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Sample records for premature delivery miscarriage

  1. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  2. Validation of second trimester miscarriages and spontaneous deliveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneider, Kirstine; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the diagnosis of second trimester miscarriages/deliveries (16+0 weeks to 27+6 weeks of gestation) recorded as miscarriages in the Danish National Patient Registry or spontaneous deliveries in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, and asses the validity of risk factors, pregnancy...... complications, and cerclage by review of medical records. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 2,358 women with a second trimester miscarriage/delivery in first pregnancy and a subsequent delivery during 1997-2012, we reviewed a representative sample of 682 medical records. We searched for clinically important...... information and calculated positive predictive values of the registry diagnoses stratified by type of registry, as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and kappa coefficients of risk factors, pregnancy complications, and cerclage. RESULTS: Miscarriage/spontaneous delivery in the second...

  3. Miscarriage

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    ... often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Factors that may contribute to miscarriage include A genetic problem with the fetus Problems with the uterus or cervix Chronic diseases, such as polycystic ovary ...

  4. Miscarriage

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    ... address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e-mail was sent. Save ... fertilizes a woman’s egg. If either has the wrong number of chromosomes, miscarriage may happen. Blighted ovum. ...

  5. Caesarean delivery and subsequent stillbirth or miscarriage: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, S.M.; Kearney, P.M.; Kenny, L.C.; Khashan, A.S.; Henriksen, T.B.; Lutomski, J.E.; Greene, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of stillbirth and miscarriage in a subsequent pregnancy in women with a previous caesarean or vaginal delivery. DESIGN: Systematic review of the published literature including seven databases: CINAHL; the Cochrane library; Embase; Medline; PubMed; SCOPUS and Web of Kno

  6. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

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    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  7. Caesarean delivery and subsequent stillbirth or miscarriage: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Sinéad M O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of stillbirth and miscarriage in a subsequent pregnancy in women with a previous caesarean or vaginal delivery. DESIGN: Systematic review of the published literature including seven databases: CINAHL; the Cochrane library; Embase; Medline; PubMed; SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge from 1945 until November 11(th 2011, using a detailed search-strategy and cross-checking of reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies examining the association between previous caesarean section and subsequent stillbirth or miscarriage risk. Two assessors screened titles to identify eligible studies, using a standardised data abstraction form and assessed study quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: 11 articles were included for stillbirth, totalling 1,961,829 pregnancies and 7,308 events. Eight eligible articles were included for miscarriage, totalling 147,017 pregnancies and 12,682 events. Pooled estimates across the stillbirth studies were obtained using random-effect models. Among women with a previous caesarean an increase in odds of 1.23 [95% CI 1.08, 1.40] for stillbirth was yielded. Subgroup analyses including unexplained stillbirths yielded an OR of 1.47 [95% CI 1.20, 1.80], an OR of 2.11 [95% CI 1.16, 3.84] for explained stillbirths and an OR of 1.27 [95% CI 0.95, 1.70] for antepartum stillbirths. Only one study reported adjusted estimates in the miscarriage review, therefore results are presented individually. CONCLUSIONS: Given the recent revision of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines (NICE, providing women the right to request a caesarean, it is essential to establish whether mode of delivery has an association with subsequent risk of stillbirth or miscarriage. Overall, compared to vaginal delivery, the pooled estimates suggest that caesarean delivery may increase the risk of stillbirth by 23%. Results for the miscarriage review were inconsistent and lack of adjustment

  8. Choriodecidual inflammatory syndrome (CoDIS) is the leading, and under recognised, cause of early preterm delivery and second trimester miscarriage.

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    Sebire, N J

    2001-04-01

    Severe preterm birth (delivery before 32 completed weeks of gestation), with or without preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), remains the leading cause of perinatal mortality. It is proposed that localized inflammation of the chorion and decidua in the membranes immediately above the internal cervical os, with or without amniotic cavity infection and inflammation, is the leading, but under recognised, cause of second trimester miscarriage and severe preterm delivery. The term 'CoDIS' (choriodecidual inflammatory syndrome), may provide a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology than currently used terminology which over emphasizes the importance of overt intra-amniotic infection as opposed to localized extra-amniotic inflammation which stimulates uterine evacuation.

  9. Recurrence of second trimester miscarriage and extreme preterm delivery at 16 to 27 weeks of gestation with a focus on cervical insufficiency and prophylactic cerclage

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    Sneider, Kirstine; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to describe recurrence rates of second trimester miscarriage and extreme preterm delivery by phenotype and use of prophylactic cerclage in a register-based cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included women with a first second trimester miscarriage or ex...

  10. Misoprostol for miscarriage management in a woman with previous five cesarean deliveries: a case report and literature review

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    AlSaad D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doua AlSaad,1,2 Sawsan Alobaidly,3 Palli Abdulrouf,1 Binny Thomas,4,5 Afif Ahmed,1 Moza AlHail1 1Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Public Health Program, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women’s Hospital, 4Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 5Pharmacy and Life Sciences Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland Background: Misoprostol is an effective medical method for the management of pregnancy loss. However, data on its efficacy and safety in women with previous cesarean deliveries are limited.Case presentation: We report a 36-year-old patient, gravida 11 para 6, with a diagnosis of missed miscarriage at 15 weeks of gestation. The patient had a significant obstetric history of previous five cesarean deliveries and uterine rupture. Following patient counseling about the medical and surgical options of managing her miscarriage, the patient opted for medical method. Low-dose misoprostol of 100 µg was inserted vaginally and repeated again after 6 hours. The patient had an uneventful complete miscarriage following the second dose of misoprostol. No uterine rupture, no extra vaginal bleeding, and no blood transfusion were observed.Conclusion: We conclude that adopting a low-dose misoprostol protocol could be potentially safe and effective in managing second trimester missed miscarriage in women with repeated cesarean deliveries and/or uterine rupture history. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. Keywords: cesarean section, uterine rupture, prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, second trimester, miscarriage, abortion

  11. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  12. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

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    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.

  13. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

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    Betts Debra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage providing supportive care in a subsequent pregnancy improves live birthing outcomes, but the provision of supportive care to women experiencing threatened miscarriage has to date not been examined. Discussion While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture. Summary Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

  14. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function du

  15. Hypothyroxinemia and TPO-antibody positivity are risk factors for premature delivery: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, T.I.; Schalekamp-Timmermans, S.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Visser, W.E.; Visser, W. de; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Ross, H.A.; Hooijkaas, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Bongers-Schokking, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Visser, T.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Medici, M.; Peeters, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Premature delivery is an important risk factor for child mortality and psychiatric, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease later in life. In the majority of cases, the cause of prematurity cannot be identified. Currently, it remains controversial whether abnormal maternal thyroid function

  16. [Management of patients with a history of late abortion or very premature delivery].

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    Langer, B; Gaudineau, A; Sananes, N; Fritz, G

    2013-02-01

    Patients have a very late abortion or premature delivery in 2-3 % of pregnancies. Management in a subsequent pregnancy should seek an infection, a fetal cause (aneuploidy, malformation syndrome, intrauterine death) or vascular pathology (preeclampsia, IUGR, intrauterine death). In women with a late abortion or very premature childbirth history, several preventive treatments of prematurity are now available. The main cause of prematurity is ascending infection from the vagina. Cerclage or pessary is designed to better isolate the uterine cavity. Their effectiveness has been validated in patients for whom the repeated measurement of cervical length by transvaginal ultrasound shows a cervical length prematurity. Finally, the routine administration of intramuscular or vaginal progesterone at the beginning of the 2(nd) quarter also proved effective in several randomized studies.

  17. Predictors of premature delivery in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictive value of clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters for prematurity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).METHODS: Sixty symptomatic patients with ICP were included in this retrospective analysis. Preterm delivery was defined as delivery before 37 wk gestation.Predictors of preterm delivery were disclosed by binary multivariate logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Mean time of delivery was 38.1 ± 1.7 wk.No stillbirths occurred. Premature delivery was observed in eight (13.3%) patients. Total fasting serum bile acids were higher (47.8 ± 15.2 vs 41.0 ± 10.0 μmol/L, P <0.05), and pruritus tended to start earlier (29.0 ± 3.9 vs 31.6 ± 3.3 wk, P = 0.057) in patients with premature delivery when compared to those with term delivery.Binary multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that early onset of pruritus (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.95,P = 0.038) and serum bile acid (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.13-3.25, P = 0.013) were independent predictors of preterm delivery.CONCLUSION: Early onset of pruritus and high levels of serum bile acids predict preterm delivery in ICP, and define a subgroup of patients at risk for poor neonatal outcome.

  18. Cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor and the risk of subsequent premature birth.

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    Wood, Stephen L; Tang, Selphee; Crawford, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Cesarean delivery is being increasingly used by obstetricians for indicated deliveries in the second stage of labor. Unplanned extension of the uterine incision involving the cervix often occurs with these surgeries. Therefore, we hypothesized that cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor may increase the rate of subsequent spontaneous premature birth. We sought to determine if cesarean delivery in the late first stage of labor or in the second stage of labor increases the risk of a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of matched first and second births from a large Canadian perinatal database. The primary outcomes were spontaneous premature birth cesarean delivery. The protocol and analysis plan was registered prior to obtaining data at Open Science Foundation. In total, 189,021 paired first and second births were identified. The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor (relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.73 and relative risk, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.68, respectively). The risk of perinatal death in the second birth, excluding congenital anomalies, was also correspondingly increased (relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.96). Cesarean delivery in second stage of labor was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation in a subsequent birth. This information may inform management of operative delivery in the second stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infectious lesions of placenta as cause of miscarriage

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    A. V. Kolobov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature demonstratesimportant role played of infections in causes of miscarriage. The paper is based upon retrospective analysis of 12371 screening results of histological and selective immunohistochemical studies of placentas in 2009-12. Preterm births were in 706 cases (5.71%. Infection of the placenta was noted in early preterm labor in all cases (100%, and in premature labor at 28-36 weeks of gestation – in 97.35% of natural delivery cases and in 92.09% when cesarean delivery. Are described the typical structural changes that allow to suspect infections caused by Treponema pallidum, herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus with following verification by immunohistochemical study. 

  20. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

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    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord.

  1. RESULTS OF SANATORIUM REHABILITATION IN TREATMENT OF THE PREGNANT WOMEN WITH MISCARRIAGE

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    A. V. Zharkih

    2013-10-01

    pregnancy, chronic gastro, and chronic pyelonephritis. One woman in the main group had preterm delivery (3.85%. In the second group five women (16.7% had premature births. In the control group preterm labor was not observed. Deliveries in the first group of women were complicated by premature rupture of membranes in 18.3%, while in the second group, only in 12.5% of cases. In the control group, this figure was 20%. Births by caesarean section have been observed in two pregnant women in the main group (6.7% and in five (17.9% women in the comparison group. Average evaluation results by Apgar scores at 1st minute of the newborns in the first group was 7,8 ± 0,1, and at 5th minute - 8,3 ± 0,1, in the second group - 6,8 ± 0,5 and 7,2 ± 0 5 points respectively. There are established significant differences between the indices of the main group and the comparison group, as well as the main group and the control group. Conclusions. In women with threatened miscarriage during pregnancy and childbirth observed such complications as anemia during pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes, fetal distress, and premature delivery. There are marked positive effects of sanatorium rehabilitation in women with threatened miscarriage, which reduced the frequency of gestational complications and improve the outcome of delivery for the mother and fetus.

  2. Intravenous intralipid therapy is not beneficial in having a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage or failure to conceive despite embryo transfer undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

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    Check, J H; Check, D L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intralipid intravenous infusion in achieving a live pregnancy following IVF--embryo transfer in women of advanced reproductive age (40-42 years). A matched control was performed. Women aged 40-42 with a previous history of miscarriage or who failed to conceive despite previous embryo transfer who entered an IVF program were offered intravenous intralipid therapy (four ml of 20% liposyn II in 100 ml normal saline over one hour) during the mid-follicular phase. Clinical pregnancy rates (eight weeks with viable gestation) and live delivered pregnancy rates were then determined and compared. The results were evaluated after ten matched cycles. There were no clinical pregnancies in those receiving intralipid vs. a 40% clinical and a 30% live delivered pregnancy rate in the untreated controls (p = 0.087, Fisher's exact test). The study was terminated because of these preliminary data. In the test tube, adding intralipid to natural killer cells can inhibit their cytolytic action. However, the use of intravenous intralipid to suppress natural killer cell activity does not seem to improve the chance of a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage. In fact this therapy may actually be detrimental in this age group. Since efficacy of this therapy was not found in a group of advanced reproductive age, it is not clear why this should be effective for a younger population. A controlled study for the younger group is needed. Perhaps such a study could be limited to only those with miscarriage rather than also concluding failure to conceive despite embryo transfer. Intralipid failed to improve live delivered pregnancy rates in women with prior miscarriage or previous failure with embryo transfer.

  3. Role of Nitric Oxide in Shiga Toxin-2-Induced Premature Delivery of Dead Fetuses in Rats

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    Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections could be one of the causes of fetal morbimortality in pregnant women. The main virulence factors of STEC are Shiga toxin type 1 and/or 2 (Stx1, Stx2). We previously reported that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of rats in the late stage of pregnancy with culture supernatant from recombinant E. coli expressing Stx2 and containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces premature delivery of dead fetuses. It has been reported that LPS may combine with Stx2 to facilitate vascular injury, which may in turn lead to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NO is involved in the effects of Stx2 on pregnancy. Pregnant rats were i.p. injected with culture supernatant from recombinant E. coli containing Stx2 and LPS (sStx2) on day 15 of gestation. In addition, some rats were injected with aminoguanidine (AG), an inducible isoform inhibitor of NO synthase (iNOS), 24 h before and 4 h after sStx2 injection. NO production was measured by NOS activity and iNOS expression by Western blot analysis. A significant increase in NO production and a high iNOS expression was observed in placental tissues from rats injected with sStx2 containing 0.7 ng and 2 ng Stx2/g body weight and killed 12 h after injection. AG caused a significant reduction of sStx2 effects on the feto-maternal unit, but did not prevent premature delivery. Placental tissues from rats treated with AG and sStx2 presented normal histology that was indistinguishable from the controls. Our results reveal that Stx2-induced placental damage and fetus mortality is mediated by an increase in NO production and that AG is able to completely reverse the Stx2 damages in placental tissues, but not to prevent premature delivery, thus suggesting other mechanisms not yet determined could be involved. PMID:21206910

  4. Premature delivery influences the immunological composition of colostrum and transitional and mature human milk.

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    Castellote, Cristina; Casillas, Rosario; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida; Moretones, M Glòria; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Franch, Angels

    2011-06-01

    Human breast milk is the ideal nutrition for the newborn, and in addition to its nutritional contribution, necessary for infant growth and development, it contains various immune bioactive factors that confer some of the numerous beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The current study analyzed the concentrations of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2, cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and TNFα, and TNF-receptor I (TNF-RI) in colostrum and transitional and mature milk from mothers with mature, premature, and very premature infants. Human milk samples were collected from mothers delivering at term (T), preterm (PT), and very preterm (VPT). Milk from all the mothers was collected at 3 different time points after delivery corresponding to colostrum and transitional and mature milk. After obtaining milk whey, IgA, EGF, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 were determined by ELISA and IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNFα and TNF-RI by cytometric bead array immunoassay. The colostrum of the PT group was extremely rich in most of the factors studied, but higher concentrations than in the T group were only found for IL-6 (P = 0.051), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 (P IgA, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα than those in the T group (P < 0.05). Results suggest that maternal lactogenic compensatory mechanisms accelerating the development of immature breast-fed preterm infants may take effect only after wk 30 of gestation.

  5. Terminal Pregnancy Complicated by Measles and Premature Labor:a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Measles infection in pregnant women is a very dangerous clinical condition. Patients usually had complicated pneumonia, and virus could pass through the placenta to the fetus and lead to premature delivery, stillbirth, miscarriage and neonatal measles. In this report, one such case, which was diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms, clinical and laboratory examination was described. After proper therapeutic treatment, the infection was well-controlled and a baby was born by nature labor.

  6. Risks of miscarriage or preterm delivery in trichorionic and dichorionic triplet pregnancies with embryo reduction versus expectant management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Anthoulakis, C; Dagklis, T; Mamopoulos, A; Athanasiadis, A

    2017-06-01

    Is pregnancy outcome in triplet pregnancies improved with embryo reduction (ER) to twins compared to expectant management? In trichorionic triplet pregnancies, ER to twins reduces the risk of preterm birth (preterm birth. ER can ameliorate these conditions in higher order multiple gestations but is still controversial in triplets. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review, following the PRISMA guidelines, and critically appraise ER at 8-14 weeks of gestation in both trichorionic triamniotic (TCTA) and dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) pregnancies. Selective ER to twins was compared with expectant management, focusing on the risks of miscarriage and preterm birth. The computerized database search was performed on 8 January 2017. Overall, from 25 citations of relevance, eight studies with a total of 249 DCTA and 1167 TCTA pregnancies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive computerized systematic literature search of all English language studies between 2000 and 2016 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews (Cochrane Database and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and Google Scholar. Relevant article reference lists were hand searched. The management options were compared for rates of miscarriage preterm birth preterm birth were 7.4 and 50.2%, respectively. Meta-analysis demonstrated that ER to twins in TCTA pregnancies (n = 666) was associated with a lower risk (17.3 versus 50.2%) of preterm birth (RR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.28-0.48), whereas the risk of miscarriage (8.1% versus 7.4%) did not significantly increase (RR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.58-1.98). In DCTA triplets managed expectantly (n = 200), the rates of miscarriage and preterm birth were 8.5 and 51.9%, respectively. Although the meta-analysis was inconclusive, it suggested that ER to twins in DCTA triplets, either of the foetus with a separate placenta (n = 15) or one of the monochorionic pair (n = 34), was neither significantly associated with an

  7. Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Kieffer, Tom E.C.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part

  8. Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Kieffer, Tom E. C.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part

  9. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

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    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  10. Deciding treatment for miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Graungaard, Anette H; Husted, Gitte R

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women experiencing miscarriage are offered a choice of different treatments to terminate their wanted pregnancy at a time when they are often shocked and distressed. Women's and healthcare professionals' experiences of the decision-making process are not well described. We aimed...... to gain insight into this process and the circumstances that may affect it. METHOD: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with six women who had chosen and completed either surgical, medical or expectant treatment for miscarriage......: Despite information and pretreatment counselling, choice of treatment was often determined by unspoken emotional considerations, including fear of seeing the foetus or fear of anaesthesia. These considerations were not discussed during the decision-making process, which was a time when the women were...

  11. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  12. Predictive value on premature delivery of fFN combined with cervical canal length in twin pregnancy%fFN联合宫颈管长度对双胎妊娠早产的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁梅芬; 石雪金

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究胎儿纤维连接蛋白(fFN)联合宫颈管长度对双胎妊娠早产的预测价值。方法选择2014年9月~2015年9月在我院进行产检和住院安胎的双胎妊娠孕妇91例,入选孕妇在24~34周测定宫颈管长度(CL)和fFN,并追踪统计孕妇的妊娠结局。结果卡方检验结果表明在CL≤25mm的40例孕妇中, fFN阳性孕妇的早产率89.3%显著高于fFN阴性孕妇早产率50%(x2=7.431,P<0.05);在CL>25mm的51例孕妇中,fFN阳性孕妇早产率28.6%显著高于fFN阴性孕妇16.2%(x2=5.251,P<0.05)。fFN和宫颈管长度联合检测预测双胎妊娠早产的敏感性和特异度分别为89.3%和74.0%。结论 fFN联合宫颈管长度对双胎妊娠早产具有较高的预测价值,能够满足临床应用,值得在产科临床推广应用。%Objective To study the predictive value on premature delivery of fFN (fetal fibronectin) combined with cervical canal length in twin pregnancy.Methods 91 pregnant women with twin pregnancy, who were carried out prenatal examination and hospitalization miscarriage prevention in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015, were selected to mensurate the cervical canal length(CL) and fFN at 24-34 weeks, to tracking statistics the pregnancy outcome of pregnant women.Results The Chi-square test result showed that, of the 40 pregnant women of CL≤25mm, the premature delivery rate of fFN in positive pregnant women(89.3%) was significantly higher than which in negative pregnant women (50%)(x2=7.431,P25mm, the premature delivery rate of fFN in positive pregnant women(28.6%) was significantly higher than which in negative pregnant women(16.2%)(x2=5.251,P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of fFN and cervical canal length joint detection and prediction on premature delivery in twin pregnancy were respectively 89.3% and 74.0%. Conclusion FFN combined with cervical canal length on premature delivery in twin pregnancy has higher predictive

  13. Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160101.html Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage Dutch case finds woman's ... tied to maternal infection with the mosquito-borne Zika virus. The virus is best known for its ...

  14. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  15. 未足月妊娠胎膜早破并发早产108例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 108 Cases with Preterm Premature Rupture of Mem-brane Complicated by Premature Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宝珠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relevant treatment method and application effect of preterm premature rupture of mem-brane complicated by premature delivery. (Pregnant week was between 28 weeks to 34 weeks). Methods The clinical data of 108 cases of patients with preterm premature rupture of membrane complicated by premature delivery admitted and treated in out-patient department of our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the pathogenic factors of premature rupture of membranes, delivery method and general conditions of perinatal infants were analyzed. Results Vaginitis was a very com-mon cause of premature rupture of membranes, the incubation period of premature rupture of membranes was 2h-16d, (6.2± 1.3)d on average;and the difference in the A p-g a r score of perinatal infants between two delivery methods had no statis-tical significance by comparison (P>0.05); the differences in the incidence rate of complications of perinatal infants and death rate between the pregnant women whose pregnant weeks were between 28 weeks and 30 weeks and the pregnant women whose pregnant weeks were between 31 weeks and 34 weeks had statistical significance by comparison, (all P0.05);针对孕周处于28周与30周的孕产妇和孕周处于31周与34周的孕产妇,这两组围产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率相比,比较差异有统计学的意义(由于P<0.05)。结论要及时地借助于期待疗法对未足月妊娠胎膜早破并发早产患者进行治疗,在孕产妇破膜后,医务人员要适时给予其适量的宫缩抑制剂、糖皮质激素和抗生素等药物,以使孕产妇的潜伏期能够有效延长到孕30周以上,从而可以有效地降低早产儿的死亡率。

  16. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  17. Influences of controlled premature delivery on mothers and newborns%回顾性分析干预性早产对母婴预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金川

    2011-01-01

    Aim To understand the factors of controlled premature delivery and to detect its influences on mothers and newborns. Methods Data of 283 cases of premature delivery were analyzed retrospectively. The relation between controlled premature delivery and the prognosis of mothers and newborns, and the correlation between complication and gestational weeks and body weight were also analyzed.Results The common causes of premature delivery were severe PIH,ICP,placenta previa and so on. When compared with nature death birth,both of the complication and death rate of controlled premature infant decreased obviously( x2 =76.91 ,P < 0. 001 ), and the post partum hemorrhage and the pyretogenesia of delivery reduced too( x2 =6.82,P < 0.01 ). With the increase of gestational weeks and body weight,the complication and death rate of controlled premature infant decreased( P < 0. 001 ). Conclusions Choice of comtrolled prema ture delivery at the right moment can improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the complication and death rate of perinatal babies.%目的 了解早产发生的因素构成,探讨干预性早产对母婴预后的影响.方法 回顾性分析283例早产病例的临床资料,并分析干预性早产与母婴预后的关系及干预性早产儿的孕周、体重与并发症的相关性.结果 重度妊高征、妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)、前置胎盘等是造成早产的常见病因,相对于自然早产组,干预性早产儿并发症及死亡率明显降低(P<0.001),母亲产后出血和产褥热发生率也明显减少(P<0.01),随着孕周及体重的增加,干预性早产儿并发症及死亡率均明显降低(P<0.001).结论 适时选择干预性早产对减少围产儿并发症及死亡率、改善妊娠结局有益处.

  18. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. METHODS: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.

  19. Miscarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform a dilation and curettage (D&C) , a scraping of the uterine lining, or a dilation and ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  20. Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 503-512. Nussabaum RL, McInnes RR, Willard HF. Principles of clinical cytogenetics and genome analysis. In: Nussabaum RL, McInnes RR, Willard HF, eds. Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  1. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  2. Placental apoptosis in recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Atia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM. Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group. Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53 protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003. By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025. We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation.

  3. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Goy, Genevieve; Jaton, Katia; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Blumer, Serafin; Borel, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert

    2011-09-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage.

  4. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  5. New insights into mechanisms behind miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elisabeth Clare; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Kolte, Astrid Marie

    2013-01-01

    with repeated early pregnancy loss. In recent years, new theories about the mechanisms behind sporadic and recurrent miscarriage have emerged. Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest a multifactorial background where immunological dysregulation in pregnancy may play a role, as well as lifestyle factors......Sporadic miscarriage is the most common complication of early pregnancy. Two or three consecutive pregnancy losses is a less common phenomenon, and this is considered a distinct disease entity. Sporadic miscarriages are considered to primarily represent failure of abnormal embryos to progress...

  6. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  7. Use of cervicovaginal PAMG-1 protein as a predictor of delivery within seven days in pregnancies at risk of premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekmez, Yasemin; Kıran, Gürkan; Haberal, Esra Tuştaş; Dizdar, Merve

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the utility of vaginal placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) protein as a predictor of preterm delivery within 7 days in pregnancies at risk of premature birth. This prospective study was performed in women at risk of premature birth. The levels of vaginal PAMG-1 and foetal fibronectin (fFN) and the transvaginal cervical length measurement (CLM) were investigated and compared. Seventy-two pregnant women were included in this study. The sensitivities of PAMG-1, fFN and CLM were 73.3, 73.6%, and 52.9%, respectively, while the specificities of PAMG-1, fFN and CLM were 92.9%, 94.3%, and 90.9%, respectively. The positive predictive values of PAMG-1, fFN and CLM were 73.3%, 82.3%, and 64.2%, respectively, and the negative predictive values of PAMG-1, fFN and CLM were 92.9%, 90.9%, and 86.2%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of PAMG-1 is similar to that of fFN in terms of preterm labour detection within 7 days.

  8. 不同分娩方式对未足月胎膜早破的早产儿预后影响%The Prognosis Influence of Different Delivery Japes on Premature Infant with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓婕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prognosis influence of different delivery taps on premature infant with PPROM.Methods:75 cases of puerpera with PPROM were divided into cesarean section group(n=43) and eutocia group(n=32).The related indexes of new-born were analyzed,then.Results:The death rate in experimental group was 7.0%,the infection rate was 25.6%,and the data in eutocia group was 18.8% and 37.5%.The clinical effect in experimental group was significantly better than that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:For better prognosis,it should according to concrete situation to choose right delivery tape,and give right treatment for new-born.%目的:探讨不同分娩方式对未足月胎膜早破的早产儿预后影响.方法:将75例胎膜早破早产孕妇根据具体情况分为剖宫产组(n=43)和顺产组(n=32),对新生儿相关指标进行分析.结果:剖宫产组死亡率为7.0%,并发症率为25.6%,顺产组死亡率为18.8%,并发症率为37.5%,两组相比具有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:应根据产妇的具体情况,选择合适的分娩方式,并对新生儿给予妥当处理,以达到最佳的预后效果.

  9. Miscarriage after a normal scan at 12-14 gestational weeks in women at low risk of carrying a fetus with chromosomal anomaly according to nuchal translucency screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, M; Källén, K; Saltvedt, S; Almström, H; Grunewald, C; Valentin, L

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the risk of second-trimester miscarriage in women with low risk of carrying a fetus with chromosomal abnormality, according to nuchal translucency (NT) screening, and to determine whether NT thickness or other factors affect the risk. The study population comprised 14 278 singleton pregnancies with a risk of Down syndrome < 1:250 at NT scan, and where no fetal karyotyping was performed < 25 weeks. Risk factors for miscarriage were investigated by logistic regression. The median risk of Down syndrome was 1 : 3138 (range 1 : 9651-1 : 251) and median NT was 1.7 (range 0.4-3.0) mm. The miscarriage rate was 0.5% (77/14 278; 95% CI 0.4-0.6). After having controlled for maternal age, we found the number of previous deliveries and miscarriages to independently predict miscarriage: odds ratio (OR) for each previous delivery 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.94, P < 0.0001; OR for each previous miscarriage 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68, P = 0.01. Excluding women with any previous miscarriage and adjusting for parity, we found a U-shaped relationship between maternal age and miscarriage (P = 0.04). In singleton pregnancies with estimated risk of Down syndrome < 1:250 according to NT screening at 12-14 weeks, the spontaneous fetal loss rate before 25 weeks is likely to be around 0.5%. NT thickness up to 3 mm does not seem to affect the risk of miscarriage in such pregnancies. Instead, the risk seems to increase with number of previous miscarriages and deliveries, and possibly the risk is highest in the youngest and oldest women. Copyright (c) 2007 ISUOG

  10. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  11. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Albernaz, Elaine P; da Fonseca, Tânia M V

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Causal explanations of miscarriage amongst Qataris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilshaw, Susie; Omar, Nadia; Major, Stella; Mohsen, Mona; El Taher, Faten; Al Tamimi, Halima; Sole, Kristina; Miller, Daniel

    2017-07-27

    Despite its commonality, there is a paucity of literature on miscarriage in non-Western societies. In particular, there is little understanding of how people ascribe cause to miscarriage. This research sought to gain an in-depth understanding of notions of miscarriage causality and risk amongst Qataris. The study adopted an exploratory descriptive qualitative approach and collected data during 18 months of ethnographic research in Qatar, including semi-structured interviews. The sample includes 60 primary participants (20 pregnant women and 40 women who had recently miscarried), and 55 secondary participants including family members, health care providers, religious scholars and traditional healers. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Primary participants were interviewed in Arabic. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Data was analysed using an inductive thematic approach, which involved identification and application of multiple codes to different text segments. Data were encoded manually and examined for recurrences across the data set. Similar quotations were grouped into subcategories and further categorized into main themes. A number of key themes emerged, revealing Qatari women attributed miscarriages to a number of factors including: supernatural forces, such as God's will and evil eye; lifestyle, such as physical activities and consuming particular substances; medical conditions, such as diabetes; and emotional state, such as stress, and emotional upset. Resting, avoiding stress and upset, maintaining healthy diet, and spiritual healing (ruqyah) are seen as a means to avoid miscarriage. Practices and beliefs around miscarriage are embedded in social, cultural, religious and medical frameworks. Understanding the socio-cultural context and understandings of explanatory theories can enhance health care providers' understandings, resulting in improved communication and care.

  13. Indoor Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes Related to Fetal Growth, Miscarriage and Prematurity—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evridiki Patelarou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. We carried out a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases with the aim of summarizing and evaluating the results of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in “westernized” countries that have assessed indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with specific quantitative methods. This comprehensive literature search identified 16 independent studies which were deemed relevant for further review and two additional studies were added through searching the reference lists of all included studies. Two reviewers independently and critically appraised all eligible articles using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Of the 18 selected studies, 14 adopted a prospective cohort design, three were case-controls and one was a retrospective cohort study. In terms of pollutants of interest, seven studies assessed exposure to electro-magnetic fields, four studies assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four studies assessed PM2.5 exposure and three studies assessed benzene, phthalates and noise exposure respectively. Furthermore, 12 studies examined infant growth as the main birth outcome of interest, six examined spontaneous abortion and three studies assessed gestational age at birth and preterm delivery. This survey demonstrates that there is insufficient research on the possible association of indoor exposure and early life effects and that further research is needed.

  14. Influences of controlled premature delivery on mothers and newborns%重组人表皮生长因子和碘伏治疗颌面部皮肤软组织挫擦伤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏波

    2011-01-01

    Aim To understand the factors of controlled premature delivery and to detect its influences on mothers and newborns. Methods Data of 283 cases of premature delivery were analyzed retrospectively. The relation between controlled premature delivery and the prognosis of mothers and newborns, and the correlation between complication and gestational weeks and body weight were also analyzed.Results The common causes of premature delivery were severe PIH,ICP,placenta previa and so on. When compared with nature death birth,both of the complication and death rate of controlled premature infant decreased obviously( x2 = 76.91 ,P < 0. 001 ), and the postpartum hemorrhage and the pyretogenesia of delivery reduced too( x2 6.82,P < 0.01 ). With the increase of gestational weeks and body weight,the complication and death rate of controlled premature infant decreased( P < 0.001 ). Conclusions Choice of comtrolled premature delivery at the right moment can improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the complication and death rate of perinatal babies.%目的 观察外用重组人表皮生长因子(rhEGF)对颌面部皮肤软组织挫擦伤创面的治疗作用.方法 随机选择成年患者颌面部Ⅱ度创面40例,并将每例患者创面分为面积相近的两部分作为rhEGF组及碘伏组;伤后严格清创后,rhEGF组用含rhEGF的纱布覆盖创面,碘伏组用碘伏纱布覆盖创面,每日换药1次至创面愈合.观察创面愈合时间.结果 rhEGF组的愈合时间明显短于碘伏组.治疗过程中未见明显不良反应.结论 外用rhEGF能显著缩短愈合时间,无明显不良反应,安全性好.

  15. 父母亲社会经济状况与早产发生的关系%Association of parental socioeconomic status with premature delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东峰; 栗世如; 姜秀波; 李红彩; 吕秀翠

    2005-01-01

    premature delivery and one of the results with better repeatability in the studies on the pathogenesis, whether parental socioeconomic status is related to the occurrence of premature birth?OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of parental socioeconomic status with premature birth.DESIGN: A case-control study with the parents who has premature infants or normal infants as subjects.SETTING: Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical College of Qingdao University;Woman's Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingdao Municipal Haici Medicine Group; Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Qingdao Municipal Eighth People's Hospital PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of premature infants (n=227) were recruited from Qingdao Municipal Maternity and Children Health Institute and the Eighth People's Hospital, Qingdao, premature birth were confirmed according to the diagnostic standards; the control infants (n=750) were also recruited from the same place, they were delivered at pregnancy of from 38 to 42 weeks with birth mass of 3 000-4 000 g. Two groups were matched in sexual constitution and the birthday of within the same week.METHODS: Parents of two groups were asked to fill the self-made questionnaire. Maternal obstetric factors were referring to the perinatal booklet and infant birth record; meanwhile parental socio-economic status, daily-life behaviours and sociodemographic character were also investigated. Multivariate non-conditioned logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of correlative factors.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental school education, occupation, the annual family income, as well as bad living and behavioral habits.RESULTS: According to the real state, data of 227 premature infants and 750 normal control infants were analyzed finally. Maternal delivery age of > 35 years old (≤ 25 years old in normal control group), working as a teacher or unemployment (worker in control group), smoking and drinking during pregnancy, father's occupation as

  16. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF MISSED MISCARRIAGES USING VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL- A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Bahuleyan Santha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Missed miscarriage is one of the common cases encountered by the practicing obstetricians all over the world. Diagnosis is made early due to increased use of ultrasound. Medical management is as effective as surgical management, but many still resort to surgical management due to concerns about adherence of products to uterine wall. This may result in complications like perforation, infection, cervical injury and may affect future fertility. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is well accepted in medical abortion. Misoprostol alone is as efficient as the combination in missed miscarriage. In India, studies with misoprostol alone are limited. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of medical management in patients with first trimester miscarriage with misoprostol alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS After approval of Institutional Review Board, a total of 100 women with first trimester miscarriage were recruited for the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. After necessary investigations and consent, they were treated with 800 micrograms of vaginal misoprostol followed by 600 micrograms after 3 hours. Main outcome measured was successful resolution without surgical intervention. Secondary outcomes measured were the induction delivery interval, incidence of pain, excess vaginal bleeding, infection, pyrexia and other gastrointestinal side effects. RESULTS Complete expulsion occurred in 89% patients and surgical evacuation needed in 11%. Mean induction delivery interval was 6- 12 hours. Incidence of complete expulsion was more among primigravida than multigravida. In multi, complete expulsion was observed in patients with previous normal delivery than caesarean. Majority of patients had bleeding for less than 7 days. None of them had major side effects like sepsis or heavy bleeding. Minor side effects were fever, nausea, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. CONCLUSION Medical management with misoprostol is efficient

  17. Reliability of 46,XX results on miscarriage specimens: a review of 1,222 first-trimester miscarriage specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach

    2014-01-01

    To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC...

  18. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  2. Maternal miscarriage history and risk of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo

    2006-05-01

    Women with a history of reproductive loss may be at an increased risk of having an unfavourable outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Using data from a matched case-control study based on the record of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects, we evaluated the association between history of maternal reproductive loss and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states. Mothers of 157 cases of anencephaly and 151 controls born during the period March 2000 to February 2001, were interviewed about their reproductive history and other additional factors, including socio-economic characteristics, prenatal care, use of tobacco and alcohol, presence of chronic diseases, acute illnesses and fever during the periconceptional period, and consumption of multivitamins and medicines during this period; mothers who reported no prior pregnancies were excluded from the analysis; 58 matched case-control pairs were used for the analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, women with a history of miscarriage in previous pregnancies had 4.58 times more risk of having a child with anencephaly, than those who did not have this history; OR = 4.58, [95% CI 1.22, 17.23]. Our results suggest that a history of previous miscarriages is a risk indicator for anencephaly in future gestations. This does not necessarily mean that the miscarriage itself is the cause, but that common mechanisms could be involved in the aetiology of both events. Thus, women who have had histories of reproductive losses, especially miscarriages, should be a priority group for the primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects.

  3. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  4. Placental thrombomodulin expression in recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turi Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early pregnancy loss can be associated with trophoblast insufficiency and coagulation defects. Thrombomodulin is an endothelial-associated anticoagulant protein involved in the control of hemostasis and inflammation at the vascular beds and it's also a cofactor of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Discussion We evaluate the Thrombomodulin expression in placental tissue from spontaneous recurrent miscarriage and voluntary abortion as controls. Thrombomodulin mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Reduced expression levels of thrombomodulin were found in recurrent miscarriage group compared to controls (1.82-fold of reduction, that corresponds to a reduction of 45% (from control group Delta CT of thrombomodulin expression in spontaneous miscarriage group respect the control groups. Summary We cannot state at present the exact meaning of a reduced expression of Thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biological pathway of this important factor in the physiopathology of the trophoblast and in reproductive biology.

  5. 基质金属蛋白酶在早产动因中的研究%The Research of the Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Onset of Premature Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2011-01-01

    近年,无论在经济发达的国家或是边远落后地区,早产发生率均有上升趋势.早产儿死亡占新生儿死亡的45.9%-75%,存活的早产儿中8%-25%留有神经及智力方面的后遗症.早产的原因尚未阐明,但内在炎症反应是其主要病因.多种病原体可导致宫内感染,促进基质金属蛋白酶(MMPs)在成纤维细胞内快速表达,分解细胞外基质和调节氨基酸葡聚糖,刺激羊膜、蜕膜和绒毛膜产生前列腺素,从而促使胎膜早破、宫颈成熟和扩张、子宫收缩乃至胎盘剥离,导致早产的发生.%In recent years, premature delivery has an ascending trend in whatever developed countries or poorer areas. Premature infants is 45.9% 75% of neonates mortality, while 8% 25% survived infants have nerve and intelligence sequelae. The etiology of preterm labor and deliver is still not clear. Internal inflammation reaction may be its leading pathogeny. Manifold pathogen cause infection in uterine cavity, promote matrix metalloproteinases express rapidly in fibroblasts. MMPs decompose the extracellular matrix and regulate glycosamine, thus stimulates amnion,decidua and chorion to produce prostaglandin(PG). PG can result in the preterm premature rupture of the membranes,the cervical ripening and dilation, uterine contraction and placenta abruption. At the end, premature delivery is unavoidable.

  6. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  7. Risk of miscarriage among users of corticosteroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Nielsen, Rikke B; Nørgaard, Mette Lone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this nested case-control study in Denmark was to study the association between use of corticosteroids and risk of miscarriage.......The purpose of this nested case-control study in Denmark was to study the association between use of corticosteroids and risk of miscarriage....

  8. Management of first trimester miscarriage; new insight in old dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, M.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis and the related thesis by Marike Lemmers ‘Outcomes of treatment for first trimester miscarriage’ we describe the short and long term effects of misoprostol and curettage in the treatment of first trimester miscarriage. The first part describes current practice in miscarriage treatment

  9. Optimizing quality of care for couples with recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, E.

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of our research was to make a step forwards to decipher the enigma of the definition of recurrent miscarriage. We showed that the risk of underlying antiphospholipid syndrome and carrier status of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent miscarriage is not related to obstetr

  10. Pregnancy After Miscarriage: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Pregnancy after miscarriage can be stressful and confusing. When is the best time to get pregnant? What are ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/getting-pregnant/in-depth/pregnancy-after-miscarriage/art-20044134 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  11. [Characteristics of miscarriage and women's rights after pregnancy loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Magdalena; Sulima, Magdalena; Pyć, Maria; Stawarz, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The term "miscarriage" refers to the end of pregnancy before the 22nd week of gestation, or taking into account the criterion of foetal weight (less than 500 g). Approximately 15-20% of recognized pregnancies and miscarriage involve spontaneous expulsion of the blastocyst from the uterine cavity. This constitutes about 80% of miscarriages in the first 12 weeks of gestation. The literature lists a number of factors which cause the loss of pregnancies. The most frequently cited causes of abortion are: genetic, anatomical, immunological and hormonal factors, and infections. A large number of miscarriages remain unexplained (idiopathic miscarriages). Clinical signs of miscarriage include bleeding and pain. Bleeding or spotting is the earliest sign of miscarriage. Data from the patient's history, physical examination, ultrasound examination and tests for hCG level can enable diagnosis of bleeding in early pregnancy, help to assess the degree of risk, and implement an appropriate treatment regimen and care for pregnant women adapted to their needs. Loss of pregnancy is an interdisciplinary problem involving obstetrics, epidemiology, public health, psychology, and other specialities. The role of medical personnel in the care of women after the loss of a child, regardless of the week and therapeutic procedures, as well as for giving adequate information regarding the rights of women after pregnancy loss. The obligation to inform women of their rights concerns medical staff, and it is important to promote knowledge in this field among doctors, nurses and midwives who care for women after miscarriage.

  12. Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengxi; Fu, Jing; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-25

    Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high circulating levels of prolactin. Idopathic hyperprolactinemia is the term used when no cause of prolactin hypersecretion can be identified and it is causally related to the development of miscarriage in pregnant women, especially women who have a history of recurrent miscarriage. A possible mechanism is that high levels of prolactin affect the function of the ovaries, resulting in a luteal phase defect and miscarriage. A dopamine agonist is a compound with high efficacy in lowering prolactin levels and restoring gonadal function. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different types of dopamine agonists in preventing future miscarriage given to women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and a history of recurrent miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in all languages examining the effect of dopamine agonists on preventing future miscarriage. Women who had idiopathic hyperprolactinemia with a history of recurrent miscarriages were eligible for inclusion in this review. Comparisons planned included: dopamine agonists alone versus placebo/no treatment; and dopamine agonists combined with other therapy versus other therapy alone. Two review authors independently assessed a single trial for inclusion, evaluated trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. One study (recruiting 48 women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia) met our inclusion criteria; 46 women (42 pregnancies - 4/46 women did not conceive during the study period) were included in the analysis. The study compared the use of a dopamine agonist (bromocriptine, 2.5 mg to 5.0 mg/day until the end of the ninth week of gestation) versus a no-treatment control. The study was judged as being at a high risk of bias. It was not possible to carry out meta-analysis due to insufficient data.The study

  13. Pregnancy-triggered antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with multiple late miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Arnd; Engel, Joerg B; Segerer, Sabine E; Kranke, Peter; Häusler, Sebastian; Würfel, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystemic disorder of coagulation-causing thrombosis in the arterial and venous system as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia. The disease is characterized by the autoimmune production of antibodies against phospholipid, a substance found in the cell membrane. We here report the case of a patient with four second trimester miscarriages, who apart from a heterozygous plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 mutation, had no risk factors explaining her condition. In the subsequent pregnancy she was therefore put on low-molecular-weight heparin, aspirin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Antiphospholipid antibodies (APL), which had been negative before gestation, increased and remained high throughout pregnancy, thus suggesting a pregnancy-induced or -aggravated APS. The patient was kept on the above-mentioned medication and delivered a healthy male baby by Caesarean section after an otherwise uneventful pregnancy. Thus, in order to diagnose and treat pregnancy-triggered APS in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, screening for APL should also be performed at several time points after conception.

  14. Psychotherapeutic correction and rehabilitation of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Kupriyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage.Patients and methods. Psychotherapy for mental disorders and prenosological conditions was performed in 84 pregnant women aged 18 to 41 years with threatened miscarriage. The efficiency of performed measures was evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire, Spielberger–Hanin’s scale, and a therapy efficiency assessment scale in patients with borderline states. Delivery outcomes were analyzed in relation to management tactics in this cohort of pregnant women. The health status of newborn infants was assessed by the neonatologists of maternity hospitals.Results and discussion. After psychotherapeutic correction, the quality-of-life indicators in the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage from the study group were significantly higher than in those from the comparison group. The level of reactive and personality anxiety significantly decreased in the pregnant women in the study group. The pregnant women with the asthenic variant of prenosological conditions and those who had ICD-10 diagnoses F40-48 were most successful in the context of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Sporadic cases of incomplete recovery were noted when psychotherapeutical support was got. In the study group, pregnancy resulted in full-term babies in 100% of the women. In the pregnant women with prenosological conditions and mental disorders from the study group, parturition proceeded significantlymore rapidly than in those from the comparison study. Significantly higher physical quotients were found in the newborn babies from the study group parturients. The psychotherapy that supplements the complex system of therapeutic measures has been shown to be highly effective in the women with threatened miscarriage accompanied by mental disorders.

  15. Miscarriages of justice: the role of homicide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean

    2011-04-01

    Miscarriages of justice within the United Kingdom have received much publicity since the early nineties and served to undermine confidence in the Criminal Justice system. One fairly recent activity on the part of the Association of Chief Police Officers which has served to reduce the likelihood of such miscarriages is the principle of the review of major crime investigations and in particular murder inquiries. This paper reflects upon the possible causes of flawed investigations which have led to miscarriages of justice over the recent past and refers to the major academic work which supports the principle of reviewing murder inquiries.

  16. 我国职业性噪声接触与女工早产关系Meta分析%Meta analysis on correlation between occupational noise exposure and women premature delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶秀坤; 李存肖; 金士杰; 谭志云

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究职业性噪声接触与女工发生早产之间的关系。方法收集1985—2012年国内公开发表的关于职业性噪声接触与女工发生早产有关的文献,严格按照纳入和剔除标准筛选接触稳态噪声的文献。根据噪声接触强度将女工分为85~89 dB(A)组、90~99 dB(A)组、100~115 dB(A)组和对照组。采用Review Manager 4.2软件进行Meta分析,计算合并的相对危险度( RR)值及其95%可信区间( CI)。结果19篇文献纳入Meta分析。85~89 dB(A)组女工早产发生率和对照组差异无统计学意义[RR=1.13,95%CI为(0.85~1.50),P>0.05];90~99 dB(A)组和100~115 dB(A)组女工早产的发生率均高于对照组[RR分别为1.71和1.94,95%CI分别为(1.18~2.480和(1.61~2.33),P>0.05]。结论孕期接触职业噪声≥90 dB(A)时,女工发生早产的风险增加。%Objective To analyze the correlation between occupational noise exposure and women premature delivery. Methods The domestic publication literature about occupational noise exposure and women premature delivery from 1985 to 2012 were collected. According to the inclusion and exclusion standard,literatures of occupational steady-state noise expo-sure were selected strictly. Based on the levels of steady-state noise exposure,female workers were sorted into 85-89 dB( A) group,90-99 dB( A)group,100-115 dB( A)group and control group. Meta analysis was carried out with Review Manager 4.2 software. Pooled relative risk(RR)and 95% confidence intervals(CI)were calculated as well. Results Nineteen domestic publication literatures were included in the Meta analysis. Compared with the control group,the premature delivery rate in 85-89 dB(A)group was no statistical significant difference(RR=1. 13,95%CI:0. 85-1. 50,P>0. 05),but the premature delivery rates both in 90-99 dB( A)group and 90-99 dB( A)group were significantly increase respectively( RR=1. 71,95%CI:1. 18-2. 48,P<0. 01;RR=1

  17. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K

    2014-01-01

    MEASURES: Miscarriage before 22 completed weeks of gestation. RESULTS: The potentially modifiable pre-pregnant risk factors associated with increased miscarriage risk were: age of 30 years or more at conception, underweight, and obesity. During pregnancy the modifiable risk factors were: alcohol......OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: Information on potentially modifiable risk factors before and during pregnancy was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews and linkage with Danish registers, ensuring almost complete follow-up of pregnancy...

  18. Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...

  19. The Effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, Pia; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunological disturbances are hypothesised to play a role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore intravenous immunoglubulins (IVIg) have been tested in RM patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to investigate the benefits and harms of IVIg versus placebo, no intervention...

  20. Chromosome 12;15 rearrangements in patients with recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An abnormal karyotype in either partner, especially featuring a translocation and/or inversion is considered to be a cause of recurrent miscarriages. It is generally assumed that recurrent miscarriage might be due to recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus due to a balanced aberration in one of the parents being inherited by the offspring in an unbalanced form. Aim: Evaluation of chromosomal rearrangements in couples with recurrent miscarriages. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood was collected and lymphocyte cultures were set up. Slides prepared from the cell suspension were stained and screened for metaphases followed by karyotyping. Result: Balanced translocation was observed in the male partner in one case and in the female partners in the three other cases. Conclusion: Couples with recurrent miscarriage should be investigated for chromosomal rearrangements, thus helping in genetic counseling and providing the options for future pregnancies.

  1. Prognosis for live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2012-01-01

    To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic.......To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic....

  2. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  3. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  4. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  5. Ventricular fibrillation induced by a radiofrequency energy delivery for idiopathic premature ventricular contractions arising from the left ventricular anterior papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takumi; McElderry, H Thomas; Allred, James D; Doppalapudi, Harish; Kay, G Neal

    2009-08-01

    A 73-year-old man with idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) underwent electrophysiological testing. Left ventricular activation mapping revealed a focal mechanism of the PVCs with the earliest activation on the anterior papillary muscle (APM). Irrigated radiofrequency (RF) current delivered at that site induced a cluster of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia episodes with the same QRS morphology as the PVCs, followed by ventricular fibrillation (VF). The APM might have served as an abnormal automatic trigger and driver for the VF occurrence. Ventricular fibrillation may occur as a complication during RF catheter ablation of papillary muscle ventricular arrhythmias even if the clinical arrhythmia is limited to PVCs.

  6. Heavy metals in miscarriages and stillbirths in developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cases of miscarriage and stillbirths due to heavy metal poisoning continue to be on the rise in developing nations. In these countries like Nigeria, the menace of miscarriage is not readily linked to heavy metal exposure. This could be as a result of insufficient scientific data available due to poor documentation and inadequate public health education on the consequences of these heavy metals on maternal health. The heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium are toxicants which have been shown to cross the placental barrier to accumulate in fetal tissues. Methods: For this review, relevant databases were searched for original scientific reports and a total of 100 articles were retained for analysis. Required data was extracted from these studies and their methodology assessed. Results: Miscarriages and stillbirths were observed from exposure to five heavy metals namely; mercury, arsenic, lead, chromium and cadmium. These heavy metals were associated with increased incidence of miscarriages in developing nations. In Nigeria, women with history of miscarriage had blood lead levels >25 µg/dL during pregnancy with approximately 41.61% increase in miscarriage incidence. Cadmium blood level was found to be 85.96 ± 1.09 μg/dl with a 9.50% increase in miscarriage incidence in women exposed to mercury in comparison to the unexposed group. For chromium, a 1.60% increase in the incidence of miscarriage in women exposed to chromium was reported. For cadmium and arsenic, 83.93% and 5.88% increase in incidence were reported respectively. Similar data were obtained for Jamaica (mercury = 7.29 ± 9.10 μg/l, Egypt (Cadmium = 1.17%; Lead = 32.33%. Conclusion: Medical practitioners and Toxicologists involved in women health in sub-Sahara Africa SSA should consider if these heavy metals can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of miscarriages and stillbirths.

  7. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The influence of antibiotic application time on delivery outcom after premature rupture of membranes%抗生素应用时间对胎膜早破分娩结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武鹤立; 桑霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胎膜早破发生后抗生素使用时间与分娩结局之间的关系及抗生素使用对分娩结局的影响.方法 选取住院分娩的474例胎膜早破产妇作为研究对象,根据胎膜早破时间分组,其中在破水后12h之内者分为A组,共284例,随机分为A1组与A2组,分别为142例;在破水后12 ~24 h之内者为B组,共120例;破水后24h后者为C组,共70例.A2组、B组、C组均给与抗生素静脉滴注,A1组不给予静脉滴注,观察妊娠结局.结果 B组与A组、C组与A组分娩方式、胎儿宫内窘迫、新生儿窒息、绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);A2组与A1组分娩方式、胎儿宫内窘迫、新生儿窒息、绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 破水12 h之内产妇如无明确证据证明有感染的情况下可以不使用抗生素,是否使用抗生素并不影响分娩结局.%Objective To explore the relationship between antibiotic application time and delivery outcome after the premature rupture of membranes,and to explore the effect of using antibiotics to delivery outcome.Methods 474 premature rupture of fetal membranes parturient who deliver in our desk work were selected as study objects.According to the time of premature rupture of membranes,the patients were dividwd into groups.The patients that bear children within 12h after the membrane rupture are divided into A group.A group had 284 cases and they were randomly divided into two groups,A1 group and A2 group,both of which had 142 cases.The patients that beared children within 12 ~ 24h after the membrane rupture were divided into B group.B group had 120 cases.The patients that beared children 24h after the membrane rupture were divided into C group.C group had 70 cases.A2 group,B group and C group were all given antibiotic intravenous infusion,A1 group was not given that.The pregnancy outcome was observed.Results B group and A group,C group and A

  9. Sexuality in pregnancy and premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, P A; Dodos, D; Mechleris, D

    1984-09-01

    The relation of sexual behaviour during pregnancy to the initiation of labour was investigated in 358 patients of whom 58 were delivered after premature labour and 300 were delivered spontaneously at term. In all patients the mean weekly coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm were investigated by means of a retrospective questionnaire. There was no significant difference in coital or orgasmic frequency between the women who had a premature labour and those who had a spontaneous delivery at term. This was also true when those having premature labour were divided into those starting labour with ruptured membranes and those starting with contractions.

  10. Recurrent miscarriage is a useful and valid clinical concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological, clinical and biochemical risk factors are known for recurrent miscarriage (RM), the etiology is mainly unknown. Two main hypotheses dominate: that RM is mainly caused by aneuploid conceptions and other conception errors and that the recurrence rate is explained by the co......Although epidemiological, clinical and biochemical risk factors are known for recurrent miscarriage (RM), the etiology is mainly unknown. Two main hypotheses dominate: that RM is mainly caused by aneuploid conceptions and other conception errors and that the recurrence rate is explained...

  11. Platelet function in patients with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage who subsequently miscarry again.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Mark Anthony

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate platelet aggregation in pregnant women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and to compare platelet function in such patients who go on to have either another subsequent miscarriage or a successful pregnancy.

  12. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    , and congenital malformations. Neonatal sepsis occurs in about 5% of live births following premature rupture, but the rate triples after 24 hours, especially in premature infants. The rate of neonatal asphyxia also increases considerable after 24 hours. Congenital malformations, prolapse of the cord, and pelvic presentation are positively associated with premature rupture of membranes. If the decision is made to interrupt the pregnancy, it should be done between 12-24 hours after rupture because the risks of infection and respiratory difficulty are most balanced at that point. Vaginal deliveries should be preferred only if conditions are favorable for a prompt delivery. The gestational age, presence of infection, obstetric condition of the mother, and indication for hysterectomy are the most important points to consider i management of premature rupture.

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, O B; Larsen, E C; Egerup, P;

    2015-01-01

    .70-1.74). In a per protocol analysis, almost identical results were found. The median gestational length at delivery was higher in the IVIg than the placebo group (282 versus 272 days, P = 0.02) but the mean birthweight was not significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, which is the largest so far, IVIg...

  14. A genome-wide scan in affected sibling pairs with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage suggests genetic linkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Astrid Marie; Nielsen, H S; Moltke, Ida;

    2011-01-01

    Previously, siblings of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM) have been shown to have a higher risk of miscarriage. This study comprises two parts: (i) an epidemiological part, in which we introduce data on the frequency of miscarriage among 268 siblings of 244 patients with IRM an...

  15. ClinicalAnalysisof92CasesofPrematureRuptureofMembranesOccurredReasons%92例胎膜早破发生原因的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analyze the reasons for the occurrence of 92 cases of premature rupture of membranes, explore the diagnosis and treatment process, premature rupture of membranes to reduce the incidence of perinatal complications, reduce perinatal mortality.Methods On 1 June 2010 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shangqiu Medical College maternal obstetric hospital 92 patients with PROM were retrospectively analyzed.Results Premature rupture of membranes accounted for 10.2%of the total number of deliveries, the main reason for the lower genital tract infections (such as:vaginitis), induction of labor history of multiple miscarriages, breech. Actively miscarriage, handling more than 35 weeks pregnant as long as possible to seek to facilitate the treatment of fetal lung maturity can reduce the incidence of neonatal RDS.Conclusion Emphasis on reproductive health knowledge propaganda and education of pregnant women, universal access to sex education, providing quality contraceptive services is of great signiifcance to reduce the occurrence of premature rupture of membranes, reduce the incidence of perinatal complications, reduce perinatal mortality.%  目的对92例胎膜早破发生的原因进行分析,探讨诊治胎膜早破过程中减少围生期母婴并发症的发生,降低围生儿病死率。方法对2010年1~6月份在商丘医学高等专科学校第一附院产科住院的92例胎膜早破的孕产妇进行回顾性分析。结果胎膜早破占分娩总数的10.2%,其主要原因为下生殖道感染疾病(如:阴道炎)、有多次流产引产史、臀位等。处理上积极保胎,尽可能延长至孕35周以上,争取促进胎肺成熟治疗,可减少新生儿RDS的发生。结论重视孕期孕妇生殖保健知识宣传教育,普及性知识教育,提供优质的避孕技术服务,对降低胎膜早破的发生,减少围生期母婴并发症的发生,降低围生儿病死率具有重要意义。

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity (ROP) Facts About Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) This information was developed by the National Eye ... blind from ROP. Are there different stages of ROP? Yes. ROP is classified in five stages, ranging ...

  17. Future directions of failed implantation and recurrent miscarriage research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid M

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent implantation failure is today the major reason for women completing several IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts without having achieved a child, and is probably also the explanation for many cases of unexplained infertility. Most causes of recurrent miscarriage are still poorly...

  18. Future directions of failed implantation and recurrent miscarriage research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid M

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent implantation failure is today the major reason for women completing several IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts without having achieved a child, and is probably also the explanation for many cases of unexplained infertility. Most causes of recurrent miscarriage are still poorl...

  19. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a mult

  20. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, A.; Williams, H.; Truchanowicz, E.; Seed, P. T.; Small, R.; Quenby, S.; Gupta, P.; Dawood, F.; Koot, Y. E. M.; Atik, R. Bender; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Brady, R.; Briley, A. L.; Cavallaro, R.; Cheong, Y. C.; Chu, J. J.; Eapen, A.; Ewies, A.; Hoek, A.; Kaaijk, E. M.; Koks, C. A. M.; Li, T. -C.; MacLean, M.; Mol, B. W.; Moore, J.; Ross, J. A.; Sharpe, L.; Stewart, J.; Vaithilingam, N.; Farquharson, R. G.; Kilby, M. D.; Khalaf, Y.; Goddijn, M.; Regan, L.; Rai, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a multic

  1. Trimethoprim use in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Petersen, M; Jimenez-Solem, E;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibiotic trimethoprim acts as a folate antagonist. Since trophoblasts are very sensitive to drugs that interfere with the folic acid cycle and thereby inhibit DNA synthesis, use of trimethoprim during the first trimester could be associated with miscarriage. A nationwide cohort study...

  2. Active or passive immunization in unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Bjorn

    2004-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether active immunotherapy with allogeneic lymphocyte transfusions (ALT) or passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) improve the chance of live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (RM). Meta-analyses of the placebo-controlled trials...

  3. [Recurrent miscarriage turns out to be lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, I.M.W.; Limonard, G.J.; Vreuls, W.; Sporken, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If a positive pregnancy test is followed by profuse vaginal bleeding, the diagnosis of miscarriage can generally be made. Sometimes, however, elevated hCG levels may be associated with a phantom pregnancy, which may be a paraneoplastic symptom. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman was r

  4. Structural genomic variation as risk factor for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Palta, Priit; Kasak, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ∼3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs...

  5. Supportive care for women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: patients' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Musters; E.F. Taminiau-Bloem; E. van den Boogaard; F. van der Veen; M. Goddijn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supportive care is currently the only 'therapy' that can be offered to women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM). What these women themselves prefer as supportive care in their next pregnancy has never been substantiated. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore what women

  6. Time to pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Cox; J.W. van der Steeg; P. Steures; P.G.A. Hompes; F. van der Veen; M.J.C. Eijkemans; J.H. Schagen van Leeuwen; C. Renckens; P.M.M. Bossuyt; B.W.J. Mol

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the time to spontaneous ongoing pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in 38 fertility centers in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Subfertile couples who miscarried after completing their bas

  7. [Recurrent miscarriage turns out to be lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, I.M.W.; Limonard, G.J.; Vreuls, W.; Sporken, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If a positive pregnancy test is followed by profuse vaginal bleeding, the diagnosis of miscarriage can generally be made. Sometimes, however, elevated hCG levels may be associated with a phantom pregnancy, which may be a paraneoplastic symptom. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman was

  8. Medical management of first trimester miscarriage according to ultrasonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Thomas; Nilas, Lisbeth; Rørbye, Christina

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of medical treatment of first trimester miscarriages may depend on the regimen used, the definition of success, clinical symptoms, and, possibly, on the ultrasonographic findings. Our primary aim was to assess if a single dose of misoprostol could reduce the number of sur...

  9. Recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies: prognosis of subsequent pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D.M.; Goddijn, M.; Middeldorp, S.; Korevaar, J.C.; Dawood, F.; Farquharson, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although women with antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) are at increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy is not clearly elucidated. Objectives: To assess the pregnancy outcome of a subsequent pregnancy in women with APLAs and compare this outcome with

  10. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  11. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  12. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  13. The observation and nursing of premature vaginal delivery of 32 cases of scarred uterus pregnancies%32例瘢痕子宫再次妊娠早产阴道分娩的观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁筱枫

    2013-01-01

    To identify nursing experience of preterm vaginal delivery in 32 scarred uterus pregnancies. Advantage prepartum (intrapartal)environment, reasonable staff arrangement, positive psychological nursing care are so beneficial to release the uneasy and anxious status of puerperal as to colaborating with the nursing treatment. Possess intrapartal pain management and labor and complication monitoring, mitigating the labor pain, preventing from complicated diseases such as protraction disorder and uterine rupture, ending up with normal delivery. Postpartum hemorrhage and premature infant nursing care are essential to decrease the risk of vital diseases.%  总结32例瘢痕子宫再次妊娠早产阴道分娩的护理经验。分娩前环境、人员安排使患者处于舒适、优美的分娩环境,对患者进行心理护理指导,缓解患者的焦虑、紧张情绪极,主动和积极配合护理治疗。分娩时加强疼痛管理及产程和并发症的监测和观察,以减少患者痛苦,防止产程延长及子宫破裂等严重并发症的发生,以确保胎儿顺利分娩。产后阴道出血的观察与护理以及早产儿护理使母婴度过危险阶段,确保母婴的安全。

  14. Intraperitoneal administration of shiga toxin type 2 in rats in the late stage of pregnancy produces premature delivery of dead fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdet, J; Zotta, E; Franchi, A M; Ibarra, C

    2009-06-01

    Infection associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and subsequent Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS) have become relevant in public health since STEC is considered as one of the most important emergent pathogens. STEC infection may either be asymptomatic or begin with watery diarrhea associated with hemorrhagic colitis and HUS. The major virulence factor of STEC is Shiga toxin type 1 or 2 (Stx1, Stx2) although strains that express only Stx2 are highly prevalent. Up to now, it has not been established whether STEC infection affect pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Stx2 on maternal lethality, fetal status and delivery time by injecting Stx2 in rats in the late stage of pregnancy. Stx2 induced fetal resorption, placental abruption, intrauterine hemorrhage and fetal death at 1-2 days post-injection in a dose-dependent manner. With 2ng Stx2/g body weight, placentas and fetuses presented extensive necrotic areas, while uteri and kidneys showed normal histology. Immunolocalization of Stx2 was observed in placentas and fetuses. With 4 and 6ng Stx2/g body weight maternal death was also observed. Those rats that survived after Stx2-treatment were able to become pregnant and deliver normal pups at term. Our results show, for the first time, that the preterm labor with fetal death observed in treated rats may be a consequence of the action of Stx2 on the feto-maternal unit. Although there are no reports of Stx2 effects in human pregnancy, we speculate that STEC infections could be one of the causes not yet determined of fetal morbimortality.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  16. Infection and prematurity and the role of preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kalache, Karim

    2002-08-01

    This article reviews the role of infection in spontaneous premature parturition, the pathways of ascending intrauterine infection, microbiology, and the frequency of intra-amniotic infection in obstetrical complications leading to premature delivery. The evidence that infection is causally linked to premature birth is critically examined, as is the relationship between urogenital tract infection/colonization with microorganisms and the risk of preterm birth. The effect of antibiotic administration in perinatal outcome in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, asymptomatic bacteriuria, Group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas of the lower genital tract, and bacterial vaginosis are critically examined.

  17. 引起早产的相关因素及相应护理措施分析%Analysis of relevant factors caused the premature birth and the appropriate care measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳春蓉

    2012-01-01

      Objective: analysis of relevant factors causing premature and corresponding nursing measures. Methods: from May 2010 to October 2011, 200 cases of premature birth data were retrospectively analyzed, compared with 200 cases of the same period in full-term. Results: By comparing the analysis are main factors lead to premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, twin pregnancy, the placenta during pregnancy intrahepatic cholestasis breech, pregnancy-induced hypertension disease, history of recurrent miscarriage, preterm delivery, pregnancy vaginitis, low-income people, and did not accept the pregnancy test pregnant women belong to the premature delivery of high-risk groups. Conclusion: The factors for all kinds of preterm birth and preterm delivery of high-risk groups, the use of early prevention and care measures to improve systems management of high-risk pregnant women and active treatment can effectively reduce the occurrence probability of preterm birth and the chance of death.%  目的:分析研究造成早产的有关因素和相对应的护理措施。方法:选取2010年5月到2011年10月的200例早产产妇资料进行回顾性分析,将其与200例同期足月产比较。结果:通过对比分析显示,胎膜早破、双胎妊娠、胎盘因素、妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症、臀位、妊娠高血压疾病等属于导致早产的主要因素,反复流产史、早产史、孕期阴道炎、低收入人群以及没有接受孕检的孕妇属于早产高危人群。结论:针对各类早产因素和早产高危人群,使用早期预防、提高高危孕妇的系统管理以及积极治疗等护理措施,能够有效的减少早产的发生几率和死亡几率。

  18. Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Besharat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests. Results: At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%. Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%. ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case. Conclusion: We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.

  19. CORRECTING MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE BEING A COMPONENT TO THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of right(s or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1 A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2 A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3 An agent commis-sioned to operate by a specific ruling would ascertain and eliminate a miscarriage of justice; 4 A specific way of proving a miscarriage of justice; 5 Actual miscarriage of justice has not been subsequent upon the fault / negli-gence having been let / tolerated / omitted by the judge who passed the final adjudication. Eliminating a miscar-riage of justice by the superior court should be one of three steps required for judicial defense. The first step shall be referring to the court and the hearing of the case by the court of first instance with the final disposition of the case that should be mandatory. The second and third steps shall be eliminating a miscarriage of justice and enforcing the court‟s disposition, – should be secured by the State as the effective remedies of judicial defense, and the party con-cerned may involve these when required.

  20. The effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Borrell, Antoni; Garcia-Posada, Raul; Borobio, Virginia; Muñoz, Miriam; Creus, Montserrat; Soler, Anna; Sanchez, Aurora; Balasch, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Is there any effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage? There was no significant difference in the chromosome abnormality rate between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage but the chromosome abnormality rate increased significantly with maternal age. About 50-70% of non-recurrent miscarriages occur because of a chromosomal anomaly, but no agreement about the effect of either maternal age or the number of previous miscarriages on the chromosomal anomaly rate has been reached. A retrospective cohort of 353 miscarriages successfully karyotyped in the same center between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to the number of miscarriages and maternal age. Among the 353 women, 153 were below 35 years (73 with sporadic, 48 with two and 32 with recurrent miscarriage) and 200 were 35 years or more (81 with sporadic, 55 with two and 64 with recurrent miscarriage). The chromosomal anomaly rate and the anomaly spectrum were compared between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, within the two maternal age groups, using the chi-square test and the Bonferroni correction for all the P-values. Risk of chromosomal anomaly was estimated for maternal age, number of miscarriages and previous live births by multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Sporadic and recurrent miscarriage did not show significantly different chromosomal anomaly rates (68 versus 60%) and maternal age was the only statistically significant predictor of the chromosomal anomaly risk we identified. Some trends were observed in the chromosomal anomaly spectrum when sporadic was compared with recurrent miscarriage: recurrent miscarriage exhibited a decrease in viable trisomies (37 versus 11%) and an increase in non-viable trisomies (38 versus 57%) in women >35 years, together with an increase in unbalanced structural anomalies (4.9 versus 29%) in younger women. The mixed origin of our study population, and the limited number of recurrent miscarriages, particularly in

  1. Effect of delivery time of primiparous women after term premature rupture of membrane on mothers and their neonates%初产妇足月胎膜早破后分娩时间对母儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敏泓; 陈晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effects of the interval time between premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and delivery and antibiotics on prognosis of neonates and their mothers. Methods: A total of 452 primiparous women with PROM were analyzed retrospectively , and then they were divided into group A, group B, group C, and group D according to the interval time; the cesarean section rates, the amounts of postpartum hemorrhage, the incidences of chorioamnionitis, and the incidences of fetal distress in the four groups were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who gave birth to their babies within 12 hours after PROM were divided into group one and group two, the patients in group one were treated with antibiotics to prevent infection, while the patients in group two were not treated with antibiotics. Results: The infection rates of mothers and their neonates in group A, group B, group C, and group D increased gradually, the incidences of fetal distress, the rates of cesarean section, and the incidences of chorioamnionitis increased gradually; there was no statistically significant difference in infection rate between group one and group two (P > 0. 05) . Conclusion: Delivery after PROM as early as possible can effectively reduce various complications, the patients expected to delivery within 12 hours after PROM dont need antibiotics to prevent infection.%目的:探讨胎膜早破~分娩的时间间隔以及抗生素对新生儿和母亲预后的影响.方法:对初产胎膜早破患者452例进行回顾性分析,按胎膜早破~临产时间间隔分为A、B、C、D组,统计并分析各组产妇剖宫产率、产后出血量、绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率、胎儿窘迫发生率.胎膜早破后在12 h内分娩者进一步分为甲乙两组,甲组应用抗生素预防感染,乙组不用抗生素.结果:A、B、C、D各组母婴感染率逐渐升高,胎儿窘迫、手术产率及胎盘胎膜发生重度羊膜炎逐渐增加;甲乙两亚组间感染率

  2. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Wei Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage. This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using probes for 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y chromosomes. Methods: A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH. We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples. We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age, the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion, the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion. Results: A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed. 368 (44.23% were abnormal, in which 84.24% (310/368 were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368 were polyploidies. The first was trisomy16 (121/310, followed by trisomy 22, and X monosomy. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old and young maternal age group (<35 years old. However, the rate of trisomy 22 and the total rate of trisomies 21, 13, and 18 (the number of trisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together showed significantly different in two groups. We found no skewed sex ratio. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion. Conclusions: Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor. There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion. There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  3. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  4. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan-Wei Jia; Li Wang; Yong-Lian Lan; Rui Song; Li-Yin Zhou; Lan Yu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage.This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 13,16,18,21,22,X and Y chromosomes.Methods:A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH.We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples.We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age,the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion,the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion.Results:A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed.368 (44.23%) were abnormal,in which 84.24% (310/368) were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368) were polyploidies.The first was trisomy16 (121/310),followed by trisomy 22,and X monosomy.There was no significant difference in the rate ofaneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old) and young maternal age group (<35 years old).However,the rate oftrisomy 22 and the total rate oftrisomies 21,13,and 18 (the number oftrisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together) showed significantly different in two groups.We found no skewed sex ratio.There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion.Conclusions:Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor.There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion.There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  5. Is induced abortion with misoprostol a risk factor for late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Norbert; Resche-Rigon, Mathieu; Morin, Christine; Ville, Yves; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    To examine whether a first or second trimester induced abortion with misoprostol influences the risk of late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. Case-control study in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2006. The cases had singleton pregnancies delivered at 16-36 weeks of gestation after spontaneous late abortions, preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membrane, or induction of labor for preterm premature rupture of membrane before 37 weeks. The control group was composed of the two consecutive spontaneous singleton deliveries at >or=37 weeks of gestation after each new case (ratio 2/1). The principal outcome measure was late abortion or preterm delivery. The association between late abortion or preterm delivery and a previous induced abortion with misoprostol was first assessed with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Conditional logistic regression models adapted for clustered data were then further used to quantify the effect size, measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The study included 245 cases and 490 controls. There was no significant difference in mean maternal age, number of pregnancies, parity, smoking, or history of first trimester miscarriage between cases and controls. However, a history of late abortion or previous preterm delivery was significantly more frequent among cases than controls. Forty (16.3%) cases and 56 (11.5%) controls had a history of cervical ripening with misoprostol before vacuum curettage or evacuation, or of medical abortion by misoprostol alone or with mifepristone (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.95-2.39; p=0.08). After adjustment for maternal age and number of pregnancies with a multivariable conditional regression model, the adjusted OR was estimated at 1.33 (95% CI: 0.81-2.17; p=0.25). Despite the need for prudence, these results provide some reassurance that induced abortion with misoprostol during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is

  6. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  7. Recurrent miscarriage and micro-RNA among north Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Farah; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2015-04-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Mutation in miRNAs results in various pathological conditions such as inflammation, viral infections, neurodegeneration, autoimmunity, and so on. We have evaluated the association of miR-146aC > G (rs2910164), miR-149T > C (rs2292832), miR-196a2T > C (rs11614913), and miR-499A > G (rs3746444) among patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and controls from North India. All the 200 patients with RM reported to experience at least 3 unexplained miscarriages before 20th week of gestation. Three hundred fertile women with no history of RMs were taken as controls. Both patients and controls were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Variant alleles and genotypes of miR-499 A > G (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database [dbSNP] ID rs3746444) were found to be significant risks associated with patients having RM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-2.81; P value = .0001) and controls (OR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.33-9.94; P value = .0109). A significant susceptible effect was found at allelic level in miR-196aT > C (dbSNP ID rs11614913) and miR-499 A > G (dbSNP ID rs3746444). © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. PREVALENCE OF HYPOTHYROID ISM IN UNEXPLAINED RECURRENT MISCARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To establish the prevalence and association of hypothyroidism in women affected with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is an Observational case control study conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of NIMS Medical College and Hospital , Jaipur (Rajasthan ; between July 2011 to June 2012.One hundred non - pregnant women with history of recu rrent pregnancy losses were included in study group and one hundred non - pregnant women of similar age group with at least one successful pregnancy outcome were taken as control. All women who had known Thyroid disorder , diabetes , collagen and heart disease , were excluded from study . Detailed history , thorough physical examination was done and subjected to the quantitative estimation of triiodothyronine { T3} , Thyroxin { T4} and TSH hormone by CLIA method. RESULT : In the study 63% women experienced two or more pregnancy loss while 37% presented with three or more pregnancy losses. Total 7 patients were reported to have hypothyroidism out of which 3 were observed with subclinical hypothyroidism while 4 were detected overt hypothyroidism. In Control group 2 patie nt of subclinical hypothyroidism were detected. CONCLUSION : Prevalence of Hypothyroidism was 7 % and it has a statistically significant relationship with recurrent pregnancy losses in <20 weeks of gestation. Screening for thyroid dysfunction should be done early in pregnancy. Looking at the high percentage of abnormal TSH in pregnancies; universal screening should be considered as impaired thyroid function may predispose to miscarriage

  9. Meta-analysis of aspirin-heparin therapy for un-explained recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tong; Xian-Jiang, Wei

    2016-11-20

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin-heparin treatment for un-explained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Methods Literatures reporting the studies on the aspirin-heparin treatment of un-explained recurrent miscarriage with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were collected from the major publication databases. The live birth rate was used as primary indicator, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and adverse reactions (thrombocytopenia ) were used as the secondary indicators. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using RCT bias risk assessment tool in the Cochrane Handbook (v5.1.0). Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan (v5.3) software. Subgroup analyses were conducted with an appropriately combined model according to the type of the treatments if heterogeneity among the selected studies was detected. Results Six publications of RCTs were included in this study. There were a total of 907 pregnant women with diagnosis of URSA, 367 of them were pooled in the study group with aspirin-heparin therapy and 540 women in the control group with placebo, aspirin or progesterone therapy. Meta-analysis showed that the live birth rate in the study group was significantly different from that in the control group [RR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.00-1.39), P=0.04]. Considering the clinical heterogeneity among the six studies, subgroup analysis were performed. Live birth rates in the aspirin-heparin treated groups and placebo groups were compared and no significant difference was found. There were no significant differences found between the two groups in the incidence of preterm delivery [RR=1.22, 95% CI (0.54-2.76), P=0.64], preeclampsia [RR=0.52, 95% CI (0.25-1.07), P=0.08], intrauterine growth restriction [RR=1.19, 95% CI (0.56-2.52), P=0.45] and thrombocytopenia [RR=1.17, 95% CI (0.09-14.42), P=0.90]. Conclusion This meta-analysis did not provide evidence that aspirin-heparin therapy had

  10. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  11. Situating stigma in stratified reproduction: Abortion stigma and miscarriage stigma as barriers to reproductive healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommaraju, Aalap; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Hou, Melody Y; Bessett, Danielle

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether race and reported history of abortion are associated with abortion stigma and miscarriage stigma, both independently and comparatively. Self-administered surveys with 306 new mothers in Boston and Cincinnati, United States. Abortion stigma perception (ASP); miscarriage stigma perception (MSP); and comparative stigma perception (CSP: abortion stigma perception net of miscarriage stigma perception). Regardless of whether or not they reported having an abortion, white women perceived abortion (ASP) to be more stigmatizing than Black and Latina women. Perceptions of miscarriage stigma (MSP), on the other hand, were dependent on reporting an abortion. Among those who reported an abortion, Black women perceived more stigma from miscarriage than white women, but these responses were flipped for women who did not report abortion. Reporting abortion also influenced our comparative measure (CSP). Among those who did report an abortion, white women perceived more stigma from abortion than miscarriage, while Black and Latina women perceived more stigma from miscarriage than abortion. By measuring abortion stigma in comparison to miscarriage stigma, we can reach a more nuanced understanding of how perceptions of reproductive stigmas are stratified by race and reported reproductive history. Clinicians should be aware that reproductive stigmas do not similarly affect all groups. Stigma from specific reproductive outcomes is more or less salient dependent upon a woman's social position and lived experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Petersen, Morten; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2013-01-01

    The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated...... with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations....

  13. PPO.33 Perceived maternal stress and emotional wellbeing as risk factors for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Gallagher, S.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O' Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Miscarriage is the most common adverse outcome in pregnancy. Investigations suggest numerous risk factors however the cause remains poorly understood. The study aimed to examine the contribution of an array of psychological factors to risk of miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was

  14. Measuring Grief Following Miscarriage: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Lee, Dominic T. S.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Lok, Ingrid H.

    2013-01-01

    Grief following miscarriage is a complex psychological response. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). A total of 280 Chinese women completed the PGS immediately following a diagnosis of miscarriage (baseline) and were reassessed at 12 months follow-up. The factor…

  15. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  16. Cesarean section and rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy: a Danish register-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad M O'Neill

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996, with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28 was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31 and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35, although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15 and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21, yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85. Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment

  17. Cytogenetic analysis in couples with recurrent miscarriages: a retrospective study from Punjab, north India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEHA SUDHIR; TAJINDER KAUR; ARCHANA BERI; ANUPAM KAUR

    2016-12-01

    Human reproduction is considered as the most inefficient event as ∼15–20% of human pregnancies end in miscarriage and in the product of miscarriages, chromosomal anomalies are a common occurrence. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in couples with recurrent miscarriages in the region of Punjab and to compare with worldwide frequencies. In this study, a total of 440 cases were referred between the period 1995– 2015. After lymphocyte culturing, giemsa–trypsin banding was done for each case to assess the chromosomal anomalies. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations among couples was found to be 3.41% in our study. Among these aberrations, balanced reciprocal translocations formed the largest group with 60% anomalies. We would conclude that clinicians should understandthe importance of chromosomal analysis in these couples and refer them for karyotyping after two miscarriages to rule out the possible genetic cause of recurrent miscarriages.

  18. Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Early Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Andersen, Nadia Lyhne; Horwitz, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in early pregnancy is associated with miscarriage. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. All births were identified using...... the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion or miscarriage were gathered from the National Hospital Register. Data on SSRI use were gathered from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed......,883) ended in miscarriage compared with 11.1% among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to an SSRI was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.33) compared with unexposed. Women discontinuing SSRI treatment 3-12 months before pregnancy also had an increased hazard...

  19. [Report on threatened premature labor: etiology, management, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzibahcian, J J; Mida, M; David, E; Weber, L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The studies on the aetiological factors of a premature delivery constitute an old fear of obstetricians and epidemiologists. However, they remain confused and the very definition of prematurity is among the first sources of confusion. There are many therapeutic methods considered as preventive. Their efficacy is debatable whilst their secondary effects are obvious. In this article, the authors report the results of a retrospective study of observations of patients who presented threats of premature labour and analyzed the epidemiological aspects, the aetiological factors and the therapeutic methods. It seems important to consider the risk factors in order to prevent premature labour. A decrease in the use of betamimetics and an increase in that of therapies said to be of replacement does not seem to be accompanied by a relative increase in the incidence of prematurity.

  20. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  1. Perinatal outcomes of women with a prior history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Mark

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Objective: We sought to determine subsequent pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women with a history of unexplained RM who were not receiving medical treatment. Study Design: This was a prospective cohort study, of women with a history of three unexplained consecutive first trimester losses, who were recruited and followed in their subsequent pregnancy. Control patients were healthy pregnant patients with no previous adverse perinatal outcome. Results: A total of 42 patients with a history of unexplained RM were recruited to the study. 9 (21.4%) experienced a further first trimester miscarriage, 1 case of ectopic and 1 case of partial molar pregnancy. 74% (23\\/31) of the RM cohort had a vaginal delivery. There was one case of severe pre-eclampsia. The RM group delivered at a mean gestational age of 38+2 weeks and with a mean birth-weight of 3.23kg. None of the neonates were under the 10(th) centile for gestational age. Overall, there was no significant difference in pregnancy outcomes between the two cohorts. Conclusion: Our study confirms the reassuring prognosis for achieving a live birth in the unexplained RM population with a very low incidence of adverse events with the majority delivering appropriately grown fetuses at term.

  2. Secondary recurrent miscarriage and H-Y immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately half recurrent miscarriage (RM) cases remain unexplained after standard investigations. Secondary RM (SRM) is, in contrast to primary RM, preceded by a birth, which increases the transfer of fetal cells into the maternal circulation. Mothers of boys are often immunized...... against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens, and H-Y immunity can cause graft-versus-host disease after stem-cell transplantation. We proposed the H-Y hypothesis that aberrant H-Y immunity is a causal factor for SRM. METHODS This is a critical review of the H-Y hypothesis based on own....... Maternal carriage of HLA-class II alleles presenting H-Y antigens to immune cells is associated with a reduced live birth rate and increased risk of obstetric complications in surviving pregnancies in SRM patients with a firstborn boy. In early pregnancy, both antibodies against HLA and H-Y antigens...

  3. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L; Petersen, Morten; Broedbaek, Kasper; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Nielsen, Torben K; Poulsen, Henrik E; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2016-08-01

    Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. We identified 1,338,824 pregnancies (970,491 births, 142,147 miscarriages, 226,145 induced abortions). One hundred sixty-six were exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in the early pregnancy of which 28.3 % (47) ended up in a miscarriage compared to 10.6 % among unexposed. The adjusted hazard ratio of having a miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol in the first trimester was 3.6 (CI 95 % 2.6-4.9). We found an increased risk of miscarriage after exposure to diclofenac/misoprostol during the early pregnancy. Women in the fertile age should not be treated with the combination of diclofenac/misoprostol if other options were available.

  4. Early risk factors for miscarriage: a prospective cohort study in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra C; Rücke, Mirjam; Rose, Matthias; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Douglas, Alison J; Pritsch, Maria; Blois, Sandra M; Pincus, Maike K; Bärenstrauch, Nina; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Nakamura, Katrina; Sheps, Sam; Klapp, Burghard F

    2008-07-01

    Many pregnancies are lost during early gestation, but clinicians still lack tools to recognize risk factors for miscarriage. Thus, the identification of risk factors for miscarriage during the first trimester in women with no obvious risk for a pregnancy loss was the aim of this prospective cohort trial. A total of 1098 women between gestation weeks 4 and 12 in whom no apparent signs of a threatened pregnancy could be diagnosed were recruited. Demographic, anamnestic, psychometric and biological data were documented at recruitment and pregnancy outcomes were registered subsequently. Among the cases with sufficiently available data, 809 successfully progressing pregnancies and 55 subsequent miscarriages were reported. In this cohort, risk of miscarriage was significantly increased in women at higher age (>33 years), lower body mass index (< or =20 kg/ m(2)) and lower serum progesterone concentrations (< or =12 ng/ml) prior to the onset of the miscarriage. Women with subsequent miscarriage also perceived higher levels of stress/demands (supported by higher concentrations of corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and revealed reduced concentrations of progesterone-induced blocking factor. These risk factors were even more pronounced in the subcohort of women (n = 335) recruited between gestation weeks 4 and 7. The identification of these risk factors and development of an interaction model of these factors, as introduced in this article, will help clinicians to recognize pregnant women who require extra monitoring and who might benefit from therapeutic interventions such as progestogen supplementation, especially during the first weeks of pregnancy, to prevent a miscarriage.

  5. 多指标联合筛查在早产预测中的应用及评价%Application of combined screening in the prognosis of premature delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温岩; 孙晓艳; 孙晓峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of cervical length and fetal fibrin detection in predicting the preterm birth .Meth ods The pregnancy women with high risk factors for preterm birth ,low risk factors for preterm and threatened preterm birth were chosen to measure the cervical length by sonography and fetal fibrin test .Results The pregnancy women with cervical length (CL)<30 mm in the three groups had a preterm rate of 67.8%、58.8% 、31.3% and were significantly hhigher than that of the women with CL >30 mm .The pregnancy women with fetal fibrin detection were positive in the three groups had a preterm rate of 72.0% 、 63.5%、34.7% and were significantly higher than that of the women with fFN were negative .The specificity of CL combined with fFN were 86%、 89.6%、 87.8% in te three groups .Conclusion The cervical length by ultrasound and fFN detection are valuable in predict ing preterm birth among the pregnancy women with low risk factors .Combined screening can improve accuracy of predicting premature delivery.%目的 探讨胎儿纤连蛋白(fFN)和宫颈长度联合测量在先兆早产及正常人群中预测价值.方法 选择先兆早产孕妇160例及无任何先兆早产症状的正常孕妇328例,按改良Creasy评分法将正常孕妇分为早产高危组147例、早产低危组181例,各组孕妇分别超声下测量宫颈长度及检测阴道分泌物fFN定性情况,分析各指标与早产的关系.结果 当宫颈长度<30 cm时,先兆早产组、正常高危组、正常低危组各组孕妇的早产率分别为67.8%、58.8%、31.3%;以宫颈长度<3 cm预测早产时,在无症状早产低危组中仍可筛查出31.3%的早产率.当fFN阳性时,先兆早产组、正常高危组、正常低危组各组孕妇的早产率分别为72.0%、63.5%、34.7%,显著高于fFN阴性时的早产率.阴道分泌物fFN阳性联合宫颈长度<3 cm预测早产时,先兆早产组、正常高危组、正常低

  6. [Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes): Guidelines for clinical practice - Text of the Guidelines (short text)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentilhes, L; Sénat, M-V; Ancel, P-Y; Azria, E; Benoist, G; Blanc, J; Brabant, G; Bretelle, F; Brun, S; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Evrard, A; Kayem, G; Maisonneuve, E; Marcellin, L; Marret, S; Mottet, N; Paysant, S; Riethmuller, D; Rozenberg, P; Schmitz, T; Torchin, H; Langer, B

    2016-12-01

    To determine the measures to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes)and its consequences. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In France, premature birth concerns 60,000 neonates every year (7.4 %), half of them are delivered after spontaneous onset of labor. Among preventable risk factors of spontaneous prematurity, only cessation of smoking is associated to a decrease of prematurity (level of evidence [LE] 1). This is therefore recommended (grade A). Routine screening and treatment of vaginal bacteriosis in general population is not recommended (grade A). Asymptomatic women with single pregnancy without history of preterm delivery and a short cervix between 16 and 24 weeks is the only population in which vaginal progesterone is recommended (grade B). A history-indicated cerclage is not recommended in case of only past history of conisation (grade C), uterine malformation (Professional consensus), isolated history of pretem delivery (grade B) or twin pregnancies in primary (grade B) or secondary (grade C) prevention of preterm birth. A history-indicated cerclage is recommended for single pregnancy with a history of at least 3 late miscarriages or preterm deliveries (grade A).). In case of past history of a single pregnancy delivery before 34 weeks gestation (WG), ultrasound cervical length screening is recommended between 16 and 22 WG in order to propose a cerclage in case of lengthpremature rupture of membranes. Maintenance tocolysis is not recomended (grade B). Antenatal corticosteroid administration is recommended to every woman at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (grade A). After 34 weeks, evidences are not consistent enough to recommend systematic antenatal corticosteroid treatment (grade B), however, a course might be indicated in the clinical situations associated with the

  7. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  8. Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage...

  9. Increased Miscarriage Rate in Female Farmers Working in Saffron Fields: A Possible Effect of Saffron Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ajam

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Exposure to saffron may increase the risk of miscarriage. Hence, it is suggested that pregnant women avoid contact with considerable amounts of saffron especially for female farmers working in saffron fields.

  10. Prognostic impact of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage negative for the lupus anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found with increased prevalence in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) but their impact on future pregnancy outcome in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) negative patients needs better quantification. METHODS: The impact of a repeatedly positive...

  11. Miscarriage after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing pregnancy in women with moderate and severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    To compare the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women with moderate to severe obesity to that in women with a normal BMI after sonographic confirmation of the foetal heart rate in the first trimester.

  12. Impact of the sex of first child on the prognosis in secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, O B; Pedersen, B; Nielsen, H S;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carriage of a male fetus often initiates maternal immunological reactions against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY) antigens, which, in theory, could result in subsequent recurrent miscarriage (RM). METHODS: Information about subsequent pregnancy outcome was procured amo...

  13. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  14. Meta-analysis to obtain a scale of psychological reaction after perinatal loss: focus on miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annsofie Adolfsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAbstract: Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d+ = 0.99 and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d+ of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d+ (0.17 and 0.16, respectively. It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.Keywords: psychological, perinatal loss, pregnancy, depression 

  15. Frequency and impact of obstetric complications prior and subsequent to unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Steffensen, R; Lund, M

    2010-01-01

    The chance of a live birth after a diagnosis of secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) is reduced in patients who, prior to the miscarriages, gave birth to a boy and carry HLA class II alleles that efficiently present male-specific (H-Y) antigens to the immune system. Information about obstetric...... complications in births prior and subsequent to the SRM diagnosis is limited. The relations between maternal carriage of H-Y-restricting HLA, fetal sex, obstetric complications and prognosis are unknown....

  16. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity and other obstetric complications in women with recurrent miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha Jaiswal; Tarasankar Bag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity are relatively common in women of reproductive age group and has been associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes such as recurrent miscarriage, preeclampsia and preterm labour. The aim of this study was to find out association between anti-tpo antibody and recurrent miscarriage and to evaluate obstetric complications such as preeclampsia and preterm labour in them. Methods: This case control observational study was carried out from ...

  17. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  18. A case of retinopathy of prematurity treated by pattern scan laser photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Ota, Miho Nozaki, Shuichiro Hirahara, Tomoaki Hattori, Munenori Yoshida, Yuichiro Ogura Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: We experienced a case of retinopathy of prematurity that was successfully treated with pattern scan laser. Pattern scan laser treatment should be considered as one treatment option for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, PASCAL, slit-lamp delivery

  19. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  20. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Carol; Clarke, Helen; Cutting, Rachel; Saxton, Jane; Waite, Sarah; Ledger, William; Li, Tinchiu; Pacey, Allan A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM). To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control) were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  1. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  2. Premature Delivery of Children Born after Assisted Reproductive Technology and Spontaneous Conceptions:A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Study%辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产状况研究的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宏伟; 任春娥; 韩海艳; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare premature delivery of children who were born after assisted reproductive technology and after natural pregnancy.Methods Searched PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ,VIP Data-base for Chinese Technical Periodicals ,and references of the involved studies ,which included premature delivery of infants born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conceptions .Cochrane Collaborations RevMan 5.0 software was used to do data analyses .Results Ninteen studies including 2 453 288 children were involved.Studies showed that the rate of preterm births in ART group was obviously higher than that in the natural pregnancy group (P<0.05).Conclusion Children born after ART may have higher risk of preterm births .There-fore,the pregnant women after assisted reproductive technology should make good antenatal care work and try to avoid premature delivery .%  目的评价辅助生殖技术后新生儿的早产状况。方法计算机检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,维普中文科技期刊全文数据库,PubMed,EBSCO全文数据库和Cochrane Library等,并辅以手工检索等方式,纳入辅助生殖技术后妊娠和自然妊娠的新生儿早产状况比较的队列研究文献,并用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果共有19个研究文献纳入,新生儿共2453288例。 Meta分析结果表明:辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产发生率高于自然妊娠儿(P<0.05),其OR为2.47,95%CI为(1.87,3.27)。结论辅助生殖技术后新生儿发生早产的风险比自然妊娠儿高。因此,经辅助生殖技术后妊娠的孕妇,应积极做好产前保健工作,尽量避免早产发生。

  3. Dydrogesterone for Threatened Miscarriage:A Systematic Review%地屈孕酮治疗先兆流产的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅; 张伶俐; 王晨露; 曾力楠; 王丽

    2012-01-01

    were identified from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, CBM, CNKI, VIP, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP. Published and unpublished RCTs were obtained on dydrogesterone in the treatment of threatened miscarriage. Included literatures were extracted and bias risks were evaluated independently by two reviewers. RevMan 5.0 software was used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 8 RCT involving 1185 participants were included. Dydrogesterone vs. Conservative treatment: 4 RCT were included, the results of Meta-analysis showed that participants treated with dydrogesterone had a lower risk of miscarriage, compared with conservative treatment [RR=0.46,95%CI(0.32,0.65) ,P<0.0001]; no statistical significance was found in the incidence of premature birth (P= 0.77), antepartum haemorrhage (P=0.57) and congenital malformation (P= 0.71).Dydrogesterone vs. Progesterone: 2 RCT were included. We did not conduct Meta-analysis as included studies were in high risk of bias. No statistical significance was reported between two groups in the incidence of miscarriage (P= 1.000 and P= 0.630). Dydrogesterone vs. HCG: 1 RCT was included. No statistical significance was reported between two groups regarding to the incidence of miscarriage (P=0.711), premature birth (P= 0.727) and congenital malformation (P=0.461). Dydrogesterone combined with TCM treatment: 2 RCT were included, the incidences of miscarriage in dydrogesterone combined with Zishen yutai pills group and dydrogesterone alone group were 8% and 13% , there was no statistical significance (P=0.655) ; miscarriage occurred in 7.5% of women treated with dydrogesterone combined with Bushen huoxue antai prescription, and in 15% of that treated with progesterone, without statistical significance, neither (P=0.390). CONCLUSION: Dydrogesterone group has a lower incidence of miscarriage than conservative treatment only, but further studies with good methodological design are still needed to investigate its efficacy. There is no sufficient

  4. Delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempf, Joseph W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Kaempf, Andrew J; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Tipping, Nicole; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping is reported to increase neonatal blood volume. We estimated the clinical outcomes in premature neonates who had delayed umbilical cord clamping compared with a similar group who had early umbilical cord clamping. This was a before-after investigation comparing early umbilical cord clamping with delayed umbilical cord clamping (45 seconds) in two groups of singleton neonates, very low birth weight (VLBW) (401-1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) (greater than 1,500 g but less than 35 weeks gestation). Neonates were excluded from delayed umbilical cord clamping if they needed immediate major resuscitation. Primary outcomes were provision of delivery room resuscitation, hematocrit, red cell transfusions, and the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes. In VLBW neonates (77 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 1,099±266 g; 77 early umbilical cord clamping 1,058±289 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with less delivery room resuscitation, higher Apgar scores at 1 minute, and higher hematocrit. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with significant differences in the overall transfusion rate, peak bilirubin, any of the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes, or mortality. In LBW neonates (172 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 2,159±384 g; 172 early umbilical cord clamping 2,203±447 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with higher hematocrit and was not associated with a change in delivery room resuscitation or Apgar scores or with changes in the transfusion rate or peak bilirubin. Regression analysis showed increasing gestational age and birth weight and delayed umbilical cord clamping were the best predictors of higher hematocrit and less delivery room resuscitation. Delayed umbilical cord clamping can safely be performed in singleton premature neonates and is associated with a higher hematocrit, less delivery room

  5. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  6. Premature Discontinuation in Adult Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature discontinuation from therapy is a widespread problem that impedes the delivery of otherwise effective psychological interventions. The most recent comprehensive review found an average dropout rate of 47% across 125 studies (Wierzbicki & Pekarik, 1993); however, given a number of changes in the field over the past 2 decades,…

  7. HLA-C antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage suggests that antibody mediated rejection is one of the mechanisms leading to recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, T; van Beelen, E; Kaaja, R J; van Lith, J M M; Claas, F H J; Bloemenkamp, K W M

    2016-01-01

    HLA-C is the only polymorphic classical HLA I antigen expressed on trophoblast cells. It is known that higher incidence of C4d deposition on trophoblast cells is present in women with recurrent miscarriage. C4d is a footprint of antibody-mediated classical complement activation. Therefore, this stud

  8. Sonographic Parameters for Prediction of Miscarriage: Role of 3-Dimensional Volume Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Choe, Suyearn; Kim, Sa Jin; Shin, Jong Chul; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the value of volume measurement using 3-dimensional sonography for prediction of miscarriage. We prospectively enrolled 188 singleton pregnant women at 5 to 9 weeks' gestation. The 3-dimensional sonographic gestational sac volume and yolk sac volume were measured together with the fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, and yolk sac diameter. For each sonographic parameter, nomograms were created; z scores were calculated for each measurement, and the values were compared between miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy groups. Sonographic parameters for prediction of miscarriage were evaluated by multivariate analysis, and the screening performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic curve. Among the 188 pregnancies, 30 (16.0%) had miscarriage. Multivariate analysis showed that fetal heart rate below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 6.43), gestational sac diameter below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 4.87), gestational sac volume below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 5.25), and yolk sac diameter below the 2.5th or above the 97.5th percentile (odds ratio, 15.86) were significant predictors of miscarriage (P = .018; P = .018; P = .033; and P < .001, respectively). At a false-positive rate of 30%, the detection rate for miscarriage in screening by a combination of fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, gestational sac volume, and yolk sac diameter was 77.8%. A small-for-gestational-age gestational sac volume is a significant sonographic predictor of miscarriage, as are fetal bradycardia, a small gestational sac diameter, and a small or large yolk sac diameter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  10. Pregnancy Outcomes Complicated by Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Retrospective Review of Cases in Three Institutions in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkenzhe Imankulova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This complication is diagnosed in 3% of pregnant women in Kazakhstan, and it is the leading cause of pre-term deliveries. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by PPROM in gestation periods between 24 to 32 weeks among three institutions in Kazakhstan.Methods. This is descriptive analysis of 154 cases with PPROM observed between 24 to 32 weeks of gestation at Perinatal Centers #2 and #3 and the National Research Center for Maternal and Child Health, Astana, Kazakhstan. Cases were selected on the basis of retrospective chart review where PPROM diagnosis occurred in 2013. Descriptive statistics were utilized for data analysis.Results. The most frequent complications associated with PPROM were threat of miscarriage (13.6% of cases and chronic placental insufficiency (7.8%. The mean time between PPROM and onset of spontaneous labor was 12.1 ± 2.3 days.  Spontaneous labor within 3 days after PPROM started in patients with an amniotic fluid index of 3.0 ± 0.2 cm. Complications experienced by PPROM women during delivery and early postpartum period included: precipitous labor (6.4%, weakness of labor activity (16.2%, atonic hemorrhage (1.2%, and chorioamnionitis (3.2%. 37.6% of newborns in this study were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Their health complications included pneumonia (7.7%, conjunctivitis (1.3%, omphalitis and infectious-toxic shock (3.8%, intraventricular hemorrhage  (7.8%, and respiratory distress (10.3% .Conclusion. Thus, preterm rupture of membranes is associated with preterm delivery and an increase of neonatal morbidity. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways to effectively manage PPROM, including developing new techniques to restore the amniotic fluid volume in women experiencing PPROM during 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. 

  11. Previous miscarriages and GLI2 are associated with anorectal malformations in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Putte, Romy; Wijers, Charlotte H W; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Brooks, Alice S; Broens, Paul M A; Roeleveld, Nel; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M

    2017-02-01

    Are anorectal malformations (ARMs) associated with previous miscarriages or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) genes? The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 and miscarriages were associated with ARM, especially in patients with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). ARM are one of the most common birth defects of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology is likely to be multifactorial, involving both environmental and genetic factors. SNPs in BMP4 and GLI2 genes were associated with ARM in non-Caucasian populations. During a patient information day, several mothers of ARM patients reported their concerns about previous miscarriages. A case-control study was performed among 427 ARM patients and 663 population-based controls. We examined the associations of ARM with SNPs in GLI2 and BMP4 using DNA samples of the children and associations with previous miscarriages using parental questionnaires. In addition, gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analyses were performed. The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 was associated with ARM, especially in patients with MCA (homozygous GG-genotype: odds ratio (OR): 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.7). We identified previous miscarriages as a new risk factor for ARM, especially when occurring in the pregnancy directly preceding the index pregnancy and in patients with MCA (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.5). No association with rs17563 in BMP4, nor gene-gene or gene-environment interactions were found. The possibility of recall errors for previous miscarriage, but we expect these errors to be limited, as a miscarriage is a major life event. In addition, potential misclassification regarding miscarriages and stillbirth, but sensitivity analyses showed that this did not influence our results. This study showed associations of ARM with rs3738880 in GLI2 and with previous miscarriages. Both associations were stronger in patients with MCA, showing the importance of stratifying the analyses by

  12. Parental Origin of the Retained X Chromosome in Monosomy X Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Pauta, Montse; Marquès, Borja; Badenas, Cèlia; Soler, Anna; Yaron, Yuval; Borrell, Antoni

    2017-10-05

    To assess the distribution of the parental origin of the retained X chromosome in monosomy X, either in miscarriages or in ongoing pregnancies. The parental origin of the X chromosome was determined in monosomy X pregnancies, either miscarriages or ongoing pregnancies. Microsatellite marker patterns were compared between maternal and fetal samples by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. Distributions of maternally and paternally derived X chromosome were assessed in miscarriages and in ongoing pregnancies using two-tailed Fisher exact test. Forty monosomy X pregnancies were included in the study: 26 miscarried at 5-16 weeks, and 14 ongoing pregnancies were diagnosed at 11-20 weeks. The retained X chromosome was maternally derived in 67% of the cases. In miscarriages, maternal and paternal X chromosome were retained in a similar proportion (54% [95% CI: 35-73%] vs. 46% [95% CI: 27-65%]), while in ongoing pregnancies, the maternal rate was 13 times higher (93% [95% CI: 79-100%)] vs. 7% [95% CI: 0-20%]). The retained X chromosome in individuals with monosomy X should theoretically be maternally derived in 2/3 of the cases. Our study suggests a preferential early miscarriage in pregnancies with a retained paternally derived X chromosome. This may explain the observation that 75-90% of individuals with monosomy X retain the maternal X chromosome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Inflammatory Cytokines in Maternal Circulation and Placenta of Chromosomally Abnormal First Trimester Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Calleja-Agius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of abnormal placental karyotype on the inflammatory response within the villous tissue and peripheral circulation of women with miscarriage was evaluated. Villous (=38 and venous blood samples (=26 were obtained from women with missed miscarriage. Tissue chromosome analysis indicated 23 abnormal and 15 normal karyotypes. Concentration of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and interleukin (IL-10 were measured using flowcytometric bead array in fresh villous homogenate, cultured villous extracts, culture medium, maternal whole blood, and plasma. Plasma TNF/IL-10 ratios were significantly (<0.05 lower in miscarriages with abnormal karyotype. In the abnormal karyotype group, there were significantly higher levels of TNF (<0.01, IL-10 (<0.01, TNF-R1 (<0.001, and TNF-R2 (<0.001 in the villous extracts and culture-conditioned medium compared to normal karyotype group. In miscarriage with abnormal karyotype, there is an exacerbated placental inflammatory response, in contrast to miscarriage of normal karyotype where maternal systemic response is increased.

  14. Diclofenac/misoprostol during early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jon T; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios; Andersen, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Misoprostol can be used in the prevention of gastric ulcer in treatment with diclofenac and is used in rheumatic diseases. Since misoprostol causes contractions of the uterus, it can also be used to induce abortions when administrated vaginally. The aim of the study was to investigate...... if early pregnancy exposure to oral diclofenac/misoprostol was associated with miscarriage. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cohort study identifying all registered pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. All births were identified using the Medical Birth Registry, and all records of induced abortion...... and miscarriage were from the National Hospital Register. Data on drug use were from the National Prescription Register. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard of miscarriage in women exposed to diclofenac/misoprostol in early pregnancy. RESULT: We identified 1...

  15. Association between the sense of coherence 13-item version scale score of pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy and threatened premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka-Kagami, Naomi; Shimada, Keiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the score of the sense of coherence 13-item version (SOC-13) scale in the second trimester of pregnancy is associated with threatened premature birth. All the subjects gave their informed written consent before their participation in the study. A self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted on the pregnant women at approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy. The questionnaire consisted of items on demographic characteristics, perinatal abnormalities, stress perception scale (SPS), and SOC-13 scale. Approximately 30 weeks of pregnancy after the first survey, we surveyed whether any treatment had been provided for threatened premature birth during the course of the current pregnancy. The study period was from December 2007 to February 2010. One hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women participated in the study, but only the data from 151 pregnant women were analyzed. Forty-three (28.5%) pregnant women had threatened premature birth and received some treatment. Logistic regression analysis was carried out with threatened premature birth as the dependent variable and age, childbirth history, smoking habit, history of miscarriage or premature birth in previous pregnancies, SPS score, and SOC-13 scale score as the independent variables. It was shown that SOC-13 scale score affected threatened premature birth (p premature birth. This study suggests that the SOC-13 scale score in the second trimester of pregnancy could be of great value in clinical health care of pregnant women with a risk of threatened premature birth in the subsequent course of pregnancy.

  16. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  17. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  19. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  20. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  1. Lowering the premature birth rate: what the U.S. experience means for Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Akihiko

    2008-03-01

    Premature birth rate and low birth weight rate are increasing in industrialized countries including USA and Japan. The Infant mortality rate (IMR) is three times and 50-75 times greater for infants born at 32-36 weeks and Premature birth is heterogeneous in origin and idiopathic in 70% of the cases. Increased utilization of assisted reproductive technology only accounts for a part of the recent trend. Evidence suggests environmental factors play a significant role, and genetic-environmental interaction is plausible. A chronic psychosocial stress of pregnant women has been postulated to be modifying the endocrine milieu thereby influencing pregnancy outcomes. In a preliminary observation in St. Louis, homeless pregnant women with high behavioral and social risks, when accommodated in a shelter home designed for these women, produced significantly less numbers of premature and low birth weight infants as compared with the general population. Furthermore, in a randomized controlled study in Washington DC, psychobehavioral intervention specifically targeting smoking (primary and secondary), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression among black pregnant women significantly decreased the rate of miscarriage and low birth weight. These reports may have significant implication to the Japanese situation. Increasing number of Japanese women at reproductive age are exposed to smoking, may have underling psychosocial stress and may suffer from subclinical depression and/or from IPV. Detailed epidemiological studies of women before and during the reproductive age with regard to risk factors can lead to an effective intervention strategy against premature birth in Japan.

  2. 初产妇足月胎膜早破406例分娩方式及新生儿结局的分析%Analysis of delivery way and neonatal outcome of 406 cases of primipara term premature rupture of membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费翠芹; 范桂金

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨初产妇足月胎膜早破的分娩时机、方式对母婴结局的影响及其合理的处理措施。方法:2012年1月-2013年12月收治足月胎膜早破初产妇406例,分为12 h内临产、24 h内临产和24 h后引产组,进行初产妇分娩方式、产妇及新生儿并发症统计学比较。结果:与12 h内临产组相比,24 h内临产组自然分娩率下降,难产及剖宫产率升高但无统计学意义,其胎儿宫内窘迫、新生儿窒息及产后出血亦无统计学意义(P>0.05);而引产组自然分娩率明显下降,难产及剖宫产率明显升高,差异有统计学意义,其胎儿宫内窘迫、新生儿窒息与临产组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05),但产后出血无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:24 h后行引产的足月胎膜早破初产妇剖宫产率明显增加,且可增加围生儿并发症。%Objective:To explore the influence of delivery time and way of primipara term premature rupture of membranes on maternal and child outcome and reasonable treatment measures.Methods:406 primiparas with term premature rupture of membranes were selected from January 2012 to December 2013.They were divided into labor within 12 hours group,labor within 24 hours group and labor induction after 24 hours group.The primipara delivery way,the complications of maternal and neonatal were statistical compared.Results:Compared with labor within 12 hours group,the natural delivery rate of labor induction after 24 hours group was reduced;the dystocia and cesarean section rate were increased,but there were no statistical significance;the fetal distress,neonatal asphyxia and postpartum hemorrhage had no statistical significance(P>0.05).The natural delivery rate of induced labor group was reduced;the dystocia and cesarean section rate were increased;there were statistical significance;the fetal distress and neonatal asphyxia had statistical significance compared with labor group(P0.05).Conclusion

  3. Thyroid Antibodies and Miscarriage: Where Are We at a Generation Later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Stagnaro-Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, an association between thyroid antibody positivity and spontaneous miscarriage was first reported. A generation has passed since the initial observation. Over that time a robust literature has developed which has confirmed the initial finding and expanded upon it. The present paper reviews the literature that has been generated over the last twenty years on the following topics: (1 thyroid antibodies and spontaneous miscarriage, (2 thyroid antibodies and recurrent abortion, (3 etiology of pregnancy loss in thyroid antibody positive women, and (4 discussion of future research directions.

  4. When mixed methods produce mixed results: integrating disparate findings about miscarriage and women's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina; Rowlands, Ingrid J

    2015-02-01

    To discuss an example of mixed methods in health psychology, involving separate quantitative and qualitative studies of women's mental health in relation to miscarriage, in which the two methods produced different but complementary results, and to consider ways in which the findings can be integrated. We describe two quantitative projects involving statistical analysis of data from 998 young women who had had miscarriages, and 8,083 who had not, across three waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We also describe a qualitative project involving thematic analysis of interviews with nine Australian women who had had miscarriages. The quantitative analyses indicate that the main differences between young women who do and do not experience miscarriage relate to social disadvantage (and thus likelihood of relatively early pregnancy) and to a lifestyle that makes pregnancy likely: Once these factors are accounted for, there are no differences in mental health. Further, longitudinal modelling demonstrates that women who have had miscarriages show a gradual increase in mental health over time, with the exception of women with prior diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or both. By contrast, qualitative analysis of the interviews indicates that women who have had miscarriages experience deep emotional responses and a long and difficult process of coming to terms with their loss. A contextual model of resilience provides a possible framework for understanding these apparently disparate results. Considering positive mental health as including the ability to deal constructively with negative life events, and consequent emotional distress, offers a model that distinguishes between poor mental health and the processes of coping with major life events. In the context of miscarriage, women's efforts to struggle with difficult emotions, and search for meaning, can be viewed as pathways to resilience rather than to psychological distress. Statement of contribution

  5. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  6. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996......-exposed pregnancies were characterised by an unhealthier maternal lifestyle and mental health profile than unexposed pregnancies, whereas no convincing differences were observed between pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during versus before pregnancy. Substantial disagreement was found between prescriptions and self......-reported use of SSRIs, but it did not affect the estimated hazard ratios. CONCLUSION: Confounding by indication and lifestyle in pregnancy may explain the association between SSRI use and miscarriage....

  7. Plasma TNF-alpha levels are higher in early pregnancy in patients with secondary compared with primary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goegebeur, Yuri; Psiosik, Zofia; Klitkou, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown.......Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown....

  8. A firstborn boy is suggestive of a strong prognostic factor in secondary recurrent miscarriage: a confirmatory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kolte, Astrid Marie

    2008-01-01

    To test our previously generated hypothesis that women with secondary recurrent miscarriages with a firstborn boy have a poorer pregnancy prognosis than those with a firstborn girl.......To test our previously generated hypothesis that women with secondary recurrent miscarriages with a firstborn boy have a poorer pregnancy prognosis than those with a firstborn girl....

  9. Adherence by midwives to the Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.; Grol, R.; Haan, M. de; Wijkel, D.; Oudshoorn, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility for midwives to adhere to Dutch national guidelines on threatened miscarriage in general practice. Design: Prospective recording of appointments by midwives who agreed to adhere to the guidelines on threatened miscarriage. Interviews with the midwives after th

  10. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  11. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  12. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on gestational week of the completion of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Ana; Bogavac, Mirjana; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Tošić, Mirjana Milošević; Novaković, Zoran; Stajić, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    Preterm delivery is one of the most common complications in pregnancy, and it is the major cause (75-80%) of all neonatal deaths. Bacterial vaginosis predisposes to an increased risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membrane and miscarriage. In this syndrome normal vaginal lactobacilli, which produce protective H2O2, are reduced and replaced with anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on the week of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum. A total of 186 pregnant women were included into this study, between the week 16 and 19 of pregnancy. In the study group there were 76 pregnant women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis by the criteria based on vaginal Gram-stain Nugent score and Amsel criteria. In the control group there were 110 healthy women with normal vaginal flora. Ultrasound examination was performed in both groups. Vaginal fluid and blood samples were taken to determine biochemical markers with colorimetric methods. The week of delivery was statistically significantly shorter in the study group and the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the serum) were statistically significantly higher in women with bacterial vaginosis comparing to the control group. Also the levels of uric acid and white blood cells in the serum were higher in the study group compared to the control one. Our study indicates that the pregnancy complicated with bacterial vaginosis ends much earlier than the pregnancy without it. Also, higher levels of biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum in the study group, similarly to results of other studies, suggest that pathophysiological processes responsible for preterm delivery can begin very early in pregnancy.

  13. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on gestational week of the completion of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Preterm delivery is one of the most common complications in pregnancy, and it is the major cause (75- 80% of all neonatal deaths. Bacterial vaginosis predisposes to an increased risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membrane and miscarriage. In this syndrome normal vaginal lactobacilli, which produce protective H2O2, are reduced and replaced with anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on the week of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum. Methods. A total of 186 pregnant women were included into this study, between the week 16 and 19 of pregnancy. In the study group there were 76 pregnant women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis by the criteria based on vaginal Gram-stain Nugent score and Amsel criteria. In the control group there were 110 healthy women with normal vaginal flora. Ultrasound examination was performed in both groups. Vaginal fluid and blood samples were taken to determine biochemical markers with colorimetric methods. Results. The week of delivery was statistically significantly shorter in the study group and the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the serum were statistically significantly higher in women with bacterial vaginosis comparing to the control group. Also the levels of uric acid and white blood cells in the serum were higher in the study group compared to the control one. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the pregnancy complicated with bacterial vaginosis ends much earlier than the pregnancy without it. Also, higher levels of biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum in the study group, similarly to results of other studies, suggest that pathophysiological processes responsible for preterm delivery can begin very early in pregnancy.

  14. Selective chromosome analysis in couples with two or more miscarriages : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, MTM; Korevaar, JC; Leschot, NJ; Bossuyt, PMM; Knegt, AC; Gerssen-Schoorl, KBJ; Wouters, CH; Hansson, KBM; Hochstenbach, R; Madan, K; van der Veen, F; Goddijn, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify additional factors, such as maternal age or factors related to previous reproductive outcome or family history, and the corresponding probability of carrying a chromosome abnormality in couples with two or more miscarriages. Design Nested case-control study. Setting Six centres

  15. Consecutive or non-consecutive recurrent miscarriage: is there any difference in carrier status?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, E. van den; Kaandorp, S.P.; Franssen, M.T.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Leschot, N.J.; Wouters, C.H.; Veen, F. van der; Korevaar, J.C.; Goddijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Carrier status of a structural balanced chromosome abnormality is associated with recurrent miscarriage. There is, at present, no evidence of the impact of the sequence of preceding pregnancies on the probability of carrier status. The aim of our study was therefore to examine whethe

  16. Consecutive or non-consecutive recurrent miscarriage: Is there any difference in carrier status?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Boogaard; S.P. Kaandorp; M.T.M. Franssen (Maureen); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); N.J. Leschot (Nico); C.H. Wouters (Cokkie); F. Veen (Fulco); J.C. Korevaar (Johanna); M. Goddijn

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground Carrier status of a structural balanced chromosome abnormality is associated with recurrent miscarriage. There is, at present, no evidence of the impact of the sequence of preceding pregnancies on the probability of carrier status. The aim of our study was therefore to examine

  17. Aspirin plus Heparin or Aspirin Alone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaandorp, Stef P.; Goddijn, Mariette; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Verhoeve, Harold R.; Hamulyak, Karly; Mol, Ben Willem; Folkeringa, Nienke; Nahuis, Marleen; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Buller, Harry R.; van der Veen, Fulco; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin are prescribed for women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, with the goal of improving the rate of live births, but limited data from randomized, controlled trials are available to support the use of these drugs. METHODS In this randomized

  18. Miscarriage risk for IVF pregnancies in poor responders to ovarian hyperstimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haadsma, M.L.; Groen, H.; Mooij, T.M.; Burger, C.W.; Broekmans, F.J.; Lambalk, C.B.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Hoek, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing miscarriage rate with advancing female age is attributed to a decline in oocyte quality. A poor response to ovarian hyperstimulation is often an expression of a decrease in oocyte quantity. Although oocyte quality and quantity both decrease as a result of ovarian ageing, it is unclear

  19. Miscarriage risk for IVF pregnancies in poor responders to ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haadsma, Maaike L.; Groen, Henk; Mooij, Thea M.; Burger, Curt W.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoek, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The increasing miscarriage rate with advancing female age is attributed to a decline in oocyte quality. A poor response to ovarian hyperstimulation is often an expression of a decrease in oocyte quantity. Although oocyte quality and quantity both decrease as a result of ovarian ageing, it is unclear

  20. Is endomyometrial injury during termination of pregnancy or curettage following miscarriage the precursor to placenta accreta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuker, JM; Erwich, JJHM; Khong, TY

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine the frequency with which myometrium is removed during vacuum terminations of pregnancy or dilatation and curettage after miscarriage, and to relate these findings to subsequent placenta accreta or its proxies. Methods: Archival tissues from vacuum termination of pregnancy or dilat

  1. An altered endometrial CD8 tissue resident memory T cell population in recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, J H; Mounce, G; McGee, K; Elghajiji, A; Brosens, J; Quenby, S; Child, T; Granne, I

    2017-01-23

    When trying to conceive 1% of couples have recurrent miscarriages, defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. This is not accounted for by the known incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy in miscarriage, and it has been suggested that there is an immunological aetiology. The endometrial mucosa is populated by a variety of immune cells which in addition to providing host pathogen immunity must facilitate pregnancy. Here we characterise the endometrial CD8-T cell population during the embryonic window of implantation and find that the majority of cells are tissue resident memory T cells with high levels of CD69 and CD103 expression, proteins that prevent cells egress. We demonstrate that unexplained recurrent miscarriage is associated with significantly decreased expression of the T-cell co-receptor CD8 and tissue residency marker CD69. These cells differ from those found in control women, with less expression of CD127 indicating a lack of homeostatic cell control through IL-7 signalling. Nevertheless this population is resident in the endometrium of women who have RM, more than three months after the last miscarriage, indicating that the memory CD8-T cell population is altered in RM patients. This is the first evidence of a differing pre-pregnancy phenotype in endometrial immune cells in RM.

  2. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-productsAuthors & affiliations:Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  3. Factor V Leiden mutation in relation to fecundity and miscarriage in women with venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, F.M.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Heemskerk, M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden mutation (Arg506Gln) increases the likelihood of venous thrombosis; it may also have a positive effect through facilitation of embryo implantation. This may manifest itself as a reduced time to pregnancy (increased fecundity) and fewer miscarriages in the first trimester.

  4. Value of histopathologic examination of uterine products after first-trimester miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsibiani, Sharifa Ali

    2014-01-01

    The main rationale of routine histopathologic examination of products after first-trimester miscarriages is to detect an ectopic pregnancy or a molar pregnancy, which require further management. An alternative approach is to examine the products only when there is a definite indication. As there is no agreement, we aimed to study whether routine histopathological examination of tissues obtained after first-trimester miscarriage is of any clinical value in our populations. Medical records of all (558) patients with a diagnosis of first-trimester miscarriage over 4 years (2007-2010) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Histopathologic examination confirmed products of conception in 537 (96.2%) patients, no products of conception in 17 (3%) patients, molar pregnancy in 2 (0.4%) patients, and decidual tissues without chorionic villi (Arias-Stella reaction) in 2 (0.4%) patients. After clinical correlation, only one unsuspected partial molar pregnancy was diagnosed by histopathology examination. Conclusion is that it does not appear reasonable to perform histopathological examination routinely after all first-trimester miscarriages in our studied population. We recommend that histopathological examination be performed in select instances: when the diagnosis is uncertain, when fewer tissues have been obtained during surgery, when unexpected pathology was seen, when ultrasound suggests a molar pregnancy, or when patients are considered at high risk for trophoblastic disease.

  5. Self-reported Vitamin Supplementation in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Miscarriage is a common and poorly understood adverse pregnancy outcome. In this study, the authors sought to evaluate the relation between self-reported use of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Between 2000 and 2008, 4,752 US women were prospectively enrolled in Right From the Start. Information about vitamin use was obtained from a first-trimester interview. Discrete-time hazard models were used, candidate confounders were assessed, and the following variables were included in the model: study site, maternal age, gravidity, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and use of progesterone in early pregnancy. Approximately 95% of participants reported use of vitamins during early pregnancy. A total of 524 women had a miscarriage. In the final adjusted model, any use of vitamins during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of miscarriage (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.60) in comparison with no exposure. These results should be viewed in the context of a potentially preventive biologic mechanism mitigated by possible confounding by healthy behaviors and practices that are also associated with vitamin supplement use during pregnancy. PMID:19372214

  6. Economic analysis of chromosome testing in couples with recurrent miscarriage to prevent handicapped offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Vansenne, F.; Korevaar, J.C.; Veen, F. van der; Goddijn, M.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Question: Which strategy is least expensive to prevent the birth of a handicapped child in couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM); parental chromosome analysis followed by amniocentesis in case of carrier status of one of the parents, or amniocentesis in all ongoing pregnancies without the

  7. Increased complement C4d deposition at the maternal-fetal interface in unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Tess; Cohen, Danielle; Swings, Godelieve M J S; Veraar, Kimberly; Claas, Frans H J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M

    2015-01-01

    C4d is a footprint of antibody-mediated classical complement activation, and has evolved as a useful diagnostic marker of antibody-mediated rejection. It is unknown if complement activation, as reflected by C4d deposition plays a role in unexplained recurrent miscarriage. In a case-control study pro

  8. Economic analysis of chromosome testing in couples with recurrent miscarriage to prevent handicapped offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Vansenne, F.; Korevaar, J.C.; Veen, F. van der; Goddijn, M.; Mol, B.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Question: Which strategy is least expensive to prevent the birth of a handicapped child in couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM); parental chromosome analysis followed by amniocentesis in case of carrier status of one of the parents, or amniocentesis in all ongoing pregnancies without the kn

  9. Sperm DNA fragmentation abnormalities in men from couples with a history of recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Mikaela; Aitken, Robert J; Sacks, Gavin

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have described an association between sperm with DNA damage and a history of recurrent miscarriage (RM), although it is not clear whether there is benefit in screening for sperm DNA fragmentation and to what extent DNA fragmentation impacts upon RM. To identify what proportion of couples experiencing RM are affected by DNA fragmentation abnormalities. In this retrospective study, between 2008 and 2013, couples with a history of recurrent miscarriage (≥3 first trimester miscarriages) were investigated comprehensively for known causes (karyotype, uterine, antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombophilia) and also by semen analysis, including DNA fragmentation [sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA)]. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS software with significance taken as P fragmentation index (DFI) of 9.50%. Normal levels were found in 70.5% of men (DFI 30%). Couples with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriage had significantly higher DFI than those with other causes identified on routine screening (P = 0.012). In couples experiencing RM, 30% (32/108) of men had sperm with high levels of DNA fragmentation (DFI > 15%). This may be a contributing factor to the clinical syndrome of RM, and future clinical trials of therapies for these couples are warranted. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Exploring risk perception and attitudes to miscarriage and congenital anomaly in rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dellicour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the socio-cultural context and perceptions of adverse pregnancy outcomes is important for informing the best approaches for public health programs. This article describes the perceptions, beliefs and health-seeking behaviours of women from rural western Kenya regarding congenital anomalies and miscarriages. METHODS: Ten focus group discussions (FGDs were undertaken in a rural district in western Kenya in September 2010. The FGDs included separate groups consisting of adult women of childbearing age, adolescent girls, recently pregnant women, traditional birth attendants and mothers of children with a birth defect. Participants were selected purposively. A deductive thematic framework approach using the questions from the FGD guides was used to analyse the transcripts. RESULTS: There was substantial overlap between perceived causes of miscarriages and congenital anomalies and these were broadly categorized into two groups: biomedical and cultural. The biomedical causes included medications, illnesses, physical and emotional stresses, as well as hereditary causes. Cultural beliefs mostly related to the breaking of a taboo or not following cultural norms. Mothers were often stigmatised and blamed following miscarriage, or the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly. Often, women did not seek care following miscarriage unless there was a complication. Most reported that children with a congenital anomaly were neglected either because of lack of knowledge of where care could be sought or because these children brought shame to the family and were hidden from society. CONCLUSION: The local explanatory model of miscarriage and congenital anomalies covered many perceived causes within biomedical and cultural beliefs. Some of these fuelled stigmatisation and blame of the mother. Understanding of these beliefs, improving access to information about the possible causes of adverse outcomes, and greater collaboration between

  11. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  12. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  13. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  14. Comparison of reproductive outcome, including the pattern of loss, between couples with chromosomal abnormalities and those with unexplained repeated miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Helen; Yan, Junhao; Saravelos, Sotirios H; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of repeated miscarriage. Several studies have discussed the association between chromosomal abnormalities and repeated miscarriage. This study attempts to describe the pattern of miscarriage in this group of women and the eventual pregnancy outcome of couples with chromosomal abnormalities compared with couples with unexplained repeated pregnancy loss. This was a retrospective study involving 795 couples with repeated miscarriages. Out of 795 couples, 28 (3.52%) were found to have a chromosomal abnormality (carrier group). Over half (65.5%) of the chromosomal abnormalities were balanced reciprocal translocations. After referral, this carrier group had a total of 159 pregnancies, leading to 36 live births (22.6%) among 18 couples. The after referral miscarriage rate in the chromosomal anomaly group (55.6%) was significantly (P chromosomal anomaly, the miscarriages were more likely to occur between 6 and 12 weeks' gestation. The encouraging cumulative live birth rate of 64.3% for couples with chromosomal anomaly and repeated miscarriage suggests that further attempts at natural conception are a viable option. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Ultra-sonografia transvaginal do colo para a predição do parto pré-termo em pacientes sintomáticas com bolsa íntegra Transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix for predicting premature delivery in symptomatic patients with intact membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Teresa Moreira Rios

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a utilidade do comprimento cervical ultra-sonográfico para a predição do parto em gestantes com contrações uterinas persistentes e bolsa íntegra. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo observacional, prospectivo, do tipo coorte no qual foram incluídas 45 gestantes internadas em nossa instituição entre a 22ª e a 34ª semana. Ultra-sonografia transvaginal do colo foi realizada uma única vez, após completado um ciclo de tocólise endovenosa, com aferição do comprimento, conforme critérios descritos previamente. Os achados ultra-sonográficos não foram utilizados para o diagnóstico ou conduta obstétrica. O desfecho estudado foi a ocorrência de parto pré-termo (PURPOSE: to assess the role of ultrasonographic cervical length in predicting premature labor in patients presenting persistent uterine contractions and intact membranes. METHODS: a prospective observational cohort study was performed in 45 women admitted to our hospital between 22 and 34 weeks of gestation. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of the cervix was performed once in the women who had completed a course of parenteral tocolysis. The cervical length was obtained according to criteria reported previously. Cervical sonographic findings were not used in diagnosis and management. Outcome variable was the occurrence of preterm delivery (<37 weeks. Statistical analysis consisted of univariate method with the purpose of determining the significant contribution of cervical length to the prediction of preterm delivery. The adopted significance level was 5% (p<0,05 and the confidence interval was 95% (95% CI. RESULTS: the incidence of preterm delivery was 51.11% (23/45. Cervical length was significantly associated with the outcome (p<0.0001. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a cervical length of 20 mm was the best cutoff in predicting preterm delivery (sensitivity 86.9%; specificity 81.8%; positive predictive value 83.3%; negative

  16. Influences of prior miscarriage and weight status on perinatal psychological well-being, exercise motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Courtenay A; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2016-12-01

    women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women's psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history to identify strategies to help women, particularly overweight/obese women with a history of miscarriage, to

  17. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation: a register based nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Trærup Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all women in Denmark with a known conception between 1997 and 2007. The Fertility Database was used to identify all women giving birth and the National Hospital Register was used to identify all women with a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Prescription data was obtained from the National Prescription Register. The primary outcome was the number of miscarriages and offspring with major congenital malformations among users of clarithromycin compared to non-users. RESULTS: We identified 931 504 pregnancies (705 837 live births, 77 553 miscarriages, and 148 114 induced abortions. 401 women redeemed a prescription of clarithromycin in the first trimester of which 40 (10.0% experienced a miscarriage and among the live born nine (3.6% had offspring with malformations. The hazard ratio (HR of having a miscarriage after exposure to clarithromycin was 1.56 (CI95% 1.14-2.13. There was no increased hazard of having a miscarriage when being exposed to penicillin or erythromycin. There was no increased prevalence (OR = 1.03 (CI95% 0.52-2.00 of having offspring with malformations after exposure to clarithromycin. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased hazard of miscarriage but no increased prevalance of having offspring with malformations among women redeeming a prescription of clarithromycin in early pregnancy. This is supported by previous studies in animals and humans. However, further research is required to explore the possible effect of treatment indication on the associations found.

  18. Randomized Trial of Vaginal Prostaglandin E2 Versus Oxytocin for Labor Induction in Term Premature Rupture of Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunt, Cigdem; Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Gungor, Ayse Nur Cakir; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Ozat, Mustafa; Gulerman, Cavidan; Gungor, Tayfun; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    ...) vaginal insert with those of oxytocin for labor induction. The present study also examined whether its use reduces the rate of cesarean delivery in term pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes (PROM...

  19. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHOD: A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressur...

  20. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  1. The presence of HLA-antibodies in recurrent miscarriage patients is associated with a reduced chance of a live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Witvliet, Marian D; Steffensen, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Anti-paternal HLA-antibodies are considered a harmless phenomenon during most pregnancies, whereas their role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients is disputed. In contrast to primary RM, patients with secondary RM have carried a fetus to term pregnancy prior to a series of miscarriages, which...... in secondary RM patients with a boy prior to the miscarriages (62%) compared to secondary RM patients with a firstborn girl (29%, p=0.03), primary RM patients (23%, p=0.02) and parous controls (25%, p=0.005). Forty-one percent of HLA-antibody positive pregnant RM patients had a live birth compared to 76...

  2. Congenital Heart Disease in Premature Infants 25-32 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Patricia Y; Li, Jennifer S; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Hornik, Christoph P; Hill, Kevin D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) across the spectrum of common defects in very/extremely premature infants and to compare mortality rates between premature infants with and without CHDs. The Kids' Inpatient Databases (2003-2012) were used to estimate the birth prevalence of CHDs (excluding patent ductus arteriosus) in very/extremely premature infants born between 25 and 32 weeks' gestational age. Birth prevalence was compared with term infants for a subset of "severe" defects expected to be near universally diagnosed in the neonatal period. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate aORs of mortality comparing very and extremely premature infants with vs without CHDs. We identified 249 011 very/extremely premature infants, including 28 806 with CHDs. The overall birth prevalence of CHDs was 116 per 1000 very/extremely premature births. Severe CHDs had significantly higher birth prevalence in very/extremely premature infants when compared with term infants (7.4 per 1000 very/premature births vs 1.5 per 1000 term births; P premature infants with severe CHDs had an overall 26.3% in-hospital mortality and a 7.5-fold increased adjusted odds of death compared with those without CHDs. Mortality varied widely by defect in very/extremely premature infants, ranging from 12% for interrupted aortic arch to 67% for truncus arteriosus. Given the increased birth prevalence of severe CHDs in very/extremely premature infants, and significantly higher mortality, there is justification for intensive interventions aimed at decreasing the likelihood of premature delivery for patients where CHD is diagnosed in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetic Evaluation of Couples With Spontaneous Abortion, Still Birth and Recurrent Miscarriage in Qazvin: Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Chromosomal abnormality plays an important role in different types of miscarriages. Objectives The present study was designed to investigation chromosomal anomalies in three groups of couples with recurrent abortion (RA, spontaneous abortion (SA and still birth (SB. Patients and Methods In this retrospective study, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was investigated among 260 couples with miscarriage, which had referred to the cytogenetic section of a reference laboratory in Buali hospilal, Qazvin, Iran from 2009 to 2014. Metaphase spreads were analyzed using G-banding. Results In this study, 7.6% of couples had chromosomal aberrations including, balanced reciprocal translocations, robertsonian translocations, inversions and sex chromosome aneuploidy. Frequency of balanced translocations was higher, specifically in couples with SA. Conclusions In this investigation we showed that chromosomal abnormalities could be one of the important causes of miscarriages. Cytogenetic evaluation of couples, which experienced different types of miscarriage, may prevent unnecessary treatments.

  4. Factors associated with miscarriages: results of the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomych, Liudmyla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Miscarriages can be considered one of the most frequent problems that occur during pregnancy in humans. The frequency of cases among clinical pregnancies is about 12-15%. The determinants of the majority of miscarriages that occur are not wholly understood, and many putative risk factors remain controversial. The objective of this study was to explore the association of miscarriages with various socio-demographic and anamnestic factors in the Ukrainian population up to 1999.METHODS. In a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional survey, miscarriage was considered the outcome. The study data included 14 297 pregnancies of women of reproductive age (15-44 years old who participated in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey. Different socio-demographic and anamnestic factors were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.RESULTS. After adjustment for confounding, the following factors were independently associated with increased risk of having miscarriage at the p-level less than 0.05: year of the pregnancy after 1997 (AOR 1.72 95% CI 1,15–2,57, central regions of Ukraine (AOR 1,37 95% CI 1,00–1,88, high maternal age at first sexual intercourse (AOR 1,41 95% CI 1,03–1,92, ignorance of education level of the first sexual partner (AOR 2,29 95% CI 1,50–3,50, higher number of previous pregnancies (AOR 4,52 95% CI 1,70–12,02, inter-pregnancy interval 4-6 years (AOR 1,72 95% CI 1,14–2,59, and problems with getting pregnant (AOR 3,13 95% CI 2,55–3,84. Russian ethnicity (AOR 0,80 95% CI 0,66 – 0,97, being non-religious (AOR 0,76 95% CI 0,58 – 0,99, inter-pregnancy interval 15–18 months (AOR 0,60 95% CI 0,36 – 0,99 were associated with reduced risk of miscarriages. CONCLUSIONS. The results confirm that the higher inter-pregnancy interval and number of pregnancies, which can be related to older maternal age, are factors

  5. Natality Decline and Miscarriages Associated With the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: The Scandinavian and United States Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for severe influenza infection, the effect of influenza on miscarriages and births remains unclear. We examined the relationship between influenza and birth rates during the 1918 pandemic in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway...... of peak pandemic exposure and depressions in birth rates, and identified pregnancy stages at risk of influenza-related miscarriage. Results. Birth rates declined in all study populations in spring 1919 by a mean of 2.2 births per 1000 persons, representing a 5%–15% drop below baseline levels (P .... Methods. We compiled monthly birth rates from 1911 through 1930 in 3 Scandinavian countries and the United States, identified periods of unusually low or high birth rates, and quantified births as “missing” or “in excess” of the normal expectation. Using monthly influenza data, we correlated the timing...

  6. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine admi...... we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multi-center randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab....

  7. A modest but significant effect of CGB5 gene promoter polymorphisms in modulating the risk of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Nagirnaja, Liina

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland.......To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland....

  8. Risk of miscarriage among users of corticosteroid hormones: a population-based nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn AM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Mette B Bjørn,1 Rikke B Nielsen,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Ellen A Nohr,2 Vera Ehrenstein11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: The purpose of this nested case-control study in Denmark was to study the association between use of corticosteroids and risk of miscarriage.Methods: We identified prescriptions for corticosteroids before the miscarriage/index date. We estimated odds ratios (ORs for miscarriage and for early (<13 weeks and late (13–21 weeks miscarriage adjusting for age, history of diabetes and epilepsy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use.Results: We identified 10,974 women with miscarriage and 109,740 controls. Prevalence of inhaled corticosteroid use within 60 days before the index date was 1.3% among the cases and 1.0% among the controls (OR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.44. Prevalence of oral corticosteroid use within 60 days before the index date was 0.3% for both cases and controls (OR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.53–1.15. For inhaled and oral corticosteroids, the ORs of early miscarriage were 1.22 (95% CI 1.01–1.49 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.55–1.20, respectively.Conclusion: Use of inhaled corticosteroids was associated with a slightly increased risk of early miscarriage, but explanations alternative to causal ones were possible.Keywords: case-control study, corticosteroid hormones, epidemiology, miscarriage

  9. Association between perfluorinated compound exposure and miscarriage in Danish pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kold Jensen

    Full Text Available Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336 of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5 and 2.67 (1.31-5.44, respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2 and 3.71 (1.60-8.60, respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds.

  10. A comparative study of misoprostol versus surgical management of incomplete and missed miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Verma

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Misoprostol is effective in complete evacuation of uterus in incomplete and missed miscarriage. Patients are highly satisfied with the misoprostol treatment as they didn't have to get hospitalized. The bleeding was more or less like menstrual bleeding which did not affect the daily chores of the women. It is as effective as surgical evacuation and patient satisfaction is much more than the surgical evacuation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 3654-3658

  11. Delayed Interval Delivery following Early Loss of the Leading Twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Udealor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a case of a nulliparous woman with reduced chance of conception following unilateral salpingectomy and years of infertility. She eventually conceived following ovulation induction resulting in twin pregnancy. She had miscarriage that led to loss of one of the twins at 17 weeks of gestational age. The pregnancy was however continued for 116 days following meticulous management with eventual delivery of a live female baby with good outcome.

  12. Decreased stathmin-1 expression inhibits trophoblast proliferation and invasion and is associated with recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fu-Ju; Qin, Chuan-Mei; Li, Xiao-Cui; Wu, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Xu, Wang-Ming; Lin, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Fetal trophoblasts invade endometrium and establish a complex interaction with the maternal microenvironment during early pregnancy. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating trophoblast migration and invasion at the maternal-fetal interface remain poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting have shown that stathmin-1 (STMN1) was down-regulated significantly in placental villi tissue and trophoblasts from patients with recurrent miscarriage. In vitro, overexpression of STMN1 promoted human trophoblast proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas knockdown of STMN1 inhibited these processes. In addition, knockdown of STMN1 down-regulated N-cadherin and up-regulated E-cadherin in trophoblasts, whereas E-cadherin was up-regulated and N-cadherin was down-regulated in recurrent miscarriage villi tissue. Knockdown of STMN1 attenuated cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of β-catenin and in turn down-regulated trophoblast matrix metalloproteases. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) down-regulated STMN1 expression, and serum TNF-α expression correlated inversely with trophoblast STMN1 levels. Interestingly, M1 macrophage-derived TNF-α reduced trophoblast migration and invasion, and an anti-TNF-α antibody reversed this effect. Collectively, this study indicated that STMN1 may play a key role in regulating trophoblast invasion, and that impaired STMN1 expression may lead to abnormal trophoblast invasion and result in recurrent miscarriage.

  13. Analysis of premature births for the period from 2009. to 2013. in Health Center Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery before 37th week of gestation is defined as preterm, independently of body mass of babies, according to the World Health Organization. Premature birth is the current problem in the world due to the high risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality and incompletely clear etiology. In our country the frequency of preterm delivery is 6%. We have retrospectively analyzed early deliveries in Health Center Kosovska Mitrovica in the period from 2009 to 2013. In this five-year period, there were totaly 3398 deliveries, of which 148 or 4.35 % were preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of premature birth in the five-year period in relation to: the total number of births in a given period, the age of the patients, the manner of completion of delivery, gestational week of pregnancy, parity and the most common causes that led to the PTP. In the analysis we have included the body weight and Apgar score of premature infants. We have used protocols of births, maternal history of disease, neonatal protocols and lists of newborns. Most of them were multiparas (41.2 %,56.7 % of pregnant women were aged of 21-30 years and pregnancy in 79.9 % of cases ended with 33 to 37 ng. Vaginal deliveries were completed in 84.4% of premature births, and caesarean in 15.6%. Twin pregnancies with preterm deliveries were represented in 10.2%. The most common weight of premature infants ranged from 2000 to 2500 grams (48.6 %. The most common causes that led to the PTP were PPROM (22.9 %, unknown causes (27. 1 %, multiple pregnancy (18.2 %, genital infection (8.7 %, cervical incompetence (6.7 %, IUGR (5.4%, PIH (4.2%, placental abruption and placenta previa (2.1 % and other (4.7% .

  14. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  15. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  16. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  17. Vaginal micronized progesterone and risk of preterm delivery in high-risk twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, K; Rode, L; Nicolaides, K H;

    2011-01-01

    and placebo groups were similar. Mean gestational age at delivery did not differ significantly between the two groups either in patients with a short cervix (34.3 ± 4.1 vs. 34.5 ± 3.0 weeks, P = 0.87) or in those with a history of preterm delivery or late miscarriage (34.6 ± 4.2 vs. 35.2 ± 2.7 weeks, P = 0...

  18. The Impact of Premature Childbirth on Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N. Hoffenkamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200 and fathers (n = 193 of full-term (n = 69, moderately premature (n = 68, and very premature infants (n = 63. During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ. Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  19. The impact of premature childbirth on parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenkamp, Hannah N; Tooten, Anneke; Hall, Ruby A S; Croon, Marcel A; Braeken, Johan; Winkel, Frans Willem; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2012-08-17

    The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200) and fathers (n = 193) of full-term (n = 69), moderately premature (n = 68), and very premature infants (n = 63). During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM) and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  20. How long after a miscarriage should women wait before becoming pregnant again? Multivariate analysis of cohort data from Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaVanzo, Julie; Hale, Lauren; Rahman, Mizanur

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimum interpregnancy interval (IPI) following a miscarriage. Design Multivariate analysis of population-based, prospective data from a demographic surveillance system. Setting Pregnancies in Matlab, Bangladesh, between 1977 and 2008. Participants 9214 women with 10 453 pregnancies that ended in a miscarriage and were followed by another pregnancy outcome. Main outcome measures Outcome of pregnancy following the miscarriage was singleton live birth, stillbirth, miscarriage or induced abortion. For pregnancies that ended in live birth: early neonatal, late neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Results Compared with IPIs of 6–12 months, pregnancies that were conceived ≤3 months after a miscarriage were more likely to result in a live birth and less likely to result in a miscarriage (adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86) or induced abortion (0.50, 0.29 to 0.89). Induced abortions were significantly more likely following IPIs of 18–24 months (2.36, 1.48 to 3.76), 36–48 months (2.73, 1.50 to 4.94), and >48 months (3.32, 1.68 to 2.95), and miscarriages were more likely following IPIs of 12–17 months (1.25, 1.01 to 1.56) and >48 months (1.90, 1.40 to 2.58). No significant effects of IPI duration are seen on the risks of a stillbirth. However, IPIs≤3 months following a miscarriage are associated with significantly higher late neonatal mortality for the infant born at the end of the IPI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 1.06 to 2.84), and IPIs of 12–18 months are associated with a significantly lower unadjusted risk of postneonatal mortality (0.54, 0.30 to 0.96). Conclusions The shorter the IPI following a miscarriage, the more likely the subsequent pregnancy is to result in a live birth. However, very short IPIs may not be advisable following miscarriages in poor countries like Bangladesh because they are associated with a higher risk of mortality for the infants born after them. PMID

  1. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  2. Mechanical ventilation of the premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa K; DiBlasi, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although the trend in the neonatal intensive care unit is to use noninvasive ventilation whenever possible, invasive ventilation is still often necessary for supporting pre-term neonates with lung disease. Many different ventilation modes and ventilation strategies are available to assist with the optimization of mechanical ventilation and prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Patient-triggered ventilation is favored over machine-triggered forms of invasive ventilation for improving gas exchange and patient-ventilator interaction. However, no studies have shown that patient-triggered ventilation improves mortality or morbidity in premature neonates. A promising new form of patient-triggered ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), was recently FDA approved for invasive and noninvasive ventilation. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate outcomes in neonates who receive NAVA. New evidence suggests that volume-targeted ventilation modes (ie, volume control or pressure control with adaptive targeting) may provide better lung protection than traditional pressure control modes. Several volume-targeted modes that provide accurate tidal volume delivery in the face of a large endotracheal tube leak were recently introduced to the clinical setting. There is ongoing debate about whether neonates should be managed invasively with high-frequency ventilation or conventional ventilation at birth. The majority of clinical trials performed to date have compared high-frequency ventilation to pressure control modes. Future trials with premature neonates should compare high-frequency ventilation to conventional ventilation with volume-targeted modes. Over the last decade many new promising approaches to lung-protective ventilation have evolved. The key to protecting the neonatal lung during mechanical ventilation is optimizing lung volume and limiting excessive lung expansion, by applying appropriate PEEP and using shorter inspiratory time, smaller tidal

  3. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  4. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  5. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  6. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ciach

    Full Text Available To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.Case control national study.Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant.Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA, Spain.All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies. Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%. None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during

  7. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabin, Izabela; Adamski, Przemyslaw; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Preis, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Hanna; Wydra, Dariusz G.; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients. Design Case control national study. Setting Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM). Population or Sample 23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999–2014, before becoming pregnant. Methods Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries. Main Outcome Measures Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast), Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA), Spain. Results All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies). Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%). None of the patients

  8. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  9. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  10. [Regionalised perinatal care in cases of cervical incompetence and imminent premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Misselwitz, B

    2011-08-01

    Premature birth due to cervical incompetence is a major obstacle of perinatal medicine. While measures of prevention have been investigated, the mother should be transferred to a perinatal centre when delivery prematurity, IUGR,and maternal disease was performed to evaluate the relation of prolongation of gestation to the level of care. Admissions with imminent premature birth due to cervical incompetence were identified in 6 892 cases. Overall prolongation until birth was 9.6 days. When the cervical incompetence was premature newborns the organisation of perinatal care should aim at intrauterine transfer to a specialised perinatal unit.A precondition is a health system with an adequate structure of perinatal centres within 30 k min the case of obstetrical emergencies

  11. Collaborative decision-making for extreme premature delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alison L; Casey, Anne; Lui, Kei

    2007-06-01

    A multidisciplinary workshop with parent/consumer involvement was held to determine a consensus in the difficult arena of perinatal care of women and babies at the borderlines of viability. Interactive forums produced consensus statements following an extensive consultation process. A grey zone between 23(0) and 25(6) weeks of gestation was identified and agreed upon. In this grey zone, while there was an increasing obligation to treat, it was acceptable not to initiate intensive care following appropriate counselling with parents. Important areas identified before birth, were continuing communication between the perinatal team and parents, a review of choice with continued counselling, decision support and empathy. The process must be transparent, open and honest, using the most relevant up to date outcome data in a collaborative framework.

  12. Respiratory Failure in Premature Babies Born from Multiple Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the factors that are responsible for the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and the specific features of its course in preterm twin neonates. Subjects and methods. Twenty-three patients who had had twin pregnancy, including 9 (39.1% and 14 (60% with monochorial and bichorial biamniotic twin pregnancies, respectively, were examined. Their mean age was 28.5±5.4 years. Obstetric and gynecologic histories, conditions at conception, the course of pregnancy, the type of pla-centation, and fetal presentation were considered. The placentas were morphologically examined. In all the patients, pregnancy ended in birth of 46 premature neonates, of them there were 19 (41.3% boys and 27 (58.7% girls. The gestational age of the neonates averaged 31.7±2.3 weeks. The evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy used clinical assessment of the status of the premature neonates; measurement of partial oxygen tension (pO2 and calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2, respiratory index (RI, and oxygenation index (OI; death rates were analyzed. Results. The main cause of respiratory failure (RF was RDS in premature twins. Neonatal blood aspiration-caused pneumonia occurred in one case. The course of RDS was variable. Most neonatal infants needed exogenous surfactant replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation (MV. No signs of RF were present in 7 (15.2% premature neonates. Conclusion. Premature twins are a high RDS risk group. The unfavorable factors that contribute to the development of the disease are multiple pregnancy, a past maternal obstetric history, in-vitro fertilization-induced pregnancy, severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The type of placentation affects the fetal status after birth. Fatal outcome occurred in infants from the monochorial bioamniotic twins. In multiple pregnancies, there are pathological changes in the placenta, its membranes, and umbilical

  13. Comparaing the causes of abortion in patients with two or more than two consecutive miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Azargoon MD. A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of three or more pregnancies. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL is traditionally investigated after three or more consecutive losses. Although some believe that the investigation must be launched after two miscarriages, there is not enough compelling evidence to draw conclusion. "n"nMethods : In this cross-sectional study, we studied 58 women with two or more consecutive abortions (37 women with two and 21 women with three or more miscarriages from 2005 to 2009. The following risk factors were analyzed and compared between the two groups: endocrine dysfunctions, genetic abnormalities, uterine anomalies, infections, thrombophilia, polycystic ovary syndrome, autoimmune disorders, sperm characteristics, and advanced maternal age."n"nResults : We did not find any known factor for pregnancy losses in 18 (31.03% patients but in the rest, the most common cause of Recurrent pregnancy loss was endocrine disorders (41.4%. The other causes were uterine abnormalities (12.1%, infections (12.1%, maternal age more than 35 years (12.1%, thrombophilia (8.6%, abnormal semen analysis (8.6%, genetic defects (6.9% and autoimmune disorders (1.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups in regards with the causes of abortion except uterine abnormality (P=0.039 which was more frequent in women with three or more three miscarriages (23.8% relative to women with two abortions (5.4%."n"nConclusion: There were no significant differences between women

  14. Association between PD-1/PD-L1 and T regulate cells in early recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiyu; Lu, Caixia; Gao, Jing; Wang, Xietong; Wu, Huanling; Lee, Chao; Xing, Baoxiang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we try to testify the relationship between the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) passway and Treg cells in maternal-fetal immune regulation through PD-1 blockade on lymphocytes of normal early pregnancy in vitro and investigation of the PD-1 and PD-L1 changes in early recurrent miscarriage patients. CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells and PD-1 (CD279) positive cell were detected in deciduas in early recurrent miscarriage patients by flow cytometry. And the normal early pregnant women were as controls. Meanwhile the mRNA level of PD-1 and molecular expression of PD-L1 in deciduas of early recurrent miscarriage patients were detected by real time RT-PCR test and Immunohistochemical staining respectively. Also through antibody blocking assay to block PD-1 on lymphocytes of normal early pregnancy in vitro further testify the relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 and Treg cells, the results were analyzed by flow cytometry. CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells decreased both in deciduas in RM (P 0.05). PD-L1 mRNA in deciduas decreased in RM (P 0.1). After PD-1 blockade there was no change in CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells percentage, while the CD4+ T cell percentage increased (P < 0.01), as well as the level of IFN-gamma in cells supernatant (P < 0.01). PD-1 blockade has a little influence on the number of Treg cells, and may lead to impaired Treg cells function, the decrease of PD-L1 may closely relates to the occurrence of early recurrent miscarriage and implies that Treg cells may through PD-1/PD-L1 pathway play a role of immunosuppression regulation, and the impairment of Treg cells function in recurrent early abortion cases may be due to PD-L1 decrease in deciduas or trophoblast cells rather than PD-1 change.

  15. Recurrent miscarriages in women not fulfilling classification criteria for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietta, M; Ferrero, S; Ferri, L; Cifani, N; Bruno, G; Del Porto, F

    2014-01-01

    Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), is well defined by classification criteria. It is well known that women with APS should receive prophylactic anticoagulation therapy with subcutaneous low weight heparin all throughout pregnancy and in the first 6 weeks postpartum. However, the optimal treatment for pregnant women having positive anti-phospholipid antibodies, but not fulfilling classification criteria for APS is still unclear. In this retrospective study we report pregnancy outcomes of 10 patients affected by recurrent miscarriages and positive anti-cardiolipin or aβ2GP1 antibodies with titers ranging from 10 to 20 GPL/MPL demonstrated at least twice before pregnancy.

  16. Non-visualized pregnancy losses are prognostically important for unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; van Oppenraaij, R H; Quenby, S

    2014-01-01

    -visualized pregnancy losses following spontaneous conception or homologous insemination. The category 'non-visualized pregnancy losses' combines biochemical pregnancy loss (positive hCG, no ultrasound performed) and failed PUL (pregnancy of unknown location, positive hCG, but on ultrasound, no pregnancy location...... consecutive pregnancy losses before 12 weeks' gestation, and we included only women with unexplained RM after thorough evaluation. It is uncertain whether the findings apply to other definitions of RM and among women with known causes for their miscarriages. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: To our...

  17. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by PROM at University Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Jundiaí, from march 2007 to june 2009. Results: the results showed a higher prevalence: age between 20 and 30 years (54.5%, caucasian (58.6%, unmarried (46%, non-smokers (72.82%, gestation LMP term (63.3% and USG (64.5%, number of prenatal consultations more than six (59.8%, multiparous (66.6%, obstetric history with normal vaginal delivery (PVN (56.3%, cervical dilatation at admission between 2 cm - 3 cm, evanescence 50%, ruptured membranes between 1 and 4 hours, conduct the spontaneous delivery (82.5%, type of delivery PVN (55,6%, newborn weighing 2,500 kg and 3,500 kg (61.6%, Apgar score greater than seven at 1 and 5 minutes (89.2% and 99.2% respectively, need for resuscitation (81,5%, Neo ICU (2.6% and length of the binomial two days. Conclusion: based on our results and in comparison with the literature review, we found a similar prevalence in our service and other services of those studies. The exception was the high prevalence of cesarean section over the other and the high number of pregnant women had not received prenatal care (22.9%.

  18. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  19. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-fang Yan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  20. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study

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    Bødtker Anne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of mental health scores after these two pregnancy termination events. Methods Forty women who experienced miscarriages and 80 women who underwent abortions at the main hospital of Buskerud County in Norway were interviewed. All subjects completed the following questionnaires 10 days (T1, six months (T2, two years (T3 and five years (T4 after the pregnancy termination: Impact of Event Scale (IES, Quality of Life, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and another addressing their feelings about the pregnancy termination. Differential changes in mean scores were determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and inter-group differences were assessed by ordinary least squares methods. Results Women who had experienced a miscarriage had more mental distress at 10 days and six months after the pregnancy termination than women who had undergone an abortion. However, women who had had a miscarriage exhibited significantly quicker improvement on IES scores for avoidance, grief, loss, guilt and anger throughout the observation period. Women who experienced induced abortion had significantly greater IES scores for avoidance and for the feelings of guilt, shame and relief than the miscarriage group at two and five years after the pregnancy termination (IES avoidance means: 3.2 vs 9.3 at T3, respectively, p Conclusion The course of psychological responses to miscarriage and abortion differed during the five-year period after the event. Women who had undergone an abortion exhibited higher scores during the follow-up period for some outcomes. The difference in the courses of responses may partly result from the different characteristics of the two pregnancy termination events.

  1. Miscarriage - threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clot-like material may pass from the vagina . Exams and Tests Your provider may perform an abdominal ... your pregnancy, such as: Alcohol Infectious diseases High caffeine intake Recreational drugs X-rays Taking a prenatal ...

  2. Repeated Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical signs or symptoms, but some of their eggs or sperm will have abnormal chromosomes. If an embryo gets ... completed weeks of pregnancy. Fertilization: Joining of the egg and sperm. Glucose: A sugar that is present in the ...

  3. Further Evidence on the Role of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, Natalia; Moretti, Costanzo; De Felice, Giovanna; Vaquero, Elena; Manfellotto, Dario

    2012-01-01

    It has been twenty years since the first paper reporting the association between thyroid antibodies (TAIs) and spontaneous miscarriage was published. Following this observation, several studies have clearly demonstrated an increased prevalence of TAI in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM). However, the exact mechanism underlying this association remains a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the thyroid function, throughout a specific test, in patient with RM and TAI focusing on the hypothesis that TAI should be an indirect sign of a mild thyroid dysfunction. 46 patients with RM and TAI were included in the study. All patients underwent short TRH stimulation test showing an abnormal response in the vast majority of cases (65%). Normal FT4 and FT3 mean values were found whereas TSH values were in the upper normal range (2.64 ± 1.3 mUI/L). Our data support the hypothesis that in patients with RM the presence of TAI is an indirect sign of a subtle thyroid dysfunction detectable by a specific test. This test give the possibility to identify women with RM in which specific therapeutic approaches could effectively improve the possibility for a successful pregnancy. PMID:22319528

  4. Further Evidence on the Role of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lazzarin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been twenty years since the first paper reporting the association between thyroid antibodies (TAIs and spontaneous miscarriage was published. Following this observation, several studies have clearly demonstrated an increased prevalence of TAI in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM. However, the exact mechanism underlying this association remains a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the thyroid function, throughout a specific test, in patient with RM and TAI focusing on the hypothesis that TAI should be an indirect sign of a mild thyroid dysfunction. 46 patients with RM and TAI were included in the study. All patients underwent short TRH stimulation test showing an abnormal response in the vast majority of cases (65%. Normal FT4 and FT3 mean values were found whereas TSH values were in the upper normal range (2.64±1.3 mUI/L. Our data support the hypothesis that in patients with RM the presence of TAI is an indirect sign of a subtle thyroid dysfunction detectable by a specific test. This test give the possibility to identify women with RM in which specific therapeutic approaches could effectively improve the possibility for a successful pregnancy.

  5. Informatics enhanced SNP microarray analysis of 30 miscarriage samples compared to routine cytogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B Lathi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The metaphase karyotype is often used as a diagnostic tool in the setting of early miscarriage; however this technique has several limitations. We evaluate a new technique for karyotyping that uses single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays (SNP. This technique was compared in a blinded, prospective fashion, to the traditional metaphase karyotype. METHODS: Patients undergoing dilation and curettage for first trimester miscarriage between February and August 2010 were enrolled. Samples of chorionic villi were equally divided and sent for microarray testing in parallel with routine cytogenetic testing. RESULTS: Thirty samples were analyzed, with only four discordant results. Discordant results occurred when the entire genome was duplicated or when a balanced rearrangement was present. Cytogenetic karyotyping took an average of 29 days while microarray-based karytoyping took an average of 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular karyotyping of POC after missed abortion using SNP microarray analysis allows for the ability to detect maternal cell contamination and provides rapid results with good concordance to standard cytogenetic analysis.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in couples with repeated miscarriage in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente-Cortés, Beatriz E; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; García-Vielma, Catalina; De la Rosa Alvarado, Rosa M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2009-04-01

    Cytogenetic studies have an important role in the evaluation of couples with repeated miscarriages and poor obstetric history. To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in 158 couples with repeated miscarriages, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Monterrey, Mexico from 1995 to 2003. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for chromosomal studies using standard methods. Twelve couples showed chromosomal abnormalities (7.60%), two Robertsonian translocations (1.27%), two balanced translocations (1.27%), one inversion (0.63%), and one a novel insertion (0.63%). This insertion [46, XX, ins (15;8) (q26;p11p23)] is unique, and is the third reported in association with repeated abortion. Mosaicism was observed in six couples (3.80%, three with structural abnormalities and three with numerical abnormalities). A female to male ratio of 1.4:1 was observed. In addition to these chromosomal abnormalities, polymorphic variants in constitutive heterochromatin of the 1qh+, 9qh+, and 16qh+ chromosomes were observed in 25 couples (15.82%), of the Yqh+ chromosome in 21 couples (13.29%), and of satellite in 35 couples (22.15%). In conclusion, chromosome analysis is necessary for appropriate clinical management of these patients.

  7. The loss of self: The effect of miscarriage, stillbirth, and child death on maternal self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonch Hill, Patricia; Cacciatore, Joanne; Shreffler, Karina M; Pritchard, Kayla M

    2017-04-01

    A child's death augments how grieving parents view the world, the family, and the self. Using a representative sample of women ages 25-45 who have ever given birth, we assessed whether miscarriage, stillbirth, and child death impact self-esteem and whether this loss is moderated by maternal identity. We found that stillbirth and child death, but not miscarriage, negatively impacted self-esteem. For those who experienced a loss, the impact on self-esteem was moderated by maternal identity. Women who experienced a stillbirth were the only group who had significantly lower self-esteem after controlling for background characteristics and maternal identity variables.

  8. The presence of HLA-antibodies in recurrent miscarriage patients is associated with a reduced chance of a live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Witvliet, Marian D; Steffensen, Rudi;

    2010-01-01

    Anti-paternal HLA-antibodies are considered a harmless phenomenon during most pregnancies, whereas their role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients is disputed. In contrast to primary RM, patients with secondary RM have carried a fetus to term pregnancy prior to a series of miscarriages, which....... Sera from women with secondary RM (n=56), primary RM (n=13) and parous controls (n=24) were tested for HLA-antibodies using an ELISA assay and complement dependent cytotoxicity. Samples were taken at gestational week 4-5 in 62 (90%) of the patients. HLA-antibodies were significantly more frequent...

  9. Pregnancy outcome after preimplantation genetic screening or natural conception in couples with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of the best available evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, A.M.; Repping, S.; Korevaar, J.C.; Mastenbroek, S.; Limpens, J.; Veen, F. van der; Goddijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess live birth rates and miscarriage rates after preimplantation genetic screening or natural conception for unexplained recurrent miscarriage. There were no randomized controlled trials or comparative studies found on this topic. Until data from ran

  10. [The practice guideline 'Miscarriage' (second revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The practice guideline 'Miscarriage' has been reviewed for the second time in fifteen years. It provides the practitioner with distinct diagnostic tools for vaginal bleeding in the first sixteen weeks of pregnancy and a clear management algorithm. The management of miscarriage is based on a joint de

  11. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  12. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  13. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

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    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  14. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  15. Research of the state of the stress-realizing systems in pregnant women with miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Plotnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving independently, within the time limit to 22 weeks. Unfortunately, the incidence of abortion in Ukraine remains quite high and ranges from 15 to 23% of all reported pregnancies, while over 92% of them occurred before 12 weeks (Ventskivskyy BM, 2004, Ginsburg V., 2003, Beetle C.I., 2000. The hypothesis of the development of spontaneous miscarriage as a result of the impact of mental stress factors C.T. Javert first proposed back in 1954. Later it was shown that biochemical substances (epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin, prostaglandins are involved in the processes of influence of stressfactors on pregnant women. The aim of the work was to investigate some stress-realizing systems by adopting an integrated approach in women with threatened abortion for further development of the algorithm of the evaluation and prediction of risk of the miscarriage, which will contribute to the reduction of perinatal losses and improve the reproductive health of women. Materials and methods. Study involved 34 pregnant women with diagnosis of "threatened abortion" gestational age from 7 to20 weeks with a singleton pregnancy. The control group consisted of 15 women with usual pregnancy. Was used an integrated approach, consisting of a set of methods for studying the autonomic nervous system using computer cardiointervalography, rheovasography, research levels of hormones such as cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate, progesterone, estradiol, and clinical and laboratory parameters. Results. According to the gynecological, obstetric and physical anamnesis any significant difference between the women of the 1st and 2nd groups were not found. In the study were found that in the main group cortisol levels were significantly (p ≤ 0,01 elevated and index ratio of cortisol and insulin was higher almost in 2 times

  16. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  17. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  18. Abortamentos espontâneos em portadoras do Traço Falciforme (AS Spontaneous miscarriages among sickle cell trait carriers (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S. Ramalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study carried out in Salvador, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, has shown a miscarriage rate significantly higher among AS women than that observed among AA controls. Considering this finding, we investigated the miscarriage rate among women cared for by the hemoglobinopathy program in the city of Araras, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The spontaneous miscarriage rate among 165 AS women (17% was significantly higher than that observed among 500 AA women (10% (p = 0.02. Taking into account only women with ages above 20 years, the miscarriage rate among 112 heterozygous AS (22% greatly differed from that observed among 347 AA women (12.6% (p = 0.01. These results confirm the greater tendency of spontaneous miscarriages among AS women, which might be related to a previously described maternal effect in relation to AS heterozygous women.

  19. 卵巢反应不良患者的流产分析%Miscarriage analysis on patients with poor ovarian response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙晓林; 吴乙璇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of poor ovarian response(POR) to the quantity and quality of oocytes by analyzing the premature miscarriage in POR patients with successful pregnancy.Methods A total of 1371 pregnant women who received in vitro fertilization in Reproductive Medical Center,The Third Affiliated Hospital,Guangzhou Medical College,between January 2005 and April 2009 were recruited.Of whom 58 had POR and 1313 normal ovarian response (NOR).The general clinical conditions and miscarriage rate in respective age group were compared.Results Patients with POR were slightly advanced age [(33.2 ± 3.5) years vs (31.5± 3.8) years,P<0.05],rcquired higher dose of gonadotropin yet were featured by a comparatively lower number of oocytes for extraction,embryos for transplantation and fertilization (all P<0.05).Nonetheless,the between-group difference in the duration of infertility,proportion of primary infertility,the number of days requiring ovarian stimulation,the rate of fertilization and implantation did not reach statistical significance(all P>0.05).A lower rate of multifetation was noted in patients with POR (15.5% vs 34.1%,P<0.05),of whom the rate of miscarriage did not differ significantly from those with NOR [20.7% (12/58) vs 12.6% (165/1313),P>0.05].The rates of miscarriage in patients with POR (13.3%,26.9% and 17.6% for ≤30,31-35 and ≥36 age groups) did not differ considerably (P>0.05) with those in patients with NOR (10.7%,13.8% and 14.4%).Conclusions POR does not contribute significantly to increased rate of miscarriage.Diminished ovarian reserve,but not reduced quality of oocytes,constitutes the POR in patients who manage the pregnancy.%目的 通过分析卵巢反应不良(POR)患者早期自然流产的情况,研究成功妊娠的POR患者卵巢反应不良与卵母细胞数量及质量的关系.方法 收集2005年1月至2009年4月广州医学院第三附属医院生殖医学中心1371例体外受精-

  20. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  1. The relationship of the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Hodges, Jennifer K; Thevarajah, Tamara S; McCourt, Emily A; Cerda, Ashlee M; Mandava, Naresh; Gibbs, Ronald S; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-09-01

    , 28 weeks 1 day ± 2 weeks, 3 days (23 weeks, 3 days - 33 weeks, 4 days); medical indication of preterm birth, 29 weeks, 1 day ± 2 weeks, 2 days (24-36 weeks, 4 days); preterm premature rupture of the membranes, 28 weeks, 4 days ± 2 weeks, 1 day (24-33 weeks, 1 day). Among infants with type 1, type 2, or no retinopathy of prematurity, the incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in births from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes was 37 of 218 (17%), 27 of 272 (10%), and 10 of 164 (6%), respectively. Adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, and multiparity and compared with the preterm premature rupture of the membranes group, the odds ratios of spontaneous preterm labor and medical indication of preterm birth for type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity were 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 20, P = .003) and 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 21, P = .01), respectively. Among neonates born after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, the probability of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity was greatest in infants with rupture of membrane duration of up to 24 hours. After 24 hours, the probability of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity declined. The odds of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity was 9.0 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 34, P = .002) in infants who had preterm premature rupture of the membranes ≤ 24 hours compared with infants who had preterm premature rupture of the membranes > 24 hours. Type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity are adverse ocular outcomes linked with not only lower gestational age and birth weight at delivery but also with events in the intrauterine environment that trigger a preterm birth. The reduced incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in the preterm premature rupture of the membranes group compared with other causes of preterm birth may be

  2. Placental Fatty Acid ethyl esters are elevated with maternal alcohol use in pregnancies complicated by prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W; Mohan, Sowmya S; Gross, Teresa S; Harris, Frank L; Guidot, David M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2) investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+). The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL) and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88-93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery.

  3. Placental Fatty Acid ethyl esters are elevated with maternal alcohol use in pregnancies complicated by prematurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gauthier

    Full Text Available The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1 determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2 investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+. The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88-93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery.

  4. Prediction of miscarriage and stillbirth at 11-13 weeks and the contribution of chorionic villus sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akolekar, Ranjit; Bower, Sarah; Flack, Nicola; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To derive models for estimating risk of miscarriage and stillbirth from maternal characteristics and findings of first-trimester screening for aneuploidies and to define the procedure-related risk of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) after adjusting for these factors. Method We examined 33

  5. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased risk of first-trimester miscarriage in the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Jørgensen, Jan S; Jensen, Tina K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Miscarriage is the most common negative outcome of pregnancy, and identification of modifiable risk factors is potentially of great importance for public health. Low vitamin D concentrations in pregnancy are widespread worldwide, and vitamin D deficiency is implicated in immune cell r...

  6. Knowledge and perceived risks in couples undergoing genetic testing after recurrent miscarriage or for poor semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansenne, F.; Goddijn, M.; Redeker, B.; Snijder, S.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Lemmink, H.; Leschot, N. J.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; de Borgie, C. A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and men with poor semen quality may undergo genetic testing as part of the diagnostic work-up. This study explored their knowledge and perception of genetic testing, evaluated psychological wellbeing and identified associated variables. A prospective questionn

  7. Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, Marieke G. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Schouten, Leo J.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Allen, Naomi E.; Wark, Petra A.; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Brauner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Teucher, Birgit; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Pala, Valeria; Galasso, Rocco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gram, Inger Torhild; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Lund, Eiliv; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larranaga, Nerea; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Quiros, Jose R.; Idahl, Annika; Ohlson, Nina; Lundin, Eva; Jirstrom, Karin; Butt, Salma; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was car

  8. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Jensen, M L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. DESIGN: Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. SETTING: Denmark 1996-2002. POPULATION: A total of 92,671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish...

  9. Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Induction of First-Trimester Miscarriages; Experience at a single tertiary care centre in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamariya Ambusaidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Non-invasive methods of inducing a miscarriage are now considered an effective alternative to surgical evacuation (dilatation and curettage. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of misoprostol in the termination of first-trimester miscarriages. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010 and assessed all patients admitted to the Royal Hospital in Muscat, Oman, for the termination of first-trimester miscarriages during the study period. All patients received misoprostol and the rates of successful termination were measured. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a short questionnaire. Results: A total of 290 women were included in the study. Termination with misoprostol was successful in 61.38% of the subjects. Of the remaining subjects requiring additional surgical evacuation (n = 112, 58.93% required evacuation due to failed termination with misoprostol and 65.18% underwent early evacuation (≤24 hours since their last misoprostol dose. The majority of patients experienced no side-effects due to misoprostol (89.66%. Pain was controlled with simple analgesics in 70.00% of the subjects. A high satisfaction rate (94.83% with the misoprostol treatment was reported. Conclusion: Misoprostol was a well-tolerated drug which reduced the rate of surgical evacuation among the study subjects. This medication can therefore be used safely in the management of incomplete miscarriages.

  10. Intra uterine extra-amniotic versus vaginal misoprostol for termination of second trimester miscarriage: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas Mitwaly, Abo Bakr; Abbas, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdellah, Mohamed Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Termination of pregnancy in the second trimester using prostaglandins has been shown to be safe and effective. Misoprostol has multiple routes of administration; oral, vaginal, buccal, rectal and sublingual. Objective: The study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of intrauterine extra-amniotic and vaginal misoprostol in a dose of 200 microgram every 4 hours for the termination of pregnancy in cases of second trimester miscarriage. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized open labeled clinical trial included 180 women with missed miscarriage in gestational age between 13 and 24 wks. Patients were randomized to receive subsequent doses of 200 µg misoprostol every 4 hrs either intra uterine extra-amniotic by Foley catheter or vaginally administered. Randomization was completed using a computer-generated random table. The primary outcome of this study was the mean duration from the initial misoprostol dose until complete fetal expulsion (induction-expulsion interval). Results: The mean gestational age was 17.74 wks. The mean time to complete miscarriage in the intra uterine extra-amniotic group was 5.27 hrs, which was significantly lower than the vaginal group (9.92 hrs, p=0.001). Side effects were more common in vaginal group. Conclusion: Intra uterine extra-amniotic misoprostol with a dose of 200 µg every 4 hrs appears to be more effective and safer than vaginal misoprostol in induction of second trimester miscarriage. PMID:27921088

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  12. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne M

    2002-04-01

    This meta-analysis on music research with premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) showed an overall large, significant, consistent effect size of almost a standard deviation (d =.83) (Cohen, 1998). Effects were not mediated by infants' gestational age at the time of study, birthweight, or type of music delivery nor by physiologic, behavioral, or developmental measures of benefit. The homogeneity of findings suggests that music has statistically significant and clinically important benefits for premature infants in the NICU. The unique acoustic properties that differentiate music from all other sounds are discussed and clinical implications for research-based music therapy procedures cited.

  13. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  14. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  15. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  16. Preimplantation Genetic Screening: An Effective Testing for Infertile and Repeated Miscarriage Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy in pregnancy is known to increase with advanced maternal age (AMA and associate with repeated implantation failure (RIF, and repeated miscarriage (RM. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS has been introduced into clinical practice, screening, and eliminating aneuploidy embryos, which can improve the chance of conceptions for infertility cases with poor prognosis. These patients are a good target group to assess the possible benefit of aneuploidy screening. Although practiced widely throughout the world, there still exist some doubts about the efficacy of this technique. Recent randomized trials were not as desirable as we expected, suggesting that PGS needs to be reconsidered. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of PGS.

  17. Use of Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids in Pregnancy and the Risk of Malformations or Miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Ehrenstein, Vera; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, which sometimes must be given to pregnant women. Corticosteroids have been suspected to be teratogenic for many years; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association. Based on a literature review of three...... databases, this MiniReview provides an overview of inhaled and oral corticosteroid use in pregnancy with specific emphasis on the association between use of corticosteroids during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage and congenital malformations in offspring. Use of corticosteroids among pregnant women ranged...... from 0.2% to 10% and increased nearly two-fold in recent years. Taken together, the evidence suggests that use of corticosteroids in early pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations overall or oral clefts in offspring; at the same time, published estimates...

  18. When there's a heartbeat: miscarriage management in Catholic-owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Lori R; Landy, Uta; Steinauer, Jody

    2008-10-01

    As Catholic-owned hospitals merge with or take over other facilities, they impose restrictions on reproductive health services, including abortion and contraceptive services. Our interviews with US obstetrician-gynecologists working in Catholic-owned hospitals revealed that they are also restricted in managing miscarriages. Catholic-owned hospital ethics committees denied approval of uterine evacuation while fetal heart tones were still present, forcing physicians to delay care or transport miscarrying patients to non-Catholic-owned facilities. Some physicians intentionally violated protocol because they felt patient safety was compromised. Although Catholic doctrine officially deems abortion permissible to preserve the life of the woman, Catholic-owned hospital ethics committees differ in their interpretation of how much health risk constitutes a threat to a woman's life and therefore how much risk must be present before they approve the intervention.

  19. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, Anne Nordal; Moum, Torbjørn; Bødtker, Anne Sejersted; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2005-12-12

    Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of mental health scores after these two pregnancy termination events. Forty women who experienced miscarriages and 80 women who underwent abortions at the main hospital of Buskerud County in Norway were interviewed. All subjects completed the following questionnaires 10 days (T1), six months (T2), two years (T3) and five years (T4) after the pregnancy termination: Impact of Event Scale (IES), Quality of Life, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and another addressing their feelings about the pregnancy termination. Differential changes in mean scores were determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and inter-group differences were assessed by ordinary least squares methods. Women who had experienced a miscarriage had more mental distress at 10 days and six months after the pregnancy termination than women who had undergone an abortion. However, women who had had a miscarriage exhibited significantly quicker improvement on IES scores for avoidance, grief, loss, guilt and anger throughout the observation period. Women who experienced induced abortion had significantly greater IES scores for avoidance and for the feelings of guilt, shame and relief than the miscarriage group at two and five years after the pregnancy termination (IES avoidance means: 3.2 vs 9.3 at T3, respectively, p abortion had significantly higher HADS anxiety scores at all four interviews (p abortion differed during the five-year period after the event. Women who had undergone an abortion exhibited higher scores during the follow-up period for some outcomes. The difference in the courses of responses may partly result from the different characteristics of the two pregnancy termination events.

  20. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  1. On the potential of metformin to prevent preterm delivery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - an epi-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanky, Eszter; DE Zegher, Francis; Díaz, Marta; Ibáñez, Lourdes; Carlsen, Sven M

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to re-evaluate whether metformin may reduce late miscarriage/preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We performed an epi-analysis of two randomized controlled trials. The participants were 313 women aged 18-42 years with PCOS who had singleton pregnancies. They were randomized to metformin or placebo treatment from first trimester until delivery. We analysed the prevalence of late miscarriage/preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes according to both the intention-to-treat principle and per protocol analysis. The metformin-treated patients had less late miscarriage/preterm delivery; five (3%) vs. 18 (11%) in the placebo group (p gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia between the metformin and the placebo group. In this epi-analysis, metformin treatment during pregnancy seems to reduce early delivery in women with PCOS. We believe that further randomized studies should be performed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  3. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  4. Low serum secretory immunoglobulin A level and sense of coherence score at an early gestational stage as indicators for subsequent threatened premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka, Naomi; Sakai, Akemi; Shimada, Keiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Kameda, Yukie; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the candidate indicators secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and sense of coherence (SOC) as predictors of threatened premature birth. This was a panel study conducted on women in their first and latter half of pregnancy during survey period. The survey period was from December 2005 to June 2006 and from December 2007 to June 2008. The women enrolled in the study were asked to complete the survey questionnaire and provide blood samples for the determinations of physiological indicators. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to the stress perception scale (SPS), SOC score as an indicator of modifiers of stress, demographic data, complications in a previous pregnancy, and the course of the current pregnancy. We used s-IgA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a physiological stress indicator and a marker of infection, respectively. Seventy-two eligible subjects were included in the analysis. Twenty-eight (38.9%) subjects had undergone treatment for threatened premature birth, and 44 (61.1%) subjects had not. In the logistic analysis, we set the course of pregnancy as a dependent variable, and age, birth history, smoking habits, a history of miscarriage, premature birth or threatened premature birth, SPS, SOC, and s-IgA in the first half of pregnancy as independent variables. We found that low serum s-IgA levels and low SOC scores in the first half of pregnancy were associated with threatened premature birth. Our results suggest that low serum s-IgA level and SOC score at an early gestational stage are significant indicators for a threatened premature birth.

  5. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  6. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  7. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  8. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  9. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  10. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  11. Sperm macrocephaly syndrome in a patient without AURKC mutations and with a history of recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Emanuela; Mirabelli, Marzia; Raimondo, Stefania; Brussino, Alessandro; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Bongioanni, Francesca; Revelli, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a case of recurrent miscarriage in a patient affected by a variant phenotype of sperm macrocephaly syndrome (SMS). SMS is usually related to specific sperm characteristics (large head, multiple tail) and homozygous mutations in the aurora kinase C gene (AURKC). However, the present case observed large-headed spermatozoa with no flagellar abnormalities and no mutations detectable by AURKC sequencing. Furthermore, the patient had repeatedly conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, but pregnancy always aborted. This study performed morphological analysis (Papanicolau staining), annexin V/propidium iodide staining, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy. This study observed large-headed, mono-tailed, mono-centriolar spermatozoa characterized by abnormal chromatin and swollen mitochondria. SCSA revealed a high ratio of late apoptotic cells with fairly intact amount of DNA. The FISH analysis showed 100% disomy rate. As far as is known, this is the first study to include gene sequencing, TEM, cytogenetic analysis and sperm DNA fragmentation in a case of SMS and also to report recurrent miscarriage related to this specific condition. SMS may be associated with important abnormalities of the sperm subcellular structure and with disomy even in the absence of mutations in the AURKC coding sequence. Sperm macrocephaly syndrome (SMS) is a rare condition that affects spermatozoa and is related to infertility. It is characterized by a specific phenotype of large-headed, multi-tailed spermatozoa with an abnormal chromosomal status. A very few pregnancies have been obtained so far in SMS patients by means of IVF procedures. We present a case of SMS that differs from the classical syndrome as we observed large-headed spermatozoa without tail abnormalities. The affected patient had achieved three pregnancies following IVF, but all aborted. We carried out a detailed examination of

  12. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  13. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  14. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  15. Late prematurity in twins: a Polish multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Szymusik, Iwona; Bomba-Opon, Dorota; Madej, Anna; Oleszczuk, Jan; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Marciniak, Beata; Breborowicz, Grzegorz; Drews, Krzysztof; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Szymankiewicz, Marta; Zimmer, Mariusz; Pomorski, Michal; Olejek, Anita; Slawska, Helena; Wielgos, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed at investigating the impact of late prematurity (LPT) on neonatal outcome in twins and neonatal morbidity and mortality within LPT with regard to the completed weeks of gestation. The study was conducted in six tertiary obstetric departments from different provinces of Poland (Warsaw, Lublin, Poznan, Wroclaw, Bytom). It included 465 twin deliveries in the above centers in 2012. A comparative analysis of maternal factors, the course of pregnancy and delivery and neonatal outcome between LPT (34 + 0-36 + 6 weeks of gestation) and term groups (completed 37 weeks) was performed. The neonatal outcome included short-term morbidities. The analysis of neonatal complication rates according to completed gestational weeks was carried out. Out of 465 twin deliveries 213 (44.8%) were LPT and 156 (33.55%) were term. There were no neonatal deaths among LPT and term twins. One-third of LPT newborns suffered from respiratory disorders or required antibiotics, 40% had jaundice requiring phototherapy, and 30% were admitted to NICU. The analysis of neonatal morbidity with regard to each gestational week at delivery showed that most analyzed complications occurred less frequently with the advancing gestational age, especially respiratory disorders and NICU admissions. The only two factors with significant influence on neonatal morbidity rate were neonatal birth weight (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9, p = .02) and gestational age at delivery (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.5-0.8, p twins. Gestational age and neonatal birth weight seem to play a crucial role in neonatal outcome in twins.

  16. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain: Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cortés Castell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal age is a preponderant variable in the epidemiological analysis of the premature birth. Studies show that in the extreme ages of the maternal life there is a risk of premature birth that generates a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Objetives: Determine the effect on the extreme ages of women residents in the province of Alicante on the total of the premature births. Method: An explanatory, retrospective case-control study was conducted during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. The study was based on the revision of the newborn registers from the Neonatal Screening Center of the province of Alicante. All the preterm were included, this means between 22 & 36 complete weeks of pregnancy (5,295 out of 78,391 newborn which represents 6.75% of prematurity, and a random sample of the deliveries with 37 weeks or more of pregnancy (control group. The age of the mother was studied as independent variable and the prematurity as dependent variable. Results: Clearly shows an increased risk of prematurity among teenage mothers compared to the age group nearest to them, which is confirmed by a squared Chi test which gives a significantly different distribution (p < 0,0001 and an OD for very preterm of 2,41 (1,51-3,24 and of preterm of 1,71 (1,32-2,19. This probability is also higher among mothers over 40 years old with an OD of 1,86 (1,39-2,48 and 1,66 (1,44-1,91 for very preterm newborns and preterm newborns respectively. Discussion: The results clearly manifest that teenagers and older pregnant mothers are at higher prematurity and low birth weight risk, therefore imposes the need to trace educational interventions to minimize this problem from the results in this research.

  17. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  18. Evidence for the safety of ascorbic acid administration to the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, W T; Malati, N; Castle, M C; White, L E

    1998-02-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA), a plasma antioxidant, is maintained at high levels in premature fetal blood and declines rapidly postpartum. The sudden reduction in blood AA levels secondary to premature delivery may increase the risk of oxidant injury, that is, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. There is concern that administration of AA to premature infants, in an effort to increase antioxidant capacity, may cause hemolysis. We felt that the benefits of early AA administration and prevention of the immediate postnatal drop in blood AA levels, might outweigh the risks of erthrocyte damage. Fifty one high-risk premature infants were randomized to receive either normal saline or 100 mg/kg of AA, daily for the first week of life. Double-blind comparisons were made of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte morphology, bilirubin, number of blood transfusions and days of phototherapy, renal function tests, the incidence of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage during the first month of life. The administration of AA prevented the immediate postnatal drop in AA and was not associated with evidence of increased hemolysis. No significant differences in renal function, rate of infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or intraventricular hemorrhage were seen between the two groups. This study suggests that AA administration to the premature infant is safe and supports the designing and performance of larger clinical studies of the antioxidant properties of AA.

  19. Can prematurity risk in twin pregnancies after in vitro fertilization be predicted? A retrospective study

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    Barad David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproduction (ART contributes to world-wide increases of twin pregnancies, in turn raising prematurity risks. Whether characteristics of ART cycles, resulting in twin gestations, can predict prematurity risks was the subject of this study. Methods One-hundred-and-six women, ages 20 to 39 years, with consecutive dichorionic-diamniotic (DC/DA twin gestations were retrospectively investigated. All pregnancies investigated followed fresh ART cycles, with use of autologous gamets, and were delivered at a university-based high-risk, maternal-fetal medicine unit. Only premature deliveries (i.e., <37.0 weeks gestational age, with viable neonate(s of ≥ 500 grams, were considered for analysis. Results After 1.8 +/- 1.2 ART cycles, 11.0 +/- 5.4 oocytes were retrieved and 2.4 +/- 0.9 embryos transferred in 106 women aged 31.6 +/- 4.2 years. Indications for ART treatment were male factor in 51.9%, female infertility in 27.4% and combined infertility in 20.8%. Though maternal age significantly influenced prematurity risk (p < 0.05, paternal age, maternal body mass index, indications for fertility treatment, number of previous ART attempts, oocytes retrieved or embryos transferred, as well as stimulation protocols and previous ART pregnancies, were not associated with gestational duration in twin pregnancies. Summary Except for female age, baseline and ART cycle characteristics do not allow for prediction of prematurity risk in dichorionic twin gestations after assisted reproduction.

  20. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  2. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  3. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  4. Multiple miscarriages are associated with the risk of ovarian cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G M Braem

    Full Text Available While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never, risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR(≥4vs.0: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.70; number of cases in this category: n = 23. This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR(≥4vs.0: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.73; number of cases in this category: n = 10, with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR(≥4vs.0: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68-3.14; number of cases in this category: n = 7. Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories.

  5. Detection of multiple annexin autoantibodies in a patient with recurrent miscarriages, fulminant stroke and seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Philipp; Auler, Markus; Brachvogel, Bent; Benzing, Thomas; Mallman, Peter; Streichert, Thomas; Klatt, Andreas R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the main causes for recurrent miscarriages. The diagnosis of APS is based on the occurrence of clinical symptoms such as thrombotic events or obstetric complications as well as the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies directed against β2-glycoprotein I and cardiolipin, or a positive lupus anticoagulant assay. However, there is a subpopulation of patients with clinical symptoms of APS, but the lack of serological markers (seronegative APS). In addition, a large proportion of patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages exist. These cases may be attributed, at least in part, to a seronegative APS.
The presence of autoantibodies against annexins is potentially associated with APS. Here we used immunoassays and immunoblots to detect autoantibodies directed against annexin A1-5, and A8, respectively, in a patient with a seronegative APS and a history of six recurrent pregnancy losses and fulminant stroke. We found strong IgM isotype antibody reactivity directed against annexin A2 and annexin A8, and moderate to weak IgM isotype antibody reactivity directed against annexin A1, A3, and A5. Further studies will evaluate the diagnostic value of IgM isotype antibodies against annexin A1-A5, and A8 for seronegative APS and recurrent miscarriages.

  6. Incidence of Autoantibodies to C1Q Complement Component in Women with Miscarriages and Autoantibodies to Phospholipids and Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzhinskaya, I V; Van'ko, L V; Kashentseva, M M; Kiryushchenkov, P A; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-12-01

    Autoantibodies to C1q complement component are often detected in patients with autoimmune diseases. The complement system is involved in the pathophysiology of gestosis. The incidence of anti-C1q autoantibodies was studied in women with miscarriages and autoantibodies to phospholipids and chorionic gonadotropin. Serum C3 and C4 complement components and anti-C1Q autoantibodies (IgG) were measured by ELISA. The median levels of C3 and C4 in patients with miscarriages were lower than in healthy women. Anti-C1q autoantibodies were more often found in the patients than in controls; patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids formed a risk group. Median levels of anti-C1q autoantibodies were higher in the patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids and chorionic gonadotropin than in healthy women. Hence, activation of the complement system and hyperproduction of anti-C1q autoantibodies were unfolding in patients with miscarriages, mainly in the patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids.

  7. Maternal genetic polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Xie, X; Jia, Y; Li, S

    2017-02-01

    The roles of genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage (RM) have been intensively studied. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent, especially when conducted in different populations. Therefore, we performed the current study to systematically review the broad spectrum of genetic polymorphisms that were suspected to be involved in RM, and discussed potential genetic biomarkers of RM. Eligible articles were identified in PubMed, Medline, Embase and CNKI. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to describe the strength of association, and a probability value (p value) of 0.05 or less was considered as statistically significant. A total of 425 eligible articles were included in this systematic review and 369 articles evaluating 124 polymorphisms of 73 genes were meta-analyzed. Significant associations were found between RM and 53 genetic polymorphisms of 37 genes. Our findings suggest that genetic variants of HLA-G, IFNG, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, FII, FV, FXIII, ITGB3, MTR, MTHFR, PAI-1, NOS3, KDR, TP53, VEGFA, CYP17, CYP1A1, CYP2D6, ANXA5, and XCI may serve as biological markers of RM. This study indicates that over-active immunological responses, thrombophilia, abnormal placental function, and disturbance of metabolic regulation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of RM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical analysis of high risk factors for premature and prognosis of premature infants%早产高危因素及早产儿预后的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏金荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析早产高危因素及早产儿预后的影响因素。方法:回顾性分析55例早产儿的临床资料,分析早产原因及影响预后的因素。结果:导致早产的高危因素主要包括胎膜早破、前置胎盘、重度子痫前期、高龄、妊娠期贫血、多胎妊娠和瘢痕子宫等。影响早产儿预后的因素主要包括胎龄、体重、分娩方式。结论:早产的高危因素复杂。重视围生期保健、防治妊娠并发症可降低早产的发生率。%Objective:To analyze the high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants. Methods:The clinical data of 55 cases of premature infants were analyzed retrospectively.The high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants were analyzed.Results:The high risk factors causing premature included premature rupture of membrane,placenta previa,severe preeclampsia,age,gestational anemia,multiple pregnancy and scarred uterus.The factors affecting the prognosis of premature infants included gestational age,body weight and delivery mode.Conclusion:The high risk factors of preterm were complex.Paying attention to the perinatal health care and taking measures to prevent and control the pregnancy complications actively could reduce the incidence of premature infants.

  9. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  10. LABOUR INDUCTION WITH INTRAVAGINAL MISOPROSTOL VERSUS OXYTOCIN IN TERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour Induction with intravaginal Misoprostol versus Oxytocin in Term Premature Rupture of Membranes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and efficacy of misoprostol with oxytocin for labour induction in women with premature rupture of membranes b eyond 36 weeks gestation. METHODS: 65 subjects with rupture of membranes without labour were assigned to receive. vaginally administered misoprostol 50 ug, every 4 hrs. and another 65 subjects with rupture of membranes at term received intravenous oxytocin infusion and we compared the duration of labour, intrapartu m complications, mode of delivery and the maternal and neonatal outcomes in the two groups. RESULTS: R esults of the 130 subjects studied, 65 received misoprostol and 65 oxytocin infusion. The average interval, from start of induction vaginal delivery was significantly shorter (660 minutes in the misoprostol group than the oxytocin group (1105 min . Oxytocin administration was necessary in 13 (20% subjects receiving misoprostol. There was incr eased incidence of tachysystole in misorpostol group 22 (33.8% compared to the oxytocin group 9 (13.8% No significant difference was found in the mode of delivery neonatal and maternal outcomes in the two groups . CONCLUSION: Vaginal administration of misorpostol is safe and effective alternative to oxytocin infusion for labour induction in women with premature rupture of membranes at term.

  11. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passage will take place depends on how your baby is positioned during delivery. The best position for the baby to be ... possible, but labor will generally take longer. After delivery, the baby's face or brow will be swollen and may ...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy associated with preterm delivery: A population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); L.R. Arends (Lidia); R. de Groot (Ronald); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A. Ott (Alewijn); H.F. Willemse; E.A.E. van der Zwaan (Elizabeth); R.P.A.J. Verkooijen (Roel); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and may influence pregnancy outcome. This study was conducted to assess the effect of chlamydial infection during pregnancy on premature delivery and birthweight. Pregnant women attending a

  13. [Preterm delivery: detection of risks and preventive treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, F; Carroli, G; Lede, R; Belizán, J M; Althabe, O H

    1999-06-01

    Every year around the world some 13 million premature children are born. Most of these children are born in developing countries, and they account for the largest share of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This review study analyzed scientifically validated data on interventions to prevent at least some portion of these preterm deliveries and to lessen their impact on neonatal health. The Cochrane and MEDLINE bibliographic databases were consulted. Fifty review pieces and research articles were studied, relating to the following aspects of preterm delivery: risk factors and early detection of the risk of preterm delivery; preventing the risk of preterm delivery; treating preterm delivery once it has begun; and preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. There were few successful approaches to the prediction, prevention, or early detection of the threat of preterm delivery. The only measures that can be recommended for all pregnant women are screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria as a part of prenatal check-ups. Screening for bacterial vaginosis and treating it reduce the incidence of preterm births in pregnant women with a history of premature delivery. In addition, prophylactic cerclage decreases the incidence of premature births in pregnant women who have had more than three preterm births. To treat a delivery that starts early, with or without premature membrane rupture, the interventions that have proved to be effective are administering betamimetics to the parturient woman in order to delay delivery for 48 hours, and using indomethacin for the same purpose, as the second-choice drug. The prenatal administration of corticosteroids to the pregnant woman can induce lung maturation in the fetus and reduce respiratory distress syndrome and ventricular hemorrhage, thus decreasing neonatal mortality. There is a need to continue and support basic and epidemiological research in order to develop new knowledge on the causes and mechanisms of preterm

  14. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism before 20 weeks of pregnancy have a higher risk of miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Wang, Haoyu; Pan, Xifeng; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and the risk of miscarriage before 20 weeks of pregnancy. Literature databases were searched, including the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane databases, from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2015. The following search terms were used: subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid dysfunction, thyroid hypofunction, subclinical thyroid disease, thyroid dysfunction, pregnancy loss, abortion and miscarriage. Studies comparing the prevalence of miscarriage in pregnant women with SCH with those who were euthyroid were selected. From the studies matched, the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to yield outcomes. All the statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager (Revman) Version 5.3 and Stata Version 12.0 software. The publication bias of the studies was assessed by forest plot and Begg's test, while the stability of the results was evaluated by sensitivity analysis. Nine articles satisfying the inclusion criteria were analysed. Compared to euthyroid pregnant women, patients with non-treated SCH had a higher prevalence of miscarriage (RR = 1.90, 95% CI1.59-2.27, Pwomen (RR = 1.14, 95% CI0.82-1.58, P = 0.43). Compared to isolated SCH women, the miscarriage risk of SCH patients with thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) was obviously higher (RR = 2.47, 95% CI1.77-3.45, Pwomen (RR = 1.45, 95% CI1.07-1.96, P = 0.02).A heterogeneity test, forest plot and Begg's test suggested that there was no significant heterogeneity or publication bias among the included articles, while the result of sensitivity analysis showed that our study exhibited high stability. SCH is a risk factor for miscarriage in women before 20 weeks of pregnancy, and early treatments can reduce the miscarriage rate. Regardless of the diagnostic criteria used, the miscarriage rate increased as long as a pregnant woman was confirmed to have SCH. The results show that the

  15. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  16. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  17. Reduced Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Integrity Links Neonatal Complications and Adult Cognitive Deficits After Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel J; Scheef, Lukas; Bäuml, Josef; Meng, Chun; Daamen, Marcel; Baumann, Nicole; Zimmer, Claus; Teipel, Stefan; Bartmann, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived cBF volumes were studied in relation to neonatal clinical complications after delivery and intelligence measures (IQ) in adulthood. In adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight, cBF volumes were significantly reduced compared with term-born adults (-4.5% [F1,202 = 11.82, p = .001]). Lower cBF volume in adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight was specifically associated with both neonatal complications (rpart,92 = -.35, p premature birth and links neonatal complications with long-term cognitive outcome. Data suggest that cholinergic system abnormalities may play a relevant role for long-term neurocognitive impairments associated with premature delivery. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  19. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear renaissance or premature try?; Renacimiento nuclearo o aborto prematuro? Los multiples interrogantes de la opcion nuclear presagian su incierto futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderch, M.

    2008-07-01

    After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)

  1. Nuclear localisation of the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in invasive trophoblasts and an association with recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamley, L W; Bhalla, A; Stone, P R; Liddell, H; O'Carroll, S; Kearn, C; Glass, M

    2008-11-01

    Endocannabinoids are lipid signalling molecules that are related to the major psychoactive component in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and are increasingly recognized as being important in implantation and development of early embryos. The endocannabinoid anandamide, is metabolized by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and insufficient levels of this enzyme have been implicated in spontaneous miscarriage in women and implantation failure in mice. We screened placental bed biopsies and placental tissue from 45 women with recurrent miscarriage and 17 gestation-matched women with normal pregnancies for the expression of FAAH by immunohistochemistry. Unexpectedly, the enzyme appeared to be localised to the nucleus of trophoblasts and this was confirmed by western blotting of sub-cellular fractions and confocal microscopy. FAAH was expressed in the cytoplasm of large decidual stromal cells and significantly more women with recurrent miscarriage (73%) expressed FAAH in these cells than women with normal pregnancy (31%). FAAH was also expressed in the nucleus of extravillous trophoblasts that had invaded the decidua from 67% of women with recurrent miscarriage but was not expressed by these cells in any women with normal pregnancies. In contrast, FAAH was expressed in extravillous trophoblasts that had migrated out of the villi but that had not yet invaded the decidua in both normal pregnancies and in cases of recurrent miscarriage. FAAH was also present in the nucleus of a small number of villous trophoblasts in some specimens. FAAH appears to be over expressed in trophoblasts that have invaded the decidua, as well as in large decidual stromal cells in many cases of recurrent miscarriage. This may reflect inadequate control of the cannabinoid system in the uterus of women who experience recurrent miscarriages. The functional significance of the unexpected nuclear localisation of FAAH in trophoblasts is not yet clear.

  2. Co-stimulatory CD28 and transcription factor NFKB1 gene variants affect idiopathic recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Maneesh Kumar; Singh, Bharti; Mishra, Aditi; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-12-01

    Co-stimulatory CD28 and transcription factor NFKB1 genes are considered as a crucial player in the determination of inflammatory responses; genetic variability in these may modulate the risk for idiopathic recurrent miscarriages (IRM). We investigated the association of functional variants of CD28 (rs3116496 T/C) and NFKB1 (rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G) with IRM cases. We recruited 200 IRM women with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses before 20th week of pregnancy and 300 fertile control women. Determination of CD28 (rs3116496 T/C) and NFKB1 (rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G) gene variants were based on the polymerase chain reaction pursued by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and validated with Sanger sequencing. Single marker analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model used to predict the IRM risk. We observed nearly three- to twofold increased risk in single marker analysis for minor homozygous genotypes of rs3116496 T/C, rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G tag-SNPs in IRM cases, suggesting the risk association. In MDR analysis, we observed 10.5-fold augmented risk among IRM women in three-SNP model (rs3116496 T/C, rs28362491 ins/del and rs696 A/G). The eQTL mapping analyses was performed to strengthen the results of our study. The eQTL mapping analysis revealed that the variations in CD28 and NFKB1 gene content might affect the abundance of transcripts of CD28 and Family with sequence similarity 177 member A1 (FAM177A1) genes, respectively. These results suggest that CD28 and NFKB1 gene variants may be associated with increased risks to IRM.

  3. Serum fructosamine and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Gokmen, Tulin; Tunay, Zuhal; Tok, Levent; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether serum fructosamine which is a good marker for detecting hyperglycemia during the previous 2 to 3 wk in infants could predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. One hundred sixty seven premature infants who had a birth weight of < 1500 g and a gestational age of less than 32 wk were investigated in the present study. Blood glucose was measured at the bedside and infants were recorded as hyperglycemic if their mean blood glucose levels were higher than 150 mg/dL. Serum corrected fructosamine level was obtained from the cord blood at birth and after the first month of life. The infants' eyes were examined by ophthalmologists to detect retinopathy of prematurity at the gestational age of 32 wk or at four wk after birth, whichever came first. Corrected fructosamine was 319.6 ± 59.6 and 272.8 ± 50.6 mmol/l for group 1 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively; 320 ± 61.7 and 268.2 ± 47.3 mmol/l for groups 2 + 3 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively which did not differ between groups (p = 0.766 and p = 0.665), whereas duration of hyperglycemia was 1.69 ± 1.1 day in group 1 compared with 3.05 ± 2.4 day in groups 2 + 3 which was significantly different (p = 0.019). The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the duration of hyperglycemia in days was significantly correlated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.09-9.80; p = 0.035). Although the duration of hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity, serum corrected fructosamine does not have a good predictive value in developing retinopathy of prematurity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

  4. [Effect of premature birth on retinal vascular development in the neonatal rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-min; Li, Rong; Wang, Yu-sheng; Chu, Zhao-jie; Gao, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    To study the effects of premature birth on the development of rat retinal vasculature. Experimental study. Sixty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm group (LPS group), RU-486 induced preterm group (RP group), cesarean section induced preterm group (CP group), and the normal delivery rats as the control group. The weight of rats from each group was recorded until postnatal day 21. On postnatal day 4, 7, 10 and 14 (P4, P7, P10 and P14), the retina of right eye was dissected and whole-mounted. Each premature group was divided into two subgroups based on the number of rats in each litter, the small subgroup (6-8 rats per litter, group 1) and the large subgroup (14-18 rats per litter, group 2). The development of retinal vascularization process was observed on P4, P7 and P10 (n = 6).Independent t test, one-way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used to analyzed the results. The weight of premature rats in LPS, CP and RP groups was significantly lower than that in the normal group within postnatal 21 days (LSD-t test: all P premature rats have lower weight and much slower rate of early retinal vascularization, as compared with the normal rats. Furthermore, in the premature rats, the proportion of retinal vascularization in larger litters is less than that in smaller litters. These results indicate that premature birth and larger litter size have effects on the development of rat retinal vasculature.

  5. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  6. Thyroid disease in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus: increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro-Green, A; Akhter, E; Yim, C; Davies, Terry F; Magder, Ls; Petri, M

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid disease is common in pregnancy and is associated with miscarriage, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with miscarriage and preterm delivery. The hypotheses of the study are (1) pregnant women with SLE will have a high prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism and a high prevalence of PPT, and (2) women with SLE and thyroid disease will have an increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes as compared with pregnant women with SLE who do not have thyroid disease. This was a retrospective study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. All women had thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid antibodies assayed on frozen sera. In total, 63 pregnant women who met the ACR classification for SLE were evaluated. Outcome measures were the prevalence of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum, and pregnancy outcomes. Some 13% of the women were on thyroid hormone prior to becoming pregnant, 11% were diagnosed with hypothyroidism during pregnancy, and 14% developed PPT. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 67% in women with thyroid disease and 18% in women who were thyroid disease free (p = 0.002). The presence of thyroid antibodies was not correlated with preterm delivery. Pregnant women with SLE have an increased prevalence of thyroid disease. Women with SLE and thyroid disease have an increased prevalence of preterm delivery.

  7. Antiphospholipid Antibody Titers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage and Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping; Chi, Hong-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) includes prolonged treatment with heparin and aspirin, starting from the confirmation of pregnancy and continuing until 6 weeks after birth. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between changes in antiphospholipid antibody titers and clinical outcomes. The effect of a shortened treatment regimen was also evaluated. Methods: A prospective study of 123 patients with RM and APS between March 2012 and May 2014 was conducted. Patients were pretreated with a low dose of prednisone plus aspirin before pregnancy, and heparin was added after conception. The levels of antiphospholipid antibodies and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated. Results: All patients were positive for anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2-GP1) IgM. After prepregnancy treatment with low-dose prednisone plus aspirin, 99 of 123 patients became pregnant, and 87 of those pregnancies resulted in successful live births, while 12 resulted in miscarriage, showing a success rate of 87.9%. In the live birth group, levels of anti-β2-GP1 were 56.8 ± 49.0 RU/ml before the pretreatment regimen, 32.1 ± 26.0 RU/ml after 2 months of pretreatment, and 24.1 ± 23.1 RU/ml during early pregnancy (P antiphospholipid antibody titers were 52.8 ± 30.7 RU/ml before pretreatment, 38.5 ± 34.2 RU/ml after pretreatment, and 33.9 ± 24.7 RU/ml during early pregnancy; the decrease in antiphospholipid antibodies was lower in the miscarriage group than in the live birth group (P antiphospholipid antibody titers correlated with better pregnancy outcomes. The shorter treatment regimen was effective and economical. PMID:28139508

  8. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  9. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  10. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  11. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  12. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  13. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  14. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  15. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  16. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  17. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  18. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  19. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  20. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  1. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  2. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  3. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  4. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  5. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Identification of key contributory factors responsible for vascular dysfunction in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Banerjee

    Full Text Available Poor endometrial perfusion during implantation window is reported to be one of the possible causes of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (IRSM. We have tested the hypothesis that certain angiogenic and vasoactive factors are associated with vascular dysfunction during implantation window in IRSM and, therefore, could play a contributory role in making the endometrium unreceptive in these women. This is a prospective case-controlled study carried out on 66 women with IRSM and age and BMI matched 50 fertile women serving as controls. Endometrial expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, anti-inflammatory (IL-4, -10, angiogenesis-associated cytokines (IL-2, -6, -8, angiogenic and vasoactive factors including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nitric oxide (NO and adrenomedullin (ADM were measured during implantation window by ELISA. Subendometrial blood flow (SEBF was assessed by color Doppler ultrasonography. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the significant factor(s responsible for vascular dysfunction in IRSM women during window of implantation and further correlated with vascular dysfunction. Endometrial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 were up-regulated and anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-associated cytokines down-regulated in IRSM women as compared with controls. Further, the angiogenic and vasoactive factors including VEGF, eNOS, NO and ADM were found to be down-regulated and SEBF grossly affected in these women. Multivariate analysis identified IL-10, followed by VEGF and eNOS as the major factors contributing towards vascular dysfunction in IRSM women. Moreover, these factors strongly correlated with blood flow impairment. This study provides an understanding that IL-10, VEGF and eNOS are the principal key components having a contributory role in endometrial vascular dysfunction in women with IRSM. Down

  7. Natural killer cells in female infertility and recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Srividya; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Embryo implantation is a complex process involving maternal hormonal changes, immune responses and maturational events in the embryo. A pregnancy could fail when these events are not synchronized. It is speculated that in women, an elevation of natural killer (NK) cells may have an effect on reproductive performance, and NK cell levels in blood are currently being used as a diagnostic test to guide the initiation of therapies in patients with infertility. METHODS We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the (i) levels of NK cells in blood and endometrium in infertile versus fertile women, (ii) association between NK cells and IVF outcome, (iii) levels of NK cells in blood and endometrium in women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) versus controls. The following electronic databases were searched: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and National Research Register. RESULTS A total of 22 studies were included. Meta-analysis of studies that evaluated peripheral and uterine NK (uNK) cell percentages in infertile versus fertile women showed no significant difference between the two groups [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.33; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.06, 0.4; P = 0.37; SMD -1.82; 95% CI -4.80, 1.17; P = 0.23 respectively]. Pooling of studies that reported peripheral NK cells as numbers showed significantly higher NK cell numbers in infertile women compared with fertile controls (SMD 3.16; 95% CI 1.07, 5.24; P = 0.003). Meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the role of NK cells in IVF outcome showed no significant difference in live birth rates in women with elevated NK cells or NK cell activity compared with women without elevated peripheral NK cells or NK cell activity (NK activity assessed using a cytotoxicity assay) (relative risk 0.57; 95% CI 0.06, 5.22; P = 0.62). Meta-analysis of studies that evaluated peripheral NK cell percentages in women with RM versus controls showed significantly higher NK cell percentages in women

  8. Cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in patients with recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yumi Nakano,1 Tatsuo Akechi,2 Toshiaki A Furukawa,3 Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara4 1Department of Psychology, School of Human Sciences, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Nisshin, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan Objective: To examine the reduction of psychiatric symptoms using individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for women who suffer from recurrent miscarriage (RM and depression and/or anxiety. Methods: Patients with RM and a score of five or higher for K6, a self-report screening scale for depression/anxiety, were interviewed to find information about stressful situations, thoughts, and consequent behaviors that are common and potential causes of psychological distress among RM patients. We then performed individual CBT on 14 patients with RM and depression/anxiety, referring to a list from the interviews, and examined the effects of CBT by a paired t-test. Results: Fourteen women received CBT. The mean number of intervention times was 8.9 sessions (standard deviation [SD], 4.6 sessions. The average Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory–state anxiety scores, self-report screening scales for depression/anxiety, decreased from 13.6 (SD, 8.2 and 49.0 (SD, 7.1 at baseline to 5.2 (SD, 4.4 and 38.0 (SD, 10.2 posttherapy, respectively. These changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: The current preliminary open study confirmed that individual CBT was potentially useful for women with RM and depression and/or anxiety. This finding is the first step towards creating a comprehensive psychological support system for women with RM

  9. Forceps Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in place to control the advance of your baby's head. Forceps deliveries aren't always successful. If your health care ... com. Accessed June 12, 2015. You and your baby: Prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Washington, D.C.: The American ...

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity: A study of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel H. A. A. Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a serious complication of prematurity treatment and can lead to blindness unless recognized and treated early. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of ROP in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, to identify the risk factors which predispose to ROP, and to assess the outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A ROP prospective screening survey was performed enrolling all prematures admitted to the NICU from January 2009 to December 2010, with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less at birth and a birth weight of 1500 g or less. Infants whose gestational age was >32 weeks or birth weight was >1500 g were included if they were exposed to oxygen therapy for more than 7 days. A total of 172 infants (84 males and 88 females had retinal evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy from the fourth postnatal week and followed up periodically. Perinatal risk factors for ROP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infants who progressed to stage 3 ROP were given laser therapy. Results: Out of the studied 172 infants, 33 infants (19.2% developed ROP in one or both eyes; 18 (54.5% cases stage 1, 9 (27.3% cases stage 2, and 6 (18.2% cases stage 3. None of the studied neonates presented ROP at stages 4 or 5. The six cases diagnosed as ROP stage 3 underwent laser ablative therapy. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of ROP and gestational age (P = 0.000, sepsis (P = 0.004, oxygen therapy (P = 0.018, and frequency of blood transfusions (P = 0.030. However, an insignificant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex, mode of delivery, birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, phototherapy, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CPAP (all P > 0.05. Gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of

  11. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  12. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for proration...

  13. A REVIEW: TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY OF NICOTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Ravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been the leading cause of premature death and illness in many industrialized country in the world, while the U.S. alone registers more than 4,00,000 deaths each year. The nicotine patch serves to deliver a constant dose of nicotine across the skin that helps to relieve the symptoms which are associated with tobacco withdrawal. Further, the use of carbon nanotube membranes and micro needle based transdermal drug delivery has lead to the great advancements. Some of the main advantages of transdermal drug delivery are bypassing of hepatic first pass metabolism, maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug and enhancement of therapeutic efficiency.

  14. [The meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension and premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; Araujo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension that resulted in premature birth. Participants were 70 women, with a mean age of 28 years, 85.7% of whom delivered between the 32nd and 36th gestational week. A questionnaire with subjective questions was applied to identify the meanings of gestational hypertension and premature delivery for postpartum women. Results were analyzed based on the Theory of Social Representations. We observed the construction of a negative social representation, with death as the central nucleus and negative aspects as the peripheral nuclei. The latter derive from the risks the mother and fetus were exposed to during pregnancy and later in the postpartum period with the hospitalization of the child in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  15. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davim, Rejane Marie Barbosa; Enders, Bertha Cruz; da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.

  16. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). RESULTS: A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were......INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  17. Impact of treatment for bacterial vaginosis on prematurity among Brazilian pregnant women: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de Camargo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with prematurity and other perinatal complications. However, the efficacy of the treatment for preventing such complications has not yet been well established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of treatment for bacterial vaginosis on a low-risk population of Brazilian pregnant women, in order to prevent prematurity and other perinatal complications. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational retrospective cohort study, at the Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Vaginal bacterioscopy results from 785 low-risk pregnant women were studied. Three different groups of women were identified: 580 without bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy, 134 with bacterial vaginosis treated using imidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole, or secnidazole during pregnancy, and 71 with bacterial vaginosis not treated during pregnancy. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was based on Nugent's criteria, from the vaginal bacterioscopy performed during the first prenatal care visit. RESULTS: The frequency of prematurity was 5.5% among the women without bacterial vaginosis, 22.5% among those with untreated bacterial vaginosis and 3.7% among those with treated bacterial vaginosis. The risk ratios for perinatal complications were significantly higher in the group with untreated bacterial vaginosis: premature rupture of membranes, 7.5 (95% CI: 1.9-34.9; preterm labor, 3.4 (95% CI: 1.4-8.1; preterm birth, 6.0 (95% CI: 1.9-19.7; and low birth weight, 4.2 (95% CI: 1.2-14.3. CONCLUSION: The treatment of bacterial vaginosis significantly reduced the rates of prematurity and other perinatal complications among these low-risk Brazilian pregnant women, regardless of the history of previous preterm delivery.

  18. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  19. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha; Shampa Ghosh; Manchala Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand...

  20. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers ...

  1. Perceptions And Actions Of Healthcare Professionals Regarding The Mother-child Relationship With Premature Babies In An Intermediate Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury C.; Parpinelli M.A.; Makuch M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mother-child interaction after delivery may be hampered when the newborn baby is hospitalized. The objective of the study was to understand perceptions and actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs), working in an intermediate neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), regarding mother-child relationship of hospitalized premature babies in the first weeks after delivery and the professionals' support for the development of this relationship within an NICU environment. The psychoanal...

  2. Correlation of Serum CA-125 and Progesterone Levels with Ultrasound Markers in The Prediction of Pregnancy Outcome in Threatened Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mohamady, Maged; Fattah, Ghada Abdel; Elkattan, Eman; Bayoumy, Rasha; Hamed, Dalia Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ultrasonographic findings and serum progesterone and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels in threatened miscarriage and to predict pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods In a prospective comparative case-control study, serum CA-125 and progesterone levels were measured for 100 pregnant women with threatened miscarriage who attended the outpatient clinic or the causality department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Giza, Egypt, during the period from March 2013 to October 2013. Ultrasound was performed for fetal viability, crown-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and fetal heart rate (FHR). The patients were followed up and divided into two groups based on the outcome: 20 women who miscarried (group 1), and 80 women who continued pregnancy (group 2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy were tested for CA-125 and progesterone levels in prediction of the pregnancy outcome. Correlation of these chemical markers with the ultrasound markers was also examined. Results In the group that miscarried, CA-125 level was significantly higher (P<0.001) and serum progesterone level was significantly lower (P<0.001). For prediction of the outcome of pregnancy, the cut-off limit of 31.2 IU/ml for CA-125 level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 96.2, 100 and 99.4% respectively. The cut-off limit of 11.5 ng/ml for progesterone level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 97.5, 100 and 99.8% respectively. CA-125 level had a negative correlation with progesterone level and FHR levels (r=-0.716, P<0.001) and (r=-0.414, P<0.001) respectively. Serum progesterone level correlated with GSD (r=0.521, P<0.001) and with CRL (r=0.407, P<0.001) and FHR (r=0.363, P<0.001). CA-125 level was significantly higher in the group that showed hematoma as compared with the

  3. A Comparison of Pattern of Pregnancy Loss in Women with Infertility Undergoing IVF and Women with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriages Who Conceive Spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Tamhankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women with infertility and recurrent miscarriages may have an overlapping etiology. The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy loss in pregnancies after IVF treatment with spontaneous pregnancies in women with recurrent miscarriages and to assess differences related to cause of infertility. Methods. The outcome from 1220 IVF pregnancies (Group I was compared with 611 spontaneous pregnancies (Group II in women with recurrent miscarriages. Subgroup analysis was performed in Group I based on cause of infertility: tubal factor (392 pregnancies; male factor (610 pregnancies; and unexplained infertility (218 pregnancies. Results. The clinical pregnancy loss rate in Group I (14.3% was significantly lower than that of Group II (25.8%, p<0.001 and this was independent of the cause of infertility. However the timing of pregnancy loss was similar between Groups I and II. The clinical pregnancy loss rate in Group I was similar in different causes of infertility. Conclusions. The clinical pregnancy loss rate following IVF treatment is lower than that of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages who conceived spontaneously. This difference persists whether the infertility is secondary to tubal factors, male factors, or unexplained cause.

  4. MisoREST : surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M.; Verschoor, M. A. C.; Rengerink, K. Oude; Naaktgeboren, C.; Opmeer, B. C.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Huirne, J. A. F.; Janssen, C. A. H.; Radder, C.; Klinkert, E. R.; Langenveld, J.; Catshoek, R.; Van der Voet, L.; Siemens, F.; Geomini, P.; Van Hooff, M. H.; Van der Ploeg, J. M.; Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Is curettage more effective than expectant management in case of an incomplete evacuation after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage? Curettage leads to a higher chance of complete evacuation but expectant management is successful in at least 76% of women with an incomplete evacuati

  5. MisoREST : Surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, Marilee; Verschoor, Marianne A. C.; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Naaktgeboren, Christiana; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Huirne, Judith A. F.; Janssen, Ineke A. H.; Radder, Celine; Klinkert, Ellen. R.; Langenveld, Josje; van der Voet, Lucet; Siemens, E. Frederike; Bongers, Marlies Y.; van Hooff, Marcel H.; van der Ploeg, Marinus; Sjors, F. P. J.; Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of curettage versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Study design: We conducted a multicenter cohort study alongside a randomized clinical trial (RCT) between

  6. MisoREST : surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M; Verschoor, M A C; Oude Rengerink, K; Naaktgeboren, C; Opmeer, B C; Bossuyt, P M; Huirne, J A F; Janssen, C A H; Radder, C; Klinkert, E R; Langenveld, J; Catshoek, R; Van der Voet, L; Siemens, F; Geomini, P; Van Hooff, M H; Van der Ploeg, J M; Coppus, S F P J; Ankum, W M; Mol, B W J

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is curettage more effective than expectant management in case of an incomplete evacuation after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Curettage leads to a higher chance of complete evacuation but expectant management is successful in at least 76% of w

  7. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Wu, F; Aghai, Z

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown...

  8. A study to compare the clinical outcome of sublingual and vaginal misoprostol in the medical management of missed miscarriage in first trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Lamba

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The effectiveness of Sublingual misoprostol is comparable to that of vaginal misoprostol for medical management of missed miscarriage but is associated with an increased risk of side effects especially diarrhoea. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 491-494

  9. IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in peripheral blood and decidua of early miscarriages with euploid embryos: comparison between women with and without PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Minghui; Yuan, Guangqing; Wang, Zengyan; Zhou, Canquan

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the possible relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and early miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with euploid embryos. 40 pregnant women included. 9 had PCOS and miscarried; 20 had PCOS and a successful ongoing pregnancy; the remaining 11 women did not have PCOS and miscarried. An ultrasound scan was performed to prove clinical pregnancy and a blood sample was taken on day 55 ± 4 of gestation. Serum samples of IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), total testosterone, serum hormone binding protein (SHBG), leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) were obtained. In miscarriages, samples of decidua were obtained during vaccum curettage. Embryonic chromosomes in all miscarriages were proven to be normal. The expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, leptin, long-form leptin receptor and androge sOb-R n receptor (AR) were examined in the decidua. We found that miscarried PCOS patients showed significantly increased free androgen index and free IGF index, as well as decreased SHBG and IGFBP-1 than other two groups in peripheral blood. In the decidua, miscarried PCOS patients showed significantly increased expression of IGF-1 and decreased IGFBP-1 when compared with non-PCOS. AR was not expressed in the decidua of either group. Our results suggest that early miscarriage is associated with increased IGF-1 and decreased IGFBP-1 in PCOS patients.

  10. MisoREST : surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M.; Verschoor, M. A. C.; Rengerink, K. Oude; Naaktgeboren, C.; Opmeer, B. C.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Huirne, J. A. F.; Janssen, C. A. H.; Radder, C.; Klinkert, E. R.; Langenveld, J.; Catshoek, R.; Van der Voet, L.; Siemens, F.; Geomini, P.; Van Hooff, M. H.; Van der Ploeg, J. M.; Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Is curettage more effective than expectant management in case of an incomplete evacuation after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage? Curettage leads to a higher chance of complete evacuation but expectant management is successful in at least 76% of women with an incomplete evacuati

  11. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Wu, F.; Aghai, Z.; Steffensen, R.; van Halteren, A. G.; Spierings, E.; Christiansen, O. B.; Miklos, D.; Goulmy, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown to a

  12. A Case Report on 30-Week Premature Twin Babies with Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Conceived by In Vitro Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Su Bin; Chun, Jung Mi; Kim, Kyung Ah; Ko, Sun Young; Lee,Yeon Kyung; Shin, Son Moon

    2012-01-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) presents severe generalized weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory compromise after delivery with high mortality and poor prognosis. We presented a congenital DM1 of premature twins in the 30th week of gestation. These twins were conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Both babies presented apnea and hypotonia and had characteristic facial appearance. They were diagnosed DM1 by genetic method. They were complicated by chylothorax and expired at 100 ...

  13. Historical Change in Definition and Managemant of Abortion and Premature Labor(Recent Changes in the View of Clinical Diseases)

    OpenAIRE

    吉谷, 徳夫; 高桑, 好一; 金沢, 浩二; 田中, 憲一; Yoshiya, Norio; Takakuwa, Koichi; Kanazawa, Koji; Tanaka, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    Today, the definition of abortion is the loss of pregnancy in less than 24 gestational weeks, and that of premature labor is the delivery from 24 to less than 37 gestational weeks by Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Recent progress in medical electro-techniques has given a remarkable advance in clinical assessment and management of pregnancy. Also, patient with habitual fetal wastage due to immunologic etiology has been successfully treated by alloimmunization using partner's lymph...

  14. Preterm premature rupture of membranes: is home care acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaux, Chloé; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Bouchghoul, Hanane; Benachi, Alexandra; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Kayem, Gilles

    2017-07-06

    Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes is a frequent obstetric condition associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conventional management is in hospital. Outpatient management is an alternative in selected cases; however, the safety of home management has not been established. To study the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women with preterm premature rupture of membranes between 24 and 34 weeks who were managed as outpatient (outpatient care group), compared with those managed in hospital (hospital care group). A retrospective cohort study between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in three French tertiary care centers. Ninety women were included in the outpatient care group and 324 in the hospital care group. In the outpatient care group, the gestational age at membrane rupture was lower, compared to the hospital care group (28.8 (26.6-30.5) vs. 30.3 (27.6-32.1) weeks; p < .01) and the cervical length at admission was higher (31.7 ± 10.4 vs. 24.3 ± 11.8 mm; p < .01). In the outpatient care group, no delivery or major obstetric complication occurred at home. We observed no major complication related to home care after a period of observation. A randomized study would be necessary to confirm its safety.

  15. Risk of first trimester spontaneous miscarriage among singleton gestations following ICSI and its relation to underlying cause of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam Magdi Abuelghar

    2014-06-01

    Results: Two hundred and thirty four pregnant young women were included in the study, 164 (70.9% women miscarried. The causes of infertility among these women were as follows: 41 (25% mild male factor infertility, 40 (24.4% severe male factor infertility, 45 (27.44% tubal factor, 7 (4.27% polycystic ovarian syndrome, 3 (1.83% endometriosis, 20 (12.19% unexplained and 8 (4.87% multifactorial. Stepwise logistic multi-regression analysis showed that both maternal age (>31 years and tubal block were the most sensitive discriminators for the prediction of first trimester spontaneous miscarriage among the study population (P 31 years and/or the presence of tubal block.

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity and oxygen saturation > 94% in room air : The High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, ML; Bremer, DL; Cole, C; McClead, RE; Phelps, DL; Fellows, RR; Oden, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the rate of progression from prethreshold to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants excluded from Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP) because their median arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))

  17. Trends in ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage in the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Lian; Du, Dan-Feng; Chen, Shang-Jie; Zheng, Sai-Hua; Lee, Arier C; Chen, Qi

    2016-05-20

    Ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages and hydatidiform moles are the major types of pathological pregnancies in the early gestations of pregnancy and constitute an important public health problem. The trends and incidences of these pathological pregnancies may vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. This has not been fully investigated in the Chinese population. In this study we retrospectively report the trends of pathological pregnancies in Chinese population. Data on 22,511 women with ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Data included age at diagnosis and the annual number of women with diagnosed ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage. The total number of ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage was increased 3.5folds in 2013 compared to 2003. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading pathological pregnancy and miscarriage is increasing at a greater rate among the pathological pregnancies. The median age of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis significantly increased from 25.5 years to 29 years (p = 0.002), however the median age for other pathological pregnancies was not different between 2003 and 2013. The number of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis who were over 40 years old has increased. The mean maternal age is increased from 28.1 years old in 2003 to 29.4 years old in 2013 in this hospital. We speculate that the increased maternal age may contribute to the increase in these pathological pregnancies between 2003 and 2013 in China.

  18. Possible Role of HLA-G, LILRB1 and KIR2DL4 Gene Polymorphisms in Spontaneous Miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Izabela; Malinowski, Andrzej; Barcz, Ewa; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Wagner, Marta; Majorczyk, Edyta; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Banasik, Małgorzata; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The KIR2DL4 receptor and its ligand HLA-G are considered important for fetal-maternal immune tolerance and successful pregnancy. The absence of a particular variant of KIR2DL4 might be a bad prognostic factor for pregnancy outcome. However, it could be compensated by the presence of the respective LILRB1 allele. Therefore, we investigated the KIR2DL4, LILRB1 and HLA-G polymorphisms in 277 couples with spontaneous abortion and 219 control couples by HRM, PCR-SSP and RFLP methods. We found a protective effect of women's heterozygosity in -716 HLA-G (p = 0.0206) and LILRB1 (p = 0.0131) against spontaneous abortion. Surprisingly, we observed more 9A/10A genotypes of KIR2DL4 gene carriers in the group of male partners from the miscarriage group in comparison to the men from the control group (p = 0.0288). Furthermore, there was no association of women's KIR2DL4 polymorphism with susceptibility to spontaneous abortion. Multivariate analysis indicated that women's -716 HLA-G and LILRB1 and men's KIR2DL4 9A/10A are important in terms of the protection or susceptibility to miscarriage, respectively (p = 0.00968). In conclusion, a woman's heterozygosity in HLA-G and LILRB1 might be an advantage for a success of reproduction, but the partner's heterozygosity in 9A/10A KIR2DL4 alleles might not.

  19. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  20. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  1. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  2. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisasue, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future.

  3. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  4. The significance of C-reactive protein levels in women with premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M A; Zinaman, M J; Lowensohn, R I; Moawad, A H

    1985-02-15

    In a prospective study of 100 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes, clinical chorioamnionitis was present in 18 and histologic chorioamnionitis was present in 63. Patients who were managed conservatively for premature rupture of membranes were monitored by C-reactive protein determination, white blood cell and differential counts, maternal temperature, and fetal heart tone. C-reactive protein was measured nephelometrically (Immuno-chemistry Analyzer II, Beckman). Elevated C-reactive protein levels correlated well with both the pathologic and the clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Elevated C-reactive protein levels (at least 12 to 24 hours before delivery) were more sensitive than other standard laboratory or clinical tests in predicting chorioamnionitis both by clinical and pathologic criteria. When C-reactive protein values were normal, clinical chorioamnionitis was rarely found, whereas pathologically diagnosed chorioamnionitis was found half of the time. We conclude that although the C-reactive protein level is a very sensitive predictor of infectious morbidity in premature rupture of membranes, its specificity is not high.

  5. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  6. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  7. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  8. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  9. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  10. Animal models of premature and retarded ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2005-06-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from animal studies using rats with normal sexual behaviour. However, none of these proposed models adequately represents human ejaculatory disorders. Based on the "ejaculation distribution theory", which postulates that the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men is represented by a biological continuum, we have developed an animal model for the research of premature and delayed ejaculation. In this model, a large number of male Wistar rats are investigated during 4-6 weekly sexual behavioural tests. Based on the number of ejaculations during 30 min tests, rapid and sluggish ejaculating rats are distinguished, each representing approximately 10% at both ends of a Gaussian distribution. Together with other parameters, such as ejaculation latency time, these rats at either side of the spectrum resemble men with premature and delayed ejaculation, respectively. Comparable to the human situation, in a normal population of rats, endophenotypes exist with regard to basal sexual (ejaculatory) performance.

  11. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Preeti Patil; Kekunnaya, Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI). Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  12. [Intraventricular haemorrhage in premature newborn babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, N

    This work is the product of the checking of the pathogenesis, incidence, treatment, and prognostic of the intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn. In the revised publications, that include important series of following, this pathology is present in 25% of the infants weighing less than 1,500 g, in which the mortality and morbidity is greater than that of normal newborns, since the development of intraventricular hemorrhage can produce alterations of cerebral blood flow in the immature germinal matrix and in the microvascular net. In consequence the prevention of the intraventricular hemorrhage is directly related with its pathogenesis. It is said that the use of dexamethasone steroids in low doses in the prenatal period, and low doses of indomethacin in the postnatal period, can give better neuroprotection. The surgical treatment is exceptional and has very precise indications, when a progresive hydrocephalus of later apparition is proven. Therefore in premature newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage the best actual treatment is to use an appropiate pharmacological and medical following

  13. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  14. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  15. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  16. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  17. Successful delivery of fetus with fetal inherited thrombophilia after two fetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Josip; Ivanisević, Marina; Oresković, Slavko; Mihaljević, Slobodan; Vujić, Goran; Delmis, Josip

    2013-12-01

    A pregnant woman with inherited thrombophilia (factor II mutation--20210A) had two late pregnancy losses. The first pregnancy was not well documented, but the second pregnancy was complicated by fetal thrombophilia and umbilical artery thrombosis, proven after fetal death. During the third pregnancy enoxaparine was introduced in the therapy and early amniocentesis was performed. Fetal thrombophilia was proven again. Early delivery was induced and performed with no complications, resulting in a live healthy infant. A history of miscarriages or recurrent fetal loss should raise suspicion of thrombophilia as a potential cause. It is debatable whether amniocentesis in pursuit of fetal thrombophilia should be performed and whether this will lead to a better perinatal outcome. When fetal thrombophilia is diagnosed, an earlier induction of delivery should be considered, taking into account the fetal extrauterine viability. The aforementioned approach of early delivery in cases of inherited fetal thrombophilia could be a possible solution for better perinatal outcomes.

  18. Is Generalized Maternal Optimism or Pessimism During Pregnancy Associated with Unplanned Cesarean Section Deliveries in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Cheryl A.; Elsayed, Yasmin; Zhu, YuChun; Wei, Yumei; Engmann, Cyril M.; Yang, Huixia

    2010-01-01

    This research examines whether maternal optimism/pessimism is associated with unplanned Cesarean section deliveries in China. If so, does the association remain after controlling for clinical factors associated with C-sections? A sample of 227 mostly primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy was surveyed in a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. Post-delivery data were collected from medical records. In bivariate analysis, both optimism and pessimism were related to unplanned c-section. However, when optimism and pessimism were entered into a regression model together, optimism was no longer statistically significant. Pessimism remained significant, even when adjusting for clinical factors such as previous abortion, previous miscarriage, pregnancy complications, infant gestational age, infant birthweight, labor duration, birth complications, and self-rated difficulty of the pregnancy. This research suggests that maternal mindset during pregnancy has a role in mode of delivery. However, more research is needed to elucidate potential causal pathways and test potential interventions. PMID:21490743

  19. Is generalized maternal optimism or pessimism during pregnancy associated with unplanned cesarean section deliveries in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Cheryl A; Elsayed, Yasmin; Zhu, Yuchun; Wei, Yumei; Engmann, Cyril M; Yang, Huixia

    2010-01-01

    This research examines whether maternal optimism/pessimism is associated with unplanned Cesarean section deliveries in China. If so, does the association remain after controlling for clinical factors associated with C-sections? A sample of 227 mostly primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy was surveyed in a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. Post-delivery data were collected from medical records. In bivariate analysis, both optimism and pessimism were related to unplanned c-section. However, when optimism and pessimism were entered into a regression model together, optimism was no longer statistically significant. Pessimism remained significant, even when adjusting for clinical factors such as previous abortion, previous miscarriage, pregnancy complications, infant gestational age, infant birthweight, labor duration, birth complications, and self-rated difficulty of the pregnancy. This research suggests that maternal mindset during pregnancy has a role in mode of delivery. However, more research is needed to elucidate potential causal pathways and test potential interventions.

  20. The significance of genetics in pathophysiologic models of premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberos, Jose

    2017-05-31

    Prematurity is a major health problem in all countries, especially in certain ethic groups and increasing recurrence imply the influence of genetic factors. Published genetic polymorphisms are identified in relation to the 4 pathophysiological models of prematurity described: Chorioamniotic-decidual inflammation, premature contraction pathway, decidual haemorrhage and susceptibility to environmental toxins. 240 articles are identified, 52 articles are excluded because they are not original, not written in English or duplicated. From them 125 articles were included in qualitative analysis This review aims to update recent knowledge about genes associated with premature birth.

  1. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2......-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute......, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies....

  2. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute sequelae such as abnormal neurophysiological development in early childhood and underachievement in school. Several treatment modalities have been proposed in singleton high-risk pregnancies. The mechanism of initiating labour may, however, be different in singleton and twin gestations. Therefore, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies.

  3. Circulating hematopoietic stem cell count is a valuable predictor of prematurity complications in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowski Maciej

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of preterm labour has risen over the last few years. Hence, there is growing interest in the identification of markers that may facilitate prediction and prevention of premature birth complications. Here, we studied the association of the number of circulating stem cell populations with the incidence of complications typical of prematurity. Methods The study groups consisted of 90 preterm (23–36 weeks of gestational age and 52 full-term (37–41 weeks infants. Non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs; CD45-lin-CD184+, enriched in very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, expressing pluripotent (Oct-4, Nanog, early neural (β-III-tubulin, and oligodendrocyte lineage (Olig-1 genes as well as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs; CD45+lin-CD184+, and circulating stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs; CD133+CD34+; CD133-CD34+ in association with characteristics of prematurity and preterm morbidity were analyzed in cord blood (CB and peripheral blood (PB until the sixth week after delivery. Phenotype analysis was performed using flow cytometry methods. Clonogenic assays suitable for detection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells were also applied. The quantitative parameters were compared between groups by the Mann–Whitney test and between time points by the Friedman test. Fisher’s exact test was used for qualitative variables. Results We found that the number of CB non-HSCs/VSELs is inversely associated with the birth weight of preterm infants. More notably, a high number of CB HSCs is strongly associated with a lower risk of prematurity complications including intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, infections, and anemia. The number of HSCs remains stable for the first six weeks of postnatal life. Besides, the number of CSPCs in CB is significantly higher in preterm infants than in full-term neonates (p  Conclusion We conclude that CB HSCs are markedly associated with the development of premature

  4. Outcomes after expectant management of extremely preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmoor, Mara J; Bachman, Rebecca; Haney, Elaine I; Goldstein, Marci; Mackendrick, William

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess contemporary outcomes in pregnancies managed expectantly after extremely preterm premature (< or =24 weeks) premature rupture of the membranes (EPPROM). We queried antepartum and ultrasound databases for patients with EPPROM. Data on pregnancy outcome and short-term neonatal outcomes were collected. Forty-six patients with EPPROM were studied. Patients were hospitalized at 24 weeks' gestation and given antibiotics and antenatal steroids. Median gestational age at PPROM was 22.0 weeks (range 16.9-24 weeks); 43 (93%) elected expectant management, 2 of whom later had an intrauterine fetal death. Median latency period to delivery was 13 days (range 0-96 days), with mean gestational age at delivery of 25.8+/-3.4 weeks. Overall survival was 47% (27 of 57 infants), after a median hospital stay of 71 days (range 17-209 days). Ten (37%) of the survivors have serious sequelae. Although significant pregnancy prolongation after previable PPROM occurs in many cases, neonatal outcomes remain poor.

  5. Regulatory T cells, maternal-foetal immune tolerance and recurrent miscarriage: new therapeutic challenging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Melnychuk, Taisiia; Gris, Josep Maria

    2015-03-15

    Because maternal alloreactive lymphocytes are not depleted during pregnancy, local and/or systemic mechanisms have to play a key role in altering the maternal immune response. Peripheral T regulatory cells (pTregs) at the maternal-foetal interface are necessary in situ to prevent early abortion, but only those pTregs that have been previously exposed to paternal alloantigens. It has been showed that pregnancy selectively stimulates the accumulation of maternal Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) (Foxp3Tregs) cells with foetal specificity. Interestingly, after delivery, foetal-specific pTregs persist at elevated levels, maintain tolerance to pre-existing foetal antigen, and rapidly re-accumulate during subsequent pregnancy. pTreg up-regulation could be hypothesized as a possible future therapeutic strategy in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of magnesium sulfate administration for neuroprotection on latency in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L.; Lai, Yinglei; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Thorp, John M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Malone, Fergal D.; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether magnesium sulfate administration for neuroprotection prolongs latency in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes between 24 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy. Gravid women with a singleton pregnancy between 24 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation with preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) without evidence of labor were randomized to receive magnesium sulfate, administered intravenously as a 6-g bolus followed by a constant infusion of 2 g per hour up to 12 hours, or placebo. Maternal outcomes for this analysis were delivery in less than 48 hours and in less than 7 days from randomization. Neonatal outcomes included a composite of respiratory distress, interventricular hemorrhage grades 3 or 4, periventricular leukomalacia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, or death. Results A total of 1259 women were included. The rate of delivery < 48 hours was not different in the magnesium sulfate and the placebo groups (22.2% and 20.7%, p=0.51). Delivery < 7 days was similar between groups (55.4% and 51.4%, p=0.16). Median latency was also similar between groups (median [interquartile range] 6.0 days [2.4–13.8] and 6.6 days [2.4–15.1], p =0.29). Composite neonatal outcomes did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate administration given for neuroprotection in women with a singleton gestation with preterm premature rupture of membranes and without labor before 32 weeks does not impact latency. PMID:25241107

  7. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  8. Modern Approach in Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacu Irina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy. Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.

  9. Modeling premature brain injury and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joey; Fagel, Devon M.; Ment, Laura R.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2009-01-01

    Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure and function in these preterm infants at school age and relevant animal models. These animal models have provided scientists with an opportunity to explore in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury as well as the potential of the brain for recovery. The endogenous potential that the brain has for neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and how environment contributes to recovery, are also outlined. These preclinical models will provide important insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for variable degrees of injury and recovery, permitting the exploration of targeted therapies to facilitate recovery in the developing preterm brain. PMID:19482072

  10. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Joseph Ting

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis.

  11. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  12. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  13. Periodic heart rate decelerations in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Abigail A; Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B

    2010-04-01

    The pacemaking system of the heart is complex; a healthy heart constantly integrates and responds to extracardiac signals, resulting in highly complex heart rate patterns with a great deal of variability. In the laboratory and in some pathological or age-related states, however, dynamics can show reduced complexity that is more readily described and modeled. Reduced heart rate complexity has both clinical and dynamical significance - it may provide warning of impending illness or clues about the dynamics of the heart's pacemaking system. In this paper, we describe simple and interesting heart rate dynamics that we have observed in premature human infants - reversible transitions to large-amplitude periodic oscillations - and we show that the appearance and disappearance of these periodic oscillations can be described by a simple mathematical model, a Hopf bifurcation.

  14. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  15. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  16. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K

    2007-07-01

    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  17. [Complete triploidy in a liveborn premature (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, S; Skinner, C; Lechuga, J L; Fernández, E; Serrano, J; Casanova, M; Argemí, J; López, A; Castro, J M

    1980-01-01

    Authors describe the clinical, pathological and cytogenetic data of a polymalformed premature with a complete a triploidy 69,XXY). This rare condition (30 cases in the literature) may be suspected in a premature with broad posterior fontanella, eye and ear anomalies, syndactily between IV and III fingers/toes, intersexual status and mielomeningocele. Frequently the placenta presents a molar or micromolar degeneration.

  18. Lipid profile of women with premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, Erik A. H.; Westerveld, Hendrika E.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Valkenburg, Olivier; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Earlier menopause is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events later in life. Concurrent with the ages of menopausal transition, a shift in lipid profile takes place. Premature ovarian failure (POF) or premature menopause allows LIS to Study the effect of cessation of

  19. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  20. Acupuncture Treatment for 98 Cases of Ventricular Premature Beat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Baojie; Wang Feng; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ventricular premature beat is a commonly encountered arrhythmia,which can occur in patients with and without cardiac diseases.In TCM.ventricular premature beat fall into the category of palpitation and obstruction of qi in the chest.The authors treated it with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory thera-peutic effects.A summary follows.

  1. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  2. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  3. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  4. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  5. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  6. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  7. Characteristic analysis and prevention on premature convergence in genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗本; 高勇

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characteristics of premature convergence in genetic algorithms (GAs) are investigated Through a detailed quantitative analysis on the search capability and the degree of population diversity, the cause of premature convergence in GAs is recognized, and attributed to the maturation effect of the GAs: The minimum schema deduced from current population, which is the largest search space of a GA, converges to a homogeneous population in probability 1 ( so the search capability of the GA decreases and premature convergence occurs). It is shown that, as quantitative features of the maturation effect, the degree of population diversity converges to zero with probability 1, and the tendency for premature convergence is inversely proportional to the population size and directly proportional to the variance of the fitness ratio of zero allele at any gene position of the current population. Based on the theoretical analysis, several strategies for preventing premature convergence are suggest

  8. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  9. Hypothyroxinemia of prematurity: rite of passage or therapeutic necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeram, M R; Wilson, D P

    2000-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia is a common finding in premature infants, presumably resulting from an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Because dynamic studies of thyroid function in premature infants are normal and the condition resolves spontaneously, HOP has been considered physiologic rather than pathologic. Thus, thyroid hormone supplementation has been assumed to be not required in premature infants. True hypothyroidism of hypothalamic pituitary or thyroid origin, however, does occur in premature as well as in term infants and should be investigated aggressively and treated appropriately. Current studies in premature infants with hypothyroxinemia suggest the following: infants with more than 27 weeks of gestation do not appear to benefit and may, in fact, be harmed by thyroid hormone supplementation; and short-term thyroid hormone supplementation in infants born before 27 weeks of gestation may be important to diminish morbidity and to improve neurodevelopmental outcome.

  10. Insight on pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation: inverse relationship between lifelong premature ejaculation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, A; Ekmekcioglu, O

    2010-01-01

    Although both biological and psychological factors are important in the etiology, the exact pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) remains to be clarified. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that contributes to many chronic diseases. Obesity is associated with erectile dysfunction, but the relationship between obesity and PE has not yet been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of these two conditions. Between January 2008 and December 2009, we evaluated consecutive patients with lifelong PE in the urology outpatient clinic. Control cases without lifelong PE were selected randomly among cases attending the department of internal medicine for a checkup procedure. The age and sex of control group were matched with that of the study group. Body mass index (BMI) of each case was calculated using the World Health Organization criteria by the measurements of the physician instead of relying on verbal expressions. The mean (+/-s.d.) age of the premature ejaculators was 31.7+/-5.7 (range 21-51) years and in the control cases it was 32.3+/-6.7 (range 22-54) years. The comparison of the mean (+/-s.d.) weight between the study (74.1+/-11.2 kg) and control groups (81.9+/-6.4 kg) revealed a significant difference (Pobese cases in the control group (n=26, 24.1%) was three times greater than the obese premature ejaculators (Pobesity, and we found that patients with lifelong PE were leaner than the healthy control cases.

  11. Psychological and support interventions to reduce levels of stress, anxiety or depression on women’s subsequent pregnancy with a history of miscarriage: an empty systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Sarah; McNamara, Karen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of interventions to reduce stress in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage. Design A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data source A total of 13 medical, psychological and social electronic databases were searched from January 1995 to April 2016 including PUBMED, CENTRAL, Web of Science and EMBASE. Eligibility criteria This review focused on women in their subsequent pregnancy following miscarriage. All published RCTs which assessed the effect of non-medical interventions such as counselling or support interventions on psychological and mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety or depression when compared with a control group were included. Stress, anxiety or depression had to be measured at least preintervention and postintervention. Results This systematic review found no RCT which met our initial inclusion criteria. Of the 4140 titles screened, 17 RCTs were identified. All of them were excluded. One RCT, which implemented a caring-based intervention, included pregnant women in their subsequent pregnancy; however, miscarriage was analysed as a composite variable among other pregnancy losses such as stillbirth and neonatal death. Levels of perceived stress were measured by four RCTs. Different types of non-medical interventions, time of follow-up and small sample sizes were found. Conclusion Cohort studies and RCTs in non-pregnant women suggest that support and psychological interventions may improve pregnant women’s psychological well-being after miscarriage. This improvement may reduce adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. However, this review found no RCTs which met our criteria. There is a need for targeted RCTs that can provide reliable and conclusive results to determine effective interventions for this vulnerable group. PMID:28882928

  12. A comparative study of glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushings in women with subseptate uteri, history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, R; Miel, J; Savvas, M; Lee, C; Jurkovic, D

    2007-07-01

    To compare the concentration of glycodelin in uterine flushing at the implantation window obtained from women with subseptate uteri, women with a history of recurrent first trimester miscarriage and fertile controls. Glycodelin concentration was assessed using Enzyme Linked Immunohistochemistry (ELISA) at The Early Pregnancy & Gynaecology Assessment Unit, King's College Hospital, London, England. Eight women with a subseptate uterus, 20 women with a history of unexplained recurrent first trimester miscarriage and 16 fertile controls had uterine cavity flushing, for glycodelin concentration, done 7 days after the luteinising hormone surge. Glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushing obtained from women with subseptate uteri (n=8) (median 32.9 ng/ml, range 17.1-52.4 ng/ml) and recurrent miscarriage (n=20) (median 26.8 ng/ml, range 9.7-78.5 ng/ml) were significantly lower than in the control group (n=16) (median 67.7 ng/ml, range 59.0-77.6 ng/ml) (chi(2)=19.565, p<0.001). Peri-implantation levels of glycodelin are lower in women at high risk of early pregnancy failure.

  13. Maternal factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations do not seem to contribute to the occurrence of two or more than two consecutive miscarriages in Caucasian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Kristin; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Hackethal, Andreas; Strowitzki, Thomas; Toth, Bettina; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the prevalence of the most common hereditary thrombophilia (hTP) - factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin 20210 G>A substitution (PT) - and the 677 C>T replacement in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in Caucasian patients with a history of two and more consecutive recurrent miscarriages (RMs) as compared to healthy controls with an identical ethnic background and at least one live birth. A multicenter analysis of three hTP was performed in 641 RM patients identically screened at specialized university centres. The study groups consisted of 240 patients with 2 (1) and 401 patients with >2 miscarriages (2) and were compared with 157 controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the hTP between RM patients and controls nor within the two study groups. Subgroup analysis showed that the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in the study group 2 as compared to study group 1 (13.9 versus 7.9%, P = 0.02). In Caucasians, maternal FVL or PT mutations do not seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of RM, irrespective of the number of miscarriages. However, the role of the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism merits further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Associations of recurrent miscarriages with chromosomal abnormalities, thrombophilia allelic polymorphisms and/or consanguinity in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Rola F; Assidi, Mourad; Banni, Huda A; Zahed, Hanan A; Karim, Sajjad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Bajouh, Osama; Jamal, Hassan S; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Abuzenadah, Adel M

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Cytogenetic analysis of 171 consent patients with RPL was performed by the standard method of 72-h lymphocyte culture and GTG banding. Allelic polymorphisms of three thrombophilic genes (Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin A20210G, MTHFR C677T) were performed using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and gel electrophoresis. Data analysis revealed that 7.6 % of patients were carrier of numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities. A high rate of translocations (46 %) was associated to increased incidence of RPL. A significant correlation between consanguineous RPL patients and chromosomal abnormalities (P chromosomal abnormalities and inherited thrombophilia. Given the high rate of consanguineous marriages in the Saudi population, these results underline the importance of systematic cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling preferably at the premarital stage or at least during early pregnancy phase through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

  15. Polymorphisms in NOS3, ACE and PAI-1 genes and risk of spontaneous recurrent miscarriage in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sallout, Rami J; Sharif, Fadel A

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between spontaneous recurrent miscarriage (RM) and common polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) genes among women experiencing RM in the Gaza Strip. The presence of these genetic profiles was determined for 100 women who had had at least 3 constitutive abortions and 100 controls without any history of abortion using molecular biological techniques. The ACE D/D polymorphism was present in 49% of the study population and in 54% of the controls (p = 0.479). Similarly, there was no significant difference detected in the distribution of polymorphisms for PAI-1, with the 4G/4G genotype present in the study group and in controls (p = 1.00). NOS3 4a/4a was present in 4% of the study group and in none of the 100 controls (p = 0.123). In this study, we also discovered a new variant in the NOS3 gene which was named 4c allele and was encountered in 1 patient and in 1 control subject. There was no significant association between ACE I/D, PAI-1 4G/5G and NOS3 4a/4b and the occurrence of first-trimester RM. In-depth investigation of the association of NOS3 4a/4a with RM is strongly recommended. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Maternal diet, LCPUFA status and prematurity in Indian mothers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi S. Ranade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA have been shown to exert functional benefits with regards to gestational length. The present study examined the association of maternal LCPUFA intake, specifically Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA and Arachidonic acid (ARA, and plasma status at delivery with duration of gestation and risk of premature delivery in Indian mothers.Methods: In a cross-sectional nested case-control study, 191 mother-baby pairs [164 Full term(FT and 27 Preterm (PT] were examined for differences in maternal habitual diet pattern and plasma fatty acid composition in relation to the length of gestation.Results: The frequency of intake of n-3 fatty acid rich varieties of fish was higher (p<0.05 in FT mothers compared to PT mothers. Maternal plasma fatty acid concentration of n-3 Alpha Linolenic acid (ALA, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acids at delivery was significantly associated with intake of vegetarian ALA sources such as millets, dark whole pulses, dry fruits like walnuts, and green leafy vegetables. Among age, parity, and neonatal sex matched case-control pairs, PT mothers had significantly (p<0.01 higher levels of n-6 ARA, but lower (p<0.01 levels of n-3 DHA and total n-3 fatty acids compared to FT mothers irrespective of socioeconomic group. In fact, mothers with plasma DHA levels below median (<3.0% had ten times higher risk (OR-10.47; 95% CI: 3.03-36.48 of delivering prematurely compared to those who had plasma DHA levels above median.Conclusion: Results underscore the importance of consuming varied sources of ALA and DHAfor their role as functional lipids in determining gestational length.

  17. Placental Inflammatory Changes and Bacterial Infection in Premature Neonates with Respiratory Failure

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    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal a relationship of placental inflammatory changes to bacterial infection in premature neonates with respiratory failure. Material and methods. Bronchoalveolar aspirate was bacteriologically studied in 157 premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; the total and differential leukocyte counts were measured in their peripheral blood. The levels of the cytokines IL-1^3, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were studied in different biological fluids of mothers and their babies; the placentas were also morphologically examined. Results. An analysis of bacterial cultures from the tracheobronchial tree revealed no growth of bacterial microflora in 61.8% of cases, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated in 6.4 and 8.3% of the infants, respectively; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Enterobacter agglomerans, and hemolytic group A Streptococcus were seen in 1.9% each; moreover, 1.3% of the newborn infants were found to have Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. Other microorganisms and a microbial association were encountered in 8.9% of cases. Placental morphological examination revealed different inflammatory changes concurrent with chronic and acute placental insufficiency. The investigation demonstrated that the maternal peripheral plasma levels of IL-1^, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were within the physiological range at the end of the first period of delivery. The amniotic fluid displayed elevated IL-6 and TNF-a concentrations and normal IL-4 and IL-1e levels, suggesting that there was an intrauterine inflammatory process. Conclusion. Premature birth is associated with various placental inflammatory changes, which causes intrauterine stimulation of macrophages in the chorionic villi. Specific immune defense mechanisms that prevent the development of a fetal infectious process, i.e. the maternal infectious process, may induce

  18. Women’s well-being improves after missed miscarriage with more active support and application of Swanson’s Caring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annsofie Adolfsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborgs Sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden; 2School of Life Sciences, The University of Skövde, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was to provide better organization and more efficient use of resources within the health care system in order to identify women with nonviable pregnancy earlier in their gestation terms and also to identify those women who experience severe grief reaction after the miscarriage. The proposed solution is to offer an appointment with a gynecologist during regular office hours after consultation with the patient’s midwife to women experiencing symptoms and who are concerned with the viability of their pregnancy. Unnecessary contact with the emergency room by the patients would be reduced as a result of this improvement in organization. The aim of the study was to give the women experiencing missed miscarriage an increased sense of well-being by applying Swanson’s Caring Theory to their recovery, in addition to the better organization and more efficient use of resources.Method: Both the original study from 2002 to 2003 and the later study from 2004 to 2005 applied Swanson’s Caring Theory in the follow-up care management of the women, but only the later study was influenced by the changes made in the health care system. In the past, diagnosis of missed miscarriage was delayed because women experiencing minor symptoms were not highly prioritized in the health care system. More active support was introduced in order to get the proper information to the patient throughout the health care system. The size of the original study database was n = 43, compared with the later study database, which was n = 56. All of the women answered the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS questions twice, 1 month and 4 months after their diagnosis. Some additional questions about their circumstances unrelated to the PGS were also mailed to the women 4 months after their diagnosis

  19. Perspectives in the prevention of premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2004-11-15

    Obstetric and neonatal interventions have improved the survival of preterm infants, but there has not been an equivalent reduction in long-term neurological disability. Thus, some effort must be invested in finding ways of preventing preterm birth. Numerous programmes have been promoted to address the matter of how the frequency of preterm birth could be prevented. Most interventions intended to prevent preterm labour do not have the desired effect, except for antibiotic treatment in cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria or bacterial vaginosis and progesterone administered prophylactically in high-risk women. Tocolytic drugs appear to delay delivery long enough for successful administration of corticosteroids in women in preterm labour, but without decreasing the risk of preterm birth. Some authors promote public health approaches that address all risk factors and affect the entire population of pregnant women, given that prevention programmes directed only at high-risk women have had little effect in preventing preterm births. However, the lack of progress in reducing the frequency of preterm births is also due to our limited understanding of the aetiology of preterm delivery. Although there is growing evidence that infection and neuroendocrine processes are involved, progress has remained slow. Recently, the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition to preterm delivery has been set up. Additional research exploring the pathophysiology of preterm labour is obviously needed, which will hopefully lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  20. A study of related factors of miscarriage in IVF/ICSI%IVF/ICSI临床妊娠后流产的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰英; 张瑞; 周燕; 刘静; 王一青; 张学红

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the related factors of miscarriage after clinical pregnancy in in vitro fertilization and intracyto-plasmic sperminjection (IVF/ICSI). Methods; A total of 512 gestational cycles of IVF/ICSI conducted between January 2010 and December 2010 were divided into two groups; miscarriage group and control group, Analysis the rate of the relationship in fertilization methods, age, the cause of infertility and β - HCC after 12 days. Results; Take baby home rate was 37.31% of total 1124 cases, and the miscarriage rate was 19.34% of clinical pregnancy woman. The miscarriage rate and take baby home rate in the 1VF group were lower than ICSI group. The average age of the women, implantation rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the level of β -HCC in the miscarriage group were lower than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Age and (3 - HCC can be used as risk factors of early prediction the occurrence of miscarriage in IVF/ICSI, taking necessary treatments in early phase of miscarriage may reduce risk occurrence probability.%目的 探讨不孕症患者接受体外受精/卵细胞浆内单精子注射(IVF/ICSI)胚胎移植治疗临床妊娠后发生流产的可能相关因素.方法 将2010年1月-2010年12月在本医院行IVF/ICSI治疗获得临床妊娠的512例患者,按妊娠结局分为流产组及分娩组;分析受精方式、年龄、病因及移植后12天血β-HCG等因素与流产率的关系.结果 行IVF/ICSI助孕临床妊娠的患者中,流产率19.34%,抱婴儿回家率37.31%;行IVF与ICSI不同受精方式助孕的患者,其流产率、分娩率、抱婴儿回家率之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);流产组患者的年龄、胚胎种植率、多胎妊娠率及12天后的血β-HCG值均要低于分娩组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 年龄及血β-HCG可早期预测IVF/ICSI的妊娠结局,对流产高风险患者及时进行保胎治疗,督促复诊,将有助于提高IVF/ICSI助孕后的活产率.

  1. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals.Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction.Among them,normal signal coupling is the strongest,followed by that of premature ventricular contractions,and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest.The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct.Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data,can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  2. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  3. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  4. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

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    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM. Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1 were evaluated in terms of effectiveness in diagnosis of PROM. Results: A gold standard method has not yet been defined in PROM. Diagnostic tests (nitrazine test, fern test, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 “IGFBP-1” and Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 “PAMG-1” should be used when the diagnosis is not certain following history, examination with sterile speculum and ultrasonography evaluation. Conclusion: IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 are tests based on bedside immunochromatographic method. Especially, PAMG-1 comes into prominence with its high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Progeria: a rare genetic premature ageing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Shampa; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-05-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  6. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs. As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent ′drug of hope′ for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  7. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  8. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  9. Emotional Reactions of Mothers Facing Premature Births: Study of 100 Mother-Infant Dyads 32 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Results Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A “depressed” score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Conclusions Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth. PMID:25153825

  10. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  11. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic function in girls with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Piccolo, F; Scalamandre, A; Malvaso, M; Ortolani, R; Boscherini, B

    1980-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic activity was investigated in 9 girls with premature thelarche, and compared with that in 9 healthy girls and 6 girls with true precocious puberty. The gonadotropin stimulation test with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone was used. Girls with premature thelarche showed luteinising hormone response resembling that of normal girls, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response quite similar to that of girls with precocious puberty. This suggests that in premature thelarche there is a partial activation of the diencephalic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis, which affects FSH only. Premature thelarche therefore, should be considered as one of the disorders due to altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic receptors which regulate sex maturation. PMID:6779715

  13. [Histologic chorioamnionitis prevalence in patients with premature rupture membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-de la Torre, José Ignacio; Delgado-Rosas, Antonio; Gonzélez-Cantú, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Search Histologic Chorioamnionitis frequency in patients in week 28 (+/-) and pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes. Retrospective and observational study in which we studied all patients who came between June 28, 2011 and November 15, 2011 to receive obstetric care in the service of Tocochirurgical of the University Hospital of Saltillo, with greater than or equal 28 weeks of pregnancy. 598 patients were studied, and the frequency of premature rupture of membranes with histologic chorioamnionitis at term patients was, respectively, 1.7 and 5.3% in preterm labor. In the total sample frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was 0.6% (4 patients) and, of these, 25% were term and 75% with preterm rupture. In patients with premature rupture of membranes the clinical chorioamnionitis was 0% valued by the criteria of Gibbs. The premature rupture of membranes is a risk factor important for histological chorioamnionitis. To decrease risk factors and possible complications, an established protocol must be taken.

  14. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    . The parents recalled that his elder sister had similar but milder skin changes and respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome was suggested and the diagnosis supported by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy specimen showing pathognomonic trilamellar membrane aggregations...... birth he developed respiratory distress and needed intubation. Remarkable skin changes were noticed with universal red, edematous and desquamating, spongy skin giving an impression of excessive vernix caseosa. Marked regression of the edema and ichthyotic scaling was observed within a few weeks......Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately after...

  15. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu Bello University ... The commonest diagnoses were protein-energy malnutrition and pneumonia and ... Conclusion: Socio-economic factors were significant determinants of ...

  16. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of labor versus expectant ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were ...

  17. Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products in Threatened Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rzepka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare sRAGE and esRAGE plasma levels in pregnant women with (A threatened premature labor (n=41, (B preterm premature rupture of membranes (n=49, and (C preterm rupture of membranes at term (n=48. The relationship between these and classic intrauterine infection markers and the latent time from symptoms up to delivery depending on RAGE’s concentration were investigated. In groups A and B, a positive correlation was found between plasma sRAGE and latent time (r = 0,422; p = 0,001; r = 0,413, p = 0,004, resp.. High prognostic values were found in both groups for plasma sRAGE concentration and the latent time from symptoms up to delivery. Groups B and C presented higher levels of esRAGE than group A (526,315 ± 129,453 pg/mL and 576,212 ± 136,237 pg/mL versus 485,918 ± 133,127 pg/mL, p< 0,05. The conclusion is that sRAGE concentration can be a favorable prognostic factor in the presence of symptoms of threatened premature labor. Higher esRAGE plasma level in case of the rupture of membranes in mature and premature pregnancy suggests its participation in fetal membranes destruction.

  18. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree...... lend to future research on family outcome, as well as the balance they may offer in the information provided to parents of premature children....

  19. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  20. Necrotizing enterocolitis and cytomegalovirus infection in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lynn; Ferris, Michael; Norori, Johana; Stark, Matthew; Craver, Randall; Dowd, Scot; Penn, Duna

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The etiology is considered multifactorial. Risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeding, hypoxia, and bacterial colonization. The etiologic role of viruses is unclear. We present a case of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with cytomegalovirus and Proteobacteria in a 48-day-old, ex-premature infant and discuss the effects of potential viral-bacterial interactions on host susceptibility to this disease.

  1. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  2. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Esteve, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  3. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan.

  4. Premature Trigger of ERI in Medtronic EnRhythm Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Melissa E; Mahajan, Rajiv; Elliott, Adrian D; Pathak, Rajeev K; Twomey, Darragh; Wilson, Lauren; Stolcman, Simon; Munawar, Dian A; Kumar, Sharath; Lau, Dennis H; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2017-06-01

    Medical technology has made significant advances over the last few decades with smaller and more dynamic pacemakers. However, technical failures leading to premature replacement is a cause of concern. We present a series of Medtronic EnRhythm devices that reached premature elective replacement indicator (ERI). The database of Centre of Heart Rhythm Disorders was searched for EnRhythm device implantation from 2006 to 2011. Battery depletion <8.5 years was considered premature considering the projected average longevity to be 8.5-10.5 years. An unexpected premature ERI was defined when it was reached within 3 months of last normal check. Device follow-up was conducted every 3 months after advisory. A total of 88 EnRhythm pacemakers were implanted. Over a median follow-up of 6.2 years (range: 0.3-9.2), 39 (44.3%) EnRhythm devices reached premature ERI. In 11 (28%), ERI was not recognized and patients were being investigated for other causes of unsteadiness or dyspnea prior to device check. Notably, three (7%) patients had premature ERI < 3.5 years. Ten (25.6%) had sudden and unexpected premature ERI. While asynchronous pacing was observed, there were no cases of absence of pacing. The rate of premature ERI for EnRhythm devices was 44.3%, significantly higher than reported by the manufacturer. Of concern, a sizeable proportion occurred unexpectedly, warranting more frequent reviews and empirical replacement in some patients. With the experience of the EnRhythm, appropriate monitoring strategies are recommended for future advisories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Frequency of null allele of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) locus in subjects to recurrent miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nazila; Mosaferi, Elnaz; Farzadi, Laya; Majidi, Jafar; Monfaredan, Amir; Yousefi, Bahman; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class I molecule highly expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Due to a single base pair deletion, its function can be compensated by other isoforms. Investigating the frequency of null allele in Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) subjects could be useful in understanding the relationship between frequency of this allele and RM in a given population. Objective: This study aimed to determine the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele and its potential association with down-regulation of HLA-G in subjects with RM. Materials and Methods: Western blotting was used to assess the level of HLA-G protein expression. For investigating the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele in RM subjects, PCR-RFLP method was used. Exon 3 of HLA-G gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, PpuM-1 enzyme was employed to digest the PCR products and fragments were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Results: Digestion using restriction enzyme showed the presence of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele in 10% of the test population. Western blotting results confirmed the decrease in expression of HLA-G in the placental tissue of subjects with RM compared to subjects who could give normal birth. Conclusion: The frequency of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele was high to some extent in subjects with RM. The mutation rate in subjects suggested that there is a significant association between RM and frequency of mutations in this allele. PMID:27525330

  6. Expression of BAFF in the trophoblast and decidua of normal early pregnant women and patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background BAFF,the B cell activation factor,is a member of the tumor necrosis factor(TNF)ligand family that binds to BCMA,TACI,and BAFF-R.Previous studies have shown that members of the TNF family are detected in human placental trophoblast cells,but the expression patterns of BAFF involved in human decidua and the differential expression of BAFF between normal pregnancy and miscarriage are still incompletely documented or unknown.This study was designed to investigate the expression of BAFF and BAFF-R in the trophoblast and decidua of normal early pregnant women and recurrent spontaneous abortion(RSA)patients.Methods Forty-five patients with RSA and 45 normal pregnant women were included in this study.By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),Western blotting and immunohistochemical experiments,we explored the expression of BAFF and BAFF-R in the maternal-fetal interface of normal early pregnant women and RSA patients.Results Analysis by RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that BAFF was detected in both trophoblast and decidua of all the samples,and the expression level was higher in the tissues of normal early pregnant women(P<0.05)than that of recurrent spontaneous abortion patients under the same gestational weeks.Messages for BAFF-R were absent.Immunohistochemical experiments showed that expression of BAFF was cell-specific which was localized to villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cells in trophoblast and to stromal cells in decidua.Whereas BAFF was prominent on the trophoblast and decidua of normal early pregnant women,it was decreased in the tissues of RSA patients.Conclusions BAFF might steer maternal leukocytes away from a harmful immune response and toward a favorable one and play a potentially vital role for successful pregnancy.

  7. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  8. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 20-30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium.

  9. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. Data sources: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases’ inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Study eligibility criteria: Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. Participants: patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. Interventions: a history of depressive disorder. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Results: Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42–1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I2 = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. Limitations: The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42016041272 PMID:27583879

  10. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  11. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-MingYuan; Zhong-ChengXin; HuiJiang; Yan-JieGuo; Wu-JiangLiu; LongTian; Ji-ChuanZhu

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE).Methods: The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P>0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6±1.2 and 10.2±9.5 minutes,respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7±4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9±4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P15 point) 19.8%, moderate (10~14 point) 62.8% and severe (<9point) 16.7%. Conclusion:The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  12. Hubungan Frekuensi Kunjungan Antenatal Care (ANC dengan Kejadian Prematur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Esti Utami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cause of infant mortality is mostly due to perinatal matters. Almost 2-27% of all perinatal death is caused by prematurity with low birth weight (BBLR. Reducing mortality rate on perinatal can be achieved by observing all pregnant women and fi nding as well as addressing infl uenced factors of neonatal safety. This research aims to identify correlation between frequencies of Antenatal Care (ANC with incidence of prematurity. This is an observational study with case-control design using retrospective approach. Total population was 1335 and of 156 was choosen as research respondents deviding into 78 as case respondents and 78 as control groups. The result of statistic analysis showed that p value=0,837 (p>0,05 means frequencies of ANC did not have correlation with prematurity. Conclusion, (1 during the period of 1 January 2011 and 29 February 2012, it found 207 (8,13% premature baby delivered, (2 at about 80,8% mother who delivered premature baby had normal ANC 4 times or more with the pattern 1-1-2 in every semester, (3 statistically ANC was not having correlation with premature baby.

  13. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  14. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Motion-defined form processing in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Frisk, V; Downie, A L S

    2006-01-01

    Children born extremely prematurely are at risk for a variety of problems with motion analysis, including problems with motion-defined (MD) form recognition [Downie, A. L. S., Jakobson, L. S., Frisk, V., & Ushycky, I. (2003). Periventricular brain injury, visual motion processing, and reading and spelling abilities in children who were extremely-low-birthweight. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 440-449]. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and mild periventricular brain injury (PVBI) on MD form processing in this population; (2) to assess relationships between MD form recognition in these children and their performance in several other areas of visual competence. To this end, a battery of visual and visuomotor tests was administered to 43, 5- and 6-year old, extremely premature children, all of whom had escaped severe PVBI. A group of full-term controls was also studied. Relative to controls, premature children displayed clear deficits in MD form recognition and these deficits were related to the presence of ROP and/or mild PVBI, rather than to a history of prematurity per se. Regression analyses revealed significant associations in premature children between MD form processing deficits and problems with visual search, stereopsis, visuoconstructive and graphomotor skills, motor development, and Performance IQ. The results suggest that assessment of sensitivity to MD forms may be useful in the early identification of preterm children at greatest risk for visual problems associated with dorsal stream dysfunction.

  16. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes...

  17. PERINATAL OUTCOMES OF PREMATURITY AND BIRTH WEIGHT ACCORDING TO MATERNAL CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Natalia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Mozas, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Objetive: identify whether there is an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, like prematurity or decreased weight in newborns, associated with caffeine consumption during the first half of pregnancy in pregnant women of our population. transversal study carried out in 1 175 patients from Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital of Granada (Spain). Information about caffeine consumption during first half of gestation and perinatal outcomes was obtained by personal interview, medical records and telephone call after delivery. The average caffeine intake was calculated from meals and drinks included in a validated questionnaire. there was no difference in caffeine consumption in pregnant women with birth weight ≥2 500 g and. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Significance of New Biochemical Markers for the Diagnosis of Premature Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rzepka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour is defined as a birth taking place between 22nd and 37th weeks of gestation. Despite numerous studies on the aetiology and pathogenesis of preterm labour, its very cause still remains unclear. The importance of the cytokines and acute inflammation in preterm labour aetiology is nowadays well-proven. However, chronic inflammation as an element of the pathogenesis of premature labour is still unclear. This paper presents a literature review on the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, negative soluble isoforms of RAGE, chemokine-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and one of the adipokines, resistin, in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. We conclude that the chronic inflammatory response can play a much more important role in the pathogenesis of preterm delivery than the acute one.

  19. Endocrine disruptors and spontaneous premature labor: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaby Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature labor is a poorly understood condition. Estrogen is thought to play a key role and therefore the labor process may be affected by endocrine disruptors. We sought to determine whether or not an environmental toxicant, DDE, or dietary derived endocrine disruptors, daidzein and genistein, are associated with spontaneous preterm labor. Methods Cases were defined as primiparous patients having a preterm delivery at or before 35 weeks following the spontaneous onset of labor. Controls were defined as primiparous women who delivered on the same day as the cases but at term gestation. Over approximately 1 year, 26 cases and 52 controls were recruited. Subjects agreed to have blood tests on day one postpartum for DDE and for the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Results The mean concentration of DDE was similar in the case and control groups: 4.29 vs 4.32 ng/g lipid p = .85. In the case group, 13/26 had detectable levels of daidzein (range 0.20 – 1.56 ng/ml compared to 25/52 controls (range 0.21 – 3.26 ng/ml. The mean concentration of daidzein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.30 vs .34 ng/ml p = 0.91. Of the case group,14/26 had detectable levels of genistein (range 0.20 – 2.19 ng/ml compared to 32/52 controls (range 0.21 – 2.55 ng/ml. The mean concentration of genistein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.39 vs 0.31 ng/ml, p = 0.61. Conclusion The serum levels of DDE in this population were found to be low. There appears to be no relationship between serum concentrations of DDE, daidzein, and genistein and spontaneous preterm labor in our population. The inability to identify an effect may be related to the comparatively low concentrations of DDE in our population and the rapid and variable reduction of phytoestrogens from women in labor.

  20. 冻融胚胎和冻融囊胚对移植周期和分娩结局影响的比较%Effects of frozen thawed embryos versus frozen thawed blastocysts on transfer period and delivery outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟联俊; 李楠; 韦继红; 唐永梅

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Since the first frozen embryo transplantation succeeded in 1983, embryo cryotechnique has been an important component in human assisted reproductive techniques. It is controversial which embryos and blastocysts after cryopreservation is selected. OBJECTIVE:To compare the birth outcomes and neonatal status of frozen thawed embryos and blastocysts. METHODS:In frozen thawed embryo group (n=1 273) and frozen thawed blastocyst group (n=471), we compared pregnancy rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, premature delivery rate, average premature gestational weeks, term yield, average ful-term gestational age, newborn sex, birth weight, birth defects and so on. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There were frozen thawed blastocyst thaw cycles in 478 cases, 471 cases of transplantation period (including 7 cases without blastocyst transfer were canceled), 236 cases of pregnancy, 201 cases of delivery. Delivery number was 251, including 140 boys and 111 girls. The third day embryo thawing cycle of freezing and thawing appeared in 1 280 cases, 1 273 cases of transplantation period (including 7 cases of no embryo transplantation were canceled), 415 cases of pregnancy, 343 cases of delivery. The delivery number was 431, including 225 boys and 206 girls. Rate of pregnancy was significantly higher in frozen thawed blastocysts compared with frozen thawed embryos. No significant differences were detected in rate of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy rate, premature delivery rate, average premature gestational weeks, term yield, average ful-termgestational age, newborn sex, and birth weight between frozen thawed embryos and blastocysts. There was no increase in birth defects between frozen thawed embryos and blastocysts. Results suggested that no significant difference was detected in birth outcomes and neonatal status of frozen thawed embryos and blastocysts. Nevertheless, pregnancy outcome is better in frozen thawed blastocysts than frozen thawed embryos.%背景:自从1983