit. Furthermore, no predictable effect of transfusion could be identified on heart rate, respiratory rate, or on the incidence of apnea or bradycardia. It was anticipated that frequent episodes of apnea or bradycardia might increase serum erythropoietin concentration. To the contrary, more frequent bradycardia was associated with the low erythropoietin levels because those infants tended to receive transfusions for "symptomatic" anemia. The data are consistent with the concept that "anemia of prematurity" is not predictably associated with symptoms classically attributed to anemia. Possible reasons for this are that the premature infant has a different inherent response to anemia; that it is inappropriate to extrapolate symptoms of severe acute anemia to persons with mild or moderate chronic anemia; or, most likely, that other determinants of heart rate, respiratory rate, and apnea/bradycardia are of more importance than mild or moderate anemia.

  13. Study on the effects of early system intervention to intelligence and physical growth of premature infants%早期系统干预对早产儿智能及体格发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁茂萍; 赖卫文; 李美清; 吴国清; 李文珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of early system intervention to intelligence and physical growth of premature infants. Methods 179 cases of premature low birth weight infants were randomly divided into intervention group of 93 cases, 86 cases in control group, premature children of two groups had regular physical examinations and health guidance, the intervention group regularly accepted early intervention from the 42nd day after birth. In correcting age as 1 year old, babies of two groups were measured in length and weight, assessment of their intelligence by belle infant development scale. Results The Mental development index (MDI), psychomotor development index (PDI) of intervention group were higher than those of control group, there was a significant difference (P< 0.05), the weight, height development indicators of both groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05) .Conclusion Early intervention to premature children can promote their intellectual development.%目的 探讨早期干预对早产儿智能及体格发育的影响.方法 将179例早产低体重儿随机分为干预组93例和对照组86例;两组早产儿均定期进行体格检查及保健指导,干预组从42天始定期接受早期干预.两组婴儿均于纠正年龄1岁时进行体重、身长测定及用贝莉婴幼儿发育量表进行智能评估.结果干预组智能发育指数(MDI)[(113.4±15.5)vs(102.4±19.4)]、运动发育指数(PDI)[(89.7±13.1)vs(84.4±15.4)]均明显高于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.05);两组体重生长发育指标比较差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论对早产儿进行早期干预,可促进其智能发育.

  14. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  15. Music modulates behaviour of premature infants following heel lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M L; Kisilevsky, B S

    2000-03-01

    The physiological and behavioural effects of music during recovery from heel lance were examined in 14 preterm infants at 29 to 36 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). Infants were tested on 2 occasions: during a music condition and during a no-music control condition. Each condition was videotaped during 3 periods: baseline, heel lance, and recovery. Infants were divided into 2 age groups for data analyses: less than and greater than 31 weeks PCA. Mixed model ANOVAs showed that heel lance elicited a stress response (i.e., increased heart rate, decreased oxygen saturation, increased state-of-arousal, and increased facial actions indicative of pain) in both age groups. The stress response was greater in the older group. During recovery, the older group had a more rapid return of heart rate, behavioural state, and facial expressions of pain to baseline levels in the presence of compared to the absence of music. It was concluded that music is an effective NICU intervention following a stress-provoking stimulus in infants older than 31 weeks PCA.

  16. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables.METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music, 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose, 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose. All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby was played for ten minutes before puncture in Experimental Groups 1 and 2; 25% glucose administered in Experimental Group 2 and the Positive Control Group two minutes before puncture.RESULTS: 60.0% of premature infants had moderate or maximum pain; pain scores and intervention groups were not statistically significant. Statistically significant variables: Experimental Group 1: head and chest circumference, Apgar scores, corrected gestational age; Experimental Group 2: chest circumference, Apgar scores, oxygen therapy; Positive Control group: birth weight, head circumference.CONCLUSION: neonatal variables are associated with pain in premature infants. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: UTN: U1111-1123-4821.

  17. 早期系统的医院-家庭康复对早产儿发育的影响%The effects of early and systematic hospital-and-family rehabilitation on the growth of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓红; 黄金华; 潘家华; 朱蓉; 汪蕾蕾; 廖承琳; 吴万云

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of early hospital-family comprehensive rehabilitation on the development of pretenn infants. Methods A total of 256 premature infants were chosen and divided into an early intervention group (n = 148) and a control group (n =108). Besides being given the conventional mothering instruction , the early intervention group was given early assessment, regular visits and hospital-family comprehensive rehabilitation treatment. The control group was only given the conventional mothering instruction. The fine and gross motor growth quotients, adaptation, verbalisation and social behavior and general growth quotient of all the premature infants were assessed periodically using the infant neuropsychology growth scale. Results The growth quotient assessment indicators of the infants receiving the intervention were obviously better at the 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th month after birth, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The incidence of cerebral palsy in the early intervention group was 0.71% (1/148), with only one cerebral palsy infant in the early intervention group who was at level Ⅲ of the gross motor function classification system ( GMFCS) , while the incidence of cerebral palsy in the control group was 5.1% (5/98) , with 5 cerebral palsy infants, one of whom was at GMFCS level Ⅲ and 4 of whom were at level Ⅳ. Conclusions Early systematic hospital-family comprehensive rehabilitation can improve the general growth of premature infants, decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy, and neurobehavior deficits.%目的 探讨早期系统的医院-家庭综合康复模式对早产儿发育的影响.方法 将符合标准的早产儿256例分成早期干预组(148例)和常规对照组(108例).早期干预组除接受常规育儿指导外,还进行早期评估、定期随访和医院-家庭康复治疗;对照组只接受常规育儿指导.采用小儿神经心理发育量表定期对2组患儿的粗大运动

  18. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of indomethacin in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, M B; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Chirico, G; Rondini, G; Chiara, A; Piccolo, A

    1984-01-01

    Despite a considerable amount of investigation, controversy continues concerning the use of indomethacin in inducing the closure of patent ductus arteriosus. This controversy may be attributable to differences in dosage, route of administration, postnatal age at treatment and the variable pharmacokinetics of the drug in premature infants. The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of i.v. administered indomethacin in five premature infants with PDA were evaluated. There was considerable intersubject variability in the half life of elimination (63.1 +/- 38 h). This variability was mainly due to clearance (0.0086 +/- 0.0069 l/h/kg) rather than to distribution volume variability (0.54 +/- 0.27 l/kg). A reduction of half life was observed after the second dose, probably due to a maturation process. A permanent closure of the ductus was obtained in two patients after the first dose and in two patients after the second dose. The side-effects observed in our infants were transient and no long-term complication was attributable to this drug.

  19. Effect of pulmonary surfactant joint n-CPAP on respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants%珂立苏联合CPAP治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健华

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察外源性肺表面活性物质联合n-CPAP治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的疗效.方法 32例患儿应用珂立苏及n-CPAP治疗,观察治疗后临床反应、血气变化、CPAP参数变化及疗效.结果 应用珂立苏及n-CPAP后患儿呼吸困难、呻吟、发绀、吸凹征明显减轻或消失,CPAP参数均下调,用药前后pH、PaO2、PaCO2差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);无气胸、肺出血等并发症,32例均治愈出院.结论 外源性肺表面活性物质珂立苏联合n-CPAP治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的疗效确切,可明显改善临床症状、血气指标及氧合状况.%Objective To observe the effects of pulmonary surfactant - Calf joint n - CPAP on respiratory distress syndrome of premature infants. Methods Thirty - two cases of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome undergone the treatment with pulmonary surfactant - Calf joint n - CPAP. Then the clinical response, changes of blood gas index and CPAP parameter, and therapeutic effects were observed. Results After the treatment of pulmonary surfactant - Calf joint n - CPAP, the symptoms like dyspnea, retarded expiration, breath depressions sign and cyanosis were lessened and disappeared. The parameters of the CPAP were slowed down. The difference was significant when pH, PaO2 , PaCO2 were compared with those of pre - medication ( P <0. 05 ). There were no complications like pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage, and all 32 cases were cured. Conclusion It is effective to use pulmonary surfactant - Calf joint n - CPAP in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome of premature infants, which can effectively improve the clinical symptom, blood gas index and status of oxygen.

  20. Influence of Nursing Intervention on Prevention and Cure Effect on Icterus in Premature Infant%护理干预对早产儿黄疸的疗效影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司徒雪飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of nursing intervention on prevention and cure effect of icterus in premature infant. Methods:90 premature infants in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups, the control group consisted of 45 premature infants. 45 premature infants in experimental observation group were treated by warm saline enema, early enteral nutrition by breast milk, and whole body touch, and were compared with the control group. ReSUltS-.The occurrence, duration and fade time in experimental observation group were (4.25 ±1. 18) days, (5.12 ± 1. 39) days and (8. 56 ±2. 04) days, for the control group they were (2. 09 ±0. 98) days (11.25 ±1.68) days and (14.21 ±3.58) days, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). For the experimental observation group, the serum bilirubin levels were not statistically different with the control group, but significantly different (P <0.05) at the 3rd day and 7th day after birth. In observation group, the abdominal distension, feeding intolerance and apnea incidence rate lower than the control group (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The implementation of warm saline enema, early enteral nutrition by breast milk, and whole body touch, showed good preventive and cure effect on icterus in premature pnfantcan.%目的 探讨采用护理干预对早产儿黄疸的防治效果.方法 将我科自2008年1月~2010年1月期间收治的90例早产儿随机分为两组,对照组45例采取常规护理,观察组45例在对照组基础上采用温生理盐水灌肠、早期母乳胃肠内营养及全身抚触等一系列护理干预措施,观察两组患儿黄疸及并发症发生情况.结果 观察组患儿黄疸出现时间、持续时间及消退时间分别为(4.25±1.18)天、(5.12±1.39)天及(8.56±2.04)天,对照组分别为(2.09±0.98)天、(11.25±1.68)天及(14.21±3.58)天,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).观察组患儿出生后第1天血清胆红素水平与对照组无

  1. 口服对乙酰氨基酚治疗早产儿动脉导管未闭的效果及安全性%Effect and safety of oral paracetamol in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵捷; 杨传忠; 张谦慎; 连朝辉; 董国庆

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨口服对乙酰氨基酚治疗早产儿动脉导管未闭(patent ductus arteriosus,PDA)的效果及安全性。方法:采用前瞻性对照研究方法观察PDA早产儿治疗临床资料,72例经心脏彩超诊断有临床表现的 PDA 的早产儿分为口服对乙酰氨基酚治疗组(18例)和口服布洛芬对照组(54例),观察两组 PDA 关闭率、副作用及并发症。结果:治疗组和对照组总关闭率分别为66.7%(12例)和70.4%(38例),差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.087,P=0.768)。除但治疗组高胆红素血症发生率低于对照组外(P<0.05),两组患儿在少尿、NEC、肾功能异常、IVH3-4级发生率寄消化道出血等药物副作用方面的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:对乙酰氨基酚在治疗PDA方面的疗效与布洛芬接近,且高胆红素血症发生率低,适合于在临床推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of paracetamol in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus(PDA). Method A protrospective comparsion study was performed onthe data of premature infants with PDA. Seventy-two premature infants with echocardiographically comfirmed PDA were randomized into the oral paracetamol group(n1=18) and the ibuprofen group(n2=54), and the rate of ductal closure, side effects and complications were compared between the two groups. Results The ductus was 66.7% (12 infants) in the paracetamol group, which was similar to 70.4% (38 cases) in the ibuprofen group, with no significant difference(χ2=0.087,P=0.768).Except for the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in the paracetamol group was higher than that in the ibuprofen group (P0.05), including oliguria,NEC,renal impairment,the incidence of IVH3-4 and gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions The clinical effect of paracetamol in premature infants with PDA is similar to that of ibuprofen , withlower incidence of hyperbilirubinemia, and

  2. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  3. Study on analgesic effects of nonpharmacologic interventions in fundus oculi screening of premature infants%非药物干预方法在早产儿眼底筛查中的镇痛效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 肖甜甜; 巨容

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同非药物干预方法对早产儿眼底筛查的镇痛效果。方法选择2013年12月至2014年3月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院新生儿科住院,并且需首次进行眼底筛查的160例早产儿为研究对象。将其按照入院顺序号随机分为4组:非营养性吸吮(NNS)组、宫内体位支持组、联合组及对照组,每组各40例。分别在早产儿眼底筛查前、后2 min 采用新生儿疼痛量表(NIPS)对受试者进行疼痛评分,并比较各组评分差异。本研究遵循的程序符合成都市妇女儿童中心医院人体试验委员会制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,分组征得受试对象监护人知情同意,并与监护人签署临床研究知情同意书。各组患儿胎龄、出生体质量及首次眼底筛查纠正胎龄比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结果各组早产儿在接受筛查前,NIPS 评分结果均为0分。在筛查后,各组 NIPS 评分结果均为正值。对照组早产儿筛查后NIPS 评分显著高于筛查前,且差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。结论′早产儿对疼痛敏感,NNS 及宫内体位支持对早产儿均有明显镇痛作用,二者联合的干预方法具有协同镇痛作用。对进行眼底筛查的早产儿需进行疼痛管理。%Objective To study the analgesic effects of different nonpharmacological pain-relieving interventions for fundus oculi screening of premature infants.Methods A total of 1 60 premature infants who were hospitalized and need to be done fundus oculi screening for the first time in department of Neonatal,Chengdu Women′s & Children′s Central Hospital from December 2013 to March 2014 were chosen as study subjects.They were randomly divided into four groups according to the order of admission:non-nutritive sucking (NNS)group,intrauterine position support group,combination group of both and control group,each group had forty premature infants.According to Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS

  4. Different ventilation modes combined with ambroxol in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhai, Jing-Fang; Wu, Jie-Bin; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yan-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different modes of mechanical ventilation in combination with secretolytic therapy with ambroxol in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Seventy-three premature infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) (stage III–IV), also known as respiratory distress syndrome, who were supported by mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Xuzhou Central Hospital, were involved in the present study, between January 2013 and February 2015. Forty cases were randomly selected and treated with high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), forming the HFOV group, whereas 33 cases were selected and treated with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), forming the CMV group. Patients in the two groups were administered ambroxol intravenously at a dosage rate of 30 mg/kg body weight at the beginning of the study. The present study involved monitoring the blood gas index as well as changes in the respiratory function index in the two groups. Additionally, the incidence of complications in the premature infants in the two groups was observed prior to and following the ventilation. Pulmonary arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), the PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, the oxygenation index [OI = 100 × mean airway pressure (MAP) × FiO2/PaO2], as well as the arterial/alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio (a/APO2) = PaO2/(713 × FiO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)/0.8) of the patients in the HFOV group after 1, 12 and 24 h of treatment were significantly improved as compared to the patients of the CMV group. However, there was no significant difference between patients in the two groups with regard to the number of mortalities, complications such as pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and the time of ventilation. In conclusion, combining HFOV

  5. 早期干预对早产儿智力及运动发育的影响%The Effects of Early Intervention on Mental and Motor Development of Premature Infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟青; 许欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of early intervention on the development of physique,intelligence and motor in premature infants. Methods The development* of physique,nervous system examination, Vojta postural reflex teat,development quotient were performed in 111 premature infants undergoing early intervention. Another 72 premature infants were selected as control group. Results At 6,12,18 months old,the mental development index (MDI) in treated group significantly exceeded control group for4.5,6.3 and 7.4 scores,the PDI exceeded 8.3,9.3,11.3 scores,respectively(P<0.05). The incidences of ZKS were decreased with the age,had no significant difference at 3 months old,but had significant difference at 6 months and 12 months old between two groups ( P <0.05). Conclusion The application of early intervention could promote the development of mental and motor,improve the survival life quality in the near future.%目的:探讨早期干预对早产儿体格、智能及运动发育的影响。方法:对111例早产儿行早期干预后进行体格发育、神经系统检查、Vojta姿势反射测定、发育商测定。另选72例早产儿作为对照组。结果:6、12、18月龄时,干预组智力发育指数(MDI)较对照组分别高4.5分、6.3分和7.4分(P均<0.05);运动发育指数(PDI)分别高8.3分、9.3分和11.3分(P均<0.05)。随月龄增加,两组ZKS例数均逐渐下降;两组ZKS发生率比较,3月时无显著性差异(P>0.05),6月、12月有显著性差异(P均<0.05)。结论:早期干预可促进早产儿智力和运动发育,提高其近期生存质量。

  6. Clinical effect of shallow suction applied in mechanical ventilation in premature infants%浅层吸痰在机械通气早产患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秋月; 谭芬养; 袁碧丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of shallow suction applied in mechanical ventilation in premature infants,to provide true reference and basis for clinical nursing practice and research in preterm infants. Methods:60 patients with mechanical ventilation of premature infants were randomly divid-ed into experimental group and control group,the control group used the traditional deep sputum suction,while the experimental group used shallow suction. Compared the two sputum drainage methods of clinical the actual effect. Results:In experimental group suction oxygen saturation after 3min was significantly higher than the control group,vital signs (heart rate,respiration,blood pressure) compared with the control group,stable,sputum suction related complica-tions in irritability,vomiting,airway mucosal injury incidence was significantly lower than the control group,the difference has statistical significance (P <0. 05). Conclusion:Using shallow suction can effectively clean premature airway sputum,improve the blood oxygen saturation,reduce the impact on the vital signs,reduce phlegm suction related complications,improve the prognosis of the patients,has good clinical effect,especially suitable for the clinical applica-tion of mechanical ventilation in premature infants.%目的::探讨浅层吸痰在机械通气早产患儿中的应用效果,为早产儿临床研究提供真实的依据。方法:将2012年8月~2014年2月本院60例机械通气早产儿随机等分为试验组与对照组,对照组采用传统深层吸痰,试验组采用浅层吸痰,比较两种吸痰方法的临床效果。结果:试验组吸痰3 min 后患儿血氧饱和度较对照组升高,生命体征(心率、呼吸、血压)较对照组平稳,吸痰相关并发症中烦躁、呕吐、气道黏膜损伤的发生率低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:采用浅层吸痰可有效清理早产儿的气道痰液,提高其血氧饱和度,减少

  7. Effect of Late off umbilical on premature infant%晚断脐对早产儿结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 王浪; 贺英英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析晚断脐对早产儿结局的影响。方法选择2013年3月~2014年9月本院妇产科94例早产儿作为研究对象,分为两组。对照组采取常规断脐法,观察组实行晚断脐,比较两组早产儿娩出1、5 min时Apgar评分、出生24 h后血红蛋白水平及合并症发生率。结果两组娩出后1、5 min时Apgar评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P跃0.05);观察组早产儿出生24 h后毛细血管血红蛋白水平为(181.9±15.6)g/L,显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);Capillary hemoglobin levels of preterm infants born after 24 h in observation group was (181.9±15.6) g/L,was significantly higher than that in control group,with significant difference (P<0.05),1 cases of intracranial hemorrhage,1 cases of neonatal asphyxia and 1 cases of respiratory distress syndrome,1 cases of hyperbilirubinemia and 2 cases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy,the incidence rate was 12.8%(6/47),was significant lower than 29.8%(14/47) in control group,with significant difference (χ²=4.065,P=0.044). Conclusion Comparing with early umbilical,premature to take the late off umbilical can get more blood supply and iron reserves,thus enhancing the body immunity and conform to cardiovascular system and reduce various complications, improve neonatal outcomes,with great clinical reference value.

  8. Effect of Oral Motor Intervention on Premature Infant with Oral Feeding Difficulties%经口喂养困难早产儿行口腔运动护理干预的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓丽; 杨江兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of premature infant oral motor intervention (PIOMI) on oral feeding difficulties. Methods Sixty premature infants were divided into control group with conventional nursing and observation group with PIOMI in addition to conventional nursing. Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) was applied for the evaluation of infants oral motor function. Results There was no statistical significance of infants ’ gestational age and body mass at the very beginning of oral feeding in both groups. Gestational age when achieving full oral feeding in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group ( P<0.01) and the transition time to achieve fully oral feeding in observation group was statistically significant shorter than that in control group (P<0.05). Dysfunctional NOMAS scores and disorganized NOMAS scores in observation group were lower or significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Premature infant oral motor intervention benefits the improvement of oral motor function and shortening the feeding process.%目的:探讨早产儿口腔运动的护理干预(prematrue infant oral motor intervention,PIOMI)用于存在经口喂养困难早产儿的干预效果。方法将60例存在经口喂养困难入住NICU的早产儿作为研究对象,采用随机数字表分为对照组和观察组各30例,对照组进行常规护理,观察组在常规喂养护理的基础上进行早产儿口腔运动的护理干预,应用新生儿口腔运动评估量表(Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale,NOMAS)对早产儿进行评估。结果两组早产儿开始经口喂养时胎龄、体质量差异均无统计学意义。观察组达到完全经口喂养时胎龄显著低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组从开始经口喂养过渡到完全经口喂养天数少于对照组(P<0.05);但对照组达到完全经口喂养时的喂养效率高于观察组(P<0.05)。达到完全经口

  9. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  10. 极低出生体重早产儿早期干预的临床效果%The clinical effect of early intervention on very low birth weight premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷克竞; 李永佳; 唐国红; 张本金

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of early intervention on physical and intelligent development of premature infants with very low birth weight. Methods Selected 32 premature infants of very lowbirth weight treated in neonatal intensive care unit during November 2011 to October 2012 as the intervention group. To avoid the violation of medical ethics, we select another 32 premature infants with very low birth weight who were born before November 2011and aged between 9 to 15 months as the control group. The intervention group was treated with early intervention, including regular physical development evaluation, neuromotor examination and test of intelligence. The intervention group was followed-up until correction age of 1 year and the control group was only at the year of correction age of 1 year. Results The physical development in the intervention group was better than the control group at the age of 1, the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) significantly higher than those of the control group as well. The incidences of low intelligence and cerebral palsy were lower than those of the control group. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Early intervention is obviously effective in promoting the physical and intelligent development of very low birth weight premature infants, reducing the incidence of low intelligence and cerebral palsy, and improving the long-term living quality of the survivors. Still, the method centers on family, and therefore, is feasible and effective. So the doctors for children′s care from basic hospitals should vigorously promote the method.%目的:探讨早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿体格及智能发育的影响。方法:选择本院2011年11月至2012年10月新生儿重症监护病房救治存活的极低出生体重早产儿32例做为干预组,选择2011年11月以前出生的9~15个月极低出生体重早产儿连续收录32例做为对照组,对干

  11. Assessment of pulmonary function in a follow-up of premature infants: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in neonates, especially preterm infants; a long term complication of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is particularly relevant today. The exact role of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT in this area is not yet well defined; the PFT in newborns and infants - in contrast to what happens in uncooperative children and adults - are routinely used only in a few centers. The assessment of pulmonary function in newborns and infants, however, is nowadays possible with the same reliability that in cooperative patients with the possibility to extend the assessment of polmonary function from bench to bed. The assessment of pulmonary function must be carried out with non invasive and safe methods, at the bedside, with the possibility of continuous monitoring and providing adequate calculation and management of data. The ability to assess lung function helps to define the mechanisms of respiratory failure, improving the treatment and its effects and is therefore a useful tool in the follow-up of newborn and infant with pulmonary disease.

  12. Assessment of pulmonary function in a follow-up of premature infants: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in neonates, especially preterm infants; a long term complication of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is particularly relevant today. The exact role of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT in this area is not yet well defined; the PFT in newborns and infants - in contrast to what happens in uncooperative children and adults - are routinely used only in a few centers. The assessment of pulmonary function in newborns and infants, however, is nowadays possible with the same reliability that in cooperative patients with the possibility to extend the assessment of polmonary function from bench to bed. The assessment of pulmonary function must be carried out with non invasive and safe methods, at the bedside, with the possibility of continuous monitoring and providing adequate calculation and management of data. The ability to assess lung function helps to define the mechanisms of respiratory failure, improving the treatment and its effects and is therefore a useful tool in the follow-up of newborn and infant with pulmonary disease.

  13. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  14. Urinary nitrite excretion after prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, H; Uzuner, N; Oren, H; Cabuk, N; Işlekel, H

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the prophylactic administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to preterm infants and urinary nitrite levels, which can be utilized as an index of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation, and to determine if NO formation plays a role in both therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. 28 healthy preterm infants were included in this prospective study. They had a mean gestational age of 29.4 +/- 2.2 weeks and weight of 1,387 +/- 371 g. Prophylactic IVIG infusion at a dose of 0.5 g/kg/day was administered when they were 3-10 days old. Urine samples of the neonates were obtained for analysis on days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration as well as 1 day before. Urinary nitrite levels obtained in the subjects were normalized for urinary creatinine concentrations. The mean urinary nitrite levels were: 2.77 +/- 1.66 micromol/mmol creatinine before IVIG administration; 4.33 +/- 3.88 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 1st day of IVIG; 3.77 +/- 2.73 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 2nd day, and 3.64 +/- 3.28 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 3rd day. There was a significant increase in urinary nitrite levels between before and after IVIG administration. There was no statistical difference in urinary nitrate levels between days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration. We demonstrated that urinary nitrite excretion is significantly elevated in preterm infants after prophylactic IVIG administration and this result suggests that endogenous NO formation may play an important role in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL TRIAL OF MATERNAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE PROCESS OF BREASTFEEDING OF PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Rtishcheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current standards of live birth dictate new requirements for feeding of small premature infants. Native breast milk of the mothers of premature infants features a unique and balanced composition of substances required for feeding premature infants and protecting them from infectious agents. Low awareness of the real value of breast milk results in early introduction of supplementary feeding with adaptive formulae, which are not equivalent to breast milk. The article presents results of a poll of mothers of premature infants staying together at inpatient hospitals for the second stage of developmental care. The form on breastfeeding developed by the authors presents information on the development of maternal attitudes and lactation dominant. Results of the study helped to discern negative and positive factors affecting a mother’s attitude to maintenance of lactation and breastfeeding. The obtained data contribute to arrangement of conditions for targeted medical‑psychological‑pedagogic aid to mothers at inpatient hospitals in order to support motivation for breastfeeding premature infants

  16. Effect of bilirubin on the function of T lymphocytes of premature infants and the mechanism%胆红素对早产儿T淋巴细胞功能的影响及相关机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳; 江莲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同血清胆红素水平对早产儿T淋巴细胞功能的影响.方法:应用流式细胞仪法测定不同胎龄、不同胆红素水平下CD4+、CD8+、白细胞介素-4(Interleukin-4、IL-4)、肿瘤坏死因子-γ(Tumor necrosis factor-γ、IFN-v)、Fas基因表达.结果:①胎龄≥32周早产儿的CD4+和CD8+表达量>胎龄<32周早产儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).②不同胆红素浓度对早产儿T淋巴细胞功能的影响:胆红素153.9~220.6 μmol/L组和胆红素>220,6 μmol/L组早产儿CD4+的表达水平均明显低于无黄疸组和胆红素<153.9 μmol/L组(P<0.05);胆红素>220.6 μmol/L组早产儿CD8+的表达水平低于无黄疸组、胆红素<153.9 μmol/L组和胆红素153.9-220.6 μmol/L组(P<0.05).IL-4的表达量与4组比较无差异(P>0.05).IFN-γ的表达量于胆红素153.9~220.6 μmol/L组和胆红素>220.6 μmol/L组均<无黄疸组和胆红素<153.9 μmol/L组(P<0.05).Fas基因的表达量于胆红素153.9~220.6 μmol/L组和胆红素>220.6 μmol/L组均高于无黄疸组和胆红素< 153.9 μmoL/L组(P<0.05).结论:①胎龄是影响早产儿T淋巴细胞功能的重要因素之一,胎龄越小免疫功能越低.②黄疸对早产儿T淋巴细胞功能有显著抑制作用,随胆红素浓度的增加抑制作用越显著,同时Fas基因的表达量逐渐增高,提示此种抑制作用与淋巴细胞凋亡增多有关.%Objective: To explore the effects of different levels of serum bilirubin on the function of T lymphocytes of premature infants. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression levels of CD4+ , CD8+, interleukin -4, tumor necrosis factor-γ, and Fas gene among the premature infants of different fetal ages and bilirubin levels. Results: The expression levels of CD4 + and CD8 + in premature infants of fetal age ≥32 weeks were significantly higher than those in premature infants of fetal age 220.6 μmol/L group were significantly lower than

  17. Do Hospitalized Premature Infants Benefit from Music Interventions? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliai Araghi, Sadaf; Jeekel, Johannes; Reiss, Irwin K. M; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; van Dijk, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neonatal intensive care units (NICU) around the world increasingly use music interventions. The most recent systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) dates from 2009. Since then, 15 new RCTs have been published. We provide an updated systematic review on the possible benefits of music interventions on premature infants’ well-being. Methods We searched 13 electronic databases and 12 journals from their first available date until August 2016. Included were all RCTs published in English with at least 10 participants per group, including infants born prematurely and admitted to the NICU. Interventions were either recorded music interventions or live music therapy interventions. All control conditions were accepted as long as the effects of the music intervention could be analysed separately. A meta-analysis was not possible due to incompleteness and heterogeneity of the data. Results After removal of duplicates the searches retrieved 4893 citations, 20 of which fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The 20 included studies encompassed 1128 participants receiving recorded or live music interventions in the NICU between 24 and 40 weeks gestational age. Twenty-six different outcomes were reported which we classified into three categories: physiological parameters; growth and feeding; behavioural state, relaxation outcomes and pain. Live music interventions were shown to improve sleep in three out of the four studies and heart rate in two out of the four studies. Recorded music improved heart rate in two out of six studies. Better feeding and sucking outcomes were reported in one study using live music and in two studies using recorded music. Conclusions Although music interventions show promising results in some studies, the variation in quality of the studies, age groups, outcome measures and timing of the interventions across the studies makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions on the effects of music in premature infants. PMID

  18. Serum Phosphorus Levels in Premature Infants Receiving a Donor Human Milk Derived Fortifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Chetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An elevated serum phosphorus (P has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF. No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤1250 grams (g birth weight (BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3% had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175 and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035. Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity.

  19. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  20. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  1. Economic evaluation alongside the Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Dukhovny, Dmitry; Kirpalani, Haresh; Whyte, Robin K; Roberts, Robin S; Wang, Na; Mao, WenYang; Zupancic, John A F

    2012-03-01

    The Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion (PINT) Outcome Study showed no significant difference in the primary outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. However, a post-hoc analysis expanding the definition of NDI to include borderline intellectual functioning (Mental Development Index (MDI) <85) found an improvement in outcomes in the group maintained at higher haemoglobin levels. To determine the cost effectiveness of more frequent red blood cell transfusions (high-Hb threshold) compared with less frequent transfusions (low-Hb threshold) in ELBW infants. The authors performed an economic evaluation using patient-level data collected during the PINT randomised trial. The authors measured comprehensive costs from a third-party payer's perspective over a time horizon from birth through 18-21 months corrected age. The average total cost in the high-Hb threshold group was CAN$149 767 compared with CAN$150 227 in the low-Hb threshold group (difference of CAN$460, p=0.96). Cost-effectiveness analysis estimated savings of CAN$6879 for every additional infant surviving without severe NDI. There was a 48% chance that the high-Hb threshold reduced costs while improving outcome and a 90% chance that it would be cost effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of CAN$250 000 per additional survivor without severe NDI. Post-hoc analysis defining cognitive delay as MDI score <85, instead of <70, revealed savings in the high-Hb threshold group of CAN$4457 per additional survivor without NDI. Results were robust to deterministic sensitivity analyses. A high-Hb threshold for transfusion, as measured in ELBW PINT study infants through 18 months corrected gestational age, may be an economically appealing intervention. The estimates were associated with moderate statistical uncertainty that should be targeted in larger, future studies.

  2. Investigation of the effect of hemoglobin F and A levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Hidayet; Hacioglu, Dilek; Kola, Mehmet; Türk, Adem; Aslan, Yakup

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. In this prospective study, blood samples were collected from the side of the heel of 49 premature infants at postnatal months 0, 1, 2, and 3. HbF and HbA levels were measured in all samples and analyzed statistically. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed regarding development of ROP, blood transfusion, and HbF and HbA levels. A total of 49 infants were included. The mean gestational age of the premature infants was 30.9 ± 2.7 weeks (range, 25-35 weeks); mean birth weight, 1542 ± 582 g (range, 520-3240 g). Of the 49 premature infants, stage 1 ROP or above developed in 26 (53%). Mean HbF levels were lower at postnatal months 1 and 2 in premature infants with ROP compared to those without ROP (P = 0.013 and 0.02, respectively); however, mean HbA levels were higher in the infants with ROP than the others (P = 0.034 and 0.029, respectively). Analysis of covariance that ignored transfusion revealed no difference between the means of Hb variants in the infants with and without ROP (P = 0.572 and 0.486). Blood transfusion significantly altered the levels of HbF and HbA in premature infants, and Hb variants have no direct effect on development of ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 发展性照顾护理模式对早产儿生长发育的影响%Effects of Developmental Care Nursing Model on Growth and Development of Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应雪琼; 林心怡; 颜胜宇; 丁玲利; 朱凤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of developmental care nursing model on the growth and development of premature children. Methods From July 2009 to March 2010,100 premature infants (≤35 weeks) were randomized into developmental care nursing group (observational group) based on the routine nursing and routine nursing group ( control group) ,with 50 cases in each group. Regular comparisons and records were conducted . Results The sleep time and milk intake on discharge, the daily weight gain and the length of hospital stay in the observational group were significantly superior to those in the control group(P<0. 01). Conclusion With developmental care nursing model, premature infants(≤35 weeks)are prone to longer sleep time, smoother oral feeding,more obvious weight increase, less hospital stay and better living quality.%目的 探讨实施发展性照顾护理模式对早产儿生长发育的影响.方法 将2009年7月至2010年3月温州市第三人民医院新生儿科收治的35周以下早产儿100例按随机数字表法分成对照组和观察者各50例,对照组早产儿实施常规护理,观察组早产儿在常规护理的基础上实施发展性照顾护理模式,并定期按要求进行比较和记录.结果 观察组早产儿的睡眠时间、出院时奶量摄入、体质量增长及住院天数等均明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 对35周以下早产儿实施发展性照顾护理模式后早产儿睡眠时间增加,经口喂养更趋顺利,体质量增长明显,平均住院天数缩短,有利于提高早产儿的生活质量.

  4. L-carnitine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves fat metabolism but fails to support compensatory growth in premature Korean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, So-Hui; Cho, Soo-Chul; Park, Yongsoon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2010-04-01

    We have previously shown that pregnant Korean mothers often have especially poor carnitine status, which may be responsible for the suboptimal carnitine levels of newborn Korean infants. This study tested the hypothesis that carnitine obtained from premature infant formula alone is adequate in sustaining optimal lipid metabolism and growth in premature infants. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of parenteral carnitine supplementation on carnitine status, growth parameters, and lipid metabolism in premature infants by measuring serum lipid profiles, carnitine and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and body weight, size, and length. Twenty-five low-birth weight Korean infants were randomly assigned to control (LCNS, n = 12) or L-carnitine-supplemented (10 mg/[kg d], LCS, n = 13) groups. On day 9, the triacylglycerol concentration was lower in the LCS group; but the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and free, acyl, and total carnitine and beta-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased compared with the LCNS group. The ratio of acyl carnitine to free carnitine was significantly lower on day 5 in the LCS compared with the LCNS group. Body weight, height, Apgar score (1 and 5 minute), head circumference, and chest circumference were recorded on day 0; and body weight was measured again on days 5 and 9. Infant formula intake was recorded every day. There was no significant difference in body weight or growth parameters between the groups from days 0 to 9.Therefore, we concluded that, in low-birth weight infants, the addition of 10 mg/(kg d) supplemental carnitine significantly improves lipid profiles and serum carnitine level but does not enhance growth.

  5. Anatomical configurations associated with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus among premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Wenger, Tara L; Kukull, Walter A; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a complication of prematurity often associated with ventricular dilation, which may resolve over time or progress to posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This study investigated anatomical factors that could predispose infants with IVH to PHH. METHODS The authors analyzed a cohort of premature infants diagnosed with Grade III or IV IVH between 2004 and 2014. Using existing ultrasound and MR images, the CSF obstruction pattern, skull shape, and brain/skull ratios were determined, comparing children with PHH to those with resolved ventricular dilation (RVD), and comparing both groups to a set of healthy controls. RESULTS Among 110 premature infants with Grade III or IV IVH, 65 (59%) developed PHH. Infants with PHH had more severe ventricular dilation compared with those with RVD, although ranges overlapped. Intraventricular CSF obstruction was observed in 36 (86%) of 42 infants with PHH and 0 (0%) of 18 with RVD (p < 0.001). The distribution of skull shapes in infants with PHH was similar to those with RVD, although markedly different from controls. No significant differences in supratentorial brain/skull ratio were observed; however, the mean infratentorial brain/skull ratio of infants with PHH was 5% greater (more crowded) than controls (p = 0.006), whereas the mean infratentorial brain/skull ratio of infants with RVD was 8% smaller (less crowded) than controls (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Among premature infants with IVH, intraventricular obstruction and infratentorial crowding are strongly associated with PHH, further underscoring the need for brain MRI in surgical planning. Prospective studies are required to determine which factors are cause and which are consequence, and which can be used to predict the need for surgical intervention.

  6. Ultrasound measurement of the corpus callosum and neural development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Shikao; Liu, Jiaoran; Du, Zhifang; Guo, Zhimei; Ren, Changjun

    2013-09-15

    Length and thickness of 152 corpus callosa were measured in neonates within 24 hours of birth. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with a neonatal brain-specific probe, corpus callosum length and thickness of the genu, body, and splenium were measured on the standard mid-sagittal plane, and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu was measured in the coronal plane. Results showed that corpus callosum length as well as thickness of the genu and splenium increased with tional age and birth weight, while other measures did not. These three factors on the standard mid-sagittal plane are therefore likely to be suitable for real-time evaluation of corpus callosum velopment in premature infants using cranial ultrasound. Further analysis revealed that thickness of the body and splenium and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu were greater in male infants than in female infants, suggesting that there are sex differences in corpus callosum size during the neonatal period. A second set of measurements were taken from 40 premature infants whose gestational age was 34 weeks or less. Corpus callosum measurements were corrected to a gestational age of 40 weeks, and infants were grouped for analysis depending on the outcome of a neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Compared with infants with a normal neurological assessment, corpus callosum length and genu and splenium thicknesses were less in those with abnormalities, indicating that corpus callosum growth in premature infants is associated with neurobehavioral development during the early extrauterine stage.

  7. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 胃肠道舒适护理对早产低体质量婴幼儿喂养的影响%Effects of Gastrointestinal Comfort Care on the Feeding of Low Baby Weight Premature Infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To reduce feeding intolerance rate of low body weight premature infant by surveying the appropriate method of feeding low body weight premature infant by mouth. Method: All 60 low body weightpremature infants were randomized into the treatment group and the control group. The control group accepted conventional feeding, that is, intermittent feeding method by gastrointestinal tract, feeding the baby formula milk with syringe by the nurse. The treatment group received gastrointestinal comfort care, feeding the baby with micro pump intermittently, sucking, abdominal caress, feeding intoralence management. Result:The treatment group was shorter than the control group in intestinal nutrition time, time of recovering to birth weight, indwelling time of nasal and stomach tube, the difference had statistical meaning (P<0.01). The treatment group was less than the control group in vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric residue, apena during the course of feeding, the difference had statistical meaning (P<0.01). Conclusion:Gastrointestinal comfort care could effectively reduce the times of low body weight premature infant vomiting milk, promote sucking and the development of gastrointestinal function, increase the absorption of nutrition, speed up the transformation of feeding by stomach tube to mouth and shorten hospitalization time.%目的:探讨对早产低体质量婴幼儿进行胃肠道喂养的适宜方法,以降低其喂养不耐受率。方法:将60例早产低体质量婴幼儿随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例,对照组采用常规喂养,即普通胃管间歇喂养法,由护士用注射器间歇注入配方奶。治疗组进行胃肠道舒适护理,即给予微量泵间断胃管喂养、非营养性吸吮、腹部抚触、喂养不耐受处理。结果:治疗组患儿达到全肠道营养时间、恢复出生体质量时间、鼻胃管留置时间均比对照组短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗组喂养出现呕

  9. Bowel Perforation in Premature Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Risk Factors and Outcomes

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    Lingling Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n=10 and nonperforated NEC group (n=47. We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P<0.05. Moreover, the perforated NEC group had significantly longer durations of fasting and TPN usage, higher incidences of EUGR and cholestasis, longer duration of antibiotics, higher frequency of advanced antibiotics use, and poorer prognosis than the nonperforated NEC group (all P<0.05. Bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC was associated with multiple risk factors. Early identification of some of these risk factors in premature infants with NEC may help implement early intervention to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation and thereby improve the prognosis.

  10. Language acquisition in premature and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Pittaluga, Enrica; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-02-23

    We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 +/- 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition.

  11. Oxygen consumption and temperature control of premature infants in a double-wall incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K H; Lee, C A; Bolan, C D; Maisels, M J

    1981-07-01

    The effects of a double wall in a forced convection-heated incubator were studied on ten naked, nondistressed, premature infants by measuring their mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature, and oxygen consumption when they were in thermal steady state, with, and without, the double wall in place. The incubator air temperature was maintained within the recommended thermoneutral zone during the consecutive paired experiments. Ambient room temperature and relative humidity were constant and the infant's activity (quiet sleep) and postprandial state were the same in both conditions. Together with a significant rise in operative temperature (P less than .05) induced by the double wall (accounted for by a 0.9 C mean increased in incubator wall temperature nearest the baby), their mean skin temperature and esophageal temperatures increased (P less than .025), while a decrease in oxygen consumption occurred in nine of the ten infants (P less than .05). These findings suggest that the double wall reduced radiant and total heat loss from the baby by diminishing the temperature gradient between the skin and incubator surfaces and that metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption) was reduced when the double wall was in place.

  12. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  13. Anatomical Closure of Left-to-Right Shunts in Premature Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Cautionary Tale

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    Narendra R. Dereddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Closure of a systemic to pulmonary shunt in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia may be beneficial, but in the presence of pulmonary hypertension is controversial. Here, we discuss two premature infants with pulmonary hypertension who developed acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis after closure of these shunts and hence advise caution.

  14. Delayed early primary visual pathway development in premature infants: high density electrophysiological evidence.

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    Emmanuel Tremblay

    Full Text Available In the past decades, multiple studies have been interested in developmental patterns of the visual system in healthy infants. During the first year of life, differential maturational changes have been observed between the Magnocellular (P and the Parvocellular (P visual pathways. However, few studies investigated P and M system development in infants born prematurely. The aim of the present study was to characterize P and M system maturational differences between healthy preterm and fullterm infants through a critical period of visual maturation: the first year of life. Using a cross-sectional design, high-density electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded in 31 healthy preterms and 41 fullterm infants of 3, 6, or 12 months (corrected age for premature babies. Three visual stimulations varying in contrast and spatial frequency were presented to stimulate preferentially the M pathway, the P pathway, or both systems simultaneously during EEG recordings. Results from early visual evoked potentials in response to the stimulation that activates simultaneously both systems revealed longer N1 latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes in preterm infants compared to fullterms. Moreover, preterms showed longer N1 and P1 latencies in response to stimuli assessing the M pathway at 3 months. No differences between preterms and fullterms were found when using the preferential P system stimulation. In order to identify the cerebral generator of each visual response, distributed source analyses were computed in 12-month-old infants using LORETA. Source analysis demonstrated an activation of the parietal dorsal region in fullterm infants, in response to the preferential M pathway, which was not seen in the preterms. Overall, these findings suggest that the Magnocellular pathway development is affected in premature infants. Although our VEP results suggest that premature children overcome, at least partially, the visual developmental delay with time, source analyses reveal

  15. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN THE POSTRESUSCITATION PERIOD AFTER DISCHARGE FROM HOSPITAL (PART 2

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    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers specific problems of premature infants in the first year of life related to nutritional deficiencies and lack of basic food nutrients. The features of nutritional support of premature infants who underwent resuscitation phase in the first year of life, the usefulness of the new «mixes for premature infants, discharged from the hospital» in order to intensify the programming power of artificial feeding are discussed. Key words: preterm infants, very low body weight, extremely low body weight, intensive care and neonatal intensive care, enteral nutrition, special mixtures for premature, «the mixture for premature infants, discharged from the hospital». (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 91–96.

  16. Clinical features of late-onset circulatory dysfunction in premature infants

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    Koyama N

    2014-07-01

    23 weeks. Compared with the control infants, the LCD infants had significantly higher incidences of birth by cesarean section (61/73 versus 48/73, P<0.05; hyponatremia (sodium ,130 mEq/L at the time of diagnosis (24/66 versus 3/39, P<0.01; deterioration of respiratory status within 24 hours before diagnosis (36/73 versus 6/73, P<0.0001; and periventricular leukomalacia (14/73 versus 4/73, P<0.05. Corticosteroids were effective in 52 infants who were unresponsive to volume expansion or inotropic agents. None of these infants died of LCD. Conclusion: LCD is common but worthy of attention due to its association with periventricular leukomalacia. A review of institutional differences in treatment policies may contribute to the prevention of LCD. Keywords: late-onset circulatory dysfunction of premature infants, low birth-weight infant, shock, adrenocortical insufficiency, periventricular leukomalacia

  17. Curative effect of low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants%口服小剂量红霉素治疗早产儿喂养不耐受疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉玲; 冯利; 唐挺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect and safety of low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants.Methods Sixty-eight premature infants with feeding intolerance were randomly divided into two groups .Based on fast, reducing feeding amount and intravenous nutrition , the treatment group took low dosage of oral erythromycin two times per day (5mg/kg/d).For the patients with poor curative effect , the dosage was increased with maximum dosage of 15mg/kg/d.The control group was given abdominal massage based on fast, reducing feeding amount and intravenous nutrition .The volume of milk, abdomen circumference, weight, bowel movement , regression time for symptoms , time of recovering birth weight , time to achieving full feeding and hospitalization stay were observed in two groups .The liver function damage and dysbacteriosis after treatment were monitored .Results There were significant differences in volume of milk, abdomen circumference and weight between two groups (t value was 15.75, 6.78 and 4.00, respectively, all P<0.05).The differences in regression time for symptoms, time of recovering birth weight, time to achieving full feeding and hospitalization stay were also significant between two groups (t value was 5.48, 7.70, 2.46 and 3.27, respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusion Low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants is safe and effective .%目的:观察小剂量红霉素防治早产儿喂养不耐受的疗效及安全性。方法随机将68例喂养不耐受早产儿分为两组,治疗组在禁食、减少喂养量及静脉营养的基础上给予小剂量红霉素,5mg· kg-1· d-1分两次口服,疗效不佳者逐渐增加剂量,最大量为15mg· kg-1· d-1;对照组在给予禁食、减少喂养量及静脉营养的基础上增加腹部抚触。观察两组患儿奶量、腹围、体重及大小便情况,同时观察两组患儿症状消退时间、恢复出生体重时

  18. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

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    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  19. 非药物疼痛干预对早产儿生长发育的影响%Effects of non-pharmacological pain intervention on growth of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑞荣; 韩永才; 田素珍; 靳英华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of non-pharmacological pain intervention on the growth and development of premature infants.Methods Randomly divide the totally 60 infants,who had treated during February 05~February 2007,into two large groups averagely.The first group was given non-pharmacological pain intervention treatment.and the other group was control group.Observe and compare the two groups as to the following aspects:weight,head circumference growth,sleep,irritability time,milk time,milk quantity,the occurrence of gastrointestinal dysfunction,apnea case and so on.Besides,follow-up tracking was also applied when there infants came to their correction age:apply the CDCC scale of intelligence to test thee infants;compare and analyze the MDL and the PDL.Results The comparison of the two groups,including weisht,head circumference growth,sleep,irritabihty time,milk time,milk quantity,the occurrence of gastrointestinal dysfunction,apnea case,had statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusions Non-pharmacological pain intervention treatment can help the premature infants'both physical and intelligence growth.%目的 探讨非药物疼痛干预对早产儿生长发育的影响.方法 将我科2005年2月~2007年2月收治的需经鼻饲喂养的早产儿60例,随机分为非药物疼痛干预组30例(简称干预组),对照组30例.对两组早产儿体重、头围增长情况,睡眠、烦躁时间、胃肠功能紊乱发生情况、呼吸暂停情况等各项临床指标进行观察比较.并追踪随访至校正年龄1周岁时,应用CDCC婴幼儿智能发育量表进行智力测试,对精神发育指数(MDL),运动发育指数(PDL)进行分析比较.结果 两组早产儿体重、头围、睡眠时间、烦躁时间、胃肠功能紊乱发生情况、呼吸暂停情况及MDL、PDL等比较,均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 非药物疼痛干预能加快早产儿体格生长及智能发育.

  20. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2015-05-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI. Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.

  1. Plasma fatty acids in premature infants with hyperbilirubinemia: before-and-after nutrition support with fish oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Catherine J; Havranek, Thomas G; Revenis, Mary E; Hassanali, Zahra; Scavo, Louis M

    2013-02-01

    Infants who are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) sometimes develop PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC). A compassionate use protocol, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board, guided enrollment of hospitalized infants with PNAC (3 weeks). Plasma concentrations of essential fatty acids were monitored before and after a soybean-based PN lipid, infused at 3 g/kg body weight/d, was replaced by an experimental fish oil-based intravenous fat emulsion (FO-IVFE) at 1.0 g/kg/d. All participants were born premature (n = 10; 20% male). At enrollment, infants were (mean ± SD) 86.5 ± 53.5 days of life and weighed 2.24 ± 0.87 kg; direct bilirubin was 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL. After treatment, blood concentrations significantly increased from baseline (P effects were observed attributable to FO-IVFE. Discontinuation of FO-IVFE was typically due to infants (body weight 3.76 ± 1.68 kg) transitioning to enteral feeding rather than for resolution of hyperbilirubinemia (direct bilirubin 7.9 ± 4.8 mg/dL). These exploratory results suggest that FO-IVFE raises circulating ω-3 fatty acids in premature infants without development of ω-6 deficiency in the 8.3 ± 5.8-week time frame of this study.

  2. Infant intralimb coordination and torque production: Influence of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Barbara; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2017-09-07

    The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in leg joint coordination, intersegmental dynamics, and their relation in infants born preterm (PT) during the first months of life. Kicking actions were analyzed of 11 infants born PT at 6 and 15-weeks corrected age (CA) using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics; results were compared to the kicking actions of 10 infants born full-term (FT). Both groups changed from a predominately in-phase coordination at 6-weeks CA to a less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks CA, however, at 6-weeks CA, infants born PT demonstrated less in-phase coordination of their ankle joints with their hip and knee joints. Between groups and across ages, both groups demonstrated consistent net and partitioned joint torque profiles, however, at 6-weeks CA infants born PT demonstrated more complex patterns of torque components. In both groups, less in-phase hip-knee coordination was associated with reduced active knee muscle torque and increased passive knee torques, however, passive knee torques had a greater influence on the kicks of infants born PT at 6-weeks CA. At 6-weeks CA, infants born PT, compared to FT, generated kicks with less in-phase hip-knee coordination, hip excursion, hip angular velocity, and hip muscle torque impulse. By 15-weeks CA, differences resolved in all variables except hip muscle torque impulse. These results highlight a different trajectory of leg joint coordination and torque production for infants born PT compared to FT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early neonatal hyperkalaemia in the extremely premature newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, G I; Carman, G; Arnold, J D

    1990-02-01

    The incidence of hyperkalaemia in 43 consecutive infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation and cared for in our neonatal intensive care unit was documented. Plasma K levels were related to indices of renal function as well as to the degree of illness in the infants. The mean gestational age was 26.0 weeks (range 24-27 weeks) and the mean birthweight was 815 g (range 395-1170 g). Twenty-six of the infants (60%) had at least one plasma K greater than 5.5 mmol/L and 13 (30%) had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L. The mean postnatal age at which the plasma K exceeded 7 mmol/L was 25 h (range 10-39 h). Five infants with plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L developed cardiac arrhythmias and four died of this complication. Only one infant had a large intraventricular haemorrhage. Only two of 16 infants with an initial plasma K less than 5 mmol/L had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L, compared with eight of 10 with an initial plasma K greater than 6 mmol/L (P less than 0.005). Plasma K also correlated directly with plasma urea (P less than 0.001) and plasma creatinine (P less than 0.025), and inversely with urine volume (P less than 0.05). Plasma K did not correlate with K intake, arterial pH, presence of asphyxia, severity of respiratory illness, gestation or birthweight. The rapidity with which the plasma K concentration reached potentially hazardous levels in some infants makes it imperative to measure plasma K within 6 h of birth and to continue to monitor levels at least every 6 h for the first 48 h in all infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation.

  4. Evidence for the safety of ascorbic acid administration to the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, W T; Malati, N; Castle, M C; White, L E

    1998-02-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA), a plasma antioxidant, is maintained at high levels in premature fetal blood and declines rapidly postpartum. The sudden reduction in blood AA levels secondary to premature delivery may increase the risk of oxidant injury, that is, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. There is concern that administration of AA to premature infants, in an effort to increase antioxidant capacity, may cause hemolysis. We felt that the benefits of early AA administration and prevention of the immediate postnatal drop in blood AA levels, might outweigh the risks of erthrocyte damage. Fifty one high-risk premature infants were randomized to receive either normal saline or 100 mg/kg of AA, daily for the first week of life. Double-blind comparisons were made of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte morphology, bilirubin, number of blood transfusions and days of phototherapy, renal function tests, the incidence of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage during the first month of life. The administration of AA prevented the immediate postnatal drop in AA and was not associated with evidence of increased hemolysis. No significant differences in renal function, rate of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or intraventricular hemorrhage were seen between the two groups. This study suggests that AA administration to the premature infant is safe and supports the designing and performance of larger clinical studies of the antioxidant properties of AA.

  5. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  6. Contrasts in Infant Classical Eyeblink Conditioning as a Function of Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jane S.; Eckerman, Carol O.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of premature birth on associative learning was evaluated using simple delay eyeblink conditioning in which a tone conditional stimulus was paired with an air puff unconditional stimulus. Fourteen preterm (28-31 weeks gestation) and 11 full-term infants completed at least 3 conditioning sessions, 1 week apart, at 5 months of age…

  7. Usefulness of the bilirubin/albumin ratio for predicting bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, C. V.; van Imhoff, D. E.; Bos, A. F.; Ahlfors, C. E.; Verkade, H. J.; Dijk, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia occurs in almost all premature infants and is potentially neurotoxic. Treatment is based on total serum bilirubin (TSB), but treatment thresholds are not evidence based. Free bilirubin (Bf) - that is, not bound to albumin, seems a better parameter for bilirubin neuro

  8. Emergency repair of inguinal hernia in the premature infant is associated with high direct medical costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Verhelst (Joost); B. de Goede (Barry); B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); H.R. Langeveld-Benders (Hester); M.J. Poley (Marten); G. Kazemier (Geert); J. Jeekel (Hans); R.M.H. Wijnen (René); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Inguinal hernia repair is frequently performed in premature infants. Evidence on optimal management and timing of repair, as well as related medical costs is still lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the direct medical costs of inguinal hernia, distinguishing b

  9. Lowered electroencephalographic spectral edge frequency predicts the presence of cerebral white matter injury in premature infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inder, TE; Buckland, L; Williams, CE; Spencer, C; Gunning, MI; Darlow, BA; Volpe, JJ; Gluckman, PD

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Current methods for early identification of cerebral white matter injury in the premature infant at the bedside are inadequate. This study investigated the utility of advanced spectral analysis of the neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) in the early diagnosis of white matter injury in the

  10. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  11. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  12. Establishment of the Relationship Between Fathers and Premature Infants in Neonatal Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Milette, Isabelle; Bell, Linda; Tribble, Denise St-Cyr; Payot, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Parents and their preterm infants (born between 32-37 weeks of gestation) are often overlooked by the healthcare system. And very little attention is given to the relationship parents develop with their infants in the neonatal unit (NNU). Specifically, very few studies focused on fathers and how they establish a relationship with their infants. However, we know that the father-infant relationship is extremely important for their future social development and more. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of the establishment of the father-premature infant relationship in an NNU. The study's theoretical framework was Bell's model of the parent-infant relationship, which encompasses discovery, physical proximity, communication, involvement, and emotional attachment. Ten fathers of premature infants (gestational age: 32-37 weeks) participated in 2 semistructured interviews (1 individual and 1 "in situ," ie, at the infant's bedside) during the first week following the premature birth. The results confirm the emergence of different components of the relationship between fathers and their children from the first days of hospitalization in the NNU. The commitment component is the basis for the development of other components in the relationship with their children. Furthermore, involvement influences the deployment of emotional attachment, discovery, physical proximity, and communication toward premature infants. Similarly, the 5 themes of the model can be seen as forming a dynamic nexus in which each theme influences the others. For neonatal nurses, this model of the early father-child relationship helps the understanding of the deployment of that relationship according to 5 components. Similarly, it provides awareness of the experiences of fathers so that nurses can be better equipped to support and individualize interventions tailored to their specific needs, thus helping them develop and sustain the relationship with their children. This study allows

  13. 早期蛋白质摄人量对早产儿行为发育影响的研究%Effect of early stage protein intake on growth and behavior of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婷; 刘孟妮; 蔡文晖; 李惠红; 陆景俏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早期不同蛋白质摄入量对早产儿行为发育的影响.方法 对早产儿给予不同的营养喂养方式,65例入选对象分为A组(高蛋白质组,平均每日摄入蛋白质≥3g/kg·d),B组(一般蛋白质组,每日摄入蛋白质<3g/kg·d),并于纠正胎龄37周、40周时及此后7天、14天、28天分别行NBNA评分.结果 随出生日龄增长,两组NBNA评分均渐增加;A组在5个时间点的NBNA评分高于B组,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05);两组均在纠正胎龄37~加周时评分增长最快,后随日龄增长呈减速增加.结论 在早产儿早期喂养中为其提供高蛋白质的量,可促进其神经行为发育,有利于减少神经系统后遗症,促进其牛长.%Objective To explore effects of the early stage different dietary protein intake on behavior and growth condition of premature. Methods Premature infants were given different nutritional feeding, 65 selected subjects were divided into A group (high protein group, the average daily intake of protein ≥ 3g/kg.d), B group (usual protein, the daily intake of protein <3g/kg.d), and was corrected gestational age after 37 weeks, 40 weeks and 7 days, 14days, 28 days with NBNA score. Results With the growing age after birth, two sets of NBNA scores were gradually increased; NBNA scores at 5 time points of A group were higher than those in B group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); two groups had the fastest growth rate while corrected gestational age at 37-40 weeks when, but growth slowed down after the increase with age. Conclusion Early feeding with high protein content to preterm infants can promote their neurobehavioral development, helps to reduce neurological sequelae, and promote its growth.

  14. Effect of Non Nutritive Sucking on the Growth and Development of Premature Infants and Nursing Experience%非营养性吸吮对早产儿生长发育的影响与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红丽; 李建维

    2015-01-01

    The premature infant refers to the age of 37 weeks and less than 28 weeks of neonatal [1],premature infant each organ system development is not mature,the survival ability is poor,many complications.Especial y preterm infant nutrition problem also has been paid more and more at ention,non nutritive sucking (NNs)refers to the unacceptable by oral feeding of preterm infants and by a nasogastric tube feeding,in the baby's mouth placed no hole pacifiers,to increase its sucking action,without breast milk and formula milk intake[2].%早产儿指胎龄小于37w而大于28w的新生儿[1],早产儿各器官系统发育不成熟,生存能力差,并发症多。尤其早产儿营养问题也越来越受到重视,非营养性吸吮(NNS)指不能接受经口喂养的早产儿,在采用鼻胃管喂养时,在婴儿口中放置无孔安抚奶嘴,以增加其吸吮动作,而无母乳和配方奶的摄入[2]。

  15. 水杯加湿法在新生儿婴儿培养箱加湿中的应用效果分析%Application and analysis on humidification effect of the water cup in infant incubator for premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟嫦; 严建红; 陈捷; 陈少敏; 李建平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨以水杯加蒸馏水加湿法在新生儿婴儿培养箱加湿中的效果.方法 对婴儿培养箱分为试验组和对照组,试验组用一次性饮水杯加蒸馏水进行湿化,对照组于培养箱内储水槽加蒸馏水进行湿化.结果 试验组使用中4、8、12、24 h箱内平均湿度分别为67.20%、65.30%、64.50%、66.30%,与对照组培养箱内湿度比较,差异无统计学意义;对照组更换水后30 min、24 h蒸馏水带菌率为18.42%、56.58%;试验组更换水后30 min、24 h带菌率为2.44%、37.80%,均低于对照组.结论 以水杯加蒸馏水放置于婴儿培养箱内进行箱内空气湿化,能保持水箱干燥清洁,减少细菌生长繁殖.%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of humidification with water cup during infant incubator humidifying for premature infants. METHODS A total of 32 premature infants placed in incubator were divided into experimental group and control group. The infant incubator was humidified through one-time drinking cups added distilled water in the experimental group; and the storage tank added distilled water in the control group.RESULTS In the experimental group, the average humidity of infant incubator were 67.2%, 65.3%, 64. 5% and 66.3% in 4h, 8h, 12h and 24h, there was no significant difference compared with the control group (P>0.05).In half an hour and twenty-four hours after replacing the water, the carrier rate was 18.42% and 56.58% in the control group, then there were 2.44%, 37. 80%, 0. 15 cfu/ml and 26.85 cfu/ml in the experimental group.CONCLUSION Humidification for infant incubator with water cups added distilled water can keep the water tank clean and dry, decrease the bacteria growth and reproduction.

  16. Music therapy for improving premature infants' well-being and communication skills and enhancing mother-infant bonding : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakopoulou, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, mother-child attachment has received increasing attention in early intervention with prematurely born infants. In these early years, physical interactions constitute a crucial arena for early learning and brain development, and together with the strong emotional bonding between the mother and her infant, they build the foundation for later interaction relationships. Premature birth is a challenging experience for the mother-infant relationship and is always a risk f...

  17. Improved growth and development in premature infants managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesher, Susan Lee; Domanico, Renee S

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) vs. conventional ventilation (CV) in premature infants and its effects on: 1) growth in the NICU and at follow up visits 2) neurodevelopmental outcomes measured by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) 3) the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and chronic lung disease (CLD). A retrospective chart review of two groups of NICU patients was conducted. The first group was from 1/1999-12/2000 (n = 140) and was managed by CV. The second group (n = 168) was from 1/2003-12/2004 and was managed primarily by NCPAP. Categorical variables were analyzed using Pearson Chi Square. Mean numerical values were analyzed with the student t-test. There was no statistical difference between the groups in regard to 15 demographic and interventional variables. There were significant differences between the two groups in CLD (p < 0.05) and ROP (p < 0.01), mean weight at one month (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01), length at 4-6 months (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.05), 15-18 months (p < 0.01), and 2 years (p = .05), and in BINS scores at 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01). Managing babies with NCPAP therapy when compared with CV, significantly increased the weight at one month which was sustained at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, increased length at all follow up visits, increased BINS scores at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, and decreased the incidence of ROP and CLD.

  18. The relationship between eosinophilia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants at less than 34 weeks' gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joo Yun; Cha, Jihei; Shim, So-Yeon; Cho, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Eosinophilia is common in premature infants, and its incidence increases with a shorter gestation period. We investigated the clinical significance of eosinophilia in premature infants born at Eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil percentage of >3% of the total leukocytes. Perinatal parameters and clinical parameters were also analyzed. Results Of the 261 infants born at eosinophilia at birth. The eosinophil percentage peaked in the fourth postnatal week at 7.5%. The incidence of severe eosinophilia increased after birth up to the fourth postnatal week when 8.8% of all patients had severe eosinophilia. Severity of eosinophilia was positively correlated with a lower gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. Respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and sepsis were associated with a higher eosinophil percentage. The eosinophil percentage was significantly higher in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia from the first postnatal week and the percentage was the highest in the fourth postnatal week, with the maximal difference being 4.1% (PEosinophilia is common in premature infants and reaches peak incidence and severity in the fourth postnatal week. The eosinophil percentage was significantly higher in bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients from the first postnatal week. Severe eosinophilia was significantly associated with the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia even after adjusting for other variables. PMID:24868214

  19. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p serum alkaline...

  20. Effect of early protein and energy intake on the growth of premature infants%早期蛋白质和能量摄入对早产儿生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩露艳; 王丹华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of early protein and energy intake on early growth velocity of premature infants. Methods Clinical data on premature infants with a birth weight of less than 1800 g were collected retrospectively, including records of general status, enteral and parenteral nutrition and growth parameters. These premature infants were divided into two groups according to the timing of amino acid administration: early supplementation (the first 24 hre of life; EAA group; n = 112) and late supplementation (after 24 hrs of life; LAA group; n = 52). Protein and energy intake, protein/energy ratio and growth velocity during hospital stay were compared between the two groups. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association of early protein and energy intake and protein/energy ratio with growth velocity of infants. Results Compared with the LAA group,the EAA group presented lower weight loss (6.3% vs 8. 8% ) , shorter time to return to birth weight (7 days vs 9 days), and higher head circumference growth (0.79 ±0.25 cm/week vs0.55 ± 0.25 cm/week) and weight growth velocity(20 ±3 g/kg · d vs 17 ±3 g/kg · d) (P <0.05). The correlation analysis indicated that protein and energy intake and protein/energy ratio on the 3rd and 7th days of life were positively correlated with weight growth velocity. The protein and energy intake per week after returning to birth weight was positively correlated with weight growth velocity (r = 0. 709, P <0. 01 ). Significant correlations were found between the protein and energy intake and both head circumference and length growth velocity on the 3rd and the 7th days of life. Conclusions Early administration of amino acids can reduce weight loss, shorten the time taken to return to birth weight, and increase weight and head circumference growth velocity in premature infants. An appropriate increase in protein intake can improve weight, circumference and length growth velocity.%目的 探讨出生后早期蛋白质和

  1. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the latter, it is crucial that, if probiotics is chosen as a preventive measure, the selection of a safe product with documented ... care environment rather than their mother's vaginal canal and skin surface.13 These infants often also receive antibiotic treatment ... they lower the pH of the intestinal environment and create a locally.

  2. [Metabolic bone disease in premature infants and genetic polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funke, S.; Morava, E.; Czako, M.; Vida, G.; Ertl, T.; Kosztolanyi, G.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease is an important complication among infants very-low-birth-weight (< 1500 g). In adults, osteoporosis has been shown to be associated with polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor, and collagen Ialpha1 receptor genes. AIM: The primary goal of the study was to i

  3. Scalp congenital hemangioma with associated high-output cardiac failure in a premature infant: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sumedh S; Snelling, Brian M; Sur, Samir; Ramnath, Alexandra R; Bandstra, Emmalee S; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Scalp congenital hemangiomas (CHs) are rare vascular malformations among infants; they can be associated with an array of complications, including cardiac and cosmetic issues. Here, we report the endovascular treatment of a premature infant with a suspected large right parietal scalp hemangioma and associated high-output cardiac failure. Case description A two-day-old female premature infant (29 weeks gestational age; 1330 g birth weight) was referred by the neonatologists to our department for consultation and potential treatment of a large right parietal CH causing abrupt hypotension and high-output cardiac failure. Doppler ultrasound imaging at bedside revealed areas of arterial-venous shunting from the scalp and the presence of a superior sagittal sinus waveform, consistent with intracranial venous drainage. To alleviate cardiac dysfunction secondary to this lesion, trans-arterial embolization via n-butyl cyanoacrylate (nBCA) glue and deployment of detachable coils was performed via umbilical artery to occlude the right superficial temporal and occipital artery branches supplying the CH. Following treatment, the infant continued to require ventilator management, vasopressor support, and correction of coagulopathy, but by post-operative day two, her condition improved remarkably and the mass size began decreasing. The patient was discharged after a relatively uncomplicated subsequent 2½-month course in the neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusion Endovascular therapy proved effective and safe in treating cardiac failure associated with scalp CH, despite potential complications associated with neuro-interventional surgery in premature infants. Appropriate consideration in this patient population should be given to factors including blood loss, contrast use, radiation exposure, operative time, and possible intra-/post-operative complications.

  4. Critical issues with clinical research in children: the example of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Stephen E

    2005-09-01

    Research in pediatrics has led to marked improvements in survival in pediatric patients. In no other age group have these improvements been more dramatic than in neonatology, where antenatal steroid administration to mothers and postnatal utilization of surfactant have led to marked improvements in survival so that infants born at 24 weeks gestation now have a greater than 50% chance of survival. Unfortunately, more than 50% of these patients develop significant complications of prematurity with potential long-term impact on the health of these infants. Therefore, additional research must be done in these patients to prevent these complications or reduce the impact of these complications. There are many practical and some ethical issues that could impede research in the area. Interventional studies have succeeded because literally decades of research defined unequivocally the pathophysiology of diseases such as surfactant deficiency in RDS. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology leading to the complications of prematurity has been extrapolated from old concepts without verification as the population has become smaller and more premature than the previous era. Thus, an extremely important practical issue in pediatric research is whether to design interventions to address the extrapolated pathophysiology risking misinterpretations of the results of such studies. Or should our efforts be focused on defining endpoints associated with the development of diseases and complications which may define pathophysiology more completely but delay the design of interventions to improve the outcomes of patients. Another crucial practical issue in pediatric research is how to power studies so that interventions can be studied adequately. In the US, large neonatal networks have been formed so that large databases can be created and large multi-center trials can be performed. The practical issues associated with these network studies is the center to center variability in patient care

  5. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  6. Effect of pediatric health care on intelligence and physical development of premature infants%儿科保健对早产儿智力和体格发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫郁原; 李立

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of pediatric health care on intelligence and physical development of premature infants.Methods 90 premature infants born in our hospital were randomly divided into 2 groups, 45 cases in each group, the control group received routine parental guidance, the observation group in the conventional basis took uplink massage, sports training, health intervention, comparison of children health care intervention after 6 months and 12 months of mental development index, movement development index, height body weight, head circumference, and the number of ZKS cases.Results Compared to index to development psychomotor and index to developmental mental 6 month after the intervention of two groups, the observation group was significantly higher than the control group, ZKS cases was significantly lower than the control group, the difference was significant ( P 0.05); intervention after 12 months, the mental development index and the psychomotor development index increased and the level of each level of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group, the number of ZKS cases was significantly lower than the control group;height, weight and head circumference of observation group were significantly higher than that in control group, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusions Pediatric health helps premature intellectual and physical development, effectively improves the nervous system and the physical development of children, reduces the incidence of disabled children, improves the overall quality of population, which is worth promotion of the hospital community service center.%目的:探讨儿科保健对早产儿智力和体格发育的影响。方法选取在我市妇幼保健院出生的90例早产儿随机分为两组,每组45例。对照组行常规育儿指导,观察组在常规指导基础上行抚触、运动训练等保健干预,比较患儿保健干预后6个月、12个月精神

  7. The Effect of Corticosteroid on Accelerating Fetal Lung Maturity in Premature Infants%应用糖皮质激素促进胎儿肺成熟对早产儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志军; 黄暖潮; 黄彩红

    2012-01-01

    目的探讨糖皮质激素在促进胎儿肺成熟治疗后对早产儿的影响。方法对早产儿58例(胎龄足28周至足34周)用糖皮质激素促进胎儿肺成熟治疗的设为治疗组30例,未作肺促成熟处理的设为对照28例。对两组患儿出生后的体格检查、免疫学相关指标和出现并发症情况进行统计学分析。结果治疗组早产儿在生后30d体重与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05);而头围、身长差异均无统计学意义(P〉0.05);血清免疫球蛋白IgA、IgM测定治疗组比对照组低,差异有统计学意义(p〈0.05,P〈0.01),IgG则差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05);在并发症方面,支气管肺发育不良(BPD)和视网膜病(Roe)发病率治疗组优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(p〈0.05);早产儿不同程度脑室内出血发病率、新生儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)发病率治疗组较对照组均低,但差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。结论糖皮质激素促胎肺成熟治疗成功降低了新生儿肺透明膜病发病率、病死率,并有明显的支气管肺发育不良预防作用,同时对ROP也有明显预防作用;可能对早产儿体格发育和体液免液产生一定的负面影响。%ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of corticosteroid on accelerating fetal lung ma- turity in premature infants. Methods 58 premature infants, between 28 and 34 weeks gestation, were randomly divided into corticosteroid group (n = 30) and control group ( n = 28 ). The premature in- fants in the corticosteroid group were treated with dexamethasone to accelerate fetal lung maturity. Physical examination, immunological tests and complications between two groups were analyzed 30 days after birth. Rezults 30 days after birth, premature infants in corticosteroid group weighed much more than that in control group (W1 vs. W2, p 〈 0. 05 ) . There were no significant

  8. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  9. Premature infants have impaired airway antiviral IFNγ responses to human metapneumovirus compared to respiratory syncytial virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Perez, Geovanny F.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Jain, Amisha; Kurdi, Bassem; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Preciado, Diego; Rose, Mary C.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unknown why human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause severe respiratory infection in children, particularly in premature infants. Our aim was to investigate if there are defective airway antiviral responses to these viruses in young children with history of prematurity. METHODS Nasal airway secretions were collected from 140 children ≤3 y old without detectable virus (n = 80) or with PCR-confirmed HMPV or RSV infection (n = 60). Nasal protein levels of IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-17 were determined using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay. RESULTS Full-term children with HMPV and RSV infection had increased levels of nasal airway IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 along with an elevation in Th1 (IFNγ)/Th2 (IL-4) ratios, which is expected during antiviral responses. In contrast, HMPV-infected premature children (< 32 wk gestation) did not exhibit increased Th1/Th2 ratios or elevated nasal airway secretion of IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 relative to uninfected controls. CONCLUSION Our study is the first to demonstrate that premature infants have defective IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, and IL-10 airway responses during HMPV infection and provides novel insights about the potential reason why HMPV causes severe respiratory disease in children with history of prematurity. PMID:26086642

  10. Temperaments of premature infants%早产儿气质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2011-01-01

    Temperament is the first distinct and stable personality after infants' birth. The development and type of the temperament is mainly associated with genetics factors, premature birth, low birth weight and clinical complications. This article describes the domestic and abroad researches and progress on premature infants' temperament in recent years, including research methods, temperament characteristic and influence factors of temperament types, and emphersizes the importance of the study on the premature infants' temperament. We raise the point that analyzing the temperament of premature children in early stage could discover temperament disorders earlier, and guide targeted training or behavior education based on different temperaments, which do good to intelligence and psychological development of premature infants.%气质是婴儿出生后最早表现出来的较为明显而稳定的人格特征,遗传、早产、低出生体质量以及与早产相关的临床并发症对气质的发展和类型有重要影响.该文通过总结近年来国内外早产儿气质研究的成果和进展,综述了早产儿气质研究的研究方法、早产儿气质特点及气质类型的影响因素,强调早产儿气质研究的重要性,提出对早产儿进行气质分析可以早期发现问题,循序渐进地对不同气质儿童进行针对性培养和行为教育,有助于早产儿智能和心理的健康发育.

  11. Ultrasound measurement of the corpus callosum and neural development of premature infants*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Shikao Cao; Jiaoran Liu; Zhifang Du; Zhimei Guo; Changjun Ren

    2013-01-01

    Length and thickness of 152 corpus cal osa were measured in neonates within 24 hours of birth. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with a neonatal brain-specific probe, corpus cal osum length and thickness of the genu, body, and splenium were measured on the standard mid-sagittal plane, and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu was measured in the coronal plane. Results showed that corpus cal osum length as wel as thickness of the genu and splenium increased with gesta-tional age and birth weight, while other measures did not. These three factors on the standard mid-sagittal plane are therefore likely to be suitable for real-time evaluation of corpus cal osum de-velopment in premature infants using cranial ultrasound. Further analysis revealed that thickness of the body and splenium and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu were greater in male infants than in female infants, suggesting that there are sex differences in corpus cal osum size during the neonatal period. A second set of measurements were taken from 40 premature infants whose ges-tational age was 34 weeks or less. Corpus cal osum measurements were corrected to a gestational age of 40 weeks, and infants were grouped for analysis depending on the outcome of a neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Compared with infants with a normal neurological assessment, corpus cal osum length and genu and splenium thicknesses were less in those with abnormalities, indicating that corpus cal osum growth in premature infants is associated with neurobehavioral de-velopment during the early extrauterine stage.

  12. Effect of Trace Elements on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; DING Yi; CHEN Ling

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the trace elements on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were studied. Thirty preterm infants who had potential high risk factors Of ROP were selected as observation group and 18 normal infants as control groups. By using atom spectrophotometer, the contents of serum trace ele-ments (Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were measured and analyzed statistically. The contents of serum Zn, Cu and Se in observation group were 0.75±0.22, 0.41±0.20 and (134.07±71.57)×10-3 mg/L respectively,and 0.55±0.12, 0.65±0.194 and (202.92±44.71)×10-3 mg/L in control group respectively (P0.05). It was concluded that the contents of serum Cu and Se in preterm infants who had high risk factors of ROP were obviously lower than in the controls. The contents of serum Cu and Se in the ROP infants were also much lower while contents of Zn much higher. Attention should be paid to the detection of the trace elements in preterm infants in order to prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se. Only in this way can we prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se, so as to decrease the ROP risk factors and prevent the disease.

  13. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

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    Zuzana Uhrikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 days with functional shunt, the third at the age of 71 days (before discharge. Results - Before drainage operation, there was reduced heart rate variability in time and spectral domains, and sympathetic activity was dominant. After surgery, an increase in heart rate variability parameters was found, particularly with spectral analysis. The ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency band and relative power of the low-frequency band decreased, reflecting enhanced parasympathetic activity. Conclusion - Results of the heart rate variability analysis in a preterm infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure showed marked improvement in chronotropic cardiac regulation. Evaluation of heart rate variability in premature infants with hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure can be an additional method for monitoring of cardiac dysregulation and improvement of the cardiovascular control after successful drainage procedure.

  14. Changes in heart rate variability in a premature infant with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrikova, Zuzana; Kolarovszki, Branislav; Javorka, Kamil; Javorka, Michal; Matasova, Katarina; Kolarovszka, Hana; Zibolen, Mirko

    2012-11-01

    Objective To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 days with functional shunt, the third at the age of 71 days (before discharge). Results Before drainage operation, there was reduced heart rate variability in time and spectral domains, and sympathetic activity was dominant. After surgery, an increase in heart rate variability parameters was found, particularly with spectral analysis. The ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency band and relative power of the low-frequency band decreased, reflecting enhanced parasympathetic activity. Conclusion Results of the heart rate variability analysis in a preterm infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure showed marked improvement in chronotropic cardiac regulation. Evaluation of heart rate variability in premature infants with hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure can be an additional method for monitoring of cardiac dysregulation and improvement of the cardiovascular control after successful drainage procedure.

  15. Effects of prematurity on language acquisition and auditory maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Biaggio, Eliara Pinto Vieira; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To verify which damages prematurity causes to hearing and language. We used the decriptors language/linguagem, hearing/audição, prematurity/prematuridade in databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo. randomized controlled trials, non-randomized intervention studies and descriptive studies (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control projects). The articles were assessed independently by two authors according to the selection criteria. Twenty-six studies were selected, of which seven were published in Brazil and 19 in international literature. Nineteen studies comparing full-term and preterm infants. Two of the studies made comparisons between premature infants small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age. In four studies, the sample consisted of children with extreme prematurity, while other studies have been conducted in children with severe and moderate prematurity. To assess hearing, these studies used otoacoustic emissions, brainstem evoked potentials, tympanometry, auditory steady-state response and visual reinforcement audiometry. For language assessment, most of the articles used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. Most studies reviewed observed that prematurity is directly or indirectly related to the acquisition of auditory and language abilities early in life. Thus, it could be seen that prematurity, as well as aspects related to it (gestational age, low weight at birth and complications at birth), affect maturation of the central auditory pathway and may cause negative effects on language acquisition.

  16. The impact of probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis on the treatment, course and outcome of premature infants in the Intensive Care Unit in Mostar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Jerković Raguž

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the treatment, course and outcome of premature infants treated with probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Study design: This retrospective cohort study included 100 preterm infants of gestational age up to 30-34 + 6/7 weeks. The first group of infants who were given probiotics in their dairy meal in the course of their medical treatment during hospitalization in the year 2014 were compared to a second group of infants who did not receive probiotics in the year 2013.Results: A statistically significant difference in the number of days of treatment in the ICU (p < 0.05, administration of ranitidine (p < 0.05 and feeding intolerance (p < 0.05 was found between the two groups of preterm infants. No statistically significant differences were found in the other variables under study.Conclusion: Probiotics probably have a positive effect on the course and outcome of treatment of premature infants in the ICU. Our newborns who received probiotics spent shorter time in intensive care, they began full peroral intake of milk sooner and received antiulcer medicine for shorter time, which is an important step towards the improvement of treatment outcome in premature infants.

  17. Transient Hypothyroidism in Premature Infants After Short-term Topical Iodine Exposure: An Avoidable Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Pinsker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in preterm infants have shown that prolonged treatment with topical iodine (multiple doses, often over multiple days can transiently suppress thyroid function. However, it is uncertain if topical iodine exposure for very short periods of time can cause significant changes in thyroid function. We report two cases of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants after short-term exposure to topical iodine during surgical preparation, and review their clinical and laboratory findings before and after iodine exposure. We conclude that premature infants are at risk of developing transient hypothyroidism in response to a single, short-term exposure to topical iodine, even in iodine-sufficient geographical areas. We advise monitoring of thyroid function in these infants after iodine exposure, as treatment with levothyroxine may be needed for a limited duration to prevent the sequelae of untreated hypothyroidism. Consideration of using alternative cleansing agents is also advised.

  18. Feeding premature infants while low umbilical artery catheters are in place: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, A M; Wagner, C L; Cox, C; Kendig, J W

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the frequency of feeding problems and necrotizing enterocolitis between a group of premature infants who received early enteral feedings while low umbilical artery catheters (LUACs) were in place, and a late group who were not fed until 24 hours after removal of LUACs. Twenty-nine premature infants (born at 28.5 +/- 3.0 SD weeks of gestational age) who were in stable condition received early enteral feedings at a median of 2 days while a LUAC was in place; 31 infants (born at 28.6 +/- 2.7 SD weeks of gestational age) received late enteral feedings at a median of 5 days of age, 24 hours after the removal of the LUAC. Feeding complications and interventions and nutritional characteristics were recorded prospectively. There were no differences in the baseline perinatal characteristics of the two groups. The incidence of gastric residua and the incidence of abdominal distention were the same in both groups. The early feeding group had significantly fewer percutaneous central venous catheters, evaluations for sepsis, and episodes of receiving nothing by mouth while a gastric suction tube was in place. Infants in the early group received parenteral alimentation-lipid emulsion infusions for a median of 13 days versus 30 days for the late-fed group (p = 0.0028 by Wilcoxon test). There were two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis in the early group versus four cases in the late group. Premature infants in stable condition who receive enteral feedings while LUACs are in place do not have an increased incidence of feeding problems compared with infants who do not receive enteral feedings until 24 hours after removal of LUACs.

  19. Genome-wide association study of sepsis in extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Page, Grier; Kirpalani, Haresh; Murray, Jeffrey C; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Carlo, Waldemar A; Bell, Edward F; Goldberg, Ronald N; Schibler, Kurt; Sood, Beena G; Stevenson, David K; Stoll, Barbara J; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Johnson, Karen J; Levy, Joshua; McDonald, Scott A; Zaterka-Baxter, Kristin M; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Sánchez, Pablo J; Duara, Shahnaz; Walsh, Michele C; Shankaran, Seetha; Wynn, James L; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-09-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with sepsis (early-onset and late-onset) using a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis in a cohort of extremely premature infants. Previously generated GWA data from the Neonatal Research Network's anonymised genomic database biorepository of extremely premature infants were used for this study. Sepsis was defined as culture-positive early-onset or late-onset sepsis or culture-proven meningitis. Genomic and whole-genome-amplified DNA was genotyped for 1.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 91% of SNPs were successfully genotyped. We imputed 7.2 million additional SNPs. p Values and false discovery rates (FDRs) were calculated from multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, gestational age and ancestry. Target statistical value was p<10(-5). Secondary analyses assessed associations of SNPs with pathogen type. Pathway analyses were also run on primary and secondary end points. Data from 757 extremely premature infants were included: 351 infants with sepsis and 406 infants without sepsis. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance levels (5×10(-8)); two SNPs in proximity to FOXC2 and FOXL1 genes achieved target levels of significance. In secondary analyses, SNPs for ELMO1, IRAK2 (Gram-positive sepsis), RALA, IMMP2L (Gram-negative sepsis) and PIEZO2 (fungal sepsis) met target significance levels. Pathways associated with sepsis and Gram-negative sepsis included gap junctions, fibroblast growth factor receptors, regulators of cell division and interleukin-1-associated receptor kinase 2 (p values<0.001 and FDR<20%). No SNPs met genome-wide significance in this cohort of extremely low birthweight infants; however, areas of potential association and pathways meriting further study were identified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  1. Serial diffusion tensor imaging detects white matter changes that correlate with motor outcome in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Bregman, Joanne; Storey, Pippa; Meyer, Joel; Prasad, P V; Derrick, Matthew; MacKendrick, William; Tan, Sidhartha

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess predictive value of serial diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) for the white matter injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in a cohort of premature infants. Twenty-four infants less than 32 weeks' gestation were stratified to a control group (n = 11), mild brain injury with grades 1-2 of intraventricular hemorrhage (n = 6) and severe brain injury with grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage (n = 4). Serial DTI studies were performed at around 30 and 36 weeks' gestation. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient were calculated. Twelve infants were followed up for developmental outcome. Developmental testing was performed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to obtain psychomotor index (Performance Developmental Index). Apparent diffusion coefficient was higher in the severe injury group at the second MRI in the central and occipital white matter, and corona radiata; FA was lower in optic radiation compared to controls. Performance Developmental Index score correlated with FA on the scan taken at the 30th week and inversely with the change of FA between scans in internal capsule and occipital white matter. A low value of FA at 30 weeks and a higher change of FA predicted less favorable motor outcome at 2 years and suggests that early subtle white matter injury can be detected in premature infants even without obvious signs of injury. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Immunologic and infectious consequences of immediate versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature infants: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Amir; Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Kessel, Aharon; Riskin, Arieh; Toubi, Elias; Bader, David

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the immunologic and infectious consequences of delayed versus immediate cord clamping in premature infants (cord clamping (ICC) at 5-10 s and 30 infants to delayed cord clamping (DCC), at 30-45 s (14 and 15 infants in each group were cord clamping did not affect the immunologic or the infectious status of infants born at <35 weeks during the neonatal period.

  3. Sociocultural dimension of parents of premature infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Vanessa Nazareth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing the social and cultural dimensions of parents of premature infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units. It is a qualitative and descriptive study, based on ethno-nursing and in the Theory of Diversity and Universality Cultural Care with 12 participants. The setting was a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Data collection occurred between November, 2012 and April, 2013, through a social economic and cultural questionnaire and from the observation, participation and reflection. The analysis based on ethno-nursing and on the use of Atlas-ti software allowed to find the analytical category: the sociocultural structure of parents of premature infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. Results should be used to promote a culturally relevant care and respecting the popular knowledge of parents while taking care of the children discharged from neonatal intensive care units.

  4. NEUROSPECIFIC ENOLASE IN DIAGNOSTICS FOR PERINATAL DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Novopol'tseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurospecific enolase is an endoenzyme of the central nervous system (CNS present in neurons of the brain and peripheral neuraltissue. This is currently the only known general marker of all differentiated neurons. The article illustrates the results of determining this enzyme in premature infants with fetal infections and assessment of their importance as a marker of damage to CNS in this group of children. A high level of neurospecific enolase in children with infectious and inflammatory diseases is not only the marker of damage to blood-brain barrier, but also reflects the nature of damage (hypoxia, intoxication, inflammation. This parameter in premature infants with various pathologies may serve as a degree of perinatal damage severity, and along with other parameters, determine the performed therapy tactics. Key words: neurospecific enolase, marker of CNS damage, perinatal damage, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:66-70

  5. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  6. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, I. W.; Yeon, K. M. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  7. Temporal comparative analysis of computed tomography with ultrasound for intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisling, R.G.; Reeder, J.D.; Kaude, J.V.; Setzer, E.S.

    1983-02-01

    This study focuses on comparison of computed tomography and ultrasound in premature infants with intracranial hemorrhage and its complications. It was determined that close correlation (95%) exists between CT and ultrasound for evaluations of ventriculomegaly. Although there is reasonable correlation for the identification and localization of periventricular, intraventricular and choroidal hemorrhages, ultrasound defined such lesions at higher rates. Subarachnoid blood and periventricular edema were diagnosed better or exclusively by CT.

  8. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Management of Iatrogenic Cervical Esophageal Perforation in Extremely Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jue Soong

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Blind oro-(naso-pharyngeal suction and feeding catheter intubation are very common practices in pediatric critical care. However, these simple procedures may produce unexpected complications in friable tiny patients. We encountered 3 extremely premature infants in whom cervical esophageal perforation and further submucosal excavation were caused by traumatic catheter injury and subsequently led to catastrophes. These episodes of iatrogenic trauma were all successfully diagnosed early, documented and managed with the aid of ultrathin flexible endoscopy.

  9. Outcome following patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants: a retrospective cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yates Robert

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is an important problem in premature infants. Surgical PDA ligation is usually only be considered when medical treatment has either failed or was contraindicated. The aims of our study were to determine the mortality and morbidity following patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants, and whether prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor (PSI use prior to ligation affects outcome. Methods A retrospective case note review study to determine the outcome of premature infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation in one tertiary neonatal intensive care unit and two paediatric cardiothoracic centres. Results We had follow-up data on 87 infants. Cumulative mortality rates at 7 days, 30 days and at hospital discharge were 2%, 8% and 20% respectively. The incidence of chronic lung disease, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity were 77%, 39%, 26% and 28% respectively. There was no difference in mortality, incidence of chronic lung disease or duration of oxygen dependence between those who had and those who had not received a PSI prior to surgical ligation. In those who had received 2 or more courses of PSI prior to surgical ligation, there was a trend to increase in the duration of oxygen therapy and chronic lung disease, but no difference in mortality. Conclusion This study shows that patent ductus arteriosus ligation is a relatively safe procedure (30 day survival 92% but there is substantial late mortality and a high incidence of morbidity in the survivors. 2 or more courses of PSI prior to surgical ligation trends to increased oxygen dependence and chronic lung disease. This high risk population requires careful follow-up. A definitive prospective cohort study is lacking.

  10. Communication with parents of a prematurely born infant in the intensive care and therapy unit

    OpenAIRE

    Urbančič, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Tri article describes communication in the frames of nursing care between a nurse and parents of a prematurely born infant in the frames of nursing care and health education counseling. Communication is presented as a skill of interpersonal relations which forms a part of certain environments and can be learned through experience. Communication takes place on three levels: professional communication, communication with a client and communication within the organizational unit. In interaction ...

  11. Do Hospitalized Premature Infants Benefit from Music Interventions? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Heijden, Marianne J. E.; Araghi, Sadaf Oliai; Jeekel, Hans; Reiss, Irwin; Hunink, M G M; van Dijk, Monique

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Neonatal intensive care units (NICU) around the world increasingly use music interventions. The most recent systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) dates from 2009. Since then, 15 new RCTs have been published. We provide an updated systematic review on the possible benefits of music interventions on premature infants' well-being. Methods: We searched 13 electronic databases and 12 journals from their first available date until August 2016. Included were ...

  12. VACCINATION OF PREMATURE INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN IRKUTSK USING CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES

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    S. V. Il'ina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13. 

  13. NIH consensus development conference: Inhaled nitric oxide therapy for premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F Sessions; Alleyne, Claudia; Barks, John D E; Boyle, Robert J; Carroll, John L; Dokken, Deborah; Edwards, William H; Georgieff, Michael; Gregory, Katherine; Johnston, Michael V; Kramer, Michael; Mitchell, Christine; Neu, Josef; Pursley, DeWayne M; Robinson, Walter; Rowitch, David H

    2010-10-29

    To provide healthcare providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data on the use of inhaled nitric oxide in early routine, early rescue, or later rescue regimens in the care of premature infants biostatistics, child psychology, clinical trials, ethics, family-centered care, neonatology, neurodevelopmental follow-up, nursing, pediatric epidemiology, neurobehavior, neurological surgery, neurology, and pulmonology, perinatology, and research methodology. In addition, 18 experts from pertinent fields presented data to the panel and conference audience. Presentations by experts and a systematic review of the literature prepared by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center, through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel drafted its statement based on scientific evidence presented in open forum and on published scientific literature. The draft statement was presented on the final day of the conference and circulated to the audience for comment. The panel released a revised statement later that day at http://consensus.nih.gov. This statement is a report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. (1) Taken as a whole, the available evidence does not support use of inhaled nitric oxide in early routine, early rescue, or later rescue regimens in the care of premature infants pharmaceutical industry should avoid marketing inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants <34 weeks gestation.

  14. Time-frequency relationships between heart rate and respiration: A diagnosis tool for late onset sepsis in sick premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carrault, Guy; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick; Senhadji, Lotfi; Hernandez, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The diagnosis of late onset sepsis in premature infants remains difficult because clinical signs are subtle and non-specific and none of the laboratory tests, including CRP and blood culture, have high predictive accuracy. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis emerges as a promising diagnostic tool. Entropy and long-range fractal correlation are decreased in premature infants with proven sepsis. Besides this, respiration and its relations to HRV appear to be less. The ...

  15. Effect of Improved Bird-nest-shaped Package on Nursing of Premature Infants%早产儿应用改良鸟巢体位包的护理效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玉; 张莉; 苏敏谊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of improved bird-nest-shaped package on the nursing of premature infants. Methods 100 premature were randomly divided into control group with bird-nest-shaped package and experiment group with improved bird-nest-shaped package. Homoeothermic water-pillows were applied in both groups. Apnea, sclerema neonatorum, SpO2 heart rate and rectal temperature changes 7 days after hospitalization between two groups were compared. Results No sclerema neonatorum occurred in two groups and no statistic significance exist in the comparison of' apnea but there were statistical differences between the comparisons of SpO2, heart rate and rectal temperature of infants in two groups. Conclusion Improved bird-nest-shaped package is beneficial to keeping a stable temperature and the SpO2, controlling the heart rate and maintaining a stable vital sign and the development of the normal physiology functions.%目的 观察改良鸟巢体位包在早产儿护理中的应用效果.方法 2009年7月-2010年10月100例早产儿根据入院的单双日分为对照组和研究组,分别采用传统棉布环形包绕四周的鸟巢和改良鸟巢体位包,即除了四周有棉布环绕外,还配有帽子,背部也有柔软温暖的海绵作为底垫,两组均予恒温水枕垫高头颈部,观察比较两组早产儿入院7 d内发生新生儿硬肿、呼吸暂停、经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min的例数,及每2 h内肛温<36℃的例数.结果 早产儿入院7 d内研究组与对照组发生呼吸暂停的例数差异无统计学意义,对照组经皮测SpO2<85%、心率>160次/min、入院2h内肛温<36℃的例数较多,差异均有统计学意义,但两组新生儿均未发生新生儿硬肿.结论 改良鸟巢体位包有利于维持患儿体温,维持较高血氧饱和度,能较好控制心率,从而促进早产儿适应宫外环境.

  16. 孕妇牙周炎对早产低体重儿的影响研究及分析#%Study and Analysis of the Effect of Pregnant Women with Periodontitis on Premature Birth and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫东; 王瑞平; 张立巧; 陈志岭; 李巧磊

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pregnant women with periodontitis on premature birth and low birth weight.Methods:Randomly selected Xingtai City,the Third Hospital of stomatology in 2008 July to 2013 February treatment of pregnant and lying in women as the object of study,including pregnancy found suffering from periodontitis and timely treatment (group 1),found during pregnancy periodontitis and active treatment (GroupⅠ),pregnancy with periodontitis without treatment or treatment is not complete (GroupⅢ),pregnancy and pre pregnancy were not suffering from periodontitis of healthy pregnant women (Group IV) four groups,200,to carry out the questionnaire and oral examination,compared with four groups of maternal neonatal outcomes.Results:There was no significant difference in the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight infants (P>0.05),and the rate of preterm birth and low birth rate in group B was significantly lower than that in groupP<0.05.Conclusion:Pregnancy with periodontitis without active treatment or treatment is not proper,prematurity and low birth weight infants is extremely easy to occur,therefore,we should strengthen during pregnancy oral health instruction,the inclusion of oral health care in promoting the eugenics,minimize adverse pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕妇牙周炎对早产低体重儿的影响。方法:随机抽取邢台市第三医院口腔科2008年7月到2015年2月就诊的孕产妇作为研究对象,包括孕前发现患有牙周炎并及时治疗(Ⅰ组)、孕期发现牙周炎并积极治疗(Ⅱ组)、孕期患牙周炎未治疗或治疗不彻底(Ⅲ组)、孕期及孕前均未患牙周炎的健康孕妇(Ⅳ组)四个组别,各200名,实施问卷调查与口腔检查,对比四组孕产妇新生儿结局。结果:Ⅰ组与Ⅳ组在早产率、低体重儿率上无明显差异(P>0.05),均明显低于Ⅲ组(P<0.05)。结论:孕期患牙周炎不积极治疗或治疗不彻底,极

  17. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

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    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  18. Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Peters Anomaly

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    Tsuyoshi Minami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our findings in an infant with Peters anomaly type II whose retinopathy of prematurity (ROP was treated with an anti-VEGF agent and surgeries. Case Report: A male infant weighing 548 g was born prematurely at 23 weeks and 1 day with corneal opacity and shallow anterior chambers in both eyes. At the postmenstrual age of 35 weeks and 3 days, the infant was tentatively diagnosed with stage 3 ROP because of a dilated tunica vasculosa lentis and ultrasonographic findings. The boy was treated with bilateral intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB because laser photocoagulation of the retina could not be performed due to the corneal opacity. The retina in the right eye detached 3 times, namely 5 days, 16 days, and 7 months after the IVB; encircling the scleral buckle and a vitrectomy with endolaser photocoagulation were therefore required. In his left eye, the retina was reattached after the initial IVB, and no additional treatment was required. ROP was not reactivated in both eyes until the last examination at the age of 2 years and 6 months. Conclusions: Our results showed that IVB is a useful treatment for ROP in patients with Peters anomaly. However, a retinal detachment can be a complication after IVB. The optimal timing of IVB for ROP in infants with hazy media needs to be determined.

  19. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight

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    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5% had zone 1 and 19 (65.5% had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2% eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8% eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5% eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9% eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥1500 g birth weight premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor.

  20. Increased serum levels of interleukin 6 are associated with severe intraventricular haemorrhage in extremely premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heep, A; Behrendt, D; Nitsch, P; Fimmers, R; Bartmann, P; Dembinski, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in premature infants presumably have many causes. It has been proposed that inflammatory processes in the fetomaternal unit play an important role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Objective: To study the correlation of postpartum serum interleukin 6 (IL6) concentration as a marker of inflammation and neonatal cerebral morbidity in preterm infants 100 pg/ml. Ultrasound studies and clinical assessment were performed routinely. Results: IVH was noted significantly more often in group B (24/38; 63%) than in group A (19/50; 38%) (p = 0.02). In a multiple logistic regression model, raised serum IL6 independently predicted development of severe IVH (odds ratio 8.4; 95% confidence interval 2.85 to 24.9; p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Raised serum IL6 may serve as a marker for severe IVH in infants < 28 weeks of gestational age. Although cerebral morbidity in premature infants is determined by different variables, the identification of systemic inflammation can help to define the need for anti-inflammatory strategies to prevent cerebral morbidity. PMID:14602698

  1. Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sanjay; Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Pappas, Athina; Stoll, Barbara J.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Laptook, Abbot R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many premature infants are born without exposure to antenatal steroids (ANS) or with incomplete courses. This study evaluates the dose-dependent effect of ANS on rates of neonatal morbidities and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. OBJECTIVE To compare rates of neonatal morbidities and 18- to 22-month neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants exposed to no ANS or partial or complete courses of ANS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this observational cohort study, participants were extremely premature infants (birth weight range, 401–1000 g; gestational age, 22–27 weeks) who were born at participating centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 2006 and December 2011. Data were analyzed between October 2013 and May 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as the presence of any of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy, a cognitive score less than 85 on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, blindness, or deafness. RESULTS There were 848 infants in the no ANS group, 1581 in the partial ANS group, and 3692 in the complete ANS group; the mean (SD) birth weights were 725 (169), 760 (173), and 753 (170) g, respectively, and the mean (SD) gestational ages were 24.5 (1.4), 24.9 (2), and 25.1 (1.1) weeks. Of 6121 eligible infants, 4284 (70.0%) survived to 18- to 22-month follow-up, and data were available for 3892 of 4284 infants (90.8%). Among the no, partial, and complete ANS groups, there were significant differences in the rates of mortality (43.1%, 29.6%, and 25.2%, respectively), severe intracranial hemorrhage among survivors (23.3%, 19.1%, and 11.7%), death or necrotizing enterocolitis (48.1%, 37.1%, and 32.5%), and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (74.9%, 68.9%, and 65

  2. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

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    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates without vaso-proliferative findings of ROP as the control group and 30 preterm infants with evidence of severe ROP in follow up eye examination as the case group. Blood samples obtained from these infants 6-8 weeks after birth and blood levels of IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean gestation age and birth weight of the studied patients were 28.2±1.6 weeks and 1120.7±197 gram in the case group and 28.4±1.6 weeks and 1189.4±454 gram in the control group (P=0.25 and P=0.44 respectively. The infants in the case group had significantly lower Apgar score at first and 5 min after birth. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with proliferative ROP than the patients without ROP [592.5±472.9 vs. 995.5±422.2 ng/ml (P=0.009]. Using a cut-off point 770.45 ng/ml for the plasma IGFBP-3, we obtained a sensitivity of 65.9% and a specificity of 66.7% in the preterm infants with vasoproliferative ROP. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that the blood levels IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with ROP and it is suspected that IGFBP-3 deficiency in the premature infants may have a pathogenetic role in proliferative ROP.

  3. Early effects of delayed ligature of the umbilical cord on the blood volume in premature infants%延迟钳夹脐带对早产儿早期血容量影响的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪群; 刘绍基; 黎小玲; 马可泽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of delayed ligature of the umbilical cord on the blood volume in premature infants in early time. Methods From Oct 2007 to Jun 2010,194 premature infants with vaginal birth in department of genecology and obstetrics were randomly divided into routine ligature of the umbilical cord group (100 cases) and delayed ligature of the umbilical cord group (94 cases), comparision were made on ligature time, blood routine examination,blood pressure,oxyhemoglobin saturation and anemia incidence in 24 h,48 h,and 72 h after birth,and hemobilirubin on 1 d,2 d,3 d,and 7 d after birth. Results There were significant differences between the two groups in delayed ligature time [(100. 14 + 10. 57) s vs (22. 40 +5.02) s,P <0. 05)]. The hemoglobin and blood pressure in delayed ligature umbilical group were increased significantly(P < 0. 05). There was 3 cases (3. 19%) of anemia in delayed ligature of the umbilical cord group, and 11 cases (11.00%) in routine ligature of the umbilical cord group, which showed significant difference (P < 0. 05). And the hemobilirubin on 7 d after birth showed no significant difference between the two groups(P > 0. 05). Conclusion Delayed ligature of umbilical cord has a significant influence on hemoglobin and blood pressure of premature infant. It can increase the blood volume, and reduce the incidence of anemia in early time.%目的 探讨延迟钳夹脐带对早产儿早期血容量的影响.方法 将2007年10月至2010年6月在东莞市石龙博爱医院产科经阴道分娩的194例早产儿随机分为两组,即常规钳夹脐带组100例和延迟钳夹脐带组94例.比较分析两组经阴道分娩早产儿的钳夹脐带时间,生后24h、48h、72 h的Hb、RBC、红细胞压积、血压、血氧饱和度和贫血的发生率,以及生后第1天、第2天、第3天和第7天的静脉血胆红素值.结果 延迟钳夹脐带组脐带钳夹时间为(100.14±10.57)s,常规钳夹脐

  4. Auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds drive temporal "delta-brushes" in premature infants.

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    Mathilde Chipaux

    Full Text Available In the premature infant, somatosensory and visual stimuli trigger an immature electroencephalographic (EEG pattern, "delta-brushes," in the corresponding sensory cortical areas. Whether auditory stimuli evoke delta-brushes in the premature auditory cortex has not been reported. Here, responses to auditory stimuli were studied in 46 premature infants without neurologic risk aged 31 to 38 postmenstrual weeks (PMW during routine EEG recording. Stimuli consisted of either low-volume technogenic "clicks" near the background noise level of the neonatal care unit, or a human voice at conversational sound level. Stimuli were administrated pseudo-randomly during quiet and active sleep. In another protocol, the cortical response to a composite stimulus ("click" and voice was manually triggered during EEG hypoactive periods of quiet sleep. Cortical responses were analyzed by event detection, power frequency analysis and stimulus locked averaging. Before 34 PMW, both voice and "click" stimuli evoked cortical responses with similar frequency-power topographic characteristics, namely a temporal negative slow-wave and rapid oscillations similar to spontaneous delta-brushes. Responses to composite stimuli also showed a maximal frequency-power increase in temporal areas before 35 PMW. From 34 PMW the topography of responses in quiet sleep was different for "click" and voice stimuli: responses to "clicks" became diffuse but responses to voice remained limited to temporal areas. After the age of 35 PMW auditory evoked delta-brushes progressively disappeared and were replaced by a low amplitude response in the same location. Our data show that auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds efficiently evoke delta-brushes in temporal areas in the premature infant before 35 PMW. Along with findings in other sensory modalities (visual and somatosensory, these findings suggest that sensory driven delta-brushes represent a ubiquitous feature of the human sensory cortex

  5. Management guidelines of premature infants%早产儿管理指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会儿科学分会新生儿学组

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity is one of the leading causes of death and disability in neonates. To improve the management of premature infants, the Subspecialty Group of Neonatology, Pediatric Society, Chinese Medical Association established the guideline on the 7th National Neonatal Academic Conference in October 2004. The guideline makes references to management at birth, respiration management, prevention and treatment of cerebral injury of premature infants, prevention and treatment of infection, maintenance of stable blood glucose, nutritional management, management of feeding intolerance, fluid balance, management of patent ducts arteriosus (PDA), prevention and treatment of anemia, treatment of jaundice of prematurity, prevention and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), hearing screening, nursing and follow-up following discharge.%早产是新生儿发病和围产儿死亡最常见的因素,为提高早产儿的管理水平,降低病死率和致残率,新生儿学组经过2年多的讨论,于2004年10月第七届全国新生儿学术会议(海口)通过本指南,供各单位参考.本指南就早产儿出生时处理,呼吸管理,脑损伤的防治,感染的防治,保持血糖稳定,营养支持,消化问题的处理,液体平衡,动脉导管开放,贫血的防治,黄疸的治疗,早产儿视网膜病的防治,听力筛查,护理,出院后的随访等15个问题制定了具体的管理方案.

  6. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

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    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  7. Evaluation of the WinROP system for identifying retinopathy of prematurity in Czech preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timkovic, Juraj; Pokryvkova, Martina; Janurova, Katerina; Barinova, Denisa; Polackova, Renata; Masek, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially serious condition that can afflict preterm infants. Timely and correct identification of individuals at risk of developing a serious form of ROP is therefore of paramount importance. WinROP is an online system for predicting ROP based on birth weight and weight increments. However, the results vary significantly for various populations. It has not been evaluated in the Czech population. This study evaluates the test characteristics (specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values) of the WinROP system in Czech preterm infants. Data on 445 prematurely born infants included in the ROP screening program at the University Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic, were retrospectively entered into the WinROP system and the outcomes of the WinROP and regular screening were compared. All 24 infants who developed high-risk (Type 1 or Type 2) ROP were correctly identified by the system. The sensitivity and negative predictive values for this group were 100%. However, the specificity and positive predictive values were substantially lower, resulting in a large number of false positives. Extending the analysis to low risk ROP, the system did not provide such reliable results. The system is a valuable tool for identifying infants who are not likely to develop high-risk ROP and this could help to substantially reduce the number of preterm infants in need of regular ROP screening. It is not suitable for predicting the development of less serious forms of ROP which is however in accordance with the declared aims of the WinROP system.

  8. The Effect of Mother Empowerment Program on Mothers’ Attachment to their Hospitalized Premature Neonates

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    Soheila Karbandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth of a premature neonate is associated with hospital admission and separation from the family. Admission of the neonates intervenes on infant-mother attachment and so adversely affects on the quality of care given by the mother, and subsequently increases the risk of delayed behavioral problems in the children. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of mother empowerment program on the premature infant-mother attachment. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 70 mothers of premature infants, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Omolbanin hospital of Mashhad in 2014, were divided into of intervention and control groups. The Empowerment program was a multi-step treatment program, in which information about the premature infants was provided to mothers through an illustrated booklet with a workbook and audio file in each step. Mothers in the control group received information and routine care according to the hospital guideline. The mother-infant attachment was measured after the intervention using the maternal and neonatal behaviors Avant tool. Data analysis was performed using chi-square and t-student tests by SPSS software version 11.5. Results:The mean scores of maternal attachment behaviors after the intervention in the empowerment and control groups were (56.62±8.06 and (39.51±7.77, respectively; the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P

  9. 早产儿的早期干预对智力、运动发育及脑瘫发生率的影响%Effect of early intervention on intelligence development, motor development and incidence of cerebral palsy in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 黄燕; 叶如霞; 吴康敏

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解早期干预对早产儿智力、运动发育及脑瘫发生率的影响,探讨降低脑瘫发生率的有效方法.方法:对136名早产儿按家长意愿分为早期干预组61例和对照组75例,干预组在纠正胎龄满40周后做20项新生儿行为神经测评,评分<35分者建议在医院进行干预治疗(包括运动疗法和物理治疗,配合运用导平、脑循环治疗仪等);评分≥35分者给家长发放指导手册,指导家长在家中进行干预训练;在随访中根据神经测评情况调整干预方法,定期对早产儿进行全面早期教育的基础上重点进行运动训练.对照组在本院儿保门诊接受常规育儿指导.所有婴儿定期进行体格检查和神经运动检查.结果:两组男女比例、平均胎龄和出生体重、分娩方式和纠正胎龄40周新生儿行为神经测查评分差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),说明两组有可比性.在8月龄、12月龄时CDCC智测结果得分干预组均较对照组高,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).12月龄干预组有1例脑瘫,对照组有7例,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:早产儿早期干预可促进早产儿智力和运动发育,减少脑瘫的发生率.%Objective; To understand the effect of early intervention on intelligence development, motor development and incidence of cerebral palsy in premature infants, explore an effective method to reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy. Methods; 136 premature infants were divided into early intervention group (61 premature infants) and control group (75 premature infants) according to the intentions of their parents. When the corrective gestational age reached 40 weeks, the premature infants in early intervention group were assessed by neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) (20 items), it was recommended that the premature infants with NBNA score 35 received intervention at home through their parents (directed by a guide book); the intervention method was

  10. 远红外辐射保温台与婴儿培养箱保暖对早产儿生命体征及体质量的影响%Effect of far-infrared radiation heat preservation and infant incubator to keep warm on the vital signs and body quality of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽妮; 陈慈; 黄巧燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of far-infrared radiation heat preservation and infant incu-bator to keep warm on the vital signs and body quality of premature infants.Methods Eighty premature in-fants were chosen who were hospitalized in Shiyan People's Hospital of Baoan District from Jan.2013 to May 2014,and they were randomly divided into two groups:the observation group(40 cases)and the control group(40 cases).Compare the breath,heart rate,milk volume and body quality at different time point of hos-pital stay(on admission,4 d,7 d and 14 d)between the two groups.Results There was no statistical differ-ence in breath and heart rate at different time points(P >0.05).There was no statistical difference in milk volume and body quality on admission between the two groups(P >0.05).After being kept warm by differ-ent methods,the milk volume and body quality in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group on 4 d,7 d and 14 d of admission,and there was statistical difference(P 0.05)。入院时两组患儿奶量及体质量比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);入院后经过不同的保暖方式护理,入院4、7、14 d 3个时期观察组奶量及体质量显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论相对于远红外辐射保暖台,婴儿培养箱更适合早产儿保暖护理,可有效提升早产儿呼吸及心率频次,临床效果显著。

  11. Influence of varied stimuli on development of motor patterns in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J S

    1979-01-01

    The premature infant is at risk for both mortality and morbidity. His writhing contributes to weight loss, and his extrauterine environment does not contain the multi-modality patterned afferent stimuli that impinge upon the developing brain in utero. Sound is the most effective modality to achieve concurrent decrement in motility along with enhancement of cortical activity. It was anticipated that subjects exposed to 5 minutes of patterned sound 6 times a day would, by 36 weeks gestation, evidence: (a) less gross motor activity, (b) the normal predominance of upper over lower limb activity, and (c) beginning laterality. The sample consisted of 80 males and 73 females whose gestational age at birth was 26--33 weeks. By random assignment 52 subjects were exposed to the routine ambient noise of the isolette and nursery, 50 to a tape recording of their mother's voice, and 51 to an orchestral arrangement of Brahm's Lullaby. Limb activity was measured just prior to discharge by accelerometers worn unilaterally for a 24-hour period on the ankle and wrist prior to transfer to the alternate side for an additional 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated among the limb patterns of the 3 groups. Large intragroup variation in gross activity precluded demonstration of between-group differences. The majority of subjects evidenced predominance of upper limb activity and laterality.

  12. Gestational therapy with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and transient renal failure in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, J Kirk; Faix, Roger G

    2006-07-01

    The fetotoxic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors when used during the second half of pregnancy are well known. The more recently developed angiotensin II receptor antagonists appear to yield similar fetal abnormalities. We report a premature infant born to a 41-year-old mother with a long history of infertility who had received losartan therapy for hypertension throughout an undetected pregnancy. Ultrasound examination 2 days prior to delivery identified a single fetus at 29 weeks gestation, anhydramnios, and an empty fetal bladder. The neonatal course was complicated by oliguria, hyperkalemia, marked renal dysfunction, respiratory failure, joint contractures, and a large anterior fontanelle with widely separated sutures. Hypotension (mean arterial pressurerenal disease. Since then, weight and length have been at the 5th percentile or less, with apparent renal tubular acidosis necessitating the addition of sodium citrate supplements. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for potential pregnancy when contemplating the use of a drug of this class, and considering serial testing for pregnancy when using such drugs, even in patients with a longstanding history of infertility.

  13. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  14. Surfactant treatment in premature infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, AAE; Keli, SO; van der Meulen, GN; Wiersma, H; Arias, M; Angelista, IR; Muskiet, FD

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in premature neonates has been established as an effective treatment, although significant mortality and morbidity remain. In Curacao, surfactant became available as a therapeutic option in 1994. A retrospective cohort study was

  15. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of latamoxef (moxalactam) in neonates and premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R; Hashira, S; Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Tsuchida, A; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S; Tojo, M; Sunakawa, K

    1984-06-01

    Studies were carried out on the in vivo kinetics and clinical efficacy of latamoxef (LMOX) in neonates and premature infants. The results are summarized below. Serum concentration and T1/2 following intravenous injection of LMOX to neonates LMOX was intravenously administered to neonates as one shot doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. The serum concentration of LMOX showed a dose-response to the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses in each of the 0--3 day-old group, 4--7 day-old group and 8--28 day-old group. The T 1/2 values were as follows; for the 10 mg/kg dose, 5.17 hours in the 0--3 day-old group, 3.28 hours in the 4--7 day-old group and 2.79 hours in the 8--28 day-old group; for the 20 mg/kg dose, 5.58 hours in the 0--3 day-old group, 3.46 hours in the 4--7 day-old group and 3.14 hours in the 8--28 day-old group. Thus, it is seen that the half-life of both dosages decreased as the infants became older. Serum concentration and T 1/2 following intravenous injection of LMOX to premature infants Similar to the case of neonates described above, the concentration of LMOX in the serum of the premature infants showed a dose-response to the 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg dosages. The T 1/2 values for the 0--3, 4--7 day-old and 8--28 day-old groups were 7.54, 3.93 hours and 6.25 hours, respectively, for the 10 mg/kg dose, and 10.8, 4.05 hours and 3.23 hours, respectively, for the 20 mg/kg dose. Again, it is seen that the half-life of both dosages decreased as the age of the prematurely-born infants increased. Serum concentration and T1/2 following 1-hour intravenous drip infusion of LMOX to neonates LMOX was administered to neonates in doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, by i.v. drip infusion over a 1-hour period. With both dosages, the peak serum concentration of LMOX occurred at the time of completion of the infusion. The T1/2 values for the 0--3, 4--7 day-old and 8--28 day-old groups were 5.41, 3.68 hours and 1.92 hours, respectively, for the 10 mg/kg dose, and 5.31, 2.67 hours and 4.86 hours

  16. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  17. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

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    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated "macular edema" detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on visual acuity (VA and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B and 17 preterms infants without ROP and without edema (Group C at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of corrected age using Teller Acuity Cards and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Sub-group analysis of the previously described pattern A and B macular edema was performed. Results: Visual acuity was lower in infants with macular edema compared with the other two control groups throughout the study period, but statistically significant only at 3 months. Visual improvement in these infants was highest between the 3 rd and 6 th month and plateaued by the end of the 1 st year with acuity comparable to the other two groups. The edema cohort was more hyperopic compared to the other two groups between 3 and 12 months of age. Pattern A edema had worse VA compared to pattern B, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: Macular edema, although transient, caused reduced VA as early as 3 months of corrected age in Asian Indian premature infants weighing <2000 g at birth. The higher hyperopia in these infants is possibly due to visual disturbances caused at a critical time of fovealization. We hypothesize a recovery and feedback mechanism based on the principles of active emmetropization to explain our findings.

  18. Pain-associated stressor exposure and neuroendocrine values for premature infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Annie J

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent stress during neonatal intensive care taxes the adaptive capacity of the premature infant and may be a risk factor for suboptimal developmental outcomes. This research used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a life course perspective to examine the relationship between resting adrenocorticoid values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age and cumulative pain-associated stressor exposure in prematurely born infants. Subjects were 59 infants born at under 35 completed weeks of gestation, who were at least 2 weeks of age, and who had been cared for in the NICU since birth. No significant relationships were identified between cortisol values and any of the study variables (number of skin breaking procedures, hours of assisted ventilation, gestational age at birth, exposure to antenatal steroids, history of severe academia, birthweight, days of age to attain birthweight, weight at testing, days of age at testing, recent pain-associated procedures, and 17-OHP value). A significant negative correlation (Spearman rank, one-tailed) between the number of skin-breaking procedures and 17-OHP values was identified (r = -.232, p = .039). Recurrent pain-associated stressor exposure may be a more important factor in explaining the variance of 17-OHP values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age than birthweight, gestational age, or chronological age.

  19. Degree of dependence on the ventilator according to sleep states in artificially ventilated premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi-Dascalova, L; Relier, J P; Peirano, P; Castex, M; Vasseur, O

    1986-07-01

    Polygraphic recordings were performed in 14 sleeping premature infants receiving ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome. All were clinically stabilized, with normal EEG and neurologic status and differentiated sleep states (coded according to EEG and REM criteria). They all had two respiratory patterns: passive, completely dependent on the ventilator, and active, with autonomous respiratory movements and/or inspiratory diaphragmatic activity added to passive respiration. We found that in infants ventilated at the rate of 18-54/min, respiration was more active and autonomous in active REM sleep and more passive and dependent on the machine in quiet NREM sleep (P less than 0.005). Within the limits of the values observed in our study, differences between sleep states were not due to other factors that could possibly interfere with and modify the degree of respiratory autonomy. We found no significant correlation between the percentage of time passed with active respiration on one hand and age (gestational, postnatal, conceptional) or diagnostic or physical parameters of artificial ventilation and blood gas levels on the other hand. Our results suggest that in artificially ventilated but neurologically normal premature infants, differences between respiratory control in both sleep states exist as early as 28 weeks conceptional age (lower limit of our study).

  20. Quantification of EUGR as a Measure of the Quality of Nutritional Care of Premature Infants.

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    Zhenlang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop an index of the quality of nutritional care of premature infants based on the change in weight Z score from birth to discharge and to illustrate the use of this index in comparing the performance of different NICUs.Retrospective data analysis was performed to compare the growth of premature infants born in three perinatal centers. Infants with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks who survived to discharge from 2006 to 2010 were included. Weight Z scores at birth and discharge were calculated by the method of Fenton. Using data from one NICU as the reference, a multivariable linear regression model of change in weight Z score from birth to discharge was developed. Employing this model, a benchmark value of change in weight Z score was calculated for each baby. The difference between this calculated benchmark value and the baby's observed change in weight Z score was defined as the performance gap for that infant. The average value of the performance gaps in a NICU serves as its quality care index.1,714 infants were included for analysis. Change in weight Z score is influenced by birth weight Z score and completed weeks of gestation; thus the model for calculating the benchmark change in weight Z score was adjusted for these two variables. We found statistically significant differences in the average performance gaps for the three units.A quality care index was developed based on change in weight Z score from birth to discharge adjusted for two initial risk factors. This objective, easily calculated index may be used as a measurement of the quality of nutritional care to rank the performance of different NICUs.

  1. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A 5 MONTH OLD PREMATURE INFANT WITH RESPIRATORY STRIDOR FOR PDA CLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Management of a premature infant with PDA poses a significant challenge in the perioperative period for the anaesthesiologist. The risk is multiplied when it is associated with other congenital respiratory anomalies. In our case a premature child at 5 month of age presented with PDA and tracheomalacia. There was a risk of airway collapse during sedation or induction of anaesthesia along with a n anticipated difficu lt intubation. We have managed the case by inducing and intubating the patient in the lateral position without using muscle relaxants. We have used Sevoflurane as the sole anaesthetic agent for inducing and intubating the patient. Postoperatively patient w as extubated in lateral position and succesfully discharged from ICU.

  2. Early or Late Surgical Ligation of Medical Refractory Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal time to surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very-low-birth-weight ( 14 days groups. Basic clinical features, major morbidity of prematurity and mortality were compared. Clinical features and major outcomes were similar. The early ligation group had earlier onset of symptomatic PDA (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs. 8.1 ± 3.6 days, p = 0.024, and fewer days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN (39.6 ± 13.9 days vs. 60.4 ± 31.4 days, p = 0.025 and ventilator use (11.1 ± 6.7 days vs. 18.6 ± 10.5 days, p = 0.019. Early ligation of medical refractory PDA in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improves enteral feeding tolerance and reduces TPN and ventilator use, but long-term benefits need further investigation.

  3. Parental Leave Policy as a Strategy to Improve Outcomes among Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jennifer C; Klawetter, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Although gains have been made in premature birth rates among racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status populations, tremendous disparities still exist in both prematurity rates and health outcomes for preterm infants. Parental involvement is known to improve health outcomes for preterm babies. However, a gap in evidence exists around whether parental involvement can help ameliorate the disparities in both short- and long-term out-comes for their preterm children. Families more likely to experience preterm birth are also less likely to have access to paid leave and thus experience significant systemic barriers to involvement, especially when their newborns are hospitalized. This article describes the research gap in this area and explores pathways by which social workers may ameliorate disparities in preterm birth outcomes through practice, policy, and research.

  4. Fathering premature infants and the technological imperative of the neonatal intensive care unit: an interpretive inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of 9 fathers of premature infants in the technological environment of the neonatal intensive care unit were examined using interpretive methods. Fathers were interviewed 6 to 8 times each. Findings revealed emotional costs for fathers as technology often took precedence. Fathers' feelings of frustration, fear, and alienation were hidden from nurses, as fathers were silent and silenced. Fathers perceived a power dynamic between themselves and nurses, which may be due, in part, to a complex interplay between the technological imperative and gender dynamics. Two exemplars illustrated how fathers forged emotional connections with their babies despite the technological imperative.

  5. Validade concorrente e confiabilidade da Alberta Infant Motor Scale em lactentes nascidos prematuros Concurrent validity and reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea Martins Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade concorrente e a confiabilidade interobservador da Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS em lactentes prematuros acompanhados no ambulatório de seguimento do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 88 lactentes nascidos prematuros no ambulatório de seguimento do IFF/Fiocruz entre fevereiro e dezembro de 2006. No estudo de validade concorrente, 46 lactentes com 6 (n = 26 ou 12 (n = 20 meses de idade corrigida foram avaliados pela AIMS e pela escala motora da Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2ª edição, por dois observadores diferentes, utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para análise dos resultados. No estudo de confiabilidade, 42 lactentes entre 0 e 18 meses foram avaliados pela AIMS por dois observadores diferentes, utilizando-se o intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC para análise dos resultados. RESULTADOS: No estudo de validade concorrente, a correlação encontrada entre as duas escalas foi alta (r = 0,95 e estatisticamente significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To verify the concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS in premature infants followed-up at the outpatient clinic of Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 88 premature infants were enrolled at the follow-up clinic at IFF/Fiocruz, between February and December of 2006. For the concurrent validity study, 46 infants were assessed at either 6 (n = 26 or 12 (n = 20 months' corrected age using the AIMS and the second edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, by two different observers, and applying Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze the results. For the reliability study, 42 infants between 0 and 18 months were assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, by two different observers and the results analyzed using the intraclass correlation

  6. Effects of immune nutritional enhancing therapy on the prognosis of premature very low birth weight infants%免疫强化营养治疗对早产极低出生体质量儿预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the effects of immune nutritional enhancing therapy on the prognosis of premature very low birth weight infants(VLBWI). Methods One hundred and six cases of premature VLBWI were se-lected as the research objects and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group. Fifty-three cases were included into each group. The newborn infants in the observation group were fed with breast milk combined with human milk fortifier,while newborn infants in the control group were fed with formative milk for the premature infants. The hospi-talized time and serum albumin levels,weight at discharge,hospital infection rates and the incidences of gastrointestinal dysfunction of the infants in the two groups were observed and compared. Results The differences of the hospitalized time and the weight at discharge of the infants in the two groups were not significant(P > 0. 05),while the serum albumin level of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P 0. 05). Conclusions Early application of breast feeding combined with human milk fortifier in the treatment of premature VLBWI can significantly improve the nutritional status of the infants,and contribute to the achievement of the‘catch-up growth’. Meanwhile,the effects of promoting the immune function of the premature infants of this therapy are equivalent to the application of the formula milk feeding.%目的:观察和分析免疫强化营养治疗对早产极低出生体质量儿(VLBWI)预后的影响。方法选取106例早产 VLBWI 作为研究对象,将其随机分为观察组和对照组,每组53例,观察组新生儿应用母乳加母乳强化剂的喂养方式,对照组新生儿应用早产儿配方奶进行喂养,对两组新生儿的住院时间和血清白蛋白水平、出院时体质量、住院期间感染发生率和胃肠功能紊乱发生率的情况进行观察和比较。结果两组在住院时间和出院体质

  7. A histopathological study of premature and mature infants with pontosubicular neuron necrosis: neuronal cell death in perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Yuji; Takashima, Sachio; Itoh, Masayuki

    2006-06-20

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of neuronal and behavior deficits, in which the onset of injury can be before, at or after birth, and the effects may be delayed. Pontosubicular neuron necrosis (PSN) is one of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and its pathological peculiarity is neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cascade of PSN used a caspase-pathway or not, and whether hypoglycemia activated apoptosis or not. Sections of the pons of PSN with and without hypoglycemia were stained using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Bcl-2, Bcl-x and activated caspase 3. Additionally, we performed immunoblot analysis of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and activated caspase 3. TUNEL-positive cell was closely associated with the presence of karyorrhexis. Under combination of karyorrhectic and TUNEL-positive cells, number of apoptotic cells in premature brains was significantly more than in mature brains. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury was considered to easily lead to apoptosis in premature infants. Moreover, as this pathophysiology, caspase-pathway activation contributed to neuronal death from caspase-immunoexpression analyses. PSN with hypoglycemia showed large number of apoptotic cells and higher expression of activated caspase 3. The result may be more severe with the background of hypoglycemia and prematurity complicated by hypoxia and/or ischemia.

  8. Breastfeeding for premature infants%呵护早产儿从母乳喂养开始

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹华

    2012-01-01

    母乳喂养是降低新生儿死亡率的重要干预手段之一,对早产儿尤其如此.早产母乳中的成分与足月母乳不同,其营养价值和生物学功能更适合早产儿的需求.在NICU积极推进母乳喂养能降低早产相关疾病的发生率,改善神经行为发育,降低成年慢性非传染性疾病的发病风险.对低出生体质量早产儿,强化母乳喂养是最佳的喂养方式,能优化蛋白质摄入,促进早产儿体格增长和骨骼矿化.应当以积极的支持策略来保证早产儿母乳喂养的顺利实施.%Breastfeeding is one of the important methods of intervention to reduce the neonatal mortality, especially for premature infants. The composition in breast milk of mothers with premature infants is different from that of mothers with term infants. Their nutritional content and biological function are more suitable for the needs of premature infants. Promoting breastfeeding in the NICU can reduce the incidence of some diseases in premature infants, improve neurobehavioral development and reduce the risk of the chronic disease in adulthood. Fortified breastfeeding which optimize protein intake, promote physical growth and bone mineralization is the best way of feeding for premature infants with low birth weight. The active support strategies should be made to ensure breastfeeding success for premature infants.

  9. Residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Hine, Kotaro; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Taguchi, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Okada, Tomoo; Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants. Twenty extremely premature infants were held at or below the placenta while the umbilical cord was clamped and cut at approximately 2-3 cm from the umbilicus within 30 s after birth. The umbilical cord was then clamped near the placenta to obtain a length of approximately 30 cm and cut. The residual blood volume in the segment of cord was drained and measured in milliliters. Mean birthweight was 846 ± 172 g (range, 587-1180 g). The average length of the clamped segment of umbilical cord was 29.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 27-32 cm). Total residual blood volume and residual blood volume per cm were 15.5 ± 6.7 mL (range, 6-25 mL) and 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/cm (range, 0.2-0.8 mL/cm), respectively. The residual cord blood volume per kilogram of infant weight per 30 cm was 17.7 ± 5.5 mL/kg/30 cm (range, 8.9-29.0 mL/kg/30 cm). Infants could receive approximately 18 mL/kg of whole blood by one-time milking of 30 cm umbilical cord. With an average hematocrit of 40%, this volume is equivalent to approximately 13 mL of packed red blood cells (hematocrit 55%). © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Association Between Apnea of Prematurity and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants: An Observational Study

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    François Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLate preterm infants (34 to 36 weeks’ gestation remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP. As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants.ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP.MethodsThis retrospective observational study was realized in a tertiary care center between January 2009 and December 2011. Data from late preterm infants who presented an uncomplicated perinatal evolution, excepted for RDS, were reviewed. Information related to AOP and RDS were collected using the medical record. Odds ratios were calculated using a binary logistic regression adjusted for GA and sex.ResultsAmong the 982 included infants 85 (8,6% had an RDS diagnosis, 281 (28,6% had AOP diagnosis and 107 (10,9% were treated with caffeine for AOP. There was a significant association between AOP treated with caffeine and RDS for all infants (OR = 3.3, 95% CI : 2.0 – 5.7. There was no association between AOP and RDS in 34 weeks infants [AOR : 1.6 (95% CI: 0.7 – 3.8] but an association remains for 35 [AOR : 5.7 (95% CI: 2.5 – 13.4] and 36 [OR: 7.8 (95% CI: 3.2 – 19.4] weeks infants. No association was found between apparent RDS severity and AOP regarding mean oxygen administration duration or complications associated with RDS.ConclusionThe association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants reflects that patients affected by RDS are not only presenting lung immaturity, but also respiratory control immaturity. Special consideration should be given before discontinuing monitoring after RDS resolution in those patients.

  11. THE ROLE OF PANCREATIC ENZYMOTHERAPY IN POSTNATAL ADAPTATION OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS UNDER ARTIFICIAL FEEDING

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    V.V. Dashichev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to immaturity of the digestive system of the premature children under artificial feeding there may often be effects of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions, which disturb postnatal adaptation among these newborns. The purpose of this research was to analyze a number of indices, characterizing the dynamics of the body weight and functional status of the gastrointestinal tract among the premature children, who received modern active digestive ferment at different periods of time. The authors presented the findings of the retrospective analysis of the case history among 29 premature children, who were held in the department of the premature children of the perinatal center. Children received pancreatine ferment (Creon 10000, Solvay Pharma, Germany. The ferment was introduced in the dosage of 150mg/day. This dose was orally introduced by minimicrospheres during every feeding and in some cases through the nasogastric probe. The ferment intake started in the early neonatal period among 13 children and in the late neonatal period among 16 children. During the course of the ferment therapy the frequency of the symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions drastically reduced. When the course of the ferment therapy was prescribed at an early age, the body weight increase tended to higher indices among premature children during the first month of their lives.Key words: premature children, pancreatic enzymotherapy, gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions.

  12. The participation of Occupational Therapy in a team from the monitoring Program of Premature Infants Discharged from NICUs

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    Dani Laura Peruzzolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Occupational Therapy course of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM was created in 2009. Since then, its faculty has sought the inclusion in the three lines (primary, secondary and tertiary of health care services. Within the university premises, there is a University Hospital (HUSM that offers services in several complexities. The Pediatric Clinic, which holds the Monitoring Program of Premature Infants discharged from Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU, is among them. This service was created at government level and implemented in hospitals that are considered regional references to monitor premature infants discharged from NICUs. The significant increase in the number of infants who survive prematurity initiated the need for continuous monitoring, because infants are still considered at risk even after hospital discharge. This paper aims to present a descriptive report of the experience participation of the occupational therapist together with the team and the population that is attended in the Monitoring Program of Premature Infants discharged from the NICU of the HUSM. The report is contextualized by the proposal description of the Monitoring Program implanted at the HUSM, presenting the protocols defined by the assessment team, as follows: Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Denver Developmental Screening Test II, and Clinical Indicators of Risk for Child Development. After that, it presents the process of inclusion of the occupational therapist in the Monitoring. Finally, some considerations are highlighted in relation to the contribution of the occupational therapist to the team and the population attended.

  13. Effects of Breast Milk and Vanilla Odors on Premature Neonate's Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Saturation During and After Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshat, Hanieh; Jebreili, Mahnaz; Seyyedrasouli, Aleheh; Ghojazade, Morteza; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Different studies have shown that the use of olfactory stimuli during painful medical procedures reduces infants' response to pain. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of breast milk odor and vanilla odor on premature infants' vital signs including heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. A total of 135 preterm infants were randomly selected and divided into three groups of control, vanilla odor, and breast milk odor. Infants in the breast milk group and the vanilla group were exposed to breast milk odor and vanilla odor from 5 minutes prior to sampling until 30 seconds after sampling. The results showed that breast milk odor has a significant effect on the changes of neonatal heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture and decreased the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Vanilla odor has no significant effect on premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Breast milk odor can decrease the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. End tidal carbon dioxide levels during the resuscitation of prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vadivelam; O'Rourke-Potocki, Anthony; Dattani, Nikesh; Fox, Grenville F; Campbell, Morag E; Milner, Anthony D; Greenough, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Successful resuscitation of prematurely born infants is dependent on achieving adequate alveolar ventilation and vasodilation of the pulmonary vascular bed. Elevation of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)) levels may indicate pulmonary vasodilation. This research aims to study the temporal changes in ETCO(2) levels and the infant's respiratory efforts during face mask resuscitation in the labour suite, and to determine if the infant's first inspiratory effort was associated with a rise in the ETCO(2) levels, suggesting pulmonary vasodilation had occurred. This study is an observational one. The subjects of the study are forty infants with a median gestational age of 30 weeks (range 23-34). Inflation pressures, expiratory tidal volumes and ETCO(2) levels were measured. The median expiratory tidal volume of inflations prior to the onset of the infant's respiratory efforts (passive inflations) was lower than that of the inflation associated with the first inspiratory effort (active inflation) (1.8 (range 0.1-7.3) versus 6.3 ml/kg (range 1.9-18.4), plevels (0.3 (range 0.1-2.1) versus 3.4 kPa (0.4-11.5), plevel (2.2 kPa (range 0.3-9.3)) of the two passive inflations following the first active inflation were also higher than the median expiratory tidal volume and ETCO(2) levels of the previous passive inflations (pcarbon dioxide elimination, likely due to pulmonary vasodilation, occurred with the onset of the infant's respiratory efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxygen as a cause of blindness in premature infants: "autopsy" of a decade of errors in clinical epidemiologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R M; Feinstein, A R

    1992-11-01

    Several intellectual "autopsies" have recently reviewed errors in clinical epidemiologic studies of causation, such as the original claim that amyl nitrite "poppers" caused AIDS. The current autopsy was done to determine why it took more than a decade--1942 to 1954--to end an iatrogenic epidemic in which high-dose oxygen therapy led to retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) in premature infants, blinding about 10,000 of them. The autopsy revealed a museum of diverse intellectual pathology. When first noted, RLF was regarded as neither a new disease nor a postnatal effect. In early investigations, the ophthalmologists did not establish explicit criteria for diagnosis and confused RLF with malformations previously seen in full-term infants. Because the patients were not referred until months after birth, the ophthalmologists assumed that the lesion, which resembled an embryologic structure, must have occurred prenatally. Other events suggesting a prenatal cause for RLF were its strong statistical associations with fetal anomalies, multiple gestations, and maternal infections. Although these events were also associated with prematurity, it was ignored when the RLF cases were compared with controls who were mainly full-term infants. The postnatal timing of RLF was eventually recognized when investigators did cohort studies in premature infants and found that RLF could develop in eyes that were normal at birth. As the search for a cause turned to events occurring after birth, statistical associations were produced for agents such as light, vitamins, iron, vitamin E deficiency, and hypoadrenalism. Each study had its own methodologic flaws: controls were missing for light; co-maneuvers were ignored for vitamins and iron; objective diagnosis was not used for vitamin E deficiency; and the research on hypoadrenalism contained biases in susceptibility and detection as well as problems of a competing outcome event. When the role of oxygen administration was first considered, the

  16. Early intervention of intellectual development in premature infants%早产儿婴儿期智能发育的早期干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温天莲; 吕兴梅; 孙咏梅; 曹永利

    2006-01-01

    increases year by year, but the cerebral growth of premature infants is immature, so the intellectual development of premature infants is slower than that of normal infants.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of family-oriented early intervention,which took material nutrition, information stimulation and petting as main interventional content, on level of intellectual development in premature infants in infantile age.DESIGN: Randomized sampling controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Medical College of ShanPARTICIPANTS: Totally 35 premature infants of 31-36 weeks (18 males and 17 females) were enrolled as early interventional subjects, who were born at Jinan Municipal Central Hospital between May 2000 and July 2002. Meanwhile, 33 premature infants of 31-36 weeks (18 males and 15females) born in the same period and 49 mature neonates (26 males and 23females) were enrolled in control group.METHODS: The family-oriented early intervention, which considered nutrition, information stimulation and petting as chief interventional content,were performed in premature infants, and health archives was established.Taction and point massage were conducted. Home visit was done twice in one month. One routine health examination was determined at 3, 6 and 10months in the two control groups. The level of intellectual development was assessed in infants of 10-month old of each group with Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS) and Japanese S-M Social Living Ability Scale.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evaluation of level of intellectual development in infants of each group.RESULTS: In the premature interventional group, 1 premature infant died, 2 withdrew from the study, and 32 eligible cases with the eligible rate of 91.4%; Among the 33 premature infants in the premature control group, there were 3 withdrawing from the study, and 30 eligible cases with the eligible rate of 90.9%. Among the 49 infants in the term infant control group, there were 3 withdrawing from the study and

  17. Effect of early breast feeding on the extrauterine growth of very low weight premature infants in NICU%早期母乳喂养对 NICU 住院早产极低体重儿宫外生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉美; 冯燕妮; 杨松媚; 林梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early breast feeding on the growth and feeding related adverse events of very low birth weight premature infants.Methods According to the ways of feeding,the very low birth weight premature in-fants were divided into early breast feeding group and premature milk feeding group.The former group were fed with maternal breast milk from the opening of milk to the volume of maternal breast milk increasing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,and then were fed with premature milk until they left hospital. The latter group were fed with premature milk until they left hospital.The change of weight,length,head circumference,etc of two groups during their hospitalization were monitored.In addition,the rate of growth,the time of recovering to the weight of born,application time of intravenous nutrition and time of the volume increas-ing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,the days of hospitalization,the incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation upon leaving hospi-tal and the adverse events related to feeding during hospital stay between two groups were compared.Results No statistically significant difference was found in the growth rate of weight,length,head circumference,the time of recovering to the weight of born,application time of intravenous nutrition and time of the volume increasing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,and the incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation upon leaving hospital between the two groups(P>0.05).The incidence rate of adverse events such as feeding intolerance,neonatal necrotizing ulcerative colitis( NEC)and the incidence of infection of breast feeding group was lower than that of the premature milk feeding group,and the hospital stay was shorter as well,so difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P0.05)。母乳组喂养相关不良事件即喂养不耐受、新生儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)及感染发生率较早产奶组低,住院时间短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论早期

  18. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  19. Observation on short-term curative effect of low dose thyroxine for treatment of transient hypothyroxinemia in premature infants%小剂量甲状腺素治疗早产儿暂时性低甲状腺素血症近期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓红; 王彩霞; 王黎; 王秀英

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察补充小剂量L-甲状腺素对早产儿暂时性低甲状腺素血症的近期疗效及安全性.方法:将符合条件的63例早产低甲状腺素血症儿分为治疗组32例和对照组31例,治疗组给予小剂量L-甲状腺素片口服,观察两组在静脉营养、光疗、住院时间、恢复出生体重、消化异常、心率及颅内异常发生率等方面差异,比较治疗组在治疗前后血生化方面改变.结果:治疗组静脉营养、光疗、恢复出生体重及住院时间比对照组明显缩短(P<0.05),消化系统异常天数减少(P<0.01),心率无明显增快(P>0.05),颅内出血及脑白质病发生率无增加(P>0.05).治疗组在治疗前后血谷丙转氨酶、肌酐、尿素氮、前白蛋白、心肌酶及血糖无明显变化(P>0.05).结论:早期小剂量补充甲状腺素安全有效,可以提高患儿早期生活质量,减少家长经济负相.%Objective: To observe the short - term curative effect and safely of supplementary therapy with low dose I. - thyroxine for treatment of transient hypothyroxinemia in premature infants. Methods: Sixty - three premature infants with hypothyroxinemia were divided into treatment group (32 premature infants) and control group (31 premature infants) ; the premature infants in treatment group were treated with oral administration of low dose L — thyroxine pills; the differences of intravenous nutrition time, phototherapy time, hospitalization time, the time to return to birth weight, digestive system abnormalities, heart rate, and the incidence rates of intracranial abnormalities were observed in the two groups; the changes of blood biochemical items in treatment group before and after treatment were compared. Results: The intravenous nutrition time, phototherapy time, hospitalization time, and the time to return to birth weight in treatment group were statistically significantly shorter than those in control group (P 0. 05) . In treatment group, the levels of

  20. The role of surfactant and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in early management of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Prabhu Iyer; Maroun Jean Mhanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surfactant replacement therapy has been used for few decades for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and has significantly improved morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Non-invasive respiratory support has recently emerged as a strategy in the early management of RDS. In this review, we discuss the different strategies of early management of RDS. Data sources: A literature search of PubMed database was conducted to review the subject. The quality of evidence of key clinical studies was graded according to a modified grading system of the international GRADE group. Results: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with selective surfactant is a safe alternative to routine intubation, surfactant and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with spontaneous breathing, and such an approach has been associated with decreased risk of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There is a risk of pneumothorax when using a high pressure of CPAP (≥8 cm of H2O), a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 >75 mm of Hg), and a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 >0.6) as a threshold for intubation while on CPAP. Conclusion: Not all preterm infants need surfactant treatment, and non-invasive respiratory support is a safe and effective approach.

  1. Neonatology oxidative status in preterm infants with premature preterm rupture of membranes and fetal inflammatuar response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalkaya, Elif; Karatekin, Güner; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Karatepe, Hande Özgün; Hafızoğlu, Taner; Baran, Pervin; Ovalı, Fahri

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study, to determine an index of oxidative stress index in preterm infants less than 34 weeks gestational age with premature preterm rupture of membrane (PPROM) and fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). This study was designed as a prospective study. Fifty-one premature infants less than 35 weeks of gestational age were included in the study. The umbilical cord blood concentrations of IL-6, TAC (total antioxidant capacity) and PON-1 (paraoxonase-1) levels and TOS (total oxidative stress) were studied. The oxidative stress index (OSI = TAC/TOS) was calculated in all of prematüre infants. PPROM was defined as rupture of membranes at least 24 hours before the onset of labor. FIRS was defined by an umbilical cord IL-6 level greater than 11 pg/mL. Premature infants included in the study were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 included preterm infants without FIRS and with PPROM (n = 16), while Group 2 included preterm infants without PPROM and with FIRS (n = 9), Group 3 consisted of premature infants with PPROM and FIRS (n = 21) and Group 4 included premature infants without PPROM or FIRS (n = 5). Umbilical cord TOS level was found to be higher in the preterm infants without FIRS and with PPROM (36.1 μmol H2O2 Equiv./L) compared to the preterm infants without PPROM or FIRS (11.9 μmol H2O2 Equiv./L) (p = 0.03). Umbilical cord PON-1 level was found to be lower in the preterms without FIRS and with PPROM (32 U/L), preterms without PPROM and with FIRS (30. 3 U/L) and the preterm infants with both PPROM and FIRS (48.6 U/L) compared to the preterm infants having no PPROM or FIRS (85.6 U/L) (p = 0.001). High pro-oxidant capacity was found in PPROM and low antioxidant capacity in PPROM and FIRS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth in preterm infants fed expressed breast milk, a premature infant formula, and two low-solute adapted formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, O G; Wood, C; Barley, J

    1982-12-01

    Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth studies were done in 37 preterm infants (20 of very low birthweight) who were fed on expressed breast milk or on one of 3 formulae each of different composition, including a special premature formula and a highly adapted 'humanised' formula. The variability of breast milk composition was such that it would have been difficult to predict the infants' protein and energy intakes under normal nursing conditions. All measured parameters of nutritional performance were best in infants fed on the 'premature' formula and were reflected in greater weight gain, linear growth, and head growth. The nitrogen balance data suggest that the highly adapted formula, which had a protein content comparable with that of mature human milk, contained too little protein for small preterm infants.

  3. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  4. Outcome of Premature Infants Born Prior to 32 Weeks' Gestation with Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chia Chuang

    2004-12-01

    Conclusion: In VLBW infants born prior to 32 weeks' gestation, IVH is a risk factor for impaired development. Its effects on psychomotor development, but not mental development, are still apparent at 2 years of age.

  5. Left thoracic sympathectomy in a premature infant with long QT syndrome and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sushitha; Kumar, Thittamaranahalli K S; Knott-Craig, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Left thoracic sympathectomy has been shown to be an effective treatment for adults with long QT syndrome who are refractory to medical therapy. We report the successful use of left thoracic sympathectomy for the management of a 10-week-old premature baby with long QT syndrome and heart failure from a large ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus.

  6. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  7. Supporting Techniques of Oral Feeding in Premature Infants%早产儿经口喂养的支持技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文涛; 王丹华; 魏珉

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of care for premature infants during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU)is to promote oral feeding.The success of oral feeding decide a premature infant transform from parenteral nutrition and gavage to oral feeding,smoothly.Furthermore,successful oral feeding will effectively improve short-term and long-term prognosis of hospitalization premature infants.The purpose of this article is to summarize the literature regarding theories,assessment and interventions of oral feeding.%促进早产儿经口喂养是新生儿重症监护室(NICU)住院早产儿管理的重点,经口喂养成功与否决定早产儿能否顺利完成从肠外营养-管饲喂养-经口喂养的转换。经口喂养能有效改善住院早产儿近期和远期预后。笔者拟就早产儿经口喂养支持技术的相关理论、评估方法及干预措施,进行综述如下。

  8. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  9. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thoene

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF. A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51. AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05 and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001. AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05. However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21 and protein (p < 0.0001, mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038. Three AL-HMF infants (13% developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056. A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU.

  10. Intestinal absorption of lipid emulsion in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, A; Beaumier, L; Barrington, K J

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutritional intake is essential in the very-low-birth-weight infant, but difficult to achieve in the first few postnatal days. Can lipids be given enterally in the first few days of life in sick preterm infants? To determine tolerance and absorption of lipid emulsion when fed enterally to very-low-birth-weight infants. Infants had a birth weight control group which received no oral lipid emulsion was enrolled. We then enrolled group 2 infants who were fed 3 g/kg/day with the same protocol as group 1. Group 3 infants were fed enteral lipid emulsion starting in the first 72 h of life. The infants were fed 1, 2 and 3 g/kg/day subsequently for 48 h each. Fat absorption was measured. Gestational age was 24.6-30.8 weeks and birth weight was 620-1,400 g. One infant (group 1) developed necrotizing enterocolitis 1 week after the study. There were no other adverse clinical findings. On average, enteral lipid emulsion was started on day 8 of life in groups 1 and 2, and on day 2 in group 3. The intestinal lipid absorption was 93.6% (min. = 76%). There was no difference in fat absorption between the 4 groups (p > 0.05). Lipid emulsions are an isotonic high-calorie source which can be given safely enterally instead of intravenously in the immediate neonatal period of very-low-birth-weight infants without clinical adverse effects and with almost complete absorption. There are potential advantages to oral administration of a lipid emulsion starting in early life which require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 早产儿肠道外营养支持技术%Approach to parenteral nutrition in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印学蕾; 贲晓明

    2015-01-01

    After birth,the premature infants usually need a proper way for intestinal nutrition.The composition and configuration of nutrition admixture must meet the special requirements of the premature infants.In the first few days,because of invisible water lose,they should maintain a stable internal environment,and 1 week later,they need to gradually achieve a stable growth rate.Parenteral nutrition may lead to various complications,such as infection,metabolic complications,etc.monitoring the index,then adjusting the dosage,and achieving full enteral nutrition as soon as possible,may be effective prevention measures.%早产儿出生后常需要选择合适的肠道外营养输入途径.而早产儿静脉营养液的组成和配置也有特殊要求,以满足早产儿独特的生理特点和发育规律.早产儿出生后最初几天不显性失水较多,需要维持内环境稳定,而1周后则需要逐渐实现稳定的增长速率.静脉营养可能发生各种并发症,如感染、代谢性并发症等.注意监测指标,及时调整剂量,以及尽早过渡到全肠内营养,可以有效预防并发症的发生.

  12. Ceruloplasmin levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in small preterm infants during the early anemia of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hågå, P

    1981-11-01

    Ceruloplasmin plasma levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were studied in appropriate for gestational age preterm infants (birth weights less than or equal to 1500 g) during the first 10 weeks of life. Preterm infants had significantly lower ceruloplasmin concentrations in cord blood than term infants, the mean level in the preterm infants being 0.07 g/l. At 1 week of age ceruloplasmin levels had risen significantly, whereupon a fall occurred at 2 weeks of age. Ceruloplasmin concentrations increased slowly and progressively from 4 weeks of age. The low ceruloplasmin concentration during the early anemia of prematurity seems not to interfere with iron mobilization. The superoxide dismutase activity per gram hemoglobin in cord blood erythrocytes from normal term infants was significantly lower than that of red blood cells from adults. When the activity was expressed per erythrocyte no difference was found. The normochromic macrocytic red blood cells of the neonate most likely explain this discrepancy. The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity of the preterm infants did not change from birth until 10 weeks of age, and the levels seemed adequate judged from the levels found in red blood cells from adults and cord blood from term infants. Neither ceruloplasmin nor erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity seem to play a role in the etiology of the early anemia of prematurity.

  13. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  14. Outcome of patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants in the East of England: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sok-Leng; Samsudin, Salehuddin; Kuruvilla, Minju; Dhelaria, Anshoo; Kent, Sue; Kelsall, Wilfred A

    2013-10-01

    Surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus is considered when medical treatment fails or is contraindicated. This study aims to determine the mortality and morbidity of preterm neonates referred for patent ductus arteriosus ligation. A prospective study was conducted in the East of England to follow the outcome of premature infants under 37 weeks’ gestation undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation. A standardised proforma was used to collect information before and after the procedure. A total of 102 premature infants were recruited, and patent ductus arteriosus ligation was performed in 92. Surgical complications occurred in 8.7% (8/92), which included pneumothorax (5/8), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (2/8), and chylothorax (1/8). Morbidity outcome data were not available for all infants. The incidence of chronic lung disease was 88% (88/99); intraventricular haemorrhage was 49% (49/100); necrotising enterocolitis 39% (39/99), and retinopathy of prematurity 42% (41/97). The overall mortality rate in our study was 7.8% (8/102). Mortality rate in infants who had patent ductus arteriosus ligation was 4.3% (4/92). The 30-day survival rate after ligation was 99% (91/92). Beyond 30 days post-ligation, three infants died from other causes that were not directly related to surgery. Patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants is associated with low mortality and complication rates; however, there is a high incidence of neonatal morbidity. Surgical capacity for patent ductus arteriosus ligation needs to be carefully planned nationally as the duration of ‘‘waiting time’’ and transport to another surgical centre could adversely affect outcomes in this high-risk population.

  15. 脑室镜下手术治疗早产儿重度梗阻性脑积水%Effect of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in treating severe obstructive hydrocephalus in premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红武; 薛乔; 彭玉平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the treatment and the clinical effect of endoscopic third ventriculostomy on severe obstructive hydrocephalus in premature infant.Methods Eleven patients were operated,ultrasound,CT and MRI showed severe obstructive hydrocephalus and cerebral spinal fluid absorption was normal.The technique was that endoscope was inserted through the foramen of Monro into the third ventricle,then perforating the floor of the third ventriculostomy.Comparison before and after surgery of ventricular system ultrasonic measurement about the change of lateral ventricle and the MRI and CT imaging changes were performed.The complications,operation effect and security were observed.The bailey baby scale and Peabody movement function scale was used to assess the patient's neurologic system status.Results The follow-up time was 6 months and 6 years after operation,an excellent operative result was got in 9 cases.The ventricular width of 1 patient was mild ventriculomegaly,but stayed stabilily.No change of ventricular width was found in 1 case.Additional shunt were needed in 1 case.No severe complications were found.The left and right lateral ventricle measured by ultrasonic before operation were (9.60 ± 3.52) mm and (8.63 ± 3.10) mm before operation,and (5.50 ± 2.20) mm and (4.90 ± 2.70) mm after operation.The 11 cases of lateral ventricle side edema were disappeared,the follow-up time in 9 cases were more than 12 months,obstructive hydrocephalus clinical symptoms were relieved.Conclusions Ventricular mirror operation significantly improve severe hydrocephalic short and longterm poor prognosis,it is a safe,effective and less complications of minimally invasive surgery.%目的 探讨脑室镜下三脑室造瘘术治疗早产儿重度梗阻性脑积水的疗效和安全性.方法 对CT、MRI或颅脑B超证实为重度梗阻性脑积水的11例早产儿,采用经侧脑室、室间孔、三脑室置入神经内镜,于三脑室底与脚间池造一瘘孔.比较手术前

  16. CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC REASONABILITY OF USING PROBIOTIC ENTEROCOCCUS STRAIN FOR THE COMPLEX DEVELOPMENTAL CARE PROGRAM FOR PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Possibilities of using probiotic enterococci in premature neonates undergoing inpatient antibacterial therapy remains understudied. The article is aimed at analyzing clinical and pharmacoeconomic reasonability of using probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain in premature infants with very low body weight in the framework of complex inpatient developmental care. Patients and methods. 55 children randomized into 2 groups were observed: the control group (n = 26 was undergoing standard developmental care program, the primary group (n = 29 was introduced liquid probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain (titer — 108 CFU/ml or more (0.5 ml TID for 14 days after attaining the enteral feeding volume of 5.0 ml. Results. Analysis of the clinical symptoms characteristic of non-smooth course of developmental care over premature infants helped to reveal higher frequency of infectious complications in the control group children than in the primary group (14 [53.8%] vs. 6 [20.7%]; p < 0.05. Acute food intolerance was observed less frequently in the primary group than in the control group (6 [20.7%] vs. 10 [38.5%], p > 0.05. The primary group's children featured significant decrease in the frequency of monocytosis, positive changes of intestinal microbiotic composition (increase in the amount of bifidum bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, decrease in the amount of Clostridium difficile and antibiotic-resistant clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Conclusion. Favorable outcome of developmental care over premature infants (absence of infectious complications was less expensive in the primary group's children.

  17. Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been a major problematic disorder during childhood. Laser photocoagulation (LPC has been proven to be effective in most of the ROP cases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis (AVC is responsible for epidemics among adult and pediatric population. It has also been reported to be a cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICU several times. We herein demonstrate a case with AVC who underwent LPC for ROP. And we discuss the treatment methodology in such cases.

  18. Parent decision making for life support for extremely premature infants: from the prenatal through end-of-life period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Teresa T; Kavanaugh, Karen; Savage, Teresa A; Reyes, Maria R; Kimura, Robert E; Bhat, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Most deaths of extremely premature infants occur in the perinatal period. Yet, little is known about how parents make life support decisions in such a short period of time. In the paper, how parents make life support decisions for extremely premature infants from the prenatal period through death from the perspectives of parents, nurses, and physicians is described. Five cases, comprised of five mothers, four neonatologists, three nurses, and one neonatal nurse practitioner, are drawn from a larger collective case study. Prenatal, postnatal and end-of-life interviews were conducted, and medical record data were obtained. In an analysis by two research team members, mothers were found to exhibit these characteristics: desire for and actual involvement in life support decisions, weighing pain, suffering and hope in decision making, and wanting everything done for their infants. All mothers received decision making help and support from partners and family, but relationships with providers were also important. Finally, external resources impacted parental decision making in several of the cases. By understanding what factors contribute to parents' decision making, providers may be better equipped to prepare and assist parents when making life support decisions for their extremely premature infants.

  19. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

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    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  20. 母亲参与抚触对早产儿唾液皮质醇及母亲焦虑和抑郁的影响%Effects of Mother Touching on Salivary Cortisol of Premature Infants and Puerperal Anxiety and De-pression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀洁; 赵凤; 王丽萍; 黄露

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of mother touching on salivary cortisol of premature infants and puerperal anxiety and depression. Methods:Thirty-five premature infants were divided into control group (n=18) and touching group (n=17) randomly. The touching group received mother touching with nurse’s gui-dance, in contrast to the control group without mother touching. And the ten term infants born in the same peri-od were enrolled as term group. The salivary Cortisol of three groups was examined using ELISA kits. Mean-while, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the anxiety and depression of mothers respectively. Results: Compared with the term group, the salivary cortisol of the two premature infant groups were increased significantly (P<0.05). And compared with the control group, the salivary cortisol of touching group was progressively declined (P<0.05). The SAS and SDS scores were de-creased in the touching group compared to those in the control (P<0.05). Conclusion:Mother touching can de-crease salivary cortisol of premature infants and attenuate Puerperal anxiety and depression.%  目的:探讨母亲参与早产儿抚触对早产儿唾液皮质醇水平及母亲焦虑和抑郁情绪的影响。方法:早产儿35例,随机分成对照组(n=18)和抚触组(n=17),对照组住院期间不实施抚触,抚触组由护士指导母亲进行新生儿抚触。另收集同期出生的足月儿10例(足月组),检测抚触1周期间唾液皮质醇水平,用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)评价产妇焦虑和抑郁状况。结果:与足月组比较,对照组和抚触组1周内唾液皮质醇水平明显升高;与对照组比较,抚触组1周内唾液皮质醇水平进行性下降(P<0.05)。对照组与抚触组产妇的SAS评分分别为(64±7)分、(53±5)分,SDS评分分别为(68±5)分、(55±4)分,抚触组产妇

  1. Clinical analysis of high risk factors for premature and prognosis of premature infants%早产高危因素及早产儿预后的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏金荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析早产高危因素及早产儿预后的影响因素。方法:回顾性分析55例早产儿的临床资料,分析早产原因及影响预后的因素。结果:导致早产的高危因素主要包括胎膜早破、前置胎盘、重度子痫前期、高龄、妊娠期贫血、多胎妊娠和瘢痕子宫等。影响早产儿预后的因素主要包括胎龄、体重、分娩方式。结论:早产的高危因素复杂。重视围生期保健、防治妊娠并发症可降低早产的发生率。%Objective:To analyze the high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants. Methods:The clinical data of 55 cases of premature infants were analyzed retrospectively.The high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants were analyzed.Results:The high risk factors causing premature included premature rupture of membrane,placenta previa,severe preeclampsia,age,gestational anemia,multiple pregnancy and scarred uterus.The factors affecting the prognosis of premature infants included gestational age,body weight and delivery mode.Conclusion:The high risk factors of preterm were complex.Paying attention to the perinatal health care and taking measures to prevent and control the pregnancy complications actively could reduce the incidence of premature infants.

  2. Risk Factors of Premature Infants in the Rural Areas of Azadshahr City: a Case-Control Study

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    Marzieh Gorzin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm birth is one of the most remarkable reasons for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity across the world. This study aimed to determine risk factors of premature infants in the rural area of Azadshahr city, Iran. Materials and Methods: Acase-control study was conducted on all premature and low birth neonates (less than 37 weeks and weight less than 2500 grams. Data were collected by records in 30 health houses located in the rural areas of Azadshahr city durring 2013 to 2016. Two groups (case and control were matched by gender and health houses. A trained midwife was collected data by using of a researcher-made checklist. To describe mean and standard deviation of the demo­graphic characteristics, descriptive methods were used.To analyze, inferential statistic tests such as Chi- square, and independent t-test were implemented through SPSS (version,16. Significant level was also taken

  3. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

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    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  4. Emotional Reactions of Mothers Facing Premature Births: Study of 100 Mother-Infant Dyads 32 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Results Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A “depressed” score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Conclusions Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth. PMID:25153825

  5. C20∶4和C22∶6对早产儿视功能和认知功能的影响%Effects of Docosahexaenoic and Arachidonic Acid on Visual and Cognitive Function of Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宏裕; 苏宜香

    2001-01-01

    【目的】 探讨补充模拟母乳二十二碳六烯酸(C22∶6 ,DHA)和二十碳四烯酸(C20∶4,AA)水平的脂肪酸对早产儿视功能和认知功能的影响 。【方法】 选取体质量<2 100 g ,胎龄<37周的早产儿32名,分为3组:A组,母乳组11例;B组,传统配方组10例;C组,补 充组11例。B组配方不含DHA和AA,C组配方添加了DHA和AA。补充组配方补充至婴儿体质量达 (2.50±0.10) kg。当胎龄满42周±1周时以鲍秀兰等新生儿行为神经测定方法测认知功能 ;出生后3个月时测双眼视网膜电图。【结果】 补充组早产儿在视功能、认知功能等方面都 与母乳组相近,而传统配方组则低于母乳组和补充组(P<0.05)。【结论】 给予早产儿 补充模拟母乳水平的DHA和AA,可促进其正常的脑发育和视网膜发育,使认知功能和视功能 与母乳喂养的早产儿相近。%【Objective】 To study the effects of docosahexaenoic ac id (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) intake on the visual and cognitive function o f preterm infants. 【Methods】 32 preterm infants (gestational age<37 weeks) wer e divided into three groups which were fed with different formula respectively: group A, breast milk(n=11); group B, a conventional formula lacking DHA and AA (n=10); group C, DHA and AA enriched formula (n=11). Group C was stop ped to fed enriched formula when infant's weight reached (2.50±0.10) kg. Cognitiv e function was evaluated by NBNA test when the corrected age of each preterm inf ant was 42 week±7 day, ERG of both eyes was tested at three-months old. The ex periment lasted for three months. 【Results】 Cognitive and visual function of g roup C were similar to group A, however, some indexes of group B were significan tly lower than group A and C (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Adding DHA and AA to f ormulas similar to breast milk in amounts, can improve cognitive and visual func tion of preterm infants, and help these infants

  6. Reversal of severe mitral regurgitation by device closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiwa, Ahmed; Ross, Robert D; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    We report a critically ill premature infant with severe mitral valve regurgitation associated with pulmonary hypertension and a severely dilated left atrium from a large patent ductus arteriosus. The mitral valve regurgitation improved significantly with normalisation of left atrial size 4 weeks after percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. This case highlights the potential reversibility of severe mitral valve regurgitation with treatment of an underlying cardiac shunt.

  7. Transcatheter closure of hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus in 32 premature infants by amplatzer ductal occluder additional size-ADOIIAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Patrice; Akhavi, Ahmad

    2017-05-04

    The advent of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) and to analyze the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the device. Treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very premature neonates is still a dilemma for the neonatalogist who has to consider its significance and has to choose among different treatment options. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterization might provide an alternative means of closing HSPDA. Between September 2013 and June 2015, 32 premature infants with complications related to HSPDA defined by ultrasound (US) underwent transcatheter closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterization laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and US. In particular we looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications, and short and mid-term outcomes. Thirty two premature infants, all of whom had clinical complications related to HSPDA, born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 36 weeks (mean ± standard deviation 28 ± 3 weeks) underwent attempted transcatheter PDA closure using the ADOIIAS. Their mean age and weight at the time of procedure was 25 days (range 8-70 days) and 1373 g (range 680-2480 g), respectively. Ten infants weighed ≤1,000g. All ducts were tubular. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2 ± 0.6mm (range 2.2-4) and 4.4 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths 5.2 ± 2.0 mm (range 2-10) and 3.4 ± 1.3 mm. Median fluoroscopy and procedural times were 11 min (range 3-24) and 28 min (range 10-90), respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. A left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction developed in one patient. Five infants died. Four deaths were related to complications of

  8. Computerized analysis of retinal vessel width and tortuosity in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Clare M; Cocker, Kenneth D; Moseley, Merrick J; Paterson, Carl; Clay, Simon T; Schulenburg, William E; Mills, Monte D; Ells, Anna L; Parker, Kim H; Quinn, Graham E; Fielder, Alistair R; Ng, Jeffrey

    2008-08-01

    To determine, with novel software, the feasibility of measuring the tortuosity and width of retinal veins and arteries from digital retinal images of infants at risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The Computer-Aided Image Analysis of the Retina (CAIAR) program was developed to enable semiautomatic detection of retinal vasculature and measurement of vessel tortuosity and width from digital images. CAIAR was tested for accuracy and reproducibility of tortuosity and width measurements by using computer-generated vessel-like lines of known frequency, amplitude, and width. CAIAR was then tested by using clinical digital retinal images for correlation of vessel tortuosity and width readings compared with expert ophthalmologist grading. When applied to 16 computer-generated sinusoidal vessels, the tortuosity measured by CAIAR correlated very well with the known values. Width measures also increased as expected. When the CAIAR readings were compared with five expert ophthalmologists' grading of 75 vessels on 10 retinal images, moderate correlation was found in 10 of the 14 tortuosity output calculations (Spearman rho = 0.618-0.673). Width was less well correlated (rho = 0.415). The measures of tortuosity and width in CAIAR were validated using sequential model vessel analysis. On comparison of CAIAR output with assessments made by expert ophthalmologists, CAIAR correlates moderately with tortuosity grades, but less well with width grades. CAIAR offers the opportunity to develop an automated image analysis system for detecting the vascular changes at the posterior pole, which are becoming increasingly important in diagnosing treatable ROP.

  9. Randomized controlled trial comparing nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants after tracheal extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Rizzo Komatsu

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the frequency of extubation failure in premature infants using conventional mechanical ventilation (MV after extubation in groups subjected to nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV and continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP. Method: Seventy-two premature infants with respiratory failure were studied, with a gestational age (GA ≤ 36 weeks and birth weight (BW > 750 g, who required tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The study was controlled and randomized in order to ensure that the members of the groups used in the research were chosen at random. Randomization was performed at the time of extubation using sealed envelopes. Extubation failure was defined as the need for re-intubation and mechanical ventilation during the first 72 hours after extubation. Results: Among the 36 premature infants randomized to nIPPV, six (16.6% presented extubation failure in comparison to 11 (30.5% of the 36 premature infants randomized to nCPAP. There was no statistical difference between the two study groups regarding BW, GA, classification of the premature infant, and MV time. The main cause of extubation failure was the occurrence of apnea. Gastrointestinal and neurological complications did not occur in the premature infants participating in the study. Conclusion: We found that, despite the extubation failure of the group of premature infants submitted to nIPPV being numerically smaller than in premature infants submitted to nCPAP, there was no statistically significant difference between the two modes of ventilatory support after extubation.

  10. Qualitative study of breastfeeding experience of mothers with premature infants underwent mother - infant separation%母婴分离早产儿母亲母乳喂养体验的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明芳; 刘蕾; 王楠; 晏玲; 藤本荣子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the breastfeeding experience of mothers who had premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit, so as to provide theoretical preferences for effective breastfeeding guideline. Methods Using qualitative research method,a total of 18 mothers who had premature infants 1 week after discharge from neonatal intensive care unit were investigated by in - depth interview. Telephone interview was conducted 2 weeks and one month after discharge. Results After the discharge,the mothers who had premature infants experienced several puzzles,including the difficulty of direct breastfeeding,the confusion of breeding uncertainty,insufficient of breast milk,and lack of breeding knowledge. Conclusion The mothers who had premature infants experienced difficulties and puzzles in breastfeeding after discharge from hospitals. It is important to enhance the nursing instruction about the physical character of premature infants, breast breeding knowledge,and breast breeding skills,which is an important issue currently facing of the obstetric and pediatric department.%目的 了解新生儿重症监护室出院早产儿母亲的母乳喂养体验,为制订有效的母乳喂养指导方案提供依据.方法 采用质性研究法,对18名新生儿重症监护室早产儿母亲在早产儿出院后1周内通过家庭访问进行深度访谈,出院第2周、1个月时进行电话访谈.结果 母亲在早产儿出院后的母乳喂养中经历了直接母乳喂养的困难、哺乳不确定性的困惑、母乳不足的烦恼以及哺乳知识的缺乏所带来的困惑.结论 母婴分离早产儿母亲在早产儿出院后遭遇了母乳喂养方面的困难与不安,加强母亲对早产儿生理特征、母乳喂养知识、母乳喂养技巧的护理指导是产科和儿科当前面临的重要课题.

  11. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  12. Two-Year Follow-Up Outcomes of Premature Infants Enrolled in the Phase I Trial of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Se In; Park, Won Soon

    2017-06-01

    To determine the long-term safety and outcomes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants enrolled in a previous phase I clinical trial up to 2 years of corrected age (CA). We assessed serious adverse events, somatic growth, and respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes at visit 1 (4-6 months of CA), visit 2 (8-12 months of CA), and visit 3 (18-24 months of CA) in a prospective longitudinal follow-up study up to 2 years' CA of infants who received MSCs (MSC group). We compared these data with those from a historical case-matched comparison group. One of 9 infants in the MSC group died of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis at 6 months of CA, the remaining 8 infants survived without any transplantation-related adverse outcomes, including tumorigenicity. No infant in the MSC group was discharged with home supplemental oxygen compared with 22% in the comparison group. The average rehospitalization rate in the MSC group was 1.4/patient because of respiratory infections during 2 years of follow-up. The mean body weight of the MSC group at visit 3 was significantly higher compared with that of the comparison group. No infant in the MSC group was diagnosed with cerebral palsy, blindness, or developmental delay; in the comparison group, 1 infant was diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 1 with developmental delay. Intratracheal transplantation of MSCs in preterm infants appears to be safe, with no adverse respiratory, growth, and neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years' CA. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01632475. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Temperament Characteristics of Premature Infants and Relative Influencing Factors%早产儿的气质特征及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫红; 王慧文; 汪颖烨

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解衢州市早产儿气质特征以及气质维度和气质类型的相关影响因素.方法 选择衢州市接受儿童系统管理的早产儿170人和正常足月儿154人,应用《5 ~11月要儿气质问卷》,以及自行设计的出生和家庭养育环境调查表,进行气质评定和相关因素调查.结果 早产儿气质类型以中间型为主,其次是困难型.不同胎龄早产儿气质维度中适应性和持久性得分有差异.家庭经济水平影响早产儿气质的节律性、心境、适应性和反应阈等多个维度,母亲文化程度影响活动水平和持久性,胎龄和出生窒息影响趋避性,出生体重影响节律性,母亲年龄、喂养方式和出生时肺发育异常影响注意分散.早产儿困难型气质类型的影响因素有胎龄、分娩方式和出生后放保温箱.结论 早产胎龄越小适应性越慢,且持久性短暂.胎龄小、难产且出生后需要放保温箱的早产儿容易出现困难型气质.母亲文化程度高,家庭经济条件比较好,重视孕期保健,有利于儿童形成良好的气质.%Objective To investigate the temperament characteristics, dimensions and types of premature infants and relative factors in Quzhou. Methods Subjects including 170 premature infants and 154 term infants who were managed in Quzhou children system, accepted temperament assessment and investigation of influencing factors with the "5-11 Month Old Infant Temperament Questionnaire" and the self - designed questionnaire about birth and family nurture environment. Results We found that the most predominant temperament characteristic of premature infant was intermediate type, which was followed by difficult type. The adaptability and persistence scores of temperament dimension were various across different gestational age groups. And It was found that family economic level effected several aspects of temperament dimensions; mothers' educational level was related to the degrees of activity and

  14. Clinical Analysis of Apnea in Premature Infants%早产儿呼吸暂停的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过对早产儿呼吸暂停的相关因素分析,探讨其发生的高危因素,以指导临床工作。方法对64例早产儿呼吸暂停进行回顾性分析。结果胎龄越小、体重越低的早产儿原发性呼吸暂停的发生率越高,继发性呼吸暂停与缺氧、低体温、酸中毒、脑损伤、感染等因素有关。结论呼吸暂停与胎龄、体重、缺氧、低体温、低血糖、酸中毒、感染、颅脑损伤等多因素有关。对有相关高危因素的早产儿应足够重视,预防呼吸暂停发生,已发生呼吸暂停的早产儿应重点监护,尽早干预,及时治疗,避免后遗症的发生。%Objective Through the analysis of the related factors of premature infant apnea,of this study was to evaluate the risk factors,and to guide clinical work.Methods 64 cases of premature infant apnea were retrospectively analyzed. Results The smaller the gestational age,weight,the lower the higher the incidence of occurrence of primary apnea of premature infants,secondary apnea with, hypothermia,acidosis,hypoxia brain injury,infection and other factors.Conclusion Apnea and gestational age,weight, hypoxia,low temperature,low blood sugar,acidosis,infection,craniocerebral injury and so on many factors.Of related risk factors of premature infants should be sufficient attention,prevent apnea occurs,there have been apnea should focus on care for premature infants,early intervention and treatment in time,avoid the occurrence of sequelae.

  15. Local anaesthetic eye drops for prevention of pain in preterm infants undergoing screening for retinopathy of prematurity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are performed routinely in the neonatal intensive care unit and are a recognised cause of pain in the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of instillation of topical anaesthetic eye drops compared with placebo or no treatment on pain in infants undergoing ROP screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2010). We identified relevant studies by searching the following: (1) computerised bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1988 to October 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to March 2010; (2) the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We searched electronically abstracts from PAS from 2000 to 2010 and handsearched abstracts from ESPR from 2000 to 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised, or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or randomised cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies for inclusion. Both studies were randomised cross-over trials performed in single centres. Both studies used the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score as a measure of pain response. Different methods of evaluating PIPP scores are presented including the absolute PIPP score, a PIPP score > 10 or > 12 and an increase in PIPP >\\/= 4 from the baseline value. There is a nonsignificant reduction in pain scores at one minute and a nonsignificant increase at five minutes post insertion of the speculum. PIPP score > 12 at one minute resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients who experienced pain (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; typical risk difference (RD) -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.86; number needed to treat to

  16. THE FEASIBILITY OF USING "PREMIESTART," A MOTHER-PREMATURE INFANT INTERACTION PROGRAM, ON A NEONATAL UNIT IN ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Alexandra L; Rydin-Orwin, Tracy; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the feasibility of running "PremieStart," a nine-individual-session maternal-premature infant interaction program, within a neonatal unit (NNU) in England. Four mothers of premature infants completed seven sessions on the NNU and two at home. Mothers and NNU staff provided feedback on PremieStart. Measures of maternal-infant relationship, maternal well-being, and maternal reflective functioning were completed before and after intervention. Thematic analysis of mothers' feedback highlighted the emotional, but cathartic, experience of engaging with PremieStart. NNU staff feedback indicated the need to include them more in PremieStart. Both mothers and staff were supportive of future implementation of PremieStart and highlighted the ongoing need for psychological support on the NNU. PremieStart was implemented with positive feedback from mothers and staff, with support shown for the continued use of PremieStart in the NNU. However, for future implementation, the self-report outcome measures need reviewing, and more involvement of fathers and NNU staff is needed. In addition, a larger sample with a control group should be utilized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. "EFFECT OF HIGH VERSUS LOW DOSES OF HUMAN RECOMBINANT ERYTHROPOIETIN ON THE ANEMIA OF PREMATURITY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadzadeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO is known to accelerate erythropoiesis in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of early treatment with two doses of rh-EPO (high vs. low dose in the management of anemia of prematurity. Twenty preterm infants with hematocrit (Hct < 30% when infant’s age was between 2 to 3 weeks after birth or Hct <25% when infant’s age was more than 3 weeks after birth, were divided randomly in two groups, each group including 10 babies. Infants in high dose group received 500 u/kg rh-EPO twice per week and the low dose group received 500 u/kg rh-EPO weekly. All infants were fed human milk supplemented with enteral iron. Hematocrit and reticulocyte counts were determined for each infant at the start of the study, 3 days after start of treatment and one week after the end of treatment. The means of gestational age in high dose and low dose groups were 31.4 ± 2.2 and 31.3±2.0 weeks, respectively. Means of birth weight in high dose and low dose groups were 1366 ± 243 and 1438±249 gr, respectively. The two groups were significantly different in reticulocyte count at 3 days after treatment (P = 0.047 and in hematocrit at the end of study (P < 0.0001. We concluded the early treatment of anemia of prematurity with high dose rh-EPO with supplemental iron significantly increases hematocrit and reticulocyte in preterm infants and reduce the need for blood transfusion in these high risk neonates.

  18. The clinical analysis of the factors influencing the therapeutic effect of INSURE technology in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome%影响INSURE技术治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征疗效因素的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦蕊; 王铭杰; 余小河; 曹传顶; 霍惠仪; 廖正嫦; 岳少杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨影响以INSURE技术治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)效果的相关因素。方法回顾性分析2009年1月至2012年12月新生儿重症监护病房中309例以INSURE技术治疗的NRDS患儿的临床资料。结果309例NRDS患儿中治愈出院302例,总治愈率97.7%;21例(6.8%)在72 h内需要再次气管插管予机械通气;不同出生胎龄患儿的再插管通气率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中≤28周患儿的再插管率较高。根据是否需要再插管通气分为成功组和失败组,与成功组比较,失败组胎龄≤28周、出生体质量<1000 g、病情严重患儿较多,应用肺表面活性物质(PS)剂量和PS重复使用率较高,需要氧气支持比例高,病死率高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 INSURE技术可有效用于临床治疗NRDS患儿,胎龄小、出生体质量低、病情严重是导致INSURE技术失败的重要原因。%ObjectiveTo assess the factors inlfuencing the therapeutic effects of INSURE technology in premature in-fants with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS).MethodsThe clinical data from 309 infants with NRDS treated by INSURE technology were retrospectively analyzed from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2012.ResultsIn 309 infants with NRDS, 302 infants were cured and the cure rate was 97.7%. Twenty-one infants (6.8%) needed the reintubation for mechanical ventilation within 72 h. The difference in reintubation rate was statistically signiifcant among infants with different gestational age (P<0.01). The infants with the gestation age≤28 weeks had a signiifcantly higher reintubation rate. According to whether the reintubation was performed, the infants were divided into success group and failure group. Compared to the success group, there were higher percentage of infants who had gestation age≤28 weeks, birth weight <1000 g and severe NRDS, needed high dose and repeated use of pulmo-nary surfactant and oxygen therapy, and had higher mortality in the

  19. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Cole, Cynthia H; Gray, James E; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-01-01

    The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial demonstrated that peripheral retinal ablation of eyes with high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (early treatment) is associated with improved visual outcomes at 9 months' corrected gestational age compared with treatment at threshold disease (conventional management). However, early treatment increased the frequency of laser therapy, anesthesia with intubation, treatment-related systemic complications, and the need for repeat treatments. To determine the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity compared with conventional management. We developed a stochastic decision analytic model to assess the incremental cost of early treatment per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. We derived resource-use and efficacy estimates from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial's published outcome data. We used a third-party payer perspective. Our primary analysis focused on outcomes from birth through 9 months' corrected gestational age. A secondary analysis used a lifetime horizon. Parameter uncertainty was quantified by using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of early treatment was $14,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. There was a 90% probability that the cost-effectiveness of early treatment would be less than $40,000 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented and a 0.5% probability that early treatment would be cost-saving (less costly and more effective). Limiting early treatment to more severely affected eyes (eyes with "type 1 retinopathy of prematurity" as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial) had a cost-effectiveness of $6,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. Analyses that considered long-term costs and outcomes found that early treatment was cost-saving. Early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity is both

  20. Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation%宫内发育迟缓早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳鞠; 宋燕燕; 黄志坚; 李坚; 齐俊冶; 肖旭文; 王兰秀

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响。方法回顾性分析2008年5月至2012年5月出生并定期随访至校正胎龄6个月的171例早产儿的临床资料,其中IUGR早产儿40例,早产适于胎龄儿(AGA)131例。比较两组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率及校正胎龄3个月、6个月时的神经发育情况。神经发育采用Gesell发育量表评估。结果 IUGR组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率均明显高于AGA组;校正胎龄3个月时Gesell各项发育商(大运动、精细动作、语言、适应性及个人社交)均低于AGA组;校正胎龄6个月时,IUGR组精细动作及语言发育商低于AGA组,但两组大运动、适应性及个人社交发育商比较差异已无统计学意义。IUGR组6月龄时体重追赶落后的患儿各项发育商均明显低于追赶理想的IUGR和AGA患儿。结论 IUGR早产儿生后早期的生长迟缓可对早期神经发育产生不良影响。%Objective To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. Results The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was signiifcantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All ifve

  1. Radiation Exposure to Premature Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, Turan; Bor, Dogan [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Onal, Esra; Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the radiation dose received by infants from radiographic exposure and the contribution from scatter radiation due to radiographic exposure of other infants in the same room. We retrospectively evaluated the entrance skin doses (ESDs) and effective doses of 23 infants with a gestational age as low as 28 weeks. ESDs were determined from tube output measurements (ESD{sub TO}) (n = 23) and from the use of thermoluminescent dosimetry (ESD{sub TLD}) (n = 16). Scattered radiation was evaluated using a 5 cm Perspex phantom. Effective doses were estimated from ESD{sub TO} by Monte Carlo computed software and radiation risks were estimated from the effective dose. ESD{sub TO} and ESD{sub TLD} were correlated using linear regression analysis. The mean ESD{sub TO} for the chest and abdomen were 67 muGy and 65 muGy per procedure, respectively. The mean ESD{sub TLD} per radiograph was 70 muGy. The measured scattered radiation range at a 2 m distance from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was (11-17 muGy) per radiograph. Mean effective doses were 16 and 27 muSv per procedure for the chest and abdomen, respectively. ESD{sub TLD} was well correlated with ESD{sub TO} obtained from the total chest and abdomen radiographs for each infant (R2 = 0.86). The radiation risks for childhood cancer estimated from the effective dose were 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 2 x 10{sup -6} and 0.6 x 10{sup -6} to 2.9 x 10{sup -6} for chest and abdomen radiographs, respectively. The results of our study show that neonates received acceptable doses from common radiological examinations. Although the contribution of scatter radiation to the neonatal dose is low, considering the sensitivity of the neonates to radiation, further protective action was performed by increasing the distance of the infants from each other

  2. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  3. Long-Term Maternal Stress and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Developmental Outcome of Extremely Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Elsayag, Adi; Shefer, Shahar; Gabis, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relations between the severity of developmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children and their mothers' stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, 4-16 years after birth. Israeli mothers (N = 78) of a cohort of extremely premature infants (24-27 weeks) born 4-16 years earlier were asked to report about the medical and developmental condition of their child and their current perceived stress and PTSD symptoms. Results show that mothers of ELBW children with normal development reported the lowest perceived stress compared with mothers of ELBW children with developmental difficulties. We also found that 25.6% of the mothers had the potential to suffer from PTSD following the birth of an ELBW child. Furthermore, the severity of prematurity developmental outcomes made a significant contribution to mothers' perceived stress. To sum, mothers of ELBW infants' perceived stress is related to their children's severity of prematurity developmental outcomes, 4-16 years after birth. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Time at treatment of severe retinopathy of prematurity in China: recommendations for guidelines in more mature infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the postmenstrual (PMA age at treatment of severe retinopathy of prematurity (i.e. Type 1 prethreshold or threshold in infants in a tertiary referral center in China.76.6% (359/469 of infants were treated for threshold disease. 67.5% (317/469 of infants had a birth weight (BW of 1250 g or above and almost 30% (126 had a gestational age (GA of 32 weeks or above. There was little difference in the characteristics of infants treated for Type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. After controlling for GA, PMA age at treatment was highest in infants with BW ≥2000 g (mean PMA 40.3±4.4 weeks, p34 weeks, p<0.001. For every three weeks increase in GA there was a two-week increase in PMA at treatment (R2 = 0.20, p<0.001. The time at treatment of Type 1 prethreshold disease was similar to that for threshold disease i.e. chronological age 5.6∓7.4 weeks, or PMA 34.1∓40.2 weeks but the lower end of the 95% confidence interval for chronological age for Type 1 prethreshold disease among infants with BW ≥2000 g was 3.7 weeks (i.e. before the recommended interval of 4∓6 weeks after birth.The Chinese guidelines regarding timing of the first examination are appropriate for infants with BW <2000 g, but more mature infants should be examined a little earlier, at 3 weeks after birth, in order to detect Type 1 prethreshold disease which has a better prognosis than threshold.

  5. 口服葡萄糖溶液对缓解早产儿视网膜病变筛查疼痛的作用%Clinical research on the effectiveness of oral administration glucose solution for pain relief during screening of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 詹琪佳; 肖波; 乔彤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of oral administration glucose solution for pain relief during screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants .Methods The study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU ) of Children′s Hospital of Shanghai from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2015 .A total of 95 preterm infants who need ROP screening enrolled in the current study ,were randomly divided into the experimental group (n=45) and the control group(n=50) in accordance with random number table . The preterm infants in experimental group were continuing given oral administration 25% glucose solution while the preterm infants in control group were fasting during ROP screening . Evaluated the pain degree of the preterm infants during the procedure by the premature infant pain profile (PIPP ) . The differences of heart rates , oxygen saturation and PIPP scores between the preterm infants in two groups and between male and female preterm infants in each group were statistically compared . There were no significant differences between two groups of preterm infants in general clinical data (P> 0 .05) .This study followed the Ethics Standards of Human Trial Committee of Children′s Hospital of Shanghai ,and was approved by the Human Trial Committee .All parents signed the informed consents .Results ①While accepting ROP screening , the heart rates and PIPP scores of the preterm infants in experimental group [(149 .6 ± 5 .0) beats/min ,(12 .6 ± 1 .0) points] were lower than those of control group [(173.3 ± 6.8) beats/min ,(15 .8 ± 0 .9) points] ,but oxygen saturation of the experimental group [(94.7 ± 0.9)% ] was higher than that of control group[(90 .1 ± 1 .2)% ] .and all the differences above were statistically significant(P0.05) .Conclusions Oral administration 25% glucose solution during ROP screening was an effective measure for pain relief for the preterm infant .%目的:探讨口服葡萄糖溶液对缓解早产儿视网膜病变

  6. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of the premature infant intestinal microbiome prior to necrotizing enterocolitis: a case-control study.

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    Yanjiao Zhou

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is an inflammatory disease of the newborn bowel, primarily affecting premature infants. Early intestinal colonization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC. The objective of this prospective case-control study was to evaluate differences in the intestinal microbiota between infants who developed NEC and unaffected controls prior to disease onset. We conducted longitudinal analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of 312 samples obtained from 12 NEC cases and 26 age-matched controls with a median frequency of 7 samples per subject and median sampling interval of 3 days. We found that the microbiome undergoes dynamic development during the first two months of life with day of life being the major factor contributing to the colonization process. Depending on when the infant was diagnosed with NEC (i.e. early vs. late onset, the pattern of microbial progression was different for cases and controls. The difference in the microbiota was most overt in early onset NEC cases and controls. In proximity to NEC onset, the abundances of Clostridium sensu stricto from Clostridia class were significantly higher in early onset NEC subjects comparing to controls. In late onset NEC, Escherichia/Shigella among Gammaproteobacteria, showed an increasing pattern prior to disease onset, and was significantly higher in cases than controls six days before NEC onset. Cronobacter from Gammaproteobacteria was also significantly higher in late onset NEC cases than controls 1-3 days prior to NEC onset. Thus, the specific infectious agent associated with NEC may vary by the age of infant at disease onset. We found that intravenously administered antibiotics may have an impact on the microbial diversity present in fecal material. Longitudinal analysis at multiple time points was an important strategy utilized in this study, allowing us to appreciate the dynamics of the premature infant intestinal microbiome while approaching NEC at various points.

  8. Eye size in threshold retinopathy of prematurity, based on a Danish preterm infant series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans Callø; Fledelius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation.......To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation....

  9. The preterm pig as a model of premature infant gait ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A.; Ryom, K.; Vanden Hole, C.

    Aims/background Compromised gait, balance and motor coordination (ataxia) as observed in cases of cerebral palsy is a serious complication to premature birth. The cerebellum is a central region with regards to these brain functions and its development shows high sensitivity to premature birth. Our...

  10. 早产儿脑病的临床研究进展%Research Progress of Encephalapathy of Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪美艳(综述); 陈娟(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Recently,the incidence rate of preterm birth is increasing and accounts for 5%-1 5% in all neonates.With the development of neonatal intensive care techniques and the establishment of neonatal intensive care unit,the survival rate of premature infants increased markedly.However,the premature infants brain inj ury rate has been increasing and become an enormous public health problem.Encephalopathy of prematurity includes various lesions,most notably periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)and periventricular haemorrhage-intra ventricular haemorrhage (PVH-IVH ), which could lead to death and neurological disabilities.This review integrates research progress in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention in encephalopathy of prematurity.%近年来,早产率呈不断上升的趋势,发生率为5%~15%。由于早产儿生命救治支持技术的提高及新生儿重症监护病房在我国各地相继建立,早产儿存活率较以往显著提高,但早产儿脑病发生率仍不断增加,已成为一个严重的公共健康问题。脑室周围白质软化(PVL)和脑室周围-脑室内出血(PVH-IVH)是早产儿常见脑损伤类型,也是导致新生儿死亡及神经系统后遗症的重要原因。笔者拟就早产儿脑病的主要病理学类型、诊断方法及防治进展进行综述如下。

  11. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant metabol

  12. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

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    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  13. Initial clinical experience with the Medtronic Micro Vascular Plug™ in transcatheter occlusion of PDAs in extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathanandam, Shyam; Justino, Henri; Waller, B Rush; Radtke, Wolfgang; Qureshi, Athar M

    2017-05-01

    To describe the early multicenter, clinical experience with the Medtronic Micro Vascular Plug™ (MVP) for the occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. The MVP is a large diameter plug that can be delivered through a microcatheter for occlusion of abnormal blood vessels. A Retrospective review of PDA embolization procedures performed in two centers using the MVP was performed. Fifteen premature infants underwent attempted PDA occlusion using the MVP. The gestational age and birth weight were 25.6 ± 2.5 weeks and 735 ± 251 g, respectively. The median weight and age at the time of the procedure were 1,210 g (700-3,500 g) and 4.5 weeks (2-12 weeks), respectively. Median procedure and fluoroscopy times were 45 and 6.5 min, respectively. The median radiation and contrast doses were 19.7 mGy and 2.4 mL/kg, respectively. Antegrade occlusion was successfully achieved in 13 patients 2 kg had arterial access and attempted retrograde occlusion; one of which was unsuccessful due to the PDA being short and wide. Complete closure was observed in 13 of 14 successful procedures (93%), with one patient having a small residual shunt that was not seen on follow-up. There were no complications related to the procedure or noted during follow-up (Median 11 months). The MVP is a new, large-diameter vascular embolization device that may be useful for the occlusion of PDA in extremely small, premature infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  15. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  16. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Prophylactic Effects of Vitamin D on Different Indices of Osteopenia of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Alizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of the rickets of prematurity is an important aspect of the care of preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of different doses of vitamin D on the clinical, biochemical and radiological indices of the rickets of prematurity. In a randomized clinical trial, 68 premature infants (<38 weeks with birth weight under 2000 g, randomly divided in two groups. Infants received 400 IU/d vitamin D in Group A (n=32 and 1000 IU/d in group B (n= 36. On the 9th week of birth, serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured and x-ray of left wrist and physical examination were performed. The average serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase in both groups had no difference (P= 0.326, 0.466, 0.147, respectively and no one had a radiological or clinical picture of rickets. In conclusion we recommend low dose vitamin D for prevention of the osteopenia of prematurity.

  18. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ettenberger; Helen Odell-Miller; Cátherine Rojas Cárdenas; Sergio Torres Serrano; Mike Parker; Sandra Milena Camargo Llanos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states a...

  19. Progress of Treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants%早产儿支气管肺发育不良的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婕; 郑直

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia( BPd) is currently one of the most common complications of premature infants,which has become one of the most difficult problems in neonatal intensive care unit.The pathogenesis of BPd is extremely complex, so that there is no effective treatment at present.This paper has introduced the latest definition,and progress of prevention and treatment of BPd in premature infants both in domestic and foreign.%早产儿支气管肺发育不良(broncho-pulmonary dysplasia,BPd )是目前早产儿最常见的并发症之一,已经成为新生儿重症监护病房最棘手的问题之一。BPd的发病机制极其复杂,目前尚无有效的治疗方法。现主要介绍国内外有关早产儿BPd的定义、预防及治疗新进展。

  20. Junctional Bradycardia as Early Sign of Digoxin Toxicity in a Premature Infant with Congestive Heart Failure due to a Left to Right Shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Soham; Aly, Ashraf M; Jain, Sunil K

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure due to left to right cardiac shunt is usually managed medically with diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and, in some cases, with the addition of digoxin. Case We report a 31-week gestation premature male infant who did not respond to such treatment and developed hyperaldosteronism and severe hypokalemia secondary to activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The hypokalemia was not responsive to intravenous KCL supplementation and induced digoxin toxicity despite a relatively normal digoxin level. The earliest signs of digoxin toxicity in the patient were junctional rhythm and bradycardia. The discontinuation of digoxin and the administration of digoxin specific immunoglobulin fragments (Fab) reversed those changes. The addition of spironolactone (an aldosterone antagonist) had a dramatic effect, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient coupled with normalization of Q4 serum and urine electrolytes. Conclusion Serum Digoxin level alone may fail as an independent guide in the diagnosis of digoxin toxicity when hypokalemia is present. In premature infants with congestive heart failure and hypokalemia, addition of an aldosterone antagonist should be considered.

  1. Effect of different premature infant formula feedings on the levels of calcium, magnesium and blood lipid in newborn%不同早产儿配方奶喂养对新生儿钙镁及血脂水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 黄宏云; 杨坤

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨不同早产儿配方奶喂养对新生儿钙镁及血脂水平的影响,为早产儿保健提供理论依据.方法 120例早产儿按照随机数字法分为A,B,C组,每组40例. A组在医师指导下喂养101千卡(100 mL)雅培早产儿配方奶,B组在医师指导下喂养81千卡(100 mL)雅培早产儿配方奶,C组在医师指导下喂养S-26 早产儿配方奶. 观察3组早产儿的钙镁水平与血脂水平. 结果 A,B组早产儿的钙镁水平差异无统计学意义( P >0.05 ) ,但均显著高于 C 组( P0.05 ). 结论 雅培早产儿配方奶能够显著提高早产儿的钙镁水平,有利于骨骼的生长发育,但不会升高血脂水平,说明合理的喂养配方奶不会引起婴儿超重和肥胖的发生,是适合早产儿的喂养方式.%Objective To explore the effect of different premature infant formula feedings on the levels of calcium, magnesium and blood lipid in newborn, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the preterm child care.Methods A total of 120 cases of premature children were random-ly divided into A,B,C group, each group 40 cases.Group A was given 101 kcal(100 mL) Abbott formula preterm, group B was fed 81 kcal (100 mL) preterm children Abbott formula, group C was fed S-26 for-mula.The calcium and magnesium levels as well as lipid levels of the three groups were observed.Results The calcium and magnesium levels had no significant difference in group A and B ( P>0.05 ) , but were sig-nificantly higher than those in group C ( P 0.05 ) . Conclusion Abbott formula preterm can significantly improve the level of calcium and magnesium in preterm children, beneficial to the growth of bone.This formula did not elevate the lipid levels, indicating that jus-tify feeding infant formula milk does not cause overweight and obesity, suitable for the feeding of premature infants.

  2. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  3. Effects of Premature Birth on the Risk for Alcoholism Appear to Be Greater in Males Than Females*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Madarasz, Wendy V.; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sorensen, Holger J.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Becker, Ulrik; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Method: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. Results: Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310) but not female (n = 138) subjects. Logistic regression modeling with a global prematurity score, adjusted for social status, maternal smoking, and gender, indicated a significant association of prematurity score for males (p premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate neurodevelopmental influences in alcoholism pathophysiology in males and suggest the possibility of distinct, gender-specific pathways in the etiology of severe problem drinking. PMID:21513675

  4. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sorensen, Holger J; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Becker, Ulrik; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Gabrielli, William F

    2011-05-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310) but not female (n = 138) subjects. Logistic regression modeling with a global prematurity score, adjusted for social status, maternal smoking, and gender, indicated a significant association of prematurity score for males (p premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate neurodevelopmental influences in alcoholism pathophysiology in males and suggest the possibility of distinct, gender-specific pathways in the etiology of severe problem drinking.

  5. [Positive rolandic sharp waves, periventricular ischemia and neurologic outcome. Prospective study in 66 premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Jeannot, E; Parain, D; Samson-Dollfus, D; Fessard, C

    1989-04-01

    A prospective study concerning 66 prematures born after 32 weeks of gestation showed a 33% incidence of positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW) on EEGs. The results showed a good sensitivity (Se = 95%) and specificity (Sp = 93%) of PRSW for the diagnosis of periventricular ischemia with motor sequelae. A PRSW frequency higher than one per minute and its persistence on 2 successive EEGs constitutes an indication of severity of the lesions. This study emphasizes the necessity of several EEG recordings in prematures.

  6. Aleitamento materno em prematuros: manejo clínico hospitalar Breastfeeding in premature infants: in-hospital clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz R. do Nascimento

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Abordar a importância do aleitamento materno e sua promoção no manejo clínico-hospitalar de recém-nascidos pré-termo. FONTE DOS DADOS: Foi realizada extensa revisão bibliográfica sobre o tópico, sendo selecionado material oriundo de livros-texto, teses, publicações de organismos nacionais e internacionais e artigos publicados selecionados a partir de pesquisa na base de dados MEDLINE referente ao período de 1990 a 2003, utilizando as palavras-chave breastfeeding and low birth weight e breastfeeding and preterm infant. Algumas referências relevantes dos trabalhos selecionados também foram utilizadas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A partir da literatura levantada, verifica-se que vários aspectos tornam o leite materno particularmente adequado para a alimentação do recém-nascido prematuro. No entanto, observa-se, de modo geral, uma baixa incidência de êxito na amamentação de prematuros, especialmente em unidades neonatais de risco, apesar de haver evidências de que uma postura hospitalar favorável possibilite o aleitamento nessas crianças. CONCLUSÕES: Amamentar prematuros ainda é um desafio, mas é factível desde que haja apoio e suporte apropriados, principalmente pelos profissionais de saúde. As mães de prematuros necessitam de mais informações sobre a importância da amamentação para que possam tomar decisões sobre a nutrição dos seus filhos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the importance of breastfeeding and its promotion in the in-hospital clinical management of premature newborns. SOURCE OF DATA: The authors made an extensive literature review on the topic, including technical books, theses, publications of national and international organizations, and search on MEDLINE database (1990 to 2003, using the following key words and boolean operators: "breastfeeding AND low birth weight" and "breastfeeding AND preterm infant". Some significant references cited in the reviewed publications were used as well. SUMMARY OF THE

  7. Reduced Hospital Mortality With Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after surgical ligation (SL) of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Optimal management of PDA in this specialized population remains undefined. Currently, surgical therapy is largely reserved for infants failing medical management. To date, a large-scale, risk-matched population-based study has not been performed to evaluate differences in mortality and resource utilization. Data on identified premature (Propensity score-matched analysis of 1620 SL versus 1584 non-SL found reduced mortality (15% vs 26%) and more routine disposition (48% vs 41%) for SL (P Propensity score-matched analysis demonstrates reduced mortality in premature/ELBW infants with SL for PDA. NEC and sepsis are predictors of mortality and resource utilization.

  8. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  9. 早产儿体液免疫变化及影响因素研究%Study on changes and influence of humoral immunity in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 魏建和; 刘振奎; 肖佩霞; 张雅静; 袁二伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study changes of humoral immunity of the premature infants in different pathological conditions and detect the reason of the deficiency of humoral immunity in premature infants .Methods Two hundred and forty-six prematur were enrolled and 30 healthy neonates were selected as control group .The percentages of IgG ,IgA ,IgM and comp lement C3 ,C4 were detected by full automatic biochemical analyzer .Results The results showed that IgG ,IgM ,IgA ,C3 and C4 in the premature in-fants were lower than those in the normal term infants and there was a highly significant difference with the decrease of fetal age . IgG ,IgM ,IgA ,C3 and C4 of the group of the premature infants ranging from 32 to 36 weeks had reduced in different degree ,rela-tive to the groups of BW <2 000 g ,hypertension during pregnancy ,cesarean section(P<0 .05) .Conclusion The results showed that function of humoral immunity in the premature infants was depressed and low gestational age ,low birth weight ,cesarean sec-tion and hypertension during pregnancy may be the leading cause of the deficiency of humoral immunity .%目的研究早产儿体液免疫功能变化,探讨早产儿体液免疫功能低下的病因。方法收集246例早产儿组和30例健康新生儿(健康对照组)静脉血标本3 mL ,采用全自动生化分析仪检测各组新生儿IgG、IgM、IgA和补体C3、C4水平。结果

  10. Effect of Mozart music on heel prick pain in preterm infants: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cavaiuolo; Anna Casani; Gaetano Di Manso; Luigi Orfeo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music by Mozart on heel prick procedural pain in premature infants.Background: Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies. Many non-pharmacological interventions have been proven efficacious for blunting neonatal pain.Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.Methods: The study was carried out ...

  11. Decreased free water clearance is associated with worse respiratory outcomes in premature infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Vuohelainen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal was to elucidate predictors of decreased free water clearance (DFWC in very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We hypothesized that DFWC and fluid retention are linked to the severity of pulmonary problems and prolonged respiratory support, especially to nCPAP treatment. METHODS: The investigation was carried out at Tampere University Hospital between 2001 and 2006. The study population comprised 74 VLBW infants born at 29.21 (24.57-34.14 weeks of gestation. Median birth weight was 1175 (575-1490 grams. We measured plasma and urine osmolality and 24-hour urine volume to calculate free water clearance (FWC for each infant. If FWC was less than 30 ml/kg/day the infant was classified as having DFWC. RESULTS: There were 38 (51.4% infants with DFWC in the study population. The median duration of the observed DFT period was 14 (4-44 days. The gestational age at birth was lower for DFWC infants compared to infants with normal FWC (NFWC, 28.29 (24.57-32.86 vs. 30.00 (25.57-34.14 weeks (p = 0.001. DFWC infants also needed longer ventilator treatment, 2 (0-23 vs. 0.50 (0-23 days (p = 0.046, nCPAP treatment 30 (0-100 vs. 3 (0-41 days (p<0.0001 and longer oxygen supplementation 47 (0-163 vs. 22 (0-74 days (p = 0.011 than NFWC infants. All values presented here are medians with ranges. CONCLUSIONS: DFWC appears to be frequently connected with exacerbation and prolongation of pulmonary problems in VLBW infants. Cautious fluid administration seems to be indicated in VLBW infants with prolonged respiratory problems and DFWC.

  12. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  13. Fatty acid patterns early after premature birth, simultaneously analysed in mothers' food, breast milk and serum phospholipids of mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Karl-Göran; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Bona, Elsa; Petzold, Max; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2009-06-10

    The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids via the placenta is interrupted in premature infants, making them exclusively dependent on breast milk, which varies in fatty acid (FA) concentrations depending on the mother's diet. To in a longitudinal study explore the relation between FA status in mothers and infants from an unselected cohort of prematures, not requiring intensive care. Breast milk and mothers' and infants' plasma phospholipid FA concentrations from birth to 44 weeks of gestational age were analysed and compared with mothers' food intake, assessed using a 3-day diary. Fatty acids were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The energy intake was low in 75% of mothers, and 90% had low intake of essential FAs (EFAs). Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2w6), but not w3 FAs, correlated to concentrations in breast milk. Infants' plasma and breast milk correlated for arachidonic (AA, 20:4w6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5w3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6w3) acids. A high concentration of mead acid (20:3w9) in the infants at birth correlated negatively to the concentrations of LA, AA and w3 FAs. Infants of mothers who stopped breastfeeding during the study period showed decreased DHA concentrations and increased w6/w3 ratios, with the opposite FA pattern seen in the mothers' plasma. Although dietary w3 FAs were insufficient in an unselected cohort of mothers of premature infants, breastfeeding resulted in increased levels of DHA in the premature infants at the expense of the mothers, suggesting a general need to increase dietary w3 FAs during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. Is arterial hypertension crucial for the development of cerebral haemorrhage in premature infants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1979-01-01

    . It is suggested that premature neonates are hypertensive when their blood-pressure is compared with that in utero, and that events that lead to further rises in pressure are common. Their capillaries are not protected against rises in arterial pressure because autoregulation is impaired. Furthermore...

  15. A randomized controlled study about the use of eHealth in the home health care of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gund Anna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One area where the use of information and communication technology (ICT, or eHealth, could be developed is the home health care of premature infants. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the use of video conferencing or a web application improves parents’ satisfaction in taking care of a premature infant at home and decreases the need of home visits. In addition, nurses’ attitudes regarding the use of these tools were examined. Method Thirty-four families were randomized to one of three groups before their premature infant was discharged from the hospital to home health care: a control group receiving standard home health care (13 families; a web group receiving home health care supplemented with the use of a web application (12 families; a video group with home health care supplemented with video conferencing using Skype (9 families. Families and nursing staff answered questionnaires about the usefulness of ICT. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 families. Results All the parents in the web group found the web application easy to use. 83% of the families thought it was good to have access to their child’s data through the application. All the families in the video group found Skype easy to use and were satisfied with the video calls. 88% of the families thought that video calls were better than ordinary phone calls. 33% of the families in the web group and 75% of those in the video group thought the need for home visits was decreased by the web application or Skype. 50% of the families in the web group and 100% of those in the video group thought the web application or the video calls had helped them feel more confident in caring for their child. Most of the nurses were motivated to use ICT but some were reluctant and avoided using the web application and video conferencing. Conclusion The families were satisfied with both the web application and video

  16. Premature infant behavior: an ethological study in a special care nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L F

    1986-01-01

    The Social and Sensory Environment Studies of very low birthweight infants have quantified the amount and quality of social interaction with staff and parents and described the sound environment in an incubator. The present study concerns preterm infant behavior and reactions to these stimuli with particular reference to approach and withdrawal and vocalization. Among the findings are that while intermittent vocalization increases, infant cry decreases over the first three weeks in the incubator. Approach activities take place with some consistency whereas withdrawal differs from child to child. The ethnographic focus on interactive components of the intensive care experience documents the process of intersubjective development for the purpose of locating and isolating points of vulnerability in language and cognitive skills of infants born at very low birthweight.

  17. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%, whereas 20 (23.3% had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72% infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg were significantly different (p = 0.015. Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. CONCLUSION: The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low

  18. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  19. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  20. Surfactant Protein D Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood and Capillary Blood of Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...

  1. Low-frequency blood pressure oscillations and inotrope treatment failure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Hao, Jessica; McPherson, Christopher; El Ters, Nathalie M; Mathur, Amit M

    2017-07-01

    The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. Infants born ≤28 wk estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure for 72 h after birth. After error correction, root-mean-square spectral power was calculated for each valid 10-min data frame across each of four frequency bands (B1, 0.005-0.0095 Hz; B2, 0.0095-0.02 Hz; B3, 0.02-0.06 Hz; and B4, 0.06-0.16) corresponding to different components of vasomotion control. Forty infants (twenty-nine normotensive control and eleven inotrope-exposed) were included with a mean ± SD estimated gestational age of 25.2 ± 1.6 wk and birth weight 790 ± 211 g. 9.7/11.8 Million (82%) data points were error-free and used for analysis. Spectral power across all frequency bands increased with time, although the magnitude was 20% less in the inotrope-exposed infants. A statistically significant increase in spectral power in response to inotrope initiation was noted across all frequency bands. Infants with robust blood pressure response to inotropes had a greater increase compared with those who had limited or no blood pressure response. In this study, hypotensive infants who require inotropes have decreased low-frequency variability at baseline compared with normotensive infants, which increases after inotrope initiation. Low-frequency spectral power does not change for those with inotrope treatment failure, suggesting dysfunctional regulation of vascular tone as a potential mechanism of treatment failure.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we examine patterns of low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone in normotensive and

  2. 早期干预对早产儿和低出生体质量儿婴儿期行为发育的影响%Effects of early interventions to behavior development in infancy among premature and infants with low body mass at birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钊安; 童梅玲; 黄萍; 邓静云; 胡幼芳; 张俊珍

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The beginning of the research on early interventions of premature and low birth body mass infants was a bit late. Evaluations on the effects of early interventions were just done at 1 year old or after 1 year old.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of early interventions on infancy behavior development in premature and low birth weight infants.DESIGN: Randomized case-control trial study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTION: Sixty cases of premature and low birth body infants were chosen from Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group included 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 268 +531) g. In the control group, there were also 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 307 + 398) g. A set of early stage upbringing plan designed by Professors Chen RH and Deng JY of Nanjing Medical University, which targeted for 0 to 3-year-old children was applied. The parents of the control group would go to early education clinic to learn how to train children by the doctor's instruction when the infants were born and in the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12thmonth after birth. It was required that the parents should complete the training tasks of everyday, at the same time, the growth of physical build as well as the development of behaviors should be followed up and monitored.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development quotients in the 3rd, 6th, 9thand 12th month of both experimental and control groups.RESULTS: The average values of five developmental quotients in adaptability, gross motor, fine motor, language and sociability in the experimentalgroup were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, there were statistical differences in fine motor and social communication between the two groups from the 3nd month. When in the 12th month, there were significant differences in adaptability(97 +5, 89 +4), fine motor(98 + 10, 88 ± 8

  3. Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: observations on probe-dependent bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line C; Leung, Terence S; Greisen, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) allows the estimation of absolute tissue oxygen saturation, the ratio of oxygenated to total hemoglobin concentration, which may facilitate the comparison of results among patients. Eighty-two premature infants were included over two years. The cerebral tissue...

  4. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  5. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  6. 15例早产儿慢性肺部疾病的护理体会%Nursing experience of 15 premature infants with chronic pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕辉; 葛振香; 刘晓聪

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the premature infants with chronic lung disease, nursing and improve treatment success rate. Methods:15 patients with chronic lung disease in premature infants to maintain appropriate body temperature, rational feeding, to maintain effective breathing, oxygen therapy care, early monitoring of blood glucose, prevent infection, developmental support, implementation of the comprehensive nursing intervention. Results The fifteen cases of children with CLD, intensive care and after treatment in 13 patients recovered and were discharged, 1 cases with multi - failure and death, 1 gave up treatment. Conclusion:The establishment of an effective nursing interventions help reduce mortality, reduce complications and improve prognosis.%目的:通过呼吸道的管理,严格控制氧疗指征,加强肺部护理,合理喂养,针对家长的恐惧心理做好相应的心理护理,从而提高早产儿慢性肺部疾病(CLD)的生活质量,减少住院天数,改善预后,降低死亡率的发生.方法:对15例慢性肺部疾病的早产儿采取保持适宜体温、合理喂养、维持有效呼吸、氧疗护理、早期监测血糖、预防感染、发育支持等综合护理干预.结果:本组患儿经过精心护理及治疗后有13例康复出院,1例合并多功能衰竭死亡,1例放弃治疗.结论:建立有效的护理措施,有助于降低死亡率,减少并发症,改善愈后.

  7. Care Experiences of 324 Cases on Retinopathy in Premature Infant%早产儿视网膜病变筛査324例护理心得体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少华; 巫兰花; 陈美玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究早产儿视网膜病变筛查的护理体会。方法选取324例早产儿,并对其筛查的整个过程进行护理。结果有28例产生视网膜病变,早产儿的出生体重与孕周越小,视网膜病变的发生率越高。结论早产儿视网膜病变的发生率高,对筛查的整个过程实施有效的护理干预工作对视网膜病变的筛查起着重要作用。%Objective Explore nursing experiences on retinopathy in premature infant. Methods Selected 324 cases of premature infant and care its entire screening process. Results 28 cases had produced smal er retinopathy,the smal er of premature child birth weight and gestational age,the higher incidence of retinopathy. Conclusion The incidence of retinopathy of premature children is high,the entire process in implementation of effective screening interventions nursing plays an important role.

  8. Effects of centric relation prematurities of the frontal teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottner, Kurt; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans; Proff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Centric relation prematurities of frontal teeth are frequently found with patients who have severe orthodontic anomalies or received extensive restorative treatment. They can cause a range of symptoms ranging from loosening of the teeth to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The objective of this work has been to derive a mathematical description of the mandibular and periodontal forces generated by anterior prematurities for different incisor relations. In order to quantify the effect of contact area (location and inclination) and the tooth inclination, a two-dimensional mathematical approach was used. Vectorisation of the forces and bending moments makes it possible to predict under which conditions the load increase mainly affecting the anterior teeth can and may cause localized pain and eventually loosening and flaring/crowding of the upper/lower incisors and under which conditions the temporomandibular joint will suffer a large increase in retrusive force, which potentially leads to TMD. For 10 patients with anterior prematurities, analysis of the incisor relation was carried out. For all cases the conclusions drawn from the mathematical model were in full agreement with the reported symptoms, which could be successfully treated.

  9. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  10. 抚触对早产儿生长发育的影响%Influence of massage on growth and development of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨抚触对早产儿生长发育的影响.方法:选择住院期间病情稳定后的早产儿70 例,将其随机分为抚触组(40 例)和对照组(30 例),抚触组给予正规的抚触,于第42 天评估两组体格(头围、身长及体重)增长幅度、摄入母乳量和睡眠时间,于纠正胎龄40 周时进行20 项新生儿行为神经测定,并作组间比较.结果:抚触组体格的增长、摄入量、睡眠时间及行为神经的发育明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:抚触对早产儿的生长发育有明显的促进作用.%Objective: To assess the influence of massage on the growth and development of premature infants. Methods: 70 premature infants who were considered medically stable were randomly divided into message group (ra=40) and control group (/I=30). The premature infants of massage group received routine massage. The premature infants in two groups were assessed in terms of physical growth (head circumference, length and weight), breast milk intakes and sleep time at the 42th postnatal day. They were assessed with twenty-item neonatal behavior neurologic assessment (NBNA) at 40 weeks of correcting gestational age. Comparison was done between the two groups. Results: Physical growth, breast milk, sleep time intakes and 20 developmental items in the massage group were significantly better than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Massage can obviously promote the growth and development of premature infants.

  11. [Five steps to decreasing nosocomial infections in large immature premature infants: A quasi-experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Ana; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Carmen; Lloreda García, José María; Fernández Fructuoso, José Ramón; Gómez Santos, Elisabet; García González, Verónica

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,500g at birth or delivered at <32 weeks gestation, admitted in the 12 months before and after the measures were implemented (January 2014). The measures consisted of: optimising hand washing, following a protocol for insertion and handling of central intravenous catheters, encouraging breastfeeding; applying a protocol for rational antibiotic use, and establishing a surveillance system for multi-resistant bacteria. The primary endpoint was to assess the incidence of hospital-acquired infections before and after implementing the interventions. Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8.7 and 2.7 hospital-related infections/1,000 hospital stay days in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively (P<.05). Additionally, patients in the treatment group showed a statistically-significant decrease in days on mechanical ventilation, use of blood products, and vasoactive drugs. The strategy, based on implementing five specific measures in a unit with a high rate of hospital-related infections, proved effective in reducing their incidence. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 双胎早产儿神经精神发育水平随访研究%Research of neuropsychological development in twin premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 钟庆华; 齐志业; 周艺; 魏来; 李琪; 贺湘英

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨双胎早产儿神经精神发育情况,并分析其危险因素.方法 将2010年6月至2012年6月在昆明医科大学第一附属医院新生儿病房住院的早产几分为2组:双胎早产儿为研究组,单胎早产儿为对照组.对其中88例早产儿在纠正胎龄1岁时行神经精神发育随访,由儿童保健科专人采用贝利婴幼儿发展量表进行测试,其中研究组根据量表正常测试结果分为神经精神发育异常组[智力发展指数(MDI)≤79分]和神经精神发育正常组(MDI >79分),并对2组资料进行统计学分析.结果 研究组MDI得分频数分布呈偏态分布,其中59%(27/46例)为神经精神发育异常(MDI≤79分);对照组MDI得分频数分布呈近似正态分布,其中仅12%(5/42例)为神经精神发育异常.1岁时双胎早产儿头围、身长、体质量、MDI、精神运动发展指数(PDI)均低于单胎早产儿,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).单因素分析中双胎早产儿神经精神发育异常的高危因素有胎龄、出生体质量、母亲育龄、父母亲文化程度、喂养方式、新生儿高胆红素血症、新生儿低血糖症、新生儿脓毒症、感染.多因素Logistic回归分析显示新生儿高胆红素血症是双胎早产儿神经精神发育异常的独立危险因素.结论 同胎龄双胎早产儿的神经精神发育落后于单胎早产儿.新生儿高胆红素血症有可能是导致双胎早产儿神经精神发育异常的高危因素,早期积极处理新生儿高胆红素血症有利于促进双胎早产儿的神经精神发育.%Objective To explore the neuropsychological development in twin premature infants,and to analyze the risk factors for the retardation of development.Methods The premature infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Ward First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from Jun.2010 to Jun.2012 were divided into study groups of twin premature infants and a control group of singleton premature

  13. Early enteral fat supplementation with microlipid® and fish oil in the treatment of two premature infants with short bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Welch, Cherrie D; Ayers, Kathleen; Turner, Charles; Pranikoff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The infusion of Intralipid® is a main risk factor for parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants with short bowel syndrome. Early provision of enteral fat to reduce the use of Intralipid while providing adequate fat for the growth of infants with short bowel has not been reported. We present 2 cases of premature infants with short bowel who received early supplementation of enteral Microlipid® and fish oil. This approach allowed us to discontinue Intralipid shortly after initiating feedings. The infants tolerated Microlipid/fish oil well without adverse reactions, had appropriate weight gain and ostomy output. They underwent bowel reanastomosis 3 weeks after enteral feeding began, and were discharged on full oral feedings. In case 1, the infant did not develop parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis; in case 2, cholestasis had developed before initiating feeds, but was not aggravated by enteral fat and was improving prior to discharge.

  14. Reduced oxygen protocol decreases the incidence of threshold retinopathy of prematurity in infants of <33 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhiro, Yumiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Nakabayashi, Yoshinobu; Nakauchi, Shohei; Nakagawa, Yumi; Kihara, Minako; Mitsufuji, Nobuto; Kizaki, Zenro

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between oxygen and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been studied frequently, and a pulse oximeter has the potential to facilitate the control of oxygen fluctuation in neonates. The objective of the present study was to compare the incidence of threshold ROP (stage 3 requiring laser treatment and stage 4) in infants of Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from 1 July 2004 to 31 October 2007 (closed 1 December 2006-30 March 2007 for reconstruction). A reduced oxygen protocol was implemented to maintain oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) values using a pulse oximeter between 88% and 92%. The incidence of threshold ROP in the earlier period (1 July 2004-31 December 2005) and the later period (1 January 2006-31 October 2007) were compared. The incidence of threshold ROP significantly decreased from 32.2% to 16.7%, after changing to the reduced oxygen protocol (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the rate of threshold ROP in infants of <33 weeks gestation was observed after implementation of the new clinical O(2) management practice.

  15. Neonatal Magnesium Levels Correlate with Motor Outcomes in Premature Infants: a Long-Term Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eDoll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveChronic neurological deficits are a significant complication of preterm birth. Magnesium supplementation has been suggested to have neuroprotective function in the developing brain. Our objective was to determine whether higher neonatal serum magnesium levels were associated with better long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants.Study DesignA retrospective cohort of 75 preterm infants (<1500 g, gestational age <27 weeks had follow-up for the outcomes of abnormal motor exam and for epilepsy. Average total serum magnesium level in the neonate during the period of prematurity was the main independent variable assessed, tested using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. ResultsHigher average serum magnesium level was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk for abnormal motor exam (p 0.037. A lower risk for epilepsy in the group with higher magnesium level did not reach statistical significance (p 0.06. ConclusionThis study demonstrates a correlation between higher neonatal magnesium levels and decreased risk for long-term abnormal motor exam. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the hypothesis that higher neonatal magnesium levels can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  16. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ettenberger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states and help mothers to reduce anxiety and strengthen the relationship with their baby. The data collection included the babies´ weight gain, heart rate, oxygen saturation, size, cephalic perimeter and length of hospitalization. Mothers filled out the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-C and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS before the first and after the last intervention. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained through questionnaires. A trend towards an increased weight gain for both intervention groups and a shorter length of hospitalization for one of the intervention groups was noticed. Anxiety and bonding in mothers appears not to follow linear trends, as new challenges arise for parents at different stages during hospitalization. Mothers stated that music therapy was helpful for them, their baby and their relationship with the baby. Mothers across the groups think that music therapy should be a regular offer in the NICU and that music therapy helps to humanize the NICU environment.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging--Insights into Brain Injury and Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Amit; Inder, Terrie

    2009-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major public-health issue because of its increasing incidence combined with the frequent occurrence of subsequent behavioral, neurological, and psychiatric challenges faced by surviving infants. Approximately 10-15% of very preterm children (born less than 30 weeks gestational age) develop cerebral palsy, and 30-60% of them…

  18. 发展性照顾在早产儿护理中的应用%Developmental Care in Premature Infant Care Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐红

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨发展性照顾在早产儿护理中的应用。方法将我院收治的70例早产儿随机分为观察组和对照组各35例,观察组采用发展性照顾,对照组采用儿科常规护理,比较两组早产儿进奶量、平均体质量增长速度以及住院天数。结果观察组早产儿进奶量、平均体质量增长速度以及住院天数均显著优于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对早产儿应用发展性照顾,有利于促进早产儿的发育,提高早产儿进奶量、增加体质量、缩短住院时间,帮助早产儿健康成长,提高早产儿的存活质量。%Objective Discusses developmental care in premature infant care application. Methods Will be our hospital from 70 cases of premature infants were randomly divided into observation group and control group the 35 patients, the observation group and control group in the developmental care by pediatric conventional nursing, compare two groups of premature into milk quantity, average weight growth speed and hospitalization days. Results The observation group premature into milk quantity, average weight growth speed and hospitalization days were significantly superior to control group, two groups of comparisons, the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion To take care of premature application development, promote the development of premature infants, and improve the premature into milk supply, increase weight, shorter hospital stay and help premature healthy growth, improve the quality of the survival of the premature infant.

  19. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  20. Nutritional strategies for premature infants%早产儿临床营养支持策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬方彦; 贲晓明

    2015-01-01

    As survival of premature infants has increased,nutritional support has become a more prominent component of patient care.Aggressive nutritional strategies can reduce the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR),speed up the physical growth and promote the development of intelligence.But excessive weight gain may also increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in the future.This review mainly introduces and interprets the "enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants:commentary from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN),2010",to provide an evidence-based medicine nutritional guideline for preterm infants.%随着近年来早产儿成活率的提高,营养支持成为新生儿重症监护的一个重要内容.积极的营养支持策略可减少宫外生长发育迟缓,加快体格生长,促进智能发育.但体质量过度增长,也可能会增加远期肥胖和心血管疾病的风险.现主要介绍并解读“2010欧洲儿科胃肠肝病学与营养学会(ESPGHAN)对于早产儿肠内营养需求的建议”,为早产儿医护人员提供一个循证医学的营养摄入指南.

  1. 枯草杆菌、肠球菌二联活菌多维颗粒剂联合非营养性吸吮对早产儿影响的临床研究%The clinical research of the effect of live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium granules with multivitamines and nonnutritive suck on the premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路苓; 侯媛媛

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium granules with multivitamines (Medilac-Vita) and nonnutritive suck on the premature infant.Methods Eighty premature infants without asphyxia and digestive tract malformation were randomly divided into control group(without Medilac-Vita and nonnutritive suck group) and observation group( Medilac-Vita and nonnutritive suck group) including 40 cases each.The gastrointestinal dysfunction and growth-development index were observed in two groups.Results In observation group,the occurrence rate of vomit,abdominal distention,gastric retention,hemorrhage of digestive tract,meconium peritonitis and necrotizing enterocolitis were all lower than that in control group.The cleaning lime of meeoninm in observation group was lower than that in control group [(3.20±1.01 )d and (6.23±2.56)d],the removing time of canalis ventriculi [(4.03±2.11 )d and (7.10±2.91 )d],the time of the jaundice fading away [( 11.10±5.36)d and ( 14.30±6.82)d ],the time of staying in hospital [(15.02±3.12 )d and (20.00 + 5.11)d],the growth of the head circumference and weight in seven and fourteen days were significantly different between two groups.The incidence rates of intracranial hemorrhage,apnea and death in observation group were 12.5% (5/40),10.0% (4/40) and 0 (0/40),which in control group were 45.0%(18/40),37.5% (15/40) and 5.0% (2/40).Conclusion The treatment of Medilac-Vita and nonnutritive suck on the premature infants can promote the maturity of stomach and intestine function,reduce the occurrence of complications,promote growth and development.%目的 探讨枯草杆菌、肠球菌二联活菌多维颗粒剂(妈咪爱)联合非营养性吸吮对早产儿的影响.方法 无窒息及消化道畸形早产儿80例,随机分为对照组(无妈咪爱联合非营养性吸吮)40例,观察组(妈咪爱联合非营养性吸吮)40例.观察胃肠功能紊乱、生长发育指标等.结果 观察组呕吐、

  2. 早产儿呼吸暂停病因分析与管理%Analysis of etiology and management of apnea in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective the cause of analysis appear premature apnea and take positive and effective management measures Methods collected from september 2010 to september 2010 in our hospital and diagnosed as premature apnea of clinical data of 91 cases, analysis of time and the causes of premature apnea for the first time happen. Asa result Gestational age, the smaller the higher the incidence of primary apnea, With the increase of gestational age, the incidence of secondary apnea is primary apnea is high;occurred within 24 h apnea (42.9%), children born within 7 d after the total accounted for 86.8%;first day age of apnea in 2~7 d, and secondary apnea when will can happen at any age;in secondary apnea of primary disease in the respiratory system disease in the first place. Conclusion Apnea caused by to many factors, in time to find the cause that causes apnea, and targeted prevention and timely and effective treatment, can improve the survival rate of premature infants, prevent the occurrence of sequelae;at the same time, through effective management can make the premature infant apnea symptoms, even ease.%  目的分析早产儿出现呼吸暂停的病因并采取积极有效管理措施。方法收集2010年9月至2012年9月在我院收治并诊断为早产儿呼吸暂停的91例患儿临床资料,分析早产儿首次发生呼吸暂停的时间和病因。结果胎龄越小原发性呼吸暂停的发生率越高,随着胎龄的增加,继发性呼吸暂停较原发性呼吸暂停的发生率高;患儿24h内发生呼吸暂停占42.9%,生后7d内发生的累计占86.8%;首次出现呼吸暂停的日龄以2~7d多见,而继发性呼吸暂停可发生在任何日龄段;在继发性呼吸暂停的原发病构成中,以呼吸系统疾病居首位。结论引起呼吸暂停的因素有多种,及时寻找引起呼吸暂停的原因,并进行针对性的预防和及时有效的治疗,可提高早产儿的存活率,避免后遗症的发生;同时通

  3. 围产期不同高危因素对早产儿凝血功能的影响分析%Analysis of the influence of different perinatal high-risk factors on coagulation function in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of different perinatal risk factors on the coagulation function in premature infants. Methods:239 cases of premature infants with a single high risk factor for pregnancy were as the observation group.54 cases of premature infants with healthy mothers were as the control group.According to the different risk factors for pregnancy,the observation group was divided into 5 groups;the coagulation function of each group were compared.Results:The PT,TT,APTT,FDP and D-Dimer of the hypertensive group and the placental abruption group were higher than those in the control group;the FIB of the hypertensive group and the placental abruption group were lower than the control group (P<0.05).The APTT value of premature rupture of membrane group was higher than that of the control group;the gestational diabetes group and the placenta previa group;the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Premature rupture of membrane,hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and placental abruption could aggravate the coagulation dysfunction in premature infants.%目的:分析围产期不同高危因素对早产儿凝血功能的影响。方法:收治妊娠期单一高危因素产妇所产的早产儿239例作为观察组及健康母亲所产的早产儿54例作为对照组。根据产妇妊娠期不同高危因素将观察组分为5组,比较各组的凝血功能。结果:妊娠高血压组、胎盘早剥组PT、TT、APTT、FDP、D-Dimer值高于对照组,妊娠高血压组、胎盘早剥组FIB低于对照组(P<0.05)。胎膜早破组APTT值高于对照组、妊娠期糖尿病组及前置胎盘组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:胎膜早破、妊娠期高血压、胎盘早剥均可加重早产儿的凝血功能障碍。

  4. Surgical findings during exploratory laparotomy are closely related to mortality in premature infants with necrotising enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Juhl, Sandra Meinich; Fonnest, G;

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether a correlation existed between surgical findings during the first laparotomy for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death and, or, disease progression. METHODS: We included infants admitted within one day of birth to our tertiary neonatal department at Rigshos......AIM: This study investigated whether a correlation existed between surgical findings during the first laparotomy for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death and, or, disease progression. METHODS: We included infants admitted within one day of birth to our tertiary neonatal department...... at Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2006 to 2015, who underwent a laparotomy for acute NEC. They were classified according to the locality and extent of intestinal necrosis by a paediatric surgeon, based on the surgical findings. We correlated the surgical findings with postoperative outcomes, namely death and, or...

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of 11 cytokines in premature infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Benkoe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to investigate the pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in neonates with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and identify those cytokines being the most promising for future research. METHODS: A panel of 11 different cytokines were measured in 9 infants with proven NEC and compared with 18 age-matched healthy neonates. RESULTS: The serum concentrations of the interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly (32-fold to 56-fold higher in NEC infants compared with controls. In contrast, IL-5, IFN gamma, IL-4 and IL-2 showed slightly (1.4-fold to 5.9-fold lower levels in the NEC samples. However, these cytokines showed a very low absolute concentration in infants with NEC and in controls. The sum of the serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 was able to clearly separate infants with NEC from control samples. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha showed no statistically different levels. The serum levels of TNF-beta and IL-12p70 were below the detection limit in more than 50% of all samples per group. CONCLUSION: In spite of strong local inflammation only three out of eleven cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 showed strongly increased serum levels indicating an important role of them in the pathogenesis of NEC. At least two of these three cytokines were elevated in every single NEC patient. Thus, longitudinal monitoring of combined IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 levels could reveal their potency in being clinical relevant markers in NEC.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis: a case report of a premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Denise M; Stebbins, Karen; Howland, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe infection involving the superficial fascia, subcutaneous tissue, and, occasionally, deeper tissue layers. Usual treatment is with surgical debridement in combination with antibiotics. In review of the literature there is one neonatal report of NF associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. We present a case report of a 25 week gestation infant with necrotizing fasciitis and the complexity of wound and pain management presented for the nursing staff in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  7. [Determination of the bacterial density of the mid-stream urine in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleminský, M

    1982-12-01

    Bacteriuria was investigated in midstream urine samples taken from 1255 apparently healthy premature neonate; 24% of the samples had a bacterial count of 10(5) per ml. The results were found to fit the lognormal distribution. We suggest that the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the preterm should take the clinical state into account and that a bacteriuria of 10(5) per ml should not be considered significant. In our opinion only bacterial counts of 10(7) per ml or higher should be regarded as asymptomatic bacteriurias in this age group, since at this concentration the probability of error is only 4% which is an acceptable limit from the statistical point of view. If an uncontaminated urine specimen is needed in a preterm neonate percutaneous needle aspiration or catheterization of the urinary bladder is essential.

  8. 新生儿重症监护病房噪音对早产儿听力及智力发育的影响%Effect of noise on the auditory system and the intelligence development of premature infants treated in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎惟广; 蒋红斌; 甘恬; 周文新; 陈鸣

    2009-01-01

    目的 一些基层医院新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)中高于70 dB噪音很常见.该研究旨在探讨NICU噪音对早产儿听力及智力发育的影响.方法 NICU中呼吸窘迫综合征需机械通气治疗的早产儿100例,随机分为2组,其中观察组呼吸机治疗时使用耳罩,对照组呼吸机治疗时不使用耳罩.呼吸机治疗结束后,分别进行听性脑干诱发电位、头颅B超、婴幼儿智力发育测评.结果 呼吸机治疗结束后2~3 d,观察组总听力损失(23%vs 47%)和轻度听力损失比例(15% vs 35%)明显低于对照组(P70 dB) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are common in some primary hospitals. This study aimed to investigate the noise in the NICU on auditory system and intelligence development in premature infants. Methods One hundred premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome who needed mechanical ventilation therapy were randomly divided into observation and control groups according to the use of earmuffs. The duration of mechanical ventilation therapy lasted for 2 to 15 days in the two groups. After weaning from mechanical ventilator, the auditory brainstem response, cranial B-ultrasonography, and the intelligence development assessment were performed. Results The percentage of total (23% vs 47% ) and mild hearing loss ( 15% vs 35% ) in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0. 05) 2 to 3 days after weaning from mechanical ventilator. The incidence of periventricular hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH-IVH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (21% vs 42% ; P <0. 05). The intelligence development assessment performed in the first 6 and 12 months of life showed that the mental development index and the psychomotor development index in the observation group were much higher than those in the control group ( P < 0. 05). Conclusions The noise in the NICU

  9. 889例早产儿的预后及其影响因素分析%Prognosis of 889 premature infants and its influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦凤鸣; 钟为平; 王晓萍; 钟柳英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognosis of premature infants and its influence factors. Methods A retrospective study was designed, and a total of 724 pregnant women with premature delivery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou Severe Maternal Treatment Center from Jun. 2008 to Dec. 2009 were included in our study, with 889 premature infant. The prognosis of premature infants and its influence factors were analyzed. Results (1) The main complications of premature infant were asphyxia (11.40%), RDS (5.29%), pneumonia (6.64%), anemia (12.37%), acid-base imbalance (27.00%), retinopathy (6.97%). (2) The mortality rate, incidence of asphyxia, NRDS and pulmonary hemorrhage of premature infant were negatively correlated with gestational age and neonatal weight. (3) Plmonary hemorrhage, RDS and MSOF were the main causes of death for premature infant. (4) Factors of unfavourable prognosis for premature infant were gestational age, neonatal weight, asphyxia, RDS, pneumonia, alimentary tract hemorrhage, acid-base imbalance, and PROM, prccclampsia, fetal distress, polyhy-dramnios or oligohydramnios of pregnant woman (P<0.05). Conclusion The control of the risk factors of premature delivery can avoid or delay the occurrence of premature birth, improved maternal and neonatal outcomes.%目的 观察早产儿的预后并探讨其影响因素.方法 选取广州医学院第三附属医院、广州市重症孕产妇救治中心2008年1月至2009年12月间分娩的889例早产儿,分析早产儿的结局及影响早产儿预后的因素.结果 (1)早产儿的主要并发症有窒息(11.4%)、NRDS (5.29%)、肺炎(6.64%)、贫血(12.37%)、酸碱失衡(27%)、视网膜病变(6.97%)等.(2)早产儿胎龄、出生体重与窒息、NRDS、肺出血等并发症发生率和死亡率与呈负相关(P<0.05).(3)早产儿死亡原因前三位分别为肺出血、NRDS及多器官衰竭.(4)早产儿预后不良的相关因素是:早产儿低胎龄、低出生

  10. Application of bedside ultrasound in diagnosis of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants%床旁颅脑超声在早产儿脑室周围-脑室内出血诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁艳征; 张培霞; 邢方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨早产儿脑室周围-脑室内出血(PVH-IVH)发生的影响因素,以及床旁颅脑超声检查对早产儿PVH-IVH 的诊断价值。方法:用床旁颅脑超声对137例早产儿进行检查,将胎龄、出生体重、Apgar 评分等因素与PVH-IVH发生率进行相关对比分析。结果:早产儿PVH-IVH的发生率62.7%。胎龄<32周、出生体重<1500 g的患儿PVH-IVH发生率明显增高。结论:低胎龄、低出生体重早产儿PVH-IVH发生率较高,应进行常规筛查。床旁超声应作为筛查、监测新生儿颅内出血的首选方法。%Objective:To discuss factors and the clinical effect of bedside ultrasound in diagnosis of periventricular-intraventricu-lar hemorrhage in premature infants.Methods:137 cases of premature infants were examined by bedside ultrasound,and the corre-lation between age,birth weight,Apgar score and PVH-IVH were analyzed.Results:PVH-IVH in premature children the incidence of 62.7%.≤32 weeks gestational age,birth weight infants≤1 500 g PVH-IVH incidence was significantly higher.Conclusion:The occurrence rate of PVH-IVH was higher in low age.Low birth weight premature infants,and routine screening should be carried out.Bedside ultrasound should be used as the first choice for screening and monitoring of intracranial hemorrhage in newborns.

  11. Use of Biphasic Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Premature Infant with Cleft Lip–Cleft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovya George

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants (PIs often require respiratory support due to surfactant deficiency. Early weaning from mechanical ventilation to noninvasive respiratory support decreases ventilation-associated irreversible lung damage. This wean is particularly challenging in PIs with cleft lip and cleft palate due to anatomical difficulties encountered in maintaining an adequate seal for positive pressure ventilation. PI with a cleft lip and palate often fail noninvasive respiratory support and require continued intubation and mechanical ventilation. We are presenting the first case report of a PI with cleft lip and palate who was managed by biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

  12. The Effect of Upper Limb Massage on Infants' Venipuncture Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Yuen-Man; Ip, Wan-Yim; Choi, Kai-Chow

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper limb massage on relieving pain among infants undergoing venipuncture in Hong Kong. This study was a crossover, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Eighty infants at the neonatal intensive care unit were randomly assigned to 2 groups in different order to receive interventions. The massage first group (N = 40) received 2-minute massage before venipuncture on the first occasion then received usual care (control) on the second occasion, and vice versa in the massage second group (N = 40). The infants' behavior and physiological responses were recorded on two occasions: (1) right after the intervention and (2) during the first 30 seconds of venipuncture procedure. The mean pain scores (Premature Infant Pain Profile) were significantly lower in infants who received massage (massage first: 6.0 [standard deviation = 3.3]; massage second: 7.30 [standard deviation = 4.4]) versus control (massage first: 12.0 [standard deviation = 4.3]; massage second: 12.7 [standard deviation = 3.1]). The crude and adjusted generalized estimating equations model showed that the infants had significantly lower pain score when receiving massage as compared to receiving the control treatment, and there were no significant time and carryover effects: -6.03 (95% confidence interval: -7.67 to -4.38), p massage may be effective in decreasing infants' venipuncture pain perception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Human Recombinant Erythropoietin on Prevention of Anemia of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hajian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premature infants often develop significant anemia that requires blood transfusion, this carries significant risks. This study was carried out to determine the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO on prevention of anemia of prematurity. Material & Methods: From April 2001 to March 2002, 24 neonates in  newborn services at Amirkola childrens hospital randomly were assigned to erythropoietin group and control (no treatment group. Inclusion criteria were birth weight of ≤1750 grams and gestational age ≤34 weeks. Exclusion criteria were problems of hemolytic anemia, congenital infections, congenital malformations, severe asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage (grade III and IV, need for exchange transfusion and death during the first week of life. Erythropoietin group received r-HuEPO400 unit/kg/dose subcutaneously three times a week plus 4 mg/kg/day iron orally. White blood cell, hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, platelet and reticulocyte count were obtained every 2 weeks until the 42nd day of life. Anemia was defined as Hgb≤8gr/dl and Hct≤24%. Student t test and Fisher exact were used to evaluate differences between the two groups.Findings: Hemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly higher in erythropoietin group than the control group after the 14th day of the study (P<0.04 and this difference was getting higher until the end of the trial (P<0.001. Five neonates developed anemia; all of them were from control group. One of these neonates required transfusion. None of the erythropoietin group newborns developed anemia.Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in the prevention of anemia of prematurity.

  14. Risk factors for adverse events after vaccinations performed during the initial hospitalization of infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilińska, Maria; Warakomska, Małgorzata; Głuszczak-Idziakowska, Ewa; Jackowska, Teresa

    There are significant delays in implementing vaccination among preterm infants. Description of the frequency and kinds of adverse events following immunization in preterms. Establishment of the group of preterms who will distinctively be susceptible to adverse events. Demographical, clinical data and the occurrence of adverse events after DTaP, HIB and pneumococcal vaccination among preterms during their initial hospitalization were prospectively collected with the use of an electronic data form between 1st June 2011 and 31st May 2015. The analysis was conducted on 138 patients. The groups were divided according to maturity (I: ≤ GA 28w n=73 and GA 29-36 w n=65). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the occurrence of adverse events. Out of the total group, following vaccination apnoea developed in 6 newborns (4%) and activity dysfunctions were observed in 13 newborns (10%). The occurrence of apnoea after vaccination positively correlated with the time of non-invasive ventilation and the occurrence of late infection. There were no statistically significant demographical or clinical risk factors for the development of activity dysfunctions following vaccination. Term vaccination in clinically stable preterm infants is a safe medical procedure. However, long-term non-invasive respiratory support and late infections are risk factors for apnea following vaccinations. In these patients vaccinations should be considered during hospitalization.

  15. 湿化高流量鼻导管通气治疗早产儿反复发作性呼吸暂停的临床研究%The effects of humidified high flow nasal cannula therapy on recurrent apnea in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高育健; 廖亮荣; 江少明; 吴学科

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the c1inica1 efficacy between humidified high-f1ow nasa1 cannu1a (HHFNC) venti1ation and nasa1 continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in the treatment of recurrent apnea of premature infants. Methods Preterm infants with recurrent apnea were random1y assigned into HHFNC group and NCPAP group after receiving aminophy11ine and conventiona1 treatment. The changes in c1inica1 symptoms, b1ood gas ana1ysis, and the incidence of adverse events were observed between the two groups. Results Forty patients were enro11ed in each group. The de1ivery mode, gestationa1 age, gender, birth weight, 1 min Apgar score and the occurrence of the first apnea between the two groups were compared, and no significant differences existed ( P > 0. 05). The overa11 effective rate of HHFNC and NCPAP were 87. 5% and 80. 0% , respective1y; the difference was not statistica11y significant ( P > 0. 05 ) . No statistica1 significant differences existed in PaO2 , PaCO2 and a / APO2 between the two groups (P > 0. 05) at the beginning of treatment (0 h). PaO2 , PaCO2 and a / APO2 at 12 h and 24 h after the treatment showed significant improvement in both two groups without significant differences (P > 0. 05). Comparing with NCPAP group, HHFNC group had significant1y shorter time to achieve first feeding and tota1 entera1 feeding, 1ower incidences of nasa1 injuries and abdomina1 distension (P 0. 05). Conclusions HHFNC has the same effect with NCPAP in the treatment of recurrent apnea in premature infants. However, HHFNC group can achieve first feeding and tota1 entera1 feeding ear1ier, and has 1ower incidence of nasa1 trauma and abdomina1 distension.%目的:比较湿化高流量鼻导管通气(HHFNC)与鼻塞式持续气道正压通气(NCPAP)应用于早产儿反复发作性呼吸暂停的临床疗效.方法选取2014年5月至2015年12月我院新生儿科收治的反复发作性呼吸暂停早产儿,随机分为 HHFNC 组和 NCPAP 组,接受氨茶碱

  16. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY SCREENING OF 500 INFANTS IN A LEVEL II NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AT A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the leading cause of infant blindness and predominantly affects premature, low birth weight babies.1 India and other middle-income countries are said to be suffering from the ‘third epidemic’. ROP is multi-factorial and early detection and treatment of threshold ROP with timely laser treatment results in excellent outcome.3-8 OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the yield of ROP in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at a Government Medical College Hospital in Mandya district. 2. To determine disease characteristics and outcome of treatment. METHODOLOGY: The study is a prospective analysis of infants admitted during March 1st 2009 and November 30th, 2011(33 months at the NICU of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS Hospital. All infants weighing Infants outside these criteria were screened at the discretion of the neonatologist if deemed at risk. The disease was classified according to the ICROP classification and treated according to the ETROP guidelines. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 2.0.1 software. RESULTS: During the study period, 508 (Male =264, Female=244 infants were enrolled for screening. Of these, 104 (20.47% had incomplete follow up and were excluded. Of the 404 who had complete follow up, 141 infants (34.9%, n=404 had ROP. Of these, 19 (12.93%, n=141 progressed to treatment threshold ROP and underwent laser photo ablation. All treated infants (100% showed a favorable outcome following treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study of a rural hospital reporting ROP incidence thus far. A yield of 34.9% is comparable with level III NICU’s in larger cities. With improving neonatal care, a collaborative, timely and appropriate screening strategy is necessary in the community to prevent ROP blindness in rural infants.

  17. Use of 2% 2-phenoxyethanol and 0.1% octenidine as antiseptic in premature newborn infants of 23-26 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, C; Bahr, S; Siebert, J; Wettstein, R; Geffers, C; Obladen, M

    2002-08-01

    In preterm newborn infants, topical iodine-containing antiseptics disturb thyroid hormone regulation while alcohol-based disinfectants may cause local burns. We therefore investigated the use of an aqueous solution containing 0.1% octenidine and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol for skin disinfection during the first seven days of life in premature newborns with a gestational age octenidine/phenoxyethanol solution prior to umbilical vessel catheterization. No other local reactions were observed. The urinary concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol was octenidine and 2-phenoxyethanol does not cause major skin damage in premature newborn infants <27 weeks' gestation. 2-Phenoxyethanol is readily absorbed by the newborn's skin but apparently undergoes extensive oxidative metabolization to 2-phenoxyacetic acid.

  18. Does ibuprofen treatment in patent ductus arteriosus alter oxygen free radicals in premature infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Melek; Yildirim, Tulin G; Sandal, Gonca; Bozdag, Senol; Erdeve, Omer; Altug, Nahide; Uras, Nurdan; Oguz, Serife S; Dilmen, Ugur

    2016-06-20

    Introduction Ibuprofen is used widely to close patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. The anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen may also be partly due to its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. We evaluated the interaction between oxidative status and the medical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with two forms of ibuprofen. Materials and methods This study enrolled newborns of gestational age ⩽32 weeks, birth weight ⩽1500 g, and postnatal age 48-96 hours, who received either intravenous or oral ibuprofen to treat patent ductus arteriosus. Venous blood was sampled before ibuprofen treatment from each patient to determine antioxidant and oxidant concentrations. Secondary samples were collected 24 hours after the end of the treatment. Total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity were measured using Erel's method.

  19. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p premature infants.

  20. Investigation of an Equivalence of Pain Assessment by a ]apanese Version of the Premature Infant Pain Profile among Neonatal Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    小澤, 未緒; 砂金, 直子; 菅田, 勝也; 平田, 倫生; 草川, 功; 鈴木, 智恵子

    2012-01-01

    日本語版 Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP)の臨床での活用可能性を検討することを目的として,異なる施設に所属する Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)看護師8名を対象とし,28の同一採血場面を日本語版PIPPで採点した場合の評価者間信頼性を検討した。また,NICU勤務経験5年以上の群と5年未満の群で疼痛評価に違いがあるのかも検討した。評価者間信頼性は先行研究よりも低かったが,NICU勤務経験5年以上の群と5年未満の群でPIPP総得点の有意な違いはなかった。これらのことから,日本語版PIPPは臨床における新生児の疼痛評価に有用であると考えられた。...

  1. TRADUÇÃO E ADAPTAÇÃO DO PREMATURE INFANT PAIN PROFILE PARA A LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue traducir y adaptar la versión del Premature Infant Pain Profile para el portugués de Brasil. Es un estudio transversal y metodológico para validación de la tradición de instrumento. El proceso se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas: traducción inicial, síntesis, re-traducción y análisis por jueces. Se establecieron cuatro versiones distintas del instrumento traducido al portugués y una versión sintética fue producida a partir de traducciones anteriores. Posteriormente, dos versiones fueron re-traducidas independientemente y no mostraron diferencias importantes del original. Un comité de jueces revisó la versión resumida y las retraducciones con respecto a la equivalencia semántica y idiomática y consideraron adecuada la versión del instrumento en portugués. El instrumento Perfil da Dor no Recém-Nascido Pré-termo fue considerado adaptado al idioma portugués, para su aplicación en la investigación y en la práctica clínica. Esto contribuye, especialmente, para la internacionalización de los resultados de la investigación en Brasil.

  2. The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not

  3. Effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping on peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Zeynel; Ozkiraz, Servet; Tarcan, Aylin; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Ozbek, Namik

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematological parameters in premature infants (cord clamping (ICC) at 5-10 s and 21 infants to DCC at 30-45 s. One milliliter blood sample was taken in the first 30 min of life. HPCs were measured by three-color flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. There were no significant differences between groups in either maternal or neonatal demographics. All HPC counts were higher in the ICC group, but the difference was not significant. CD34+ cell counts were 45.3 ± 36.6/μL in the ICC and 33.2 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.33); multi-potent progenitor cell counts were 43.2 ± 35/μL in the ICC and 31.1 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.28); and hematopoietic stem cell counts were 2.1 ± 2.1/μL in the ICC and 2.1 ± 3.1/μL in the DCC group (P=0.66). Contrary to our expectation, all HPC counts were lower in the DCC group.

  4. 危重早产儿肠外营养支持研究进展%Research Progress of Parenteral Nutrition Support in Premature Infants with Heavy Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑飞

    2013-01-01

    Because of the organ hypoplasia,premature infants suffer from malnutrition easily. The application of parenteral nutrition support in premature infants can significantly improve the survival rate and quality of life. The parenteral nutrition support include the infusion of glucose, amino acids, fat, electrolyte, vitamin and trace elements. The infusion pathways mainly include peripheral intravenous infusion and central intravenous infusion. Here is to make a review on the research progress of parenteral nutrition support in premature infants.%危重早产儿由于器官功能发育不全,出生后往往容易出现营养不良的情况,肠外营养支持在危重早产儿治疗中的应用能显著提高早产儿的存活率和生存质量.肠外营养支持主要包括葡萄糖、氨基酸、脂肪以及电解质、维生素和多种微量元素的输注,输注途径主要包括经外周静脉输注和经中心静脉输注两大途径.现对危重早产儿肠外营养支持的研究进展进行综述.

  5. 早产儿贫血现状及防治研究进展%Anemia in premature infants:current status and progress of prevention and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红

    2011-01-01

    The survival rate of premature infants has been improving remarkably with the progress of modem medical technology. While anemia m premature infants remains a common nutritional problem. The main methods of prevention and therapy for this symptom are iron supplementation through various routes, red blood cell transfusion and use of recombinant human erythropoietin. However, each method has its advantages and disadvantages. This review focuses on the current status oi anemia m premature infants anc recent progress of its prevention and therapy.%随着现代医疗技术水平的不断提高,早产儿存活率也在不断提高,但早产儿贫血目前仍是早产儿营养管理上的常见问题之一.防治早产儿贫血的主要方法有不同途径的补充铁剂、红细胞输注及合理使用重组人红细胞生成素等,但上述防治方法各有利弊.文章就早产儿贫血的现状及防治方面进展进行论述.

  6. 经鼻双水平正压通气联合咖啡因用于早产儿拔管后的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the clinical effect of nasal bi-level positive pressure ventilation combined with caffeine in the treat-ment of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟驰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of nasal bi-level positive pressure ventilation combinedwith caffeine in the treatment of premature infants. Methods 80 infants with NRDS younger than 32 weekswere randomly divided into the treatment group (40 cases) and the control group (40 cases). The treatment groupwas given nBiPAP combined with caffeine, and the control group was given the nasal continuous positive airway pressure(nCPAP) combined with aminophylline. Results (1) 1 hour and 12 hours after extubation, the blood gas ofthe treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P = 0. 027; P = 0. 037). The carbon dioxide partialpressure in the treatment group was less than that in the control group (P = 0. 009; P = 0. 039). (2) Between thetreatment group and the control group, the secondary evaluation indexes (BPD, NEC, ROP and etc. ) were not significant (P>0. 05). (3) In the treatment group and the control group, the difference of the failure cause showed no significance (P>0. 05). Conclusion The application of nasal bi-level positive pressure ventilation combined with caffeine can improve NRDS cases' blood gas index, reduce the influence factors of the complex intubation and prevent ventilator associated lung injury.%目的 探讨经鼻双水平正压通气联合咖啡因在早产儿拔管后的临床疗效.方法 80例32周以下NRDS早产儿,随机分为治疗组(40例)和对照组(40例),治疗组为经鼻双水平正压通气(nBiPAP)联合咖啡因,对照组为经鼻持续气道正压通气(nCPAP)联合氨茶碱.结果 (1)治疗组拔管后1 h和拔管后12 h血气显示氧分压大于对照组(P=0.027;P=0.037).治疗组二氧化碳分压小于对照组(P=0.009;P=0.039).(2)治疗组和对照组的次要评价指标中:BPD、NEC、ROP等比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(3)治疗组和对照组比较,拔管失败原因差异不显著(P>0.05).结论 经鼻双水平正压通气联合咖啡因应用在早产儿拔管后可以改善患儿的

  7. Agenesis of the corpus callosumina premature infant associated with Langdon-Down syndrome

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agenesis of the corpus callosum is an abnormality of the part of the brain connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. It can be partial, complete or atypical. The fibers from the cerebral cortex project towards the homotypical region of the contra-lateral cortex passing through the corpus callosum, and crossing the middle line. The absence of corpus callosum causes failure of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Children with this anomaly present with learning disabilities and trouble with memorizing facts. Agenesis of corpus callosum may be of syndromic or non-syndromic type. The more common form is the one not associated with any syndrome. The agenesis of corpus callosum is more frequent in male children. Case report This paper presents a child from a twin pregnancy with partial absence of corpus callosum. The pregnancy was not controlled. It ended in premature birth. The afflicted twin is a boy, second in birth order. Apart from agenesis of corpus callosum, he also suffers from Down syndrome. The first twin is healthy, with corpus callosum and with normal karyotype. There was no consanguinity. In the 6th month of pregnancy the mother suffered from infection of the upper respiratory tract that might be the etiological factor of this anomaly. The child was born with hypotrophy, and all anthropometric parameters were below the third percentile. In the neonatal period, the agenesis of corpus callosum was diagnosed by ultrasonic examination and confirmed by CT and MR examinations. The child is now three and a half month old. Active monitoring of the psychical and motor development will show whether there will be any retardation in the psycho-motor development and later deficiency of the higher cortical functions and intelligence. Discussion and Conclusion The clinical characteristics of this anomaly are numerous. They range from asymptomatic cases, with normal intellectual capacity, to severe mental retardation

  8. 低出生体重儿及早产儿心脏手术的早期疗效分析%Early Outcome of Open Heart Surgery for Congenital Heart Diseases in Low Birth Weight Infants and Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嵘; 庄建; 陈寄梅; 岑坚正; 丁以群; 王晟

    2012-01-01

    -up. Conclusion Early surgical repair for low birth weight infants and premature infants with congenital heart diseases is safe and effective.%目的 分析60例先天性心脏病(先心病)低出生体重儿(low birth weight infant)和早产儿行外科手术治疗的早期疗效.方法 回顾性分析自2003年5月至2011年10月广东省心血管病研究所60例患先天性心脏病的低出生体重儿(体重<2 500g)和早产儿施行心脏手术治疗的临床资料,其中男43例,女17例;年龄4~55(24.9±12.5)d;孕周26~42(33.5±4.1)周,其中47例为早产儿;出生时体重640~2 500(1 729.3±522.5)g,手术时体重650~2 712(1 953.2±463.6)g.术前所有患者均在新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)接受治疗,在全身麻醉下行先心病矫治手术,其中行非体外循环手术29例,体外循环手术31例.术后住NICU进行监护治疗,并观察并发症发生情况和死亡情况.结果 住院期间共死亡13例,总病死率为21.7%(13/60).其中术中死亡4例,术后早期(72 h内)死亡6例,放弃治疗3例.体外循环时间(121.0±74.7) min,升主动脉阻断时间(74.8±44.7) min,术后呼吸机辅助呼吸时间(136.9±138.1)h.术后延期关胸13例,床旁开胸探查止血8例,发生重症肺炎10例,肺动脉高压危象2例,低心排血量综合征8例,均经相应的治疗治愈或好转.随访47例,随访时间2~12个月,患者均生存.结论 对危重先心病低出生体重儿或早产儿早期施行外科手术治疗是安全、有效的.

  9. Touching Nursing Education Influence the Growth and Development of Pre-mature Infants of Diabetic Mothers%抚触护理对糖尿病产妇育早产儿生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长芸

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of touching nursing on diabetic mothers growth of premature infants. Meth-ods Nursing care of 132 cases of premature infant with diabetes treated in our department from June 2013 to June 2015, Were randomly divided into experimental group and normal group 66 cases, The growth and development of the two groups were analyzed. Results Touch group in weight, length, sleep time, intake of milk were significantly higher than normal group(P<0.05);Touch group NBNA score(38.25±1.38), Compared with the conventional group(P<0.05). Conclusion Touch-ing nursing can effectively promote the development of premature infants physical and nervous system, To meet the percep-tion of being loved.%目的:探讨抚触护理对糖尿病产妇育早产儿生长发育的影响。方法对该科2013年6月-2015年6月收治的糖尿病产妇育早产儿132例进行护理,随机分为抚触组和常规组各66例,分析两组生长发育情况。结果抚触组在体重、身长、睡眠时间、摄入奶量方面均明显高于常规组(P<0.05);抚触组NBNA评分(38.25±1.38)分,较常规组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论抚触护理可有效促进早产儿体格和神经系统发育,满足其被爱的感知。

  10. 早期蛋白质对不同胎龄早产儿营养评估价值的研究进展%Research Progress of Early Protein’s Nutritional Assessment Value to Premature Infants of Different Gestational Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛军(综述)

    2014-01-01

    Organs of the premature infants develop immaturely, and infants are usualy pre-delivered because of the changes of intrauterine condition, so complications such as feeding difficulties often appear after birth; protein deficiency and lipid metabolism disorder may easily come along. So the early nutritional status not only decides the survival of the premature infants but also has lasting effects on their future living quality. According to the research findings, the shorter the gestational age of a premature infant is, the lower his ALB, PAB and TP wil be. PAB is the most sensitive index to evaluate the maturity and nutritional status of premature infants so far. Therefore, monitoring the SP level of premature infants has great guiding significance to the clinical reasonable nutritional treatment and disease prevention.%早产儿各脏器发育不成熟,且多因宫内生存条件变化而致早产,生后常有喂养困难等合并症,易发生蛋白质缺乏及血脂代谢紊乱,其早期的营养状况不但决定早产儿存活与否,而且对早产儿远期生活质量也有持久的影响。研究发现,早产儿胎龄越小,白蛋白、前白蛋白、总蛋白水平越低,前白蛋白是目前评价早产儿成熟度及营养状况最敏感的指标。监测早产儿血清蛋白水平变化,对临床合理营养支持治疗及预防疾病具有指导意义。

  11. Morbidity and mortality trends in very-very low birth weight premature infants in light of recent changes in obstetric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Péter; Berecz, Botond; Gasparics, Ákos; Dombi, Zsófia; Varga, Zsuzsa; Jeager, Judit; Magyar, Zsófia; Rigó, János; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we describe trends in morbidity and mortality of preterm infants with less than 500mg birth weight in the changing landscape of obstetric and neonatal care. During a ten year study period between 2006 and 2016 we assessed outcome data for all neonates with less than 500mg birth weight born at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We divided study subjects into two groups based on whether their birth date fell in the first half (2006-2010; n=39) versus the second half (2011-2015; n=27) of the study period comparing clinical outcomes in the two groups. We also assessed several clinical parameters for association with postnatal survival by comparing relative frequencies for each clinical parameter among surviving infants versus mortality cases. Survival rate for preterm neonates with less than 500mg birth weight born between 2006 and 2010 was 30.8%. This survival rate rose to 70.4% in the second half of the study period between 2011 and 2015 (ppremature birth was found to be predominantly associated with maternal hypertension or intrauterine growth restriction while in those who died premature birth due to premature rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm labor were significantly more common. All surviving infants with less than 500mg birth weight were born via cesarean section whereas among those who died cesarean section had been performed in only 80% and vaginal delivery in 20% representing a significant difference between the groups (ppremature neonates with less than 500mg birth weight preterm delivery due to premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine infections represents the worse mortality risk. Steroid prophylaxis and measures to prevent and treat intrauterine infections with appropriate use of antibiotics can markedly improve survival in these cases. In premature neonates with less than 500mg birth weight survival is more favorable after cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  13. Respiratory severity score on day of life 30 is predictive of mortality and the length of mechanical ventilation in premature infants with protracted ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkar, Manish B; Gardner, William P; Mandy, George T; Stenger, Michael R; Nelin, Leif D; Shepherd, Edward G; Welty, Stephen E

    2015-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Respiratory Severity Score (RSS) on day of life 30 is predictive of mortality and length of mechanical ventilation in premature infants on prolonged mechanical ventilation. A retrospective chart review was performed using the Nationwide Children's Hospital medical record and Vermont-Oxford Network databases. The primary outcome variable was survival to hospital discharge and the secondary outcome was length of mechanical ventilation after day of life 30. We identified 199 neonates admitted to Nationwide Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2007 with birth weight less than 1,500 g that received prolonged mechanical ventilation in the first 30 days of their life. A total of 184 infants were included in the analysis, excluding 14 patients with congenital anomalies and one infant with incomplete data. RSS on day of life 30 was significantly greater in the group of infants that died compared to those that survived (P = 0.003, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.40]). Further analysis demonstrated that the maximum difference in mortality was obtained with a threshold RSS of 6. Of the 109 patients who had RSS less than 6 on day of life 30, mortality rate was 4.6% (5/109) while those greater than or equal to 6 had a mortality rate of 21.3% (16/75). Both Kaplan-Meier survival curves comparing mortality and length of mechanical ventilation in infants with RSS < 6 versus those with RSS ≥ 6 demonstrated strong associations between RSS on day of life 30 and survival (P = 0.002) and length of ventilation after day of life 30 (P < 0.001). RSS ≥ 6 on day of life 30 is associated with higher mortality and longer period of mechanical ventilation in premature infants requiring mechanical ventilation through 30 days of life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  15. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

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    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  16. Study on intellectual development and temperament behavior of premature infants in their infant period%早产儿在婴幼儿时期智能发育和气质行为的队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 毛萌; 杨慧明; 康琳敏; 杨凡; 唐章慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the differences among the intellectual development and temperament behavior of premature infants and those of normal full-term infants in their infant period, so as to explore the law to promote the health growth of the intelligence and temperament behavioral of premature infants. Methods 68 cases of premature infants appropriate for gestational age and 102 cases of normal full-term infants were randomly selected for the establishment of cohort as the research subjects. The data of their developmental screening test (DST) at 12 months old were reviewed; and they respectively received Gesell infant intellectual development check at 18, 24, 30 months old, and their parents also received Carey infant temperament questionnaire (RITQ), and received Achenbach infant behavior checklist at 30 months old of the infants. A longitudinal analysis was performed on the differences among the results of the intellectual developments in 5 functional areas(applicability, large motion, fine motion, language, personal-social competence) with the increase in ages and the results of temperament checklist and dimension. The Student's t test, variance analysis, SNK-q test was used as statistical methods, and χ2 analysis was used for the comparison among the constituent ratios of segmental information. Results Compared with the full-term infants, the developmental quotient(DQ) and mental index(MI) at 12-month-old, as well as the DQ of five major functional areas at 18-month-old, 24-month-old and 30-month-old of the premature infants were lower; for the premature infants with corrected gestational age, their adaptability, large motion, fine motor and language at 18-month-old was statistically significant (P<0.05); their adaptability and language at 24-month-old were weaker than those of the full-term infants (P<0.05);and their language and personal social ability were weaker than those of the full-term infants (P<0.05). On aspect of temperament, each temperament

  17. 不同分娩方式对未足月胎膜早破的早产儿预后影响%The Prognosis Influence of Different Delivery Japes on Premature Infant with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓婕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prognosis influence of different delivery taps on premature infant with PPROM.Methods:75 cases of puerpera with PPROM were divided into cesarean section group(n=43) and eutocia group(n=32).The related indexes of new-born were analyzed,then.Results:The death rate in experimental group was 7.0%,the infection rate was 25.6%,and the data in eutocia group was 18.8% and 37.5%.The clinical effect in experimental group was significantly better than that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:For better prognosis,it should according to concrete situation to choose right delivery tape,and give right treatment for new-born.%目的:探讨不同分娩方式对未足月胎膜早破的早产儿预后影响.方法:将75例胎膜早破早产孕妇根据具体情况分为剖宫产组(n=43)和顺产组(n=32),对新生儿相关指标进行分析.结果:剖宫产组死亡率为7.0%,并发症率为25.6%,顺产组死亡率为18.8%,并发症率为37.5%,两组相比具有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:应根据产妇的具体情况,选择合适的分娩方式,并对新生儿给予妥当处理,以达到最佳的预后效果.

  18. Analgesic Effect of Maternal Human Milk Odor on Premature Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudesson de Chanville, Audrey; Brevaut-Malaty, Véronique; Garbi, Aurélie; Tosello, Barthelemy; Baumstarck, Karine; Gire, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Two studies have demonstrated an analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates, without specifying the method of olfactory stimulation. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates by using a standardized method of olfactory stimulation. This trial was prospective, randomized, controlled, double blinded, and centrally administered. The inclusion criteria for breastfed infants included being born between 30 and 36 weeks + 6 days gestational age and being less than 10 days postnatal age. There were two groups: (a) A maternal milk odor group underwent a venipuncture with a diffuser emitting their own mother's milk odor and (2) a control group underwent a venipuncture with an odorless diffuser. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score, with secondary outcomes being the French scale of neonatal pain-Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né (DAN) scale-and crying duration. All neonates were given a dummy. Our study included 16 neonates in the maternal milk odor group and 17 in the control group. Neonates exposed to their own mother's milk odor had a significantly lower median PIPP score during venipuncture compared with the control group (6.3 [interquartile range (IQR) = 5-10] versus 12.0 [IQR = 7-13], p = .03). There was no significant difference between the DAN scores in the two groups ( p = .06). Maternal milk odor significantly reduced crying duration after venipuncture (0 [IQR = 0-0] versus 0 [IQR = 0-18], p = .04). Maternal milk odor has an analgesic effect on preterm neonates.

  19. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

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    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  20. Meta-analysis of the risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants%早产儿颅内出血危险因素的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江林; 卢红艳; 王秋霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants. Methods Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Academic Literature Main Database, Chinese Science and Technology Periodi-cal Database, Wanfang Periodicals and Dissertation Database were searched for articles published from January 2000 to December 2012 on the risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants, with retrospective retrieval and manual retrieval as supplement. RavMan5.2 provided by Cochrane was used for meta-analysis. Fixed-or random-effects models were selected according to the results of heterogeneity test. Results Nine studies were conifrmed to be eligible. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%conifdence interval (CI) of the risk factors were as follows:gestation age≤32 weeks (OR=3.29, 95%CI=2.76-3.91), birth weight≤1 500g (OR=2.68, 95% CI=2.24-3.20), maternal complications (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.23-2.06), intrauterine distress or birth asphyxia (OR=2.42, 95% CI=2.06-2.84), mechanical ventilation (OR=3.23, 95% CI=2.55-4.09), metabolic acidosis (OR=2.88, 95%CI=2.04-4.05), use of high concentration of oxygen (OR=2.98, 95%CI=1.63-5.44), prenatal use of dexametha-sone (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.55-0.86), respiratory distress syndrome (OR=1.57, 95%CI=1.04-2.39). Those differences were all statistically signiifcant. There was no difference in caesarean section (OR=0.99, 95%CI=0.84-1.17), multiparity (OR=1.05, 95%CI=0.79-1.40) and gender (OR=1.25, 95%CI=0.97-1.59). Conclusions The risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants are gestation age≤32 weeks, birth weight≤1 500 g, maternal complications, intrauterine distress or birth asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, metabolic acidosis, use of high concentration of oxygen, respiratory distress syndrome, but prenatal use of dexamethasone can reduce the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants.%目的综合评价早产儿颅内出血的危险因素。方法检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed

  1. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Marie; Semenic, Sonia; Osorio Galeano, Sandra; Ochoa Marín, Sandra Catalina

    2014-01-01

    To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs) in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1) establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2) acquisition of parenting skills, and 3) getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Raffray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Methodology. Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1 establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2 acquisition of parenting skills, and 3 getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Conclusion. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  3. A qualitative study on the child care experience in mothers of premature infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit%新生儿重症监护室出院早产儿母亲育儿生活体验的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明芳; 藤本荣子; 晏玲; 王楠; 刘蕾

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解新生儿重症监护室出院早产儿母亲的育儿生活体验.方法 采用质性研究法,对16例早产儿母亲在婴儿出院后1个月时进行深度访谈.结果 母亲在早产儿出院后经历了“母乳喂养困难与哺乳不确定性的困惑”“自我育儿能力低下的无措感”“对早产儿常见症状的不安”“育儿负担感”“育儿信息所致的混乱与不安”等育儿体验.结论 早产儿母亲存在育儿困难,在育儿过程中感受到强烈的不安,探讨这个群体母亲的护理支持方案是当前急需解决的课题之一.%Objective To understand the child care experience in mothers of premature infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods In-depth interview was conducted on 16 mothers of premature infants one month after discharge from NICU. Results After discharged from NICU,the mothers experienced uncertainty of breastfeeding and frustration due to lack of breeding knowledge,sense of incompetency in child care,anxiety about symptoms of premature infants,burden of parenting, and confusion about conflict information for child care. Conclusion The mothers of premature infants experience difficulties and anxieties in child care. It is essential to further explore an effective nursing support program for the mothers of premature infants.

  4. 早产儿围生期脑损伤的危险因素及其防治策略%Risk factors and prevention strategies of perinatal brain injury in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 张婉娴

    2015-01-01

    Life quality of the premature babies after rescuing successfully was gained more attention by perina-tal medical field and society with the more success rate of premature rescue. The brain injury is one of the main factors affecting the long term prognosis of the premature infants. The major risk factors of brain damage include gestational age and birth weight,intrauterine hypoxia and infection,the mode of delivery and whether the resuscitation and later treat-ment skills proper and skilled,and so on. So the key point of preventing the brain injury is avoiding premature delivery and extending the gestational age as much as possible. If the premature delivery could not evitable,the obstetrician should use adrenal cortex hormones before delivery to promote fetal lungs maturition,since the increasing application of cortical hormone prenatally and decreasing using that after birth have been shown good effects on long term prognosis of the nervous system in the preterm infants. It is also confirmed that application of magnesium sulfate prenatally could prevent the premature brain injury. There are still no agreements on the relationship between the delivery modes and the brain injury of extremely low birth weight infants. But prolonging the stage of labor is sure to increase the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in the premature infants thereby affecting the long term prognosis. After birth,we should imple-ment the correct resuscitation processes by skilled and proper technical methods,in order to decrease the mortality and to improve the long term prognosis.%随着早产儿抢救成功率的日益提高,经抢救成活后的早产儿生命质量愈来愈受到围生医学界和社会的关注,其中脑损伤是影响早产儿远期愈后的主要因素之一。造成脑损伤的危险因素主要有出生时胎龄和体质量、宫内缺氧和感染、分娩方式的选择及后期复苏治疗技术方法是否恰当和熟练等。尽可能地避免早产和尽

  5. The clinical case of sildenafil administration in a very premature infant with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of oral sildenafil in a 7-month-old preterm newborn with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary arterial hypertension refractory to captopril and inhaled budesonide, and need of consistent oxygenation. Sildenafil was prepared as a powder for oral administration. Oral sildenafil treatment was continued for 11 months. Oxygen supplement was suspended after 4 months and captopril administration was finished after 7 months of sildenafil treatment. There were no adverse effects during the treatment period. The respiratory failure decreased significantly and pulmonary arterial pressure became normal after 7 months of sildenafil treatment.

  6. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  7. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  8. 早产儿眼病的筛查及早期治疗%Screening and early treatment on ophthalmopathy of premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏; 王瑞峰; 狄浩浩; 李彩红; 沈策英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of screening and early treatment on the eye disease of premature infant.Methods The fundus examination results with children wide-area digital fundus imaging system and photographs of 2852 eyes of 1426 premature infants from July 2013 to July 2015 in our hospital were taken.The data were analyzed and the early treatment was given.Results Among the fundus of 2852 eyes of premature infants,there were 182 eyes of retinopathy of prematurity,18eyes of congenital cataract,5 eyes of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy,4 eyes of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous,3 eyes of congenital choroidal coloboma,2 eyes of congenital optic disc dysplasia,and 2eye of congenital microphthalmia.There were 216 (7.57%) infants suffering from ophthalmopathy in total.In the 182 eyes of retinopathy of prematurity,37 eyes received retinal laser photocoagulation,16 eyes received intravitreal injection,15 eyes received intravitreal injection combined with retinal laser photocoagulation,5 eyes received vitrectomy combined with retinal laser photocoagulation,and some infants gave up the treatment.Conclusion Screening and early treatment on oculopathy of premature infant improve the vision and survival quality.%目的 探讨早产儿眼病筛查以及早期治疗的临床意义.方法 对2013年7月至2015年7月在我院行儿童数字化广域眼底成像系统(Children wide-area digital fundus imaging system,Ret-CamⅢ)检查的1426例(2852眼)早产儿进行眼底检查并照像,对收集的资料进行分析和风险评估并进行早期治疗.结果 对1426例(2852眼)早产儿进行眼病筛查,其中早产儿视网膜病变182眼、先天性白内障18眼、家族性渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变5眼、永存原始玻璃体增生症4眼、先天性脉络膜缺损3眼、先天视盘发育异常2眼、先天性小眼球2眼,共检查出患儿眼病216眼(7.57%).其中早产儿视网膜病变进行患儿视网膜激光光凝37

  9. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...