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Sample records for premature chia secretion

  1. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  2. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seeds are tiny, brown, black or white seeds. They are almost as small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint ... minerals. Chia seeds are also rich in essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6. Essential fatty ...

  3. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage.

  4. Don't Just Pet Your Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)

  5. Ch-Ch-Ch-Chia Seeds for Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Chia seeds will sprout on almost any moist surface, and they respond quickly to experimental variables. Furthermore, the newly recognized nutritional value and rich cultural history of chia seeds offer the possibility of highly motivating and educational interdisciplinary extensions, especially appropriate to students in the middle grades.…

  6. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Luciana Tavares; da Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira; Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; de Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n = 10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n = 9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n = 7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5 ± 1.9 to 102.7 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and CHIA-MD (111.3 ± 2.2 to 100.1 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) groups. The CHIA-NM group showed no reduction in the MBP but did show a decreased systolic BP (146.8 ± 3.8 to 137.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). The clinical BP reduction was demonstrated by a 24 h ambulatory systolic reduction in all of the supplemented groups. However, the mean ambulatory BP was reduced only in the CHIA (98.1 ± 2.4 to 92.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) group, and there was no change in the diastolic component in either of the CHIA groups. The lipid peroxidation was reduced in the CHIA (p = 0.04) and CHIA-NM (p = 0.02) groups compared with the PLA-MD group. A reduction in the plasma nitrite levels was observed only in the CHIA group (p = 0.02). Chia flour has the ability to reduce ambulatory and clinical BP in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals.

  7. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  8. Evaluation of performance of dough and bread incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Puig, Esther; Haros, Monika

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the opinion given by the European Food Safety Authority about the safety of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) and whole ground chia seed as food ingredients, they may be placed on the market in the European Community as novel food ingredients to be used in bread products. The objective of the present investigation was to develop new cereal-based products with increased nutritional quality by using chia and ground chia seeds (whole chia flour, semi-defatted chia flour and low-fat c...

  9. Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Matyelka, Jessika Camila da Silva; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2g.100g(-1), on average), proteins (18.9g.100g(-1), on average), dietary fiber (35.3g.100g(-1), on average), vitamin E (8,203.6μg.100g(-1), on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08±1.08eq.catequina/gsample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  11. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  12. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  13. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  14. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  15. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of chia are currently being researched by many scientific centres. The aim of this article is to present the nutritional and therapeutic values of chia.

  16. Strategies for incorporation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in frankfurters as a health-promoting ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ruiz-Capillas, C

    2016-04-01

    Different strategies were examined for incorporation of chia flour (10%) and olive oil to improve the fat content in frankfurters. Nutritional composition, technological properties, sensory and microbiological analyses were studied as affected by the strategy used and by chilling storage. Chia increased total dietary fibre (98% insoluble dietary fibre) and minerals (K, Mg, Ca, Mn) irrespective of the incorporation strategy. Fat and energy content reduction (>26%) were achieved in all frankfurters reformulated with chia and olive oil. Chia addition increased linolenic acid and reduced processing and purge in all samples. Lightness and redness of frankfurters were affected by the presence of chia, but there was no clear evidence of influence by the mode of addition. Frankfurter texture was influenced by the strategy used to incorporate chia and olive oil and by chilling storage. Samples were judged acceptable and contained low microorganism levels. Frankfurters containing chia were suitable for labelling with certain nutrition and health claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová; Blažena Lavová; Peter Socha; Dana Urminská

    2016-01-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture...

  18. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos; Norma Ciau-Solís; Gabriel Rosado-Rubio; Luis Chel-Guerrero; David Betancur-Ancona

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submit...

  19. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  20. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Norlaily Mohd Ali; Swee Keong Yeap; Wan Yong Ho; Boon Kee Beh; Sheau Wei Tan; Soon Guan Tan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining heal...

  1. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  3. Role of Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Moumita; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2016-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 plays a key role in acquisition of nutrients by chitin hydrolysis in the natural environment as well as in pathogenesis in the intestinal milieu. In this study we demonstrate the importance of ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer in the natural environment. We found that the expression of ChiA2 and TfoX, the central regulator of V. cholerae horizontal gene transfer, varied with changes in environmental conditions. The activity of ChiA2 was also dependent on these conditions. In 3 different environmental conditions tested here, we observed that the supporting environmental condition for maximum expression and activity of ChiA2 was 20 °C, pH 5.5, and 100 mmol/L salinity in the presence of chitin. The same condition also induced TfoX expression and was favorable for horizontal gene transfer in V. cholerae. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ChiA2 released a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin hydrolysis under the favorable condition. We hypothesized that under the favorable environmental condition, ChiA2 was upregulated and maximally active to produce a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin. The same environmental condition also induced tfoX expression, followed by its translational activation by the (GlcNAc)2 produced, leading to efficient horizontal gene transfer.

  4. Rheological and microstructural properties of the chia seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Kasapis, Stefan; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-11-01

    Chia seed polysaccharide (CSP) was extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica) seeds, and its rheological and microstructural properties in aqueous solutions were studied. CSP solution exhibited Newtonian and shear thinning flow patterns depending on shear rate when the concentration was ≤0.06% (w/v). CSP solutions at concentrations >0.06% (w/v) exhibited strong shear thinning behaviour within the shear rate tested (0.001-300s(-1)). The transition from dilute to semi-dilute regime occurred at a critical concentration (C*) of 0.03gdL(-1). The intrinsic viscosity was high (∼16dLg(-1)) and concentration dependence of zero shear viscosity in the semi-dilute regime followed η0∝C(2.7) relationship. The storage modulus (G') was higher than the loss modulus (G″) at all experimental frequencies and their frequency dependence was negligible at all tested concentrations. Apparent shear viscosity was smaller than dynamic complex viscosity at equivalent values of deformation and G' varied with the square of concentration indicating a gel-like behaviour in CSP solutions within 0.02-3.0% (w/v) concentrations. Controlled acid hydrolysis of purified CSP yielded various low molecular fractions with fairly uniform polydispersity giving a Mark-Houwink-Sakurada relationship of intrinsic viscosity equaling to 1.52×10(-4) (molecular weight)(0.803) (dLg(-1)).

  5. Transcriptional frameshifting rescues Citrobacter rodentium type VI secretion by the production of two length variants from the prematurely interrupted tssM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Erwan; Wills, Norma M; Atkins, John F; Cascales, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates toxin delivery into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is composed of a cytoplasmic structure resembling the tail of contractile bacteriophages anchored to the cell envelope through a membrane complex composed of the TssL and TssM inner membrane proteins and of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The C-terminal domain of TssM is required for its interaction with TssJ, and for the function of the T6SS. In Citrobacter rodentium, the tssM1 gene does not encode the C-terminal domain. However, the stop codon is preceded by a run of 11 consecutive adenosines. In this study, we demonstrate that this poly-A tract is a transcriptional slippery site that induces the incorporation of additional adenosines, leading to frameshifting, and hence the production of two TssM1 variants, including a full-length canonical protein. We show that both forms of TssM1, and the ratio between these two forms, are required for the function of the T6SS in C. rodentium. Finally, we demonstrate that the tssM gene associated with the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis T6SS-3 gene cluster is also subjected to transcriptional frameshifting.

  6. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP. The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.

  8. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    OpenAIRE

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi; Beatriz Costa Silva; Hevelyse Munise Celestino Santos; Paula Fernandes Montanher; Joana Schuelter Boeing; Oscar Oliveira Santos Júnior; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP). The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxse...

  10. Influence of Pollen, Chia Seeds and Cranberries Addition on the Physical and Probiotics Characteristics of Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pop; Romina Vlaic; Anca Fărcaş; Liana Salanţă; Delia Ghicăşan; Cristina Semeniuc; ROTAR, Ancuţa M.

    2015-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of bee pollen, chia seeds and cranberries on the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 1,4 % chia seeds and 7,6% cranberries significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu...

  11. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Marcos G.; Perotto, Maria C.; Martino, Julia A.; Flores, Ceferino R.; Vilma C. Conci; Patricia Rodriguez Pardina

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICT...

  12. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  13. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  14. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  15. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  16. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivçak, B; Akay, S

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus, leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in P. lentiscus var. chia.

  18. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  20. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein isolate produced from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-12-01

    Protein was isolated from Australian chia seeds and converted to powders using spray, freeze and vacuum drying methods, to investigate the effect of drying methods on physicochemical and functional attributes of chia-seed protein isolate (CPI). It was found that there was no significant difference in the proximate composition; however vacuum dried CPI (VDCPI) had the highest bulk density and oil absorption capacity, whereas spray dried powder (SDCPI) demonstrated the highest solubility, water absorption capacity and lowest surface hydrophobicity. Solubility of all powders was higher at elevated temperature and alkaline pH. Foaming capacity and foam stability of CPI were found to increase with increasing pH and protein concentration. SDCPI was the least denatured and VDCPI the most denatured, demonstrating the poorest solubility and foaming properties of the latter. These findings are expected to be useful in selection of a drying process to yield chia seed protein powders with more desirable functionality.

  2. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  3. Detection and identification of the first viruses in chia (Salvia hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Marcos G; Perotto, Maria C; Martino, Julia A; Flores, Ceferino R; Conci, Vilma C; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez

    2014-09-19

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  4. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  5. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and germination speed index. According to the results, germination and vigor of the chia seeds decrease as salt concentration increases. Therefore, it was concluded that chia seeds are moderately tolerant to salinity levels used in this work and can be intolerant at lower osmotic potentials and in the early stages of seedling development.

  6. Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, M; Khalique, A; Imran, M; Mehmood, S; Javid, A; Hussain, J

    2016-04-01

    The ancient grain is becoming enormously popular in modern food regimen in many countries; the higher proportion of α-linolenic acid makes chia the superb source of omega-3 fatty (about 65 % of the oil content). Omega-3 fatty acid has been associated with a large number of physiological functions in human body. Chia seed is a potential source of antioxidants with the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol which are believed to have cardiac, hepatic protective effects, anti-ageing and anti-carcinogenic characteristics. It is also a great source of dietary fibre which is beneficial for the digestive system and controlling diabetes mellitus with higher concentration of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, gluten free protein, vitamin, minerals and phenolic compounds. Therapeutic effects of chia in the control of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-blood clotting, laxative, antidepressant, antianxiety, analgesic, vision and immune improver is scientifically established.

  7. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illian, Travis G; Casey, Jason C; Bishop, Phillip A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Omega 3 Chia seed loading is a viable option for enhancing sports performance in events lasting >90 minutes and allow athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. It has been well documented that a high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition is known to increase muscle glycogen stores resulting in performance improvements in events lasting >90 minutes. This study compared performance testing results between 2 different CHO-loading treatments. The traditional CHO-loading treatment served as the control (100% cals from Gatorade). The Omega 3 Chia drink (50% of calories from Greens Plus Omega 3 Chia seeds, 50% Gatorade) served as the Omega 3 Chia loading drink. Both CHO-loading treatments were based on the subject's body weight and were thus isocaloric. Six highly trained male subjects V(O2)max 47.8-84.2 ml · kg(-1); mean (SD) of V(O2)max 70.3 ml · kg(-1) (13.3) performed a 1-hour run at ∼65% of their V(O2)max on a treadmill, followed by a 10k time trial on a track. There were 2 trials in a crossover counterbalanced repeated-measures design with a 2-week washout between testing sessions to allow the participants to recover from the intense exercise and any effects of the treatment. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.83) between Omega 3 Chia loading (mean 10k time = 37 minutes 49 seconds) and CHO loading (mean = 37 minutes 43 seconds). Under our conditions, Omega 3 Chia loading appears a viable option for enhancing performance for endurance events lasting >90 minutes and allows athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids but offered no performance advantages.

  8. Influence of Pollen, Chia Seeds and Cranberries Addition on the Physical and Probiotics Characteristics of Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of bee pollen, chia seeds and cranberries on the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 1,4 % chia seeds and 7,6% cranberries significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-day shelf life.

  9. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity (ROP) Facts About Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) This information was developed by the National Eye ... blind from ROP. Are there different stages of ROP? Yes. ROP is classified in five stages, ranging ...

  10. Lactic Acid Fermentation Improved Textural Behaviour, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Dough

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    Ana Yanina Bustos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from chia (Salvia hispanica L. dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidifi cation and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identifi ed as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starte r to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 μg per kg of dough respectively, and antioxidant activities, which increased by approx. 33–40 % compared to unfermented chia fl our dough. In addition, total phenolic content increased 25 % and its composition was strongly modifi ed aft er 24 h of fermentation by L. plantarum C8. Chlorogenic acid was only found in the fermented dough (2.5 mg/g, while ferulic acid was detected from the beginning of fermentation, being 32 % higher in chia sourdough (5.6 mg/g. The use of fermented chia sourdough improved the overall characteristics of white bread, including physical (e.g. reduced hardness and chewiness of the crumb and antioxidant properties (25 % on average, compared to the white bread. These results indicate that the use of chia sourdough could be a promising alternative to improve the technological and antioxidant properties of wheat bread. In addition, this work has shown, for the fi rst time, that lactic acid bacterium is able to ferment chia dough, improving its overall characteristics.

  11. Sensory response and physical characteristics of gluten-free and gum-free bread with chia flour

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    Katira da Mota HUERTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical quality and sensory acceptance of gluten-free breads with different percentages of chia flour (Salvia Hispanica L .. The chia flour was used to substitute rice flour and soy flour in order to replace the gum required in this type of bread. Four formulations were developed; a standard made with gum, and three formulations with 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of chia flour. Analyses of specific volume, cooking losses and the rise in dough of the breads were performed. Sensory analysis included tests for affective acceptability and purchase intent. The results showed that the bread with 2.5% chia flour had specific volume and cooking losses similar to the standard. In terms of the rise in dough, the standard showed the highest values, followed by the bread made with 5.0% chia flour. The substitution of soy and rice flour with 2.5% of chia flour produced bread with sensory characteristics similar to the standard in all of the analyzed attributes; it also received higher purchase intent. Using chia flour at a concentration of 2.5%, compared to rice flour and soy flour, proved that it was possible to replace gum in the bread formulation.

  12. Development and characterization of functional O/W emulsions with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Luciana Magdalena; Ixtaina, Vanesa Yanet; Fernández, Mariela; Torres Sánchez, Rosa Maria; Nolasco, Susana María; Tomás, Mabel Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The present work investigated the physicochemical properties of O/W emulsions containing functional ingredients (oil with high ω-3 fatty acid content, protein and/or soluble fiber) from chia seeds. The effect of different protein-carbohydrate combinations (sodium caseinate and lactose, sodium caseinate and maltodextrin, chia protein-rich fraction and maltodextrin) and the presence of chia mucilage (0 and 0.2 % wt/wt) in the aqueous phase of chia O/W emulsions was studied as a function of droplet size distribution, Sauter mean diameter, ζ-potential, rheological properties and backscattering profiles. The use of sodium caseinate in combination with lactose or maltodextrin produced chia O/W emulsions with small droplet size (0.22-0.27 µm), high degree of uniformity in droplet size distribution, negatively charged droplets (at pH 6.5), pseudoplastic behavior and high physical stability. Emulsions with chia protein-rich fraction presented wider droplet size distribution and higher D[3,2] values than the previous ones, recording a Newtonian behavior. The addition of chia mucilage affected the physicochemical properties studied, mainly the rheological characteristics of emulsions.

  13. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  14. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  15. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  16. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Nitrayová; Matej Brestenský; Jaroslav Heger; Peter Patráš; Ján Rafay; Alexander Sirotkin

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% h...

  17. Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia inhibits growth and survival of human K562 leukemia cells and attenuates angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutrari, Heleni; Magkouta, Sophia; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Koika, Vasiliki; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Roussos, Charis

    2006-01-01

    Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, a natural plant extract traditionally used as a food additive, has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial activity attributed to the combination of its bioactive components. One of them, perillyl alcohol (POH), displays tumor chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, and antiangiogenic properties. We investigated whether mastic oil would also suppress tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. We observed that mastic oil concentration and time dependently exerted an antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on K562 human leukemia cells and inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from K562 and B16 mouse melanoma cells. Moreover, mastic oil caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) proliferation without affecting cell survival and a significant decrease of microvessel formation both in vitro and in vivo. Investigation of underlying mechanism(s) demonstrated that mastic oil reduced 1) in K562 cells the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) known to control leukemia cell proliferation, survival, and VEGF secretion and 2) in EC the activation of RhoA, an essential regulator of neovessel organization. Overall, our results underscore that mastic oil, through its multiple effects on malignant cells and ECs, may be a useful natural dietary supplement for cancer prevention.

  18. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak.

  20. Pasting and rheological properties of oat products dry-blended with ground chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat products containing ß-glucan are documented for lowering blood cholesterol that could be beneficial for preventing coronary heart disease. Oat products (oat flour, oat bran concentrate, and Nutrim) were dry-blended with ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) that contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatt...

  1. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spec

  2. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control.

  3. CHIAS: a standardized measure of parental HPV immunization attitudes and beliefs and its associations with vaccine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Charitha; Carlos, Ruth C; Butchart, Amy T; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; Clark, Sarah J; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2012-06-01

    Despite the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated morbidity, less than half of US adolescent females had begun the 3-dose HPV vaccination series as of 2010. Given that parental attitudes significantly influence vaccine uptake, having a standardized measure of parental beliefs that predict HPV vaccine uptake would contribute substantially to the development of effective immunization strategies. We explored whether a modified version of the previously published Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) could be applied nationally to identify attitudinal constructs that were associated with HPV vaccine uptake and maternal HPV vaccination intention. We administered the modified CHIAS as part of a cross-sectional, web-based survey to a nationally representative sample of mothers of adolescent females. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify underlying attitudinal constructs, which were compared with those identified in the original CHIAS. Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined associations between these attitudinal constructs and HPV vaccine uptake as well as vaccination intention. Overall survey response rate was 57%. The modified CHIAS yielded a factor structure that was similar to the original CHIAS, identifying 3 attitudinal constructs: harms/ineffectiveness, barriers, and social norms. In multivariate models, harms/ineffectiveness and social norms were independently associated with HPV vaccine uptake. The CHIAS seems to be a valid instrument for identifying important factors associated with HPV-vaccine uptake and parental vaccination intention nationally. Longitudinal studies are merited to explore whether these attitudinal constructs also reliably predict HPV-vaccine uptake.

  4. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  5. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  6. Chia (Salvia hispanica): A Review of Native Mexican Seed and its Nutritional and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-López, Ma Ángeles; Tecante, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a review is made on various aspects of chia seed in order to provide an overall, yet comprehensive view, about this important commodity with the aim of updating the current state of knowledge on its composition, possible nutraceutical properties, and potential benefits for human health. Based on this approach, the discussion includes some comments on the main historical aspects, morphology of the seed, its importance in the diet of humans and stresses the main results issued from investigations on its three main components; lipid, protein, and fiber. The chapter closes with a discussion on the potential benefits for human health, highlighting the contradictions that still exist in this area and the need for continued research in this direction and considerations on the role of chia seed as a functional food.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiatis, P; Melliou, E; Skaltsounis, A L; Chinou, I B; Mitaku, S

    1999-12-01

    The chemical composition of the three essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the mastic gum, leaves and twigs of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, was studied by GC/MS. Sixty nine constituents were identified from the oils. alpha-Pinene, myrcene, trans-caryophyllene and germacrene D were found to be the major components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the three essential oils and of the resin (total, acid and neutral fraction) against six bacteria and three fungi is reported.

  8. No positive influence of ingesting chia seed oil on human running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Meaney, Mary Pat; Dew, Dustin A

    2015-05-15

    Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg-1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL(-1), respectively, p Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures.

  9. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Mayela Bautista; Alfaro, Alejandra Denisse Castro; Aguilar, Ernesto Camarena; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Guzmán, Guadalupe Alanís; Sierra, Zeferino Gamiño; Zanella, Victor Da Mota

    2007-03-01

    Six bread formulations were developed, using different proportions of whole-wheat flour, chia seeds and flaxseed flour. All of our formulations were added with folic acid. Sensorial and texture evaluations were performed, showing good acceptance of the products. Proximal chemical analysis was carried out; in addition, the following parameters were determined: calcium, phosphorus, total dietary fiber, folic acid, water hydration capacity, Glucose Dialysis Retardation Index (GDRI) and fatty acids. The results obtained showed higher protein levels in the developed breads (23.23-30.24 (g/100g dry matter) as compared to a control (21.00% of proteins in bread elaborated without chia or flaxseed). Furthermore, the breads contained 10.07-12.15 of lipids (g/100g dry matter) (linoleic acid: 2.43-4.05%; linolenic acid: 1.12-4.46 %; oleic acid: 2.93-6.13 %), GDRI values were between 89.1 and 98.1 % and folic acid was in the range 699.44 - 991.3 (microg/100g dry matter). The same parameters were determined in the chia seed and in the flaxseed flour. It was concluded that; due to their high levels of protein, insaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), dietary fiber and folic acid, these breads have a high nutritional value, so they could have special benefits for woman.

  10. The analysis of premature rupture of membranes in late pregnancy cervical secretions cultivation and neonatal infections%妊娠晚期胎膜早破孕妇宫颈分泌物培养与新生儿感染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 陈升平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the cultivation of cervical secretion in the late pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes and neonatal infection. Method From January 2013 to December 2015, 1140 cases of gravida with premature rupture of membranes in our hospital were adopted in premature rupture of membranes group, and 1054 cases of pregnant women were adopted in control group. Observed and analyzed the cultivation of cervical secretions, premature delivery, puerperal infection, neonatal jaundice, neonatal infection, low birth weight infant and neonatal death. Result Cultivation of cervical secretion of 769 gravida showing a bacterial phenomenon in premature rupture of membranes group, 660 cases in control group, and the Candida albicans was the most common in the two groups. Distribution of Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter in premature rupture of membranes group (16.78%, 1.43%) were higher than control group (13.79%, 0.30%) (P < 0.05). The distribution of Escherichia coli in premature rupture of membranes group (35.92%) was significantly higher than control group (23.75%) (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of puerperal infection, neonatal jaundice, neonatal infection, low birth weight infant and neonatal death in premature rupture of membranes group were higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Candidiasis is the most vaginal flora of late trimester of pregnancy gravida, the vaginal flora imbalance leads the increase of incidence rate of premature rupture of membranes, puerperal infection and neonatal infection.%目的探讨妊娠晚期胎膜早破孕妇宫颈分泌物培养情况与新生儿感染的关系。方法选取2013年1月至2015年12月就诊于本院的1140例妊娠晚期胎膜早破的孕妇纳入胎膜早破组,选取本院同期1054例妊娠晚期无胎膜早破的孕妇纳入对照组,观察并分析两组孕妇宫颈分泌物的培养情况、早产、产褥感染、新生儿黄疸、新生儿感染、低体重儿和

  11. Fatty acid profile of goat milk in diets supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, B; Vega, S; Gutiérrez, R; Escobar, A; Romero, J; Domínguez, E; González-Ronquillo, M

    2017-08-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is the greatest known plant source of n-3 α-linolenic acid. The present study evaluated the effects of 3 inclusion levels of chia seed [zero (control); low, 2.7% (CLow); and high, 5.5% (CHigh)] in diets of dairy goats on milk yield and fatty acid profile. Nine Saanen dairy goats in the last third of lactation period, live weight 38 ± 8.7 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were fed iso-proteic and iso-energetic (160 g of crude protein/d and 11 MJ of metabolizable energy/d) diets. Gas chromatography was used to analyze fatty acid profile and total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Silver ion HPLC was used to analyze the isomeric profile of CLA. The results were subjected to variance analysis using a Latin square design repeated 3 × 3. The CHigh treatment was higher for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake compared with CLow and control diets. Digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of chia seeds. The CHigh diet improved N intake with respect to the control and CLow diet. Milk yield and chemical composition were not affected by the treatment. The milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C:20 was higher for CHigh than the other treatments. The in vitro gas production (mL of gas/g of dry matter) was lower in CHigh than the control diet. In conclusion, the addition of chia seeds at the CHigh level in dairy goat diets negatively affected in vitro rumen fermentation, but increased the milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1n-9 cis, and C:20, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The total CLA content increased from 0.33 to 0.73% with the supplementation of chia to the diet, as well as the isomers cis-9,trans-11, trans-7,cis-9, trans-11,cis-13, and trans-12,trans-14. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes.

  13. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  14. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  15. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  17. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa. ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64% and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%. This fraction’s amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5 kDa exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427–455 mL elution volume. The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  18. No Positive Influence of Ingesting Chia Seed Oil on Human Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Runners (n = 24 reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg−1 chia seed oil (random order, provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max. Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA during the chia seed oil (337% versus water trial (35% (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL−1, respectively, p < 0.001, run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively. No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER (0.92 ± 0.01, oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-10 (IL-10, and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures.

  19. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  20. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Campos, Maira Rubi; Peralta González, Fanny; Chel Guerrero, Luis; Betancur Ancona, David

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction's amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5-2.5 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427-455 mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  1. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae) to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Stefanello; Luiz Augusto Salles das Neves; Marisa Aparecida Binotto Abbad; Bruna Boucinha Viana

    2015-01-01

    The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination perc...

  2. Paleoclimate from Tree Rings of Picea morrisonicola in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Wright, W. E.; Wei, K.; Cook, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost no dendrochronology has been reported internationally from Taiwan, despite the existence of many dendrochronologically appropriate tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the regional paleoclimate using a multi-century tree ring-width chronology developed from Picea morrisonicola ( the endemic Taiwan Spruce), a subtropical species growing in the Ta-Ta-Chia subalpine mountain areas of central Taiwan. Picea morrisonicola in Taiwan is the only member of the Picea genus whose distribution crosses the Tropic of Cancer. Statistical analysis of the climate signal demonstrates that both the temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth.

  3. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Rubi Segura Campos; Fanny Peralta González; Luis Chel Guerrero; David Betancur Ancona

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fra...

  4. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Adriana G; D'Alessandro, Maria E; Hein, Gustavo J; Oliva, Maria E; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the benefits of the dietary intake of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid and fibre upon dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR), induced by intake of a sucrose-rich (62.5 %) diet (SRD). To achieve these goals two sets of experiments were designed: (i) to study the prevention of onset of dyslipidaemia and IR in Wistar rats fed during 3 weeks with a SRD in which chia seed was the dietary source of fat; (ii) to analyse the effectiveness of chia seed in improving or reversing the metabolic abnormalities described above. Rats were fed a SRD during 3 months; by the end of this period, stable dyslipidaemia and IR were present in the animals. From months 3-5, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed a SRD in which the source of fat was substituted by chia seed (SRD+chia). The control group received a diet in which sucrose was replaced by maize starch. The results showed that: (i) dietary chia seed prevented the onset of dyslipidaemia and IR in the rats fed the SRD for 3 weeks--glycaemia did not change; (ii) dyslipidaemia and IR in the long-term SRD-fed rats were normalised without changes in insulinaemia when chia seed provided the dietary fat during the last 2 months of the feeding period. Dietary chia seed reduced the visceral adiposity present in the SRD rats. The present study provides new data regarding the beneficial effect of chia seed upon lipid and glucose homeostasis in an experimental model of dislipidaemia and IR.

  5. Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixolab, a rheological device developed recently, combines approved farinograph and amylograph test procedures. Analysing wheat flour composites with hemp, teff, or chia in terms of all three mentioned rheological methods, correspondence of farinograph, and amylograph versus mixolab features was examined by principal component analysis. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, explained 75% of data scatter and allowed a satisfying confirmation of presumed relationships between farinograph or amylograph and mixolab parameters. Dough development time and stability were associated with gluten strength (C1 torque point and also dough softening (mixing tolerance index had a link to protein weakening (C1-C2 difference. In the second mentioned case, amylograph viscosity maximum and amylase activity (C3-C4 closeness was verified. Starch and starch gel properties during mixing (C3, C3-C2, and C4 affect dough viscosity (C1 and rheological behaviour (dough development time and stability. Another important finding is unequivocal distinguishing of the composite subsets (of hemp, teff, and chia ones by the used rheological methods and statistical treatment of multivariable data.

  6. RELATIVE EXPRESSION OF GENES CHIA1, SGF14C AND CHS8* IN SOYBEAN SEED COATS

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    CARLOS ANDRÉ BAHRY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative expression of three candidate genes, CHIA1, SGF14c and CHS8 * possibly involved in seed quality, in contrasting seed coats from four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes with yellow seed coats, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two genotypes with black seed coats, TP and IAC were studied to determine the relative gene expression through the qPCR technique, in sev- en stages of seed coat development for all four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 days after anthesis. The CHIA1 and SGF14c genes showed higher expression in cultivar CD 202; the former in the final stages of seed coat development, at 55 days after anthesis, the latter gene at earlier stages, specifically at 25 days after anthesis. The CHS8* gene showed higher expression in CD 202 seed coats at 50 days after anthesis. All three genes expressed at higher levels on genotypes of yellow seed coats, and are considered relevant to new areas of research based on the expression of genes related to seed quality.

  7. Performance of growing rabbits fed increasing levels of discarded Salvia hispanica L. (chia) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abello, Diana; Ramírez-Avilés, Luis; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including five levels of discarded chia seed (DCS) on growth, energy, and economic efficiency in rabbits. Fifty crossbred (New Zealand × Californian) weaning rabbits, weighing 798 ± 170 g, were randomly assigned to the following treatments: 0 % (control), 10 % (Ch10), 20 % (Ch20), 30 % (Ch30), and 40 % (Ch40) of DCS. Ten unsexed rabbits were allocated to each treatment and housed individually in cages; the experimental period was 6 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in final body weight (2050 g), body weight gain (30 g/rabbit/day), and carcass weight (1010 g); however, feed intake (91 g/rabbit/day in Ch20 vs. 80 g/rabbit/day in Ch40), feed conversion ratio (2.77 in control and Ch40 vs. 2.95 in Ch10, Ch20, and Ch30), energy conversion ratio (32 MJ/kg in Ch20 vs. 29 MJ/kg on average in control, Ch10, Ch20, Ch30, and Ch40), and economic efficiency (358 % in control vs. 433 % in Ch40) showed differences (P < 0.05) between treatments. Discarded chia seed can be included up to 40 % in growing rabbit diets without any adverse effects on growth and carcass weight, and increased economic efficiency.

  8. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-09

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  9. Effect of the addition of chia's by-product on the composition of fatty acids in hamburgers through chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aloisio H P; Gohara, Aline K; Rotta, Eliza M; Chaves, Marcia A; Silva, Claudia M; Dias, Lucia F; Gomes, Sandra T M; Souza, Nilson E; Matsushita, Makoto

    2015-03-30

    Hamburger is a meat-based food that is easy to prepare and is widely consumed. It can be enriched using different ingredients, such as chia's by-product, which is rich in omega-3. Chemometrics is a very interesting tool to assess the influence of ingredients in the composition of foods. A complete factorial design 2(2) (two factors in two levels) with duplicate was performed to investigate the influence of the factors (1) concentration of textured soy proteins (TSP) and (2) concentration of chia flour partially defatted (CFPD) as a partial replacement for the bovine meat and porcine fat mix in hamburgers. The results of proximal composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acids sums, ratios, and nutritional indexes were used to propose statistical models. The factors TSP and CFPD were significant, and the increased values contributed to improve the composition in fatty acids, crude protein, and ash. Principal components analysis distinguished the samples with a higher content of chia. In desirability analysis, the highest level of TSP and CFPD was described as the optimal region, and it was not necessary to make another experimental point. The addition of chia's by-product is an alternative to increase the α-linolenic contents and to obtain nutritionally balanced food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Chia (Salvia hispanica can be used to manufacture sugar-snap cookies with an improved nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Barrientos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technologists and nutritionists are always looking for alternative ingredients to use in their formulations to improve functional and nutritional properties. Therefore, cookies using Chia (Salvia hispanica, a grain with high quality nutrients, were prepared. The nutritional value was determined by measuring the chemical composition, mineral content, and the fatty acid composition (saturated, monunsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and linolenic acids. Data obtained from this chemical analysis was used to estimate the nutrients intake and compare them to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs. Cookies supplemented with chia flour contained signicantly more protein, fat, crude fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3 acid. It was estimated that the supplemented cookies would contribute to the corresponding DRIs in the range of 8.1-13.8% (children and 6.5-11.0% (males/females for calcium; and 14.0-18.0% (children and 6.4-11.3 (males/females for zinc. The addition of chia flour to the cookies resulted in a product sensorially acceptable with a better fatty acid profile (lower n-6/n-3. Supplemented cookies would contribute to alpha-linolenic DRI in the range of 65.9-134.5% (children, 49.4-100.9% (males, and 53.9-110.0% (females. Dietary intake of protein, fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3 acid could be increased by the consumption of sugar-snap cookies supplemented with chia flour.

  11. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Oliviert; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2014-06-13

    Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) were analyzed for total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and quantification of phenolic acids and isoflavones by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), in order to obtain a phenolic phytochemical profile. The total phenolic concentration was 1.8-fold higher than previous reports and the antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay showed 68.83% inhibition, which was higher than the values reported previously for chia and different plant foods. Additionally, a simple, reproducible and rapid UHPLC method was proposed for the analysis of phenolic acids and isoflavones in chia. The method demonstrated to perform well with regard to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. The detection limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.4ng/mL and the recovery percentage from 23.62 to 162.48%. With this method the major compounds identified and quantified were: rosmarinic acid 0.92, protocatechuic ethyl ester 0.74, caffeic acid 0.02, gallic acid 0.01, and daidzin 0.006mg/g seed. In brief, this study demonstrates that chia could be considered a seed with high antioxidant capacity and novel isoflavone source that can be incorporated in human diet.

  12. EFFECT OF CHIA SEED (SALVIA HISPANICA L.) CONSUMPTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  14. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  15. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  16. Dietary chia seed induced changes in hepatic transcription factors and their target lipogenic and oxidative enzyme activities in dyslipidaemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea S; Oliva, Maria E; Ferreira, Maria R; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyses the effect of dietary chia seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the mechanisms underlying dyslipidaemia and liver steatosis developed in rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) for either 3 weeks or 5 months. The key hepatic enzyme activities such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid oxidase (FAO) involved in lipid metabolism and the protein mass levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and PPARα were studied. (1) For 3 weeks, Wistar rats were fed either a SRD with 11 % of maize oil (MO) as dietary fat or a SRD in which chia seed replaced MO (SRD+Chia). (2) A second group of rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Afterwards, half the rats continued with the SRD while for the other half, MO was replaced by chia for 2 months (SRD+Chia). In a control group, maize starch replaced sucrose. Liver TAG and the aforementioned parameters were analysed in all groups. The replacement of MO by chia in the SRD prevented (3 weeks) or improved/normalised (5 months) increases in dyslipidaemia, liver TAG, FAS, ACC and G-6-PDH activities, and increased FAO and CPT-1 activities. Protein levels of PPARα increased, and the increased mature form of SREBP-1 protein levels in the SRD was normalised by chia in both protocols (1 and 2). The present study provides new data regarding some key mechanisms related to the fate of hepatic fatty acid metabolism that seem to be involved in the effect of dietary chia seed in preventing and normalising/improving dyslipidaemia and liver steatosis in an insulin-resistant rat model.

  17. FERRAMENTAS QUIMIOMÉTRICAS APLICADAS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO PROXIMAL E SENSORIAL DE BOLOS DE CHOCOLATE CONTENDO CHIA E AZUKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Kirie Gohara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Um planejamento fatorial 22 completo (dois fatores em dois níveis com duplicata foi realizado, para investigar a influência dos fatores: % de chia e azuki adicionados no bolo de chocolate isento de glúten, para a determinação da composição proximal, energia e atributos sensoriais. No estudo foi utilizada farinha desengordurada de chia e de azuki. Os fatores % de chia e azuki foram significativos, e o aumento dos valores nestes, contribuiu positivamente nas respostas. A chia foi o fator que mais contribuiu para a maioria das respostas, exceto para o nifext. O efeito principal azuki não foi significativo para as respostas umidade e energia. A análise de componentes principais distinguiram as amostras com maior teor de chia devido principalmente a proteína bruta e aos lipídios totais, sendo os pontos ótimos nas superfícies de resposta destes modelos. Para os atributos sensoriais os modelos foram não significativos e a análise multivariada demonstrou que os menores percentuais de chia e azuki apresentam características semelhantes ao ensaio controle.

  18. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  19. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  20. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  1. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  2. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-05

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (pglycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating.

  3. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  4. Chocolate Milk with Chia Oil: Ideal Sweetness, Sweeteners Equivalence, and Dynamic Sensory Evaluation Using a Time-Intensity Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Paixão, J A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2015-12-01

    The ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of the stevia, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame in chocolate milk with chia oil as well as the dynamic behavior of certain sensory attributes were investigated using a time-intensity methodology. The use of just-about-right (JAR) identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 9% (w/w). In addition, the magnitude estimation method showed that stevia had the lowest sweetness power whereas neotame presented the highest. Furthermore, the time-intensity analysis indicated that there was no significant change between the maximum intensities of the sweetness for any evaluated sweeteners. In general, the desired sensory profile and some economic considerations are decisive on the choice of which sweetener is better to be used in chocolate milk formulation added with chia oil.

  5. Ionic liquids as a key medium for efficient extraction of copper complexes from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Popowski, Dominik; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-05-15

    Due to insufficient information, the aim of study was to concern on the optimization of extraction procedure of selected metal complexes with flavonoids from chia seeds. Evaluation of the amount of elements in compound, not only their total concentration content, is highly important due to the fact, that only a part from total content of metal is absorbed by human body. At the beginning the total amount of elements in chia seeds was established as 14.51±0.42 µg g(-1) for copper, 57.44±1.23 µg g(-1) for manganese, 81.12±1.89 µg g(-1) for zinc and 0.35±0.13 µg g(-1) for cobalt. After the most suitable solvent was established, effects of several parameters on the efficiency of metal extraction were studied. Solvent concentration, solid-solvent ratio, extraction method, extraction time and temperature have been investigated as independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions included vortexing during 20 min in 50°C, using an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as an extractant, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20. The determination of total and extractable amount of metals in chia seeds was carried out by standalone ICP MS. In addition, a complementary analysis of extracted metal complexes was performed using SEC-ICP MS method. It was confirmed that the ionic liquid is able to extract different copper complexes in comparison with commonly used solvents. The study indicated that extraction by using an ionic liquid has been successfully applied for determination of metals and metal complexes in chia seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A small RNA controls expression of the chitinase ChiA in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper S; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Lillebæk, Eva Maria Sternkopf

    2011-01-01

    role of LhrA in L. monocytogenes. To this end, we determined the effects of LhrA on global-wide gene expression. We observed that nearly 300 genes in L. monocytogenes are either positively or negatively affected by LhrA. Among these genes, we identified lmo0302 and chiA as direct targets of LhrA, thus......, and we provide evidence that both LhrA and Hfq act to down-regulate the expression of lmo0302 and chiA. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments show that Hfq stimulates the base pairing of LhrA to chiA mRNA. Finally, we demonstrate that LhrA has a negative effect on the chitinolytic activity of L......In recent years, more than 60 small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, but their putative roles and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The sRNA LhrA was recently shown to be a post-transcriptional regulator of a single gene, lmo...

  7. Research Progress of Health Function of Chia Seed%奇亚籽保健功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康烨; 王京法; 彭彰智; 王紫萱; 王纪爱

    2016-01-01

    随着大众自我保健意识的日益增强,奇亚籽以其丰富的营养成分和健康功效而受到人们喜爱。奇亚籽学名叫芡欧鼠尾草,是我国正式批准的新食品原料,在很多发达国家备受青睐。因此,综述了奇亚籽营养成分、健康功效及其在食品工业中的应用现状等方面的研究进展,以期为奇亚籽相关产品的开发利用提供科学依据。%As the self-care consciousness gains its popularity among the public in China,Chia seed with its rich nutrient and healthy function and effect has gain the fondness of people.Chia,also known as Salvia hispanica L.,is officially approved as a new type of food ingredient in China and favored in many developed countries.In this paper we summarized the research development in its nutritional in-gredients,health functions and its current application status in food industry in order to supply the scientific evidence for develop and utilize the products from Chia seed.

  8. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Bascuñán, Karla; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Barrera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Jorge; Puigrredon, Claudia; Parraguez, Gloria; Orellana, Paula; Gonzalez, Valeria; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2015-08-04

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

  9. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Valenzuela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Linolenic acid (ALA is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L., a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60% and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22–35 years old tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21 and a chia group (n = 19, which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and DHA; (ii a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

  10. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  11. Apnea of prematurity

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    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  12. Premature ejaculation: A review

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    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  13. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  15. Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Δ14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that Δ14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the Δ14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of Δ14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) Δ14C in summer and low Δ14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean Δ14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating Δ14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

  16. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.: a transcriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar R V

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L., a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae, is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA. At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb, with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%, of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34% and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%. A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research

  17. Gluten-free pasta incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as thickening agent: An approach to naturally improve the nutritional profile and the in vitro carbohydrate digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, Valeria; Amato, Mariana; Phillips, Tim D; Angelino, Donato; Morreale, Federico; Fares, Clara

    2017-04-15

    A gluten-free pasta was prepared adding chia at rice flour for testing the thickening and nutritional properties of this specie. Chemical analysis showed chia is a source of protein (19.52% and 15.81%, seeds and mucilage respectively), insoluble/soluble dietary fiber ratio (4.3 and 1.79 seeds and mucilage respectively), fat and ash content. The total phenolic acids content ranged from 734.5μg/g to 923.9μg/g for seeds and mucilage respectively. Chia was a good thickening agent and, improved the nutritional profile of enriched samples compared to CGF. After cooking TPAs increased in all samples, ranging from 5.3% in DW to 52.8% in CM5. The addition of chia seeds also increased the slowly digestible starch fraction of rice flour, commonly known to have a high glycemic index. Results suggest that chia should be added as thickening agent in the formulation of GF pasta for conferring healthier characteristics.

  18. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  19. Allozyme-specific modification of a maize seed chitinase by a protein secreted by the fungal pathogen Stenocarpella maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Todd A; Wicklow, Donald T

    2010-07-01

    Stenocarpella maydis causes both dry-ear rot and stalk rot of maize. Maize inbred lines have varying levels of resistance to ear rot caused by S. maydis. The genetic basis of resistance appears to rely on multiple genetic factors, none of which are known. The commonly used stiff-stalk inbred line B73 has been shown to be strongly susceptible to ear rot caused by S. maydis. Here, we report that the ChitA protein alloform from B73, ChitA-F, encoded by a known allele of the chiA gene, is susceptible to modification by a protein (Stm-cmp) secreted by S. maydis. We also identify a new allele of chiA (from inbred line LH82) which encodes ChitA-S, an alloform of ChitA that is resistant to Stm-cmp modification. Chitinase zymogram analysis of seed from a commercial field showed the presence of both ChitA alloforms in healthy ears, and showed that ChitA-F but not ChitA-S was modified in ears rotted by S. maydis. The ChitA-F protein was purified from inbred line B73 and ChitA-S from LH82. ChitA-F was modified more efficiently than ChitA-S by S. maydis protein extracts in vitro. The chiA gene from LH82 was cloned and sequenced. It is a novel allele that encodes six polymorphisms relative to the known allele from B73. This is the first demonstration that the susceptibility to modification of a fungal targeted plant chitinase differs among inbred lines. These findings suggest that the LH82 chiA allele may be a specific genetic determinant that contributes to resistance to ear rot caused by S. maydis whereas the B73 allele may contribute to susceptibility.

  20. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  1. The physico-chemical properties of chia seed polysaccharide and its microgel dispersion rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin Kim Tha; Matia-Merino, Lara; Chiang, Jie Hong; Quek, Ruisong; Soh, Stephanie Jun Bing; Lentle, Roger G

    2016-09-20

    The polysaccharide gel layer surrounding hydrated chia seeds was extracted using water and isolated by ethanol precipitation. The freeze-dried sample consisted of ∼95% non-starch polysaccharides (35% w/w neutral soluble fraction and 65% w/w negatively charged insoluble fraction). The soluble polysaccharide fraction has molar mass, root-mean square radius and intrinsic viscosity of ∼5×10(5)g/mol, 39nm and 719mL/g, respectively. The whole polysaccharide (included soluble and insoluble fractions) when dispersed in water showed presence of irregular shape, fibrous microgel particles with an average size (D4,3) of ∼700μm. Rheological measurements indicated a 'weak' viscoelastic gel and strong shear dependent properties even at low concentration (0.05% w/w). The viscosity of the dispersion was fairly resistant to variations in temperatures (20-80°C), pH (4-12), ionic strengths (0.01-0.5M NaCl) and cation types (MgCl2, CaCl2, NaCl and KCl). The swollen microgel particles dispersed in soluble polysaccharide continuous phase provided complex and potentially useful rheological properties in food systems.

  2. Molecular and functional characteristics of purified gum from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Kasapis, Stefan; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-01-20

    Chia seed gum (CSG) was extracted from the seed coat of Salvia hispanica, purified in the laboratory and its chemical composition and functional properties were investigated. CSG was found to comprise 93.8% carbohydrate consisting of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid as monosaccharide units. The presence of uronic acids was reflected in the anionic behavior of the CSG solution over a wide range of pH (≥ 1.8). The solubility of CSG increased slightly with temperature and pH of the aqueous medium. CSG was able to resist pyrolytic decomposition at temperatures well in excess of 250 °C, and exhibited a high water holding capacity (23 times of its own weight). The surface activity and emulsifying properties of CSG were found to be either superior or comparable to other common gums and industrial polysaccharides indicating the potential of CSG as an effective thickener and stabilizer of processed foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Tavares Toscano, Lydiane; Leite Tavares, Renata; da Oliveira Silva, Cássia Surama; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-14

    Introducción: Debido al alto contenido de fibra dietética, la chía (Salvia hispánica L.) han sido propuesta para la pérdida de peso y mejora del perfil lipídico y glucémico. Pero los datos en humanos son escasos o inexistentes, en función de la variable analizada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con harina de chía en la composición corporal, perfil lipídico y glucémico de individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad. Métodos: hombres y mujeres fueron asignados aleatoriamente en grupos que consumieron 35 g / día de chía (CHIA; n = 19; 48.8 ± 1.8 años) o placebo (PLA; n = 7; 51.4 ± 3.1 años) durante 12 semanas. La composición corporal y el consumo de alimentos fueron evaluados la cada cuatro semanas de intervención. Perfil lipídico y los niveles de glucosa se midieron al principio y al final del estudio. Resultados: La chía promovió reducción significativa en el peso corporal (-1.1kg; p.

  4. Functional bread with n-3 alpha linolenic acid from whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Pizarro, Patricia; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Coelho, Alessandra Silva; Sammán, Norma Cristina; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2015-07-01

    This work proposed to study the effects of the addition of whole chia flour (WCF) on the technological, nutritional and sensory qualities of bread. Different WCF contents (0 and 20 %) and vital gluten (VG) (0 and 4 %) were added to bread according to a 2(2) central composite rotational design. WCF decreased the specific volume, lightness and hue angle of the bread loaves, but did not affect the chroma values. WCF and VG contributed to maintenance of the moisture content of the loaves during the storage period. The increased firmness found with the addition of high levels of WCF (more than 10 %) was countered by larger amounts of VG (more than 2 %). The optimum loaf (10 % WCF and 2 % VG) showed 26 % more lipids, 19 % more protein and 11 % more ash than the standard loaf (0 % WCF and 0 % VG). A better lipid profile was also found (higher omega-3 fatty acid content and a better omega-6/omega-3 ratio). Both breads were positively rated in the sensory profile analysis.

  5. Un ente innovativo di ricerca e di servizi per la informazione geospaziale: GIS Research Center della Feng-Chia University di Taiwan (GIS.FCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La storia di un Laboratorio GIS a Taiwan nato da un accordo tra Feng-Chia University e la Università di Roma “LaSapienza” oggi tra i primi nel mondo nel settore dell’informazione geospaziale per la ricerca nell’ambito dei testdell’interoperabilità.A body of research and innovative services for geospatial infor-mation: GIS Research Center of Feng-Chia University in Taiwan (GIS.FCUThe story of a GIS laboratory in Taiwan born on an agreement between the Feng-Chia University and the University of Rome "La Sapienza" now among the first in the world in the field of information for research for geospatial application.

  6. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  7. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  8. Chia and oat emulsion gels as new animal fat replacers and healthy bioactive sources in fresh sausage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Pasqualin Cavalheiro, C; Ruiz-Capillas, C

    2017-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of emulsion gels (EG) prepared with chia (CEG) and oats (OEG) used as animal fat replacers in reduced-fat fresh sausages (longaniza) (LRF) during chilled storage. Reduced-fat samples were reformulated with CEG and OEG, (LRF/CEG and LRF/OEG respectively). Normal (LNF/P) and reduced-fat (LRF/P) (all-pork-fat) sausages were used as controls. Nutritional composition and microbiological, technological and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated. The presence of an EG affected (Psausages. CEG improved MUFA and PUFA contents. Cooking loss was lower (Psausages were judged acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhinovirus-induced Airway Cytokines and Respiratory Morbidity in Severely Premature Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Geovanny F.; Pancham, Krishna; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Jain, Amisha; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Preciado, Diego; Rose, Mary C.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Background Rhinovirus (RV) has been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Prematurity is a risk factor for severe RV infection in early life, but is unknown if RV elicits enhanced pro-asthmatic airway cytokine responses in premature infants. This study investigated if young children born severely premature (<32 weeks gestation) exhibit airway secretion of Th2 and Th17 cytokines during natural RV infections and if RV-induced Th2-Th17 responses are linked to more respiratory morbidity in premature children during the first two years of life. Methods We measured Th2 and Th17 nasal airway cytokines in a retrospective cohort of young children aged 0–2 years with PCR-confirmed RV infection or non-detectable virus. Protein levels of IL-4, IL-13, TSLP and IL-17 were determined with multiplex immunoassays. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained by electronic medical record (EMR) review. Results The study comprised 214 children born full term (n=108), pre-term (n=44) or severely premature (n=62). Natural RV infection in severely premature children was associated with elevated airway secretion of Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines, particularly in subjects with history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Severely premature children with high RV-induced airway IL-4 had recurrent respiratory hospitalizations (median 3.65 hosp/year; IQR 2.8–4.8) and were more likely to have at least one pediatric intensive care unit admission during the first two years of life (OR 8.72; 95% CI 1.3–58.7; p=0.02). Conclusions Severely premature children have increased airway secretion of Th2 and Th17 cytokines during RV infections, which is associated with more respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life PMID:25640734

  10. Effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of chia seed mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuting; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-04-01

    The production of mucilage by the seed coat during hydration is a common adaptation of many different plant species. The mucilage may play many ecological roles in adaptation and seed germination in diverse environments, especially in extreme desert conditions. The major compound of the seed mucilage is polysaccharides (e.g. pectins and hemicelluloses), which makes it highly hydrophilic. Consequently, it can hydrate quickly in the presence of water; forming a gel like coating surrounding the seed. However, the seed mucilage also reported to contain small amounts of protein and lipid which may exhibit surface activity at the water-air interface. As a result, decay in the surface tension of water can be occur and consequently a reduction in soil capillary pressure. This in turn may affect the water retention and transport during seed germination. The physical properties of the seeds mucilage have been studied mainly in conjunction with its rheological properties. To the best of our knowledge, its surface activity at the water-air interface has been reported mainly in the realms of food engineering, using a robust method of extraction. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of seed mucilage. The mucilage in this study was extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds, using distilled water (1:20 w/w) by shaking for 12 h at 4°C. The extracts were freeze dried after centrifuge (5000rpm for 20min). Fresh samples of different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 6 mg/ml, were prepared before each surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface tension was measured by the Wilhelmy plate method using a tensiometer (DCAT 11, Data Physics) with temperature control unit. For a given mucilage concentration, surface tension measurements carried out at 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 °C. The quantitative and thermodynamic analysis of the results will be presented and discussed.

  11. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Waanders, Jennifer; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-02-01

    Chia seeds contain the essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). This study has assessed whether chia seeds attenuated the metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet [carbohydrates, 52% (wt/wt); fat, 24% (wt/wt) with 25% (wt/vol) fructose in drinking water] in rats. Diets of the treatment groups were supplemented with 5% chia seeds after 8 weeks on H diet for a further 8 weeks. Compared with the H rats, chia seed-supplemented rats had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity, decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis without changes in plasma lipids or blood pressure. Chia seeds induced lipid redistribution with lipid trafficking away from the visceral fat and liver with an increased accumulation in the heart. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 products were depleted in the heart, liver and the adipose tissue of chia seed-supplemented rats together with an increase in the substrate concentrations. The C18:1trans-7 was preferentially stored in the adipose tissue; the relatively inert C18:1n-9 was stored in sensitive organs such as liver and heart and C18:2n-6, the parent fatty acid of the n-6 pathway, was preferentially metabolized. Thus, chia seeds as a source of ALA induce lipid redistribution associated with cardioprotection and hepatoprotection.

  12. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p Chia significantly (p chia diets detected. Significant (p chia diets when compared to the control.

  13. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  14. Effect of sowing density and nitrogen top-dress fertilisation on growth and yield of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in a Mediterranean environment: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Bochicchio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for sources of nutraceuticals has led to the rediscovery and diffusion of traditional crops such as chia (Salvia hispanica L., whose leaves and fruits are rich in W3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants. Chia originates in Central America but it is rapidly expanding to new areas. A field experiment conducted at Atella in Basilicata (Southern Italy was set up to test the response of chia to N top-dress fertilisation (0 and 20 kg ha–1 and to sowing density (D1=125, D2=25, D3=8 and D4=4 plants m–2 in a split-plot design with three replications. First results show maximum leaf area index values up to 7.1 and fresh vegetative biomass production at early flowering ranging between 50.87 (D4 and 59.71 (D1 t ha–1. Yield increased with plant density: a significantly (P<0.01 higher production (398 kg ha–1 was reached in D1. N top-dressing had a detrimental effect on yield and corresponded to higher lodging and lower maturation percentage of seeds, though non-significant. Based on our first results it seems worthwhile to continue agronomical trials for chia in herbaceous systems of southern Italy for leaf production based on traditional genotypes, while fruit production might be pursued by adopting high sowing density and the search for longer-day genotypes.

  15. Germinação e vigor de sementes de chia (Salvia hispanica L. - Lamiaceae sob diferentes temperaturas e condições de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. STEFANELLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Salvia hispanica, conhecida popularmente como chia, apresenta elevada notabilidade por suas características nutricionais, sendo rica em proteínas, fibras, sais minerais e ácidos graxos, os quais podem ser responsáveis pela diminuição do risco de doenças cardiovasculares. Apesar do crescente consumo, existem poucos estudos em relação à germinação e ao vigor de suas sementes. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da luz e da temperatura no potencial fisiológico de sementes de chia (Salvia hispanica L.. Para tal, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar nas temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 e 30 ºC na presença e ausência de luz. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: percentagem de germinação, primeira contagem, índice de velocidade de germinação, e comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 100 sementes. Constatou-se que a germinação das sementes de chia ocorre tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. As sementes de chia, sem dormência, germinam melhor na temperatura constante de 20 °C.

  16. Google Secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Become a Google guru with these effective tips, tricks, and techniques Sure, you use Google. But do you really use Google-and everything it has to offer-in the most effective way possible? Wish you could just sit down with a Google expert who would show you how to take your Google savviness to the next level? With Google Secrets, you can! Tech expert Jerri Ledford reveals the ins, outs, and little-known facts about Google to show you how to sharpen your skills so you can get more done, more efficiently. You may already be familiar with Google's most popular applications, but this indispensable

  17. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  20. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  1. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  2. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  3. Analysis and evaluation on the nutritional components of chia seed%奇亚籽营养成分分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣旭; 陶宁萍; 李玉琪; 顾赛琪

    2015-01-01

    对奇亚籽的营养成分进行了分析与评价. 结果表明:奇亚籽中粗脂肪、粗蛋白质和膳食纤维的含量分别为(34. 20 ± 1. 31)g/100 g(湿基)、(23. 31 ± 0. 18)g/100 g(湿基)、(27. 71 ± 0. 09) g/100 g(湿基) ,为高脂肪、高蛋白质、高膳食纤维芡欧鼠尾草种子;奇亚籽中18 种氨基酸总量为23. 10 g/100 g(湿基),其中人体必需氨基酸总量为8. 20 g/100 g(湿基),氨基酸含量最高的是谷氨酸(4. 08 g/100 g),其次是精氨酸(2. 46 g/100 g)和天冬氨酸(2. 13 g/100 g),根据氨基酸评分,奇亚籽的限制性氨基酸为赖氨酸,根据化学评分,奇亚籽的第一限制性氨基酸为异亮氨酸,奇亚籽的必需氨基酸指数为87;奇亚籽油中共检出21种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸以亚油酸( 22 . 43%)和α-亚麻酸(62. 48%)为主;奇亚籽中矿物质含量丰富,Ca含量最高,为829. 21 mg/100 g,具有高K(673. 48 mg/100 g)低Na(22. 37 mg/100 g)的特点.%The nutritional components in the seed of chia ( Salvia hispanica) were analyzed and evalua-ted. The results showed that the contents of crude fat, crude protein and dietary fiber in chia seed were (34. 20 ± 1. 31) g/100 g(wet basis), (23. 31 ± 0. 18) g/100 g(wet basis)and (27. 71 ± 0. 09)g/100 g ( wet basis) , respectively. Therefore, chia seed had the character of high fat, high protein and high diet-ary fiber. The contents of total amino acids and essential amino acids in chia seed were 23. 10 g/100 g (wet basis)and 8. 20 g/100 g(wet basis), respectively. The content of glutamic acid (4. 08 g/100 g) was the highest, followed by arginine (2. 46 g/100 g) and aspartic acid (2. 13 g/100 g). According to the amino acid score, the restrictive amino acid in chia seed was lysine, while the first limiting amino acid was isoleucine according to the chemistry score, and the essential amino acid index value of chia seed was 87;21 kinds of fatty acids were detected in chia seed oil, and linoleic acid (22. 43%) and

  4. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  5. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  6. Resposta fisiológica de sementes de chia (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae) ao estresse salino

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello,Raquel; Neves, Luiz Augusto Salles das; Abbad, Marisa Aparecida Binotto; Viana, Bruna Boucinha

    2015-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p35O estudo da tolerância à salinidade fornece informações valiosas sobre a propagação da espécie e pode auxiliar tanto na caracterização da cultura, quanto na adequada recomendação para o plantio nestas situações. Assim, objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a resposta fisiológica das sementes de chia ao estresse salino. Para tal, as sementes foram colocadas sobre papel embebido em solução aquosa de cloreto de sódio (NaCl) nos potenciais osmótico...

  7. Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds in rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meineri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to three groups with ten animals each (five male and five female rabbits each, and kept individually in separate cages. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds (SHS (0, 10, and 15%. The digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and gross energy (GE were calculated according to standard procedures following the indirect digestibility method, using acid insoluble ash as an internal marker. The results showed that the DM, OM and GE digestibilities of 10% and 15% SHS diets were higher than those of the control diet, while the ADF digestibility of the 15% SHS diet was lower than that of the 10% SHS diet.

  8. Premature infants have impaired airway antiviral IFNγ responses to human metapneumovirus compared to respiratory syncytial virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Perez, Geovanny F.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Jain, Amisha; Kurdi, Bassem; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Preciado, Diego; Rose, Mary C.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unknown why human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause severe respiratory infection in children, particularly in premature infants. Our aim was to investigate if there are defective airway antiviral responses to these viruses in young children with history of prematurity. METHODS Nasal airway secretions were collected from 140 children ≤3 y old without detectable virus (n = 80) or with PCR-confirmed HMPV or RSV infection (n = 60). Nasal protein levels of IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-17 were determined using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay. RESULTS Full-term children with HMPV and RSV infection had increased levels of nasal airway IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 along with an elevation in Th1 (IFNγ)/Th2 (IL-4) ratios, which is expected during antiviral responses. In contrast, HMPV-infected premature children (< 32 wk gestation) did not exhibit increased Th1/Th2 ratios or elevated nasal airway secretion of IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 relative to uninfected controls. CONCLUSION Our study is the first to demonstrate that premature infants have defective IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, and IL-10 airway responses during HMPV infection and provides novel insights about the potential reason why HMPV causes severe respiratory disease in children with history of prematurity. PMID:26086642

  9. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  10. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part II. Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-10-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fractions of Pistacia terebinthus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as using stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes, while major constituents were similar but in different proportions. Compounds that differentiated two resin samples of P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia, both traditionally collected, were detected, in order to identify the nature of resins present in archaeological materials. In the traditionally collected resin, 37 triterpenes were identified, 12 in the acidic and 25 in the neutral fraction. In the liquid collection resin 10 compounds were identified in the acidic and 23 in the neutral fraction, while 16 compounds were not contained in the traditionally collected resin. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and using stimulating agents were: isomasticadienonic acid (23.6 and 26.3% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively), 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (16.3 and 17.5% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction, respectively) and masticadienonic acid (5.8 and 6.0% w[sol ]w of the triterpenic fraction). In this study the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes was compared in the Pistacia lentiscus and P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples collected with the traditional and new liquid techniques, and also triterpenes in resins of P. terebinthus obtained by the traditional technique and using stimulating agents. The aim of the study was also to examine whether the collection technique influenced the triterpenes contained in P. terebinthus var. Chia resin samples.

  11. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  12. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  13. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  14. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  15. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  18. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  19. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  20. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  1. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  2. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  3. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  4. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  5. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-05

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C.

  6. Thermal and physicochemical properties and nutritional value of the protein fraction of Mexican chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-Lugo, B L; Valdivia-López, M Á; Tecante, A

    2010-02-01

    Thermal, functional and nutritional properties of the main protein fractions and a protein isolate of chia seed from the state of Jalisco, Mexico, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, gelling, foaming, water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity, amino acid profile, chemical score and in vitro digestibility tests. The protein isolate showed good WHC (4.06 g/g) and excellent oil-retention capacities (4.04 g/g), making it attractive as an additive in bakery products and food emulsions. It also contained high amounts of glutamic acid (123 g/kg raw protein), arginine (80.6 g/kg raw protein) and aspartic acid (61.3 g/kg raw protein). However, its essential amino acid profile showed deficiencies with respect to the 1985 standard of the FAO/WHO/UNU for pre-school children. Therefore, its use as a sole protein source is not recommended; supplementation with a lysine-rich source would be necessary, as this was the limiting amino acid.

  7. Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cornale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed (SHS dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15% of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.

  8. Protective effects of mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus variation chia against experimental growth of lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkouta, Sophia; Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Psallidas, Ioannis; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Roussos, Charis; Loutrari, Heleni

    2009-01-01

    Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus variation chia, a traditionally used dietary flavoring agent with medicinal properties, has been shown to exert in vitro antitumor activities, but no study has addressed in vivo efficacy and mechanisms of action. Presently, we demonstrated that treatment of immunocompetent mice with mastic oil (45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, 3 times a wk for approximately 3 wk) significantly inhibited tumor growth (56.4% +/- 5.7 maximum reduction in tumor volumes) without toxicity. Analysis of tumors by immunohistochemistry and ELISA indicated that this effect is associated with increased apoptosis, reduced neovascularization, and inhibition of chemokine expression. Likewise mastic oil reduced vascular endothelial growth factor and chemokine release by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Furthermore, mastic oil administration decreased small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Ras, RhoA and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent reporter gene expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating a mechanistic link between mastic oil activities and blocking of relevant signaling and transcription pathways. A dose-response comparison with perillyl alcohol and alpha-pinene, two of its components, revealed a higher efficacy of mastic oil, pointing to a beneficial collective interaction among its ingredients. Conclusively, our results provide novel in vivo evidence of mastic oil inhibitory effects on tumor growth and set a rational basis for its future application in cancer prevention.

  9. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the gum of Pistacia lentiscus Var. chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudaki, Christina; Krsek, Martin; Rodger, Alison

    2005-10-05

    The essential oil and gum of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, commonly known as the mastic tree, are natural antimicrobial agents that have found extensive uses in medicine in recent years. In this work, the chemical composition of mastic oil and gum was studied by GC-MS, and the majority of their components was identified. alpha-Pinene, beta-myrcene, beta-pinene, limonene, and beta-caryophyllene were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activity of 12 components of mastic oil and the oil itself was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Furthermore, attempts were made to separate the essential oil into different fractions in order to have a better picture of the components responsible for its antibacterial activity. Several trace components that appear to contribute significantly to the antibacterial activity of mastic oil have been identified: verbenone, alpha-terpineol, and linalool. The sensitivity to these compounds was different for different bacteria tested (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis), which suggests that the antibacterial efficacy of mastic oil is due to a number of its components working synergistically. The establishment of a correlation between the antibacterial activity of mastic oil and its components was the main purpose of this research. Mastic gum was also examined, but it proved to be more difficult to handle compared to the essential oil.

  10. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  11. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  12. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D Linton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kate D Linton, Kevan R WylieSheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has been concluded. Several topical therapies have been used including severance-secret (SS cream, lignocaine spray, lidocaine-prilocaine cream and lidocaine-prilocaine spray (TEMPE. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.Keywords: premature ejaculation, topical therapies, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, dapoxetine

  13. Efficiency of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with type III prostatic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Cem Kadioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common male sexual disorder is premature ejaculation as it affects 30-40% of sexually active men. Various studies showed that the correlation of prostatic inflammation and chronic bacterial prostatitis with premature ejaculation is present in more than half of the sufferers. These studies also show that more than 85% of prostatic inflammation cases was shown to be caused by chronic prostatitis in the premature ejaculation patient group. Even though this relation is evident, the effect of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with chronic prostatitis has only recently being investigated extensively. In this study, 36 men suffering from secondary premature ejaculation who were included the study. These patients had no erectile dysfunction problems and were included in the study after they timed intravaginal ejaculatory latency in their last 3 intercourses to see that time was less than 2 minutes in each trial. To evaluate the prostatic inflammation, diagnosis was made by identifying 10 or more white blood cells per high power field in expressed prostatic secretions. 22 of 36 premature ejaculation patients in our study had more than 10 white blood cells in thier expressed prostatic secretions and were diagnosed to have prostatic inflammation. The other 14 patients were included in the study as the control group. Following one month antibiotic treatment 78% patients in the study group returned with the information that all 3 of their last intercourses ended with more than 2 minutes of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time while none of the control group reported similarly. No side effects were reported by any of the patients due to antibiotic usage. Our study shows that patients with PE that may benefit from month-long quinolone antibiotic therapy can be screened for by checking their expressed prostatic secretions under a microscope in the office. A more accurate definition of premature ejaculation, a scale for

  14. Sexuality in pregnancy and premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, P A; Dodos, D; Mechleris, D

    1984-09-01

    The relation of sexual behaviour during pregnancy to the initiation of labour was investigated in 358 patients of whom 58 were delivered after premature labour and 300 were delivered spontaneously at term. In all patients the mean weekly coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm were investigated by means of a retrospective questionnaire. There was no significant difference in coital or orgasmic frequency between the women who had a premature labour and those who had a spontaneous delivery at term. This was also true when those having premature labour were divided into those starting labour with ruptured membranes and those starting with contractions.

  15. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  16. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  17. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  18. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  19. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  20. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  1. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  2. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  3. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  4. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  5. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patil Chhablani; Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypopl...

  6. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  7. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  8. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  9. Caracterização física, química e sensorial de sobremesas à base de soja, elaboradas com mucilagem de chia

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    Jordana Corralo Spada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No desenvolvimento de produtos, é de suma importância o conhecimento da influência das modificações da formulação nas propriedades sensoriais, físicas e químicas destes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar sobremesas à base de soja com e sem adição de mucilagem de chia, utilizada como espessante alimentar. As formulações foram caracterizadas quanto as suas propriedades reológicas, °Brix, pH e cor. O perfil sensorial foi determinado por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando-se uma equipe de 10 julgadores treinados. Os resultados mostraram que as amostras não diferiram quanto aos valores de pH, °Brix e coordenada cromática a*. Quanto aos outros parâmetros de cor e reológicos, foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre as amostras, o que mostra a influência do tipo de espessante nestas características. Os resultados da ADQ mostraram que as amostras não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas quanto aos atributos, cor rosa, sabor de goiaba, sabor de soja e cremosidade, porém diferiram quanto à consistência. Com isso, conclui-se que a adição da mucilagem de chia pode ser feita sem causar grandes modificações ao produto.

  10. Wu-Chia-Pi Solution Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury through the Antioxidative Abilities of Its Components Acteoside and Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wu-Chia-Pi medicated wine, composed nine Chinese medicines soaked in 35% alcohol, is widely used in Asia for its health-promoting functions. However, long-term consumption of alcohol could result in liver dysfunction. In this study, Wu-Chia-Pi solution (WCPS and extract (WCPE were prepared by modification of the principals given by the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of WCPS against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injury and to clarify its active component(s. Antioxidative effects of the test samples were evaluated via MDA inhibition, catalase activity and DPPH-scavenging assays. HPLC was used to analysis the active components. Results showed that WCPS (1 and 5 mL/kg significantly prevented CCl4-induced liver injury without chronic liver toxicity. Referring to the antioxidative activities, WCPE displayed significant MDA inhibitory and DPPH-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.91 ± 0.03 and 0.60 ± 0.04 mg/mL, respectively. Catalase activity was also enhanced by treatment of WCPE, acteoside and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that acteoside and quercetin are the major contributors to the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of WCPS, and a possible mechanism could be mediated through reduction of oxidative stress.

  11. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  12. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  13. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through inte...

  14. Serum fructosamine and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Gokmen, Tulin; Tunay, Zuhal; Tok, Levent; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether serum fructosamine which is a good marker for detecting hyperglycemia during the previous 2 to 3 wk in infants could predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. One hundred sixty seven premature infants who had a birth weight of < 1500 g and a gestational age of less than 32 wk were investigated in the present study. Blood glucose was measured at the bedside and infants were recorded as hyperglycemic if their mean blood glucose levels were higher than 150 mg/dL. Serum corrected fructosamine level was obtained from the cord blood at birth and after the first month of life. The infants' eyes were examined by ophthalmologists to detect retinopathy of prematurity at the gestational age of 32 wk or at four wk after birth, whichever came first. Corrected fructosamine was 319.6 ± 59.6 and 272.8 ± 50.6 mmol/l for group 1 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively; 320 ± 61.7 and 268.2 ± 47.3 mmol/l for groups 2 + 3 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively which did not differ between groups (p = 0.766 and p = 0.665), whereas duration of hyperglycemia was 1.69 ± 1.1 day in group 1 compared with 3.05 ± 2.4 day in groups 2 + 3 which was significantly different (p = 0.019). The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the duration of hyperglycemia in days was significantly correlated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.09-9.80; p = 0.035). Although the duration of hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity, serum corrected fructosamine does not have a good predictive value in developing retinopathy of prematurity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

  15. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  16. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  17. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  18. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  19. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  20. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  1. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  2. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  3. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  4. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  5. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  6. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  7. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  8. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  9. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  10. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  11. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  12. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  13. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  14. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  15. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  17. ​ SAKIZ AĞACI (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia Duhamel)'NIN IN VITRO MİKROÇOĞALTIMI ÜZERİNE ARAŞTIRMALAR

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Tuncer; İnal, Abdullah

    2005-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, ülkemizde sayısı giderek azalan Sakız ağacı (Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia)’ nın apikal sürgün uçları in vitro koşullarda farklı hormon konsantrasyonları içeren MS (Murashige ve Skoog, 1962) ve B5 (Gamborg ve ark., 1968) DKW (Driver ve Kuniyuki, 1984) ortamları orijinal ya da modifikasyonlar yapılarak ve antioksidantlar ilave edilerek hazırlanan ortamlarda kültüre alınmışlardır. Yaşlı ağaçlar ve genç fidanlardan alınan materyalde fenolik bileşiklerin etkisinden dolayı gelişebi...

  18. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells.

  19. GC-MS analysis of penta- and tetra-cyclic triterpenes from resins of Pistacia species. Part I. Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2005-05-01

    Pistacia species contain oleoresins with bioactive triterpenes. In this study triterpenes, including minor components, were identified and quantified in both neutral and acidic fraction of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin, grown exclusively in Chios island (Greece), collected traditionally, as well as by the use of stimulating agents (liquid collection). It was proved that these two resin samples were composed of several different minor triterpenes. In the traditional collection of the resin, 36 triterpenes were identified, 23 of which are new minor compounds (five in the acidic and eighteen in the neutral fraction). In the liquid collection resin eight compounds were identified in the acidic and 11 in the neutral fraction, while seven compounds were not contained in resin traditionally collected. The main triterpenes in both resin samples collected traditionally and by use of stimulating agents were in the following order: isomasticadienonic acid (24 and 22.5% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively), masticadienonic acid (9.3 and 14.7% w/w of triterpenic fraction) and 28-norolean-17-en-3-one (19 and 36% w/w of triterpenic fraction respectively). The aim of this study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of triterpenes in the resin samples collected using the traditional and new liquid techniques, and examine whether the collection technique influences the contained triterpenes in P. lentiscus var. Chia resin samples. Finally, since there is confusion on interpreting mass spectra of triterpenes we present an analytical review on the base peaks, main fragments and fragmentation mechanism/pattern of several skeleton penta- and tetra- cyclic triterpenes reported in P. lentiscus resin. Also, a biosynthetic route for triterpene skeletons contained in P. lentiscus resin was approached.

  20. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  1. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for proration...

  2. Melatonin, a possible promising panacea for premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by impairment of ovarian function unrelated to elevatedfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH before the age of 40. The consequence of POF is severe and distinctive, presentingfrom infertility to symptoms caused by hormone deprivation. The mechanism of POF remains unclearand current treatments are therefore ineffective. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a neuroendocrinalhormone chiefly secreted by the pineal body. Melatonin exerts extensive physiological and pharmacologicaleffects on the biological rhythm, oxidative stress, reproduction, autoimmune and tumourigenesis. However,current researches have not yet brought melatonin into the study of POF. In the present review, we have involvedstate-of-the-art research progress of melatonin in ovary with regard to oxidation, follicle formation and function,and ovarian autoimmune disorders since these aspects mainly dispose to POF development. The features thatmelatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS, directly and indirectly induces follicle maturation, ovulationand inhibits apoptosis, and modulates autoimmune derangements in the ovaries are highly indicative that melatonincan effect in combating POF. Also, in this respect we have discussed the possibility of applying melatoninin the treatment of POF and have listed evidence of studies in vitro and in vivo. Vacant research directions aresubsequently suggested and the future application of melatonin in POF treatment is prospected.

  3. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  4. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  5. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  6. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha; Shampa Ghosh; Manchala Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand...

  7. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers ...

  8. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  9. Unconventional protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Wang, Junqi; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2012-10-01

    It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found outside of the PM in plant cells. The process by which such leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) gain access to the cell exterior is termed unconventional protein secretion (UPS) and has been well-studied in animal and yeast cells, but largely ignored by the plant community. Here, we review the evidence for UPS in plants especially in regard to the recently discovered EXPO (exocyst-positive-organelle).

  10. Revisão: Composição química, propriedades funcionais e aplicações tecnológicas da semente de chia (Salvia hispanica L em alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Silveira Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chia (Salvia hispanica L. é uma semente antiga utilizada pelos maias e astecas como alimento para aumentar a resistência física. Essa semente é fonte natural de ácidos graxos ômega-3, fibras e proteínas, além de outros componentes nutricionais importantes, como os antioxidantes. Além disso, oferece um potencial na indústria de alimentos devido aos seus componentes funcionais, com aplicações no enriquecimento de pães, bolos e barras de cereais, produção de hidrolisados proteicos para aplicação em produtos de panificação, produção de maionese com adição de mucilagem de chia, entre outros produtos. Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as possíveis aplicações em alimentos, demonstrando o quanto a chia ainda pode ser explorada nessa área.

  11. Shigella IpaD has a dual role: signal transduction from the type III secretion system needle tip and intracellular secretion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrich, A Dorothea; Guillossou, Enora; Blocker, Ariel J; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein injection devices essential for the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with eukaryotic cells. While Shigella assembles its T3SS when the environmental conditions are appropriate for invasion, secretion is only activated after physical contact with a host cell. First, the translocators are secreted to form a pore in the host cell membrane, followed by effectors which manipulate the host cell. Secretion activation is tightly controlled by conserved T3SS components: the needle tip proteins IpaD and IpaB, the needle itself and the intracellular gatekeeper protein MxiC. To further characterize the role of IpaD during activation, we combined random mutagenesis with a genetic screen to identify ipaD mutant strains unable to respond to host cell contact. Class II mutants have an overall defect in secretion induction. They map to IpaD's C-terminal helix and likely affect activation signal generation or transmission. The Class I mutant secretes translocators prematurely and is specifically defective in IpaD secretion upon activation. A phenotypically equivalent mutant was found in mxiC. We show that IpaD and MxiC act in the same intracellular pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that IpaD has a dual role and acts at two distinct locations during secretion activation.

  12. Secrets of Successful Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Parents who homeschool gifted children often find the daily practice of home education very different from what they had imagined. Gifted children are complex in both personality and learning styles. Parents who say that homeschooling works well for their gifted children have learned from others or discovered on their own several secrets that make…

  13. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  14. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity and oxygen saturation > 94% in room air : The High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, ML; Bremer, DL; Cole, C; McClead, RE; Phelps, DL; Fellows, RR; Oden, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the rate of progression from prethreshold to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants excluded from Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP) because their median arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))

  16. Almost-perfect secret sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Kaced, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Splitting a secret s between several participants, we generate (for each value of s) shares for all participants. The goal: authorized groups of participants should be able to reconstruct the secret but forbidden ones get no information about it. In this paper we introduce several notions of non- perfect secret sharing, where some small information leak is permitted. We study its relation to the Kolmogorov complexity version of secret sharing (establishing some connection in both directions) and the effects of changing the secret size (showing that we can decrease the size of the secret and the information leak at the same time).

  17. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  18. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  19. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  20. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisasue, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future.

  1. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  2. Are Secrets Immoral? The Construction of Secrets in Everyday Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthner, Susanne; Luckmann, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the communicative treatment of secrets, presenting examples from recorded communicative interactions in a wide range of social milieus and settings in which the participants revealed knowledge of secrets, tried to dig out old secrets without appearing to be doing so, and occasionally, appeared to be hiding some items of knowledge from…

  3. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  4. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  5. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  6. Animal models of premature and retarded ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2005-06-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from animal studies using rats with normal sexual behaviour. However, none of these proposed models adequately represents human ejaculatory disorders. Based on the "ejaculation distribution theory", which postulates that the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men is represented by a biological continuum, we have developed an animal model for the research of premature and delayed ejaculation. In this model, a large number of male Wistar rats are investigated during 4-6 weekly sexual behavioural tests. Based on the number of ejaculations during 30 min tests, rapid and sluggish ejaculating rats are distinguished, each representing approximately 10% at both ends of a Gaussian distribution. Together with other parameters, such as ejaculation latency time, these rats at either side of the spectrum resemble men with premature and delayed ejaculation, respectively. Comparable to the human situation, in a normal population of rats, endophenotypes exist with regard to basal sexual (ejaculatory) performance.

  7. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Preeti Patil; Kekunnaya, Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI). Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  8. [Intraventricular haemorrhage in premature newborn babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, N

    This work is the product of the checking of the pathogenesis, incidence, treatment, and prognostic of the intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn. In the revised publications, that include important series of following, this pathology is present in 25% of the infants weighing less than 1,500 g, in which the mortality and morbidity is greater than that of normal newborns, since the development of intraventricular hemorrhage can produce alterations of cerebral blood flow in the immature germinal matrix and in the microvascular net. In consequence the prevention of the intraventricular hemorrhage is directly related with its pathogenesis. It is said that the use of dexamethasone steroids in low doses in the prenatal period, and low doses of indomethacin in the postnatal period, can give better neuroprotection. The surgical treatment is exceptional and has very precise indications, when a progresive hydrocephalus of later apparition is proven. Therefore in premature newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage the best actual treatment is to use an appropiate pharmacological and medical following

  9. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  10. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  11. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  12. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  13. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. The significance of genetics in pathophysiologic models of premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberos, Jose

    2017-05-31

    Prematurity is a major health problem in all countries, especially in certain ethic groups and increasing recurrence imply the influence of genetic factors. Published genetic polymorphisms are identified in relation to the 4 pathophysiological models of prematurity described: Chorioamniotic-decidual inflammation, premature contraction pathway, decidual haemorrhage and susceptibility to environmental toxins. 240 articles are identified, 52 articles are excluded because they are not original, not written in English or duplicated. From them 125 articles were included in qualitative analysis This review aims to update recent knowledge about genes associated with premature birth.

  15. Infection and prematurity and the role of preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kalache, Karim

    2002-08-01

    This article reviews the role of infection in spontaneous premature parturition, the pathways of ascending intrauterine infection, microbiology, and the frequency of intra-amniotic infection in obstetrical complications leading to premature delivery. The evidence that infection is causally linked to premature birth is critically examined, as is the relationship between urogenital tract infection/colonization with microorganisms and the risk of preterm birth. The effect of antibiotic administration in perinatal outcome in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, asymptomatic bacteriuria, Group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas of the lower genital tract, and bacterial vaginosis are critically examined.

  16. Telling stories: keeping secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the reticence of some farm women to share their experiences with historians and how that desire to keep secrets collides with the desire by scholars to tell the stories of these women. It argues that scholars must continue to struggle with the issue of which stories to tell publicly and which to keep private. The author discusses her own experience telling stories about rural women in the 1970s and the need to give voice to the heritage of rural women, especially of groups that have feared revealing their experiences. She offers examples of historians of rural women who have successfully worked with formerly silenced populations and urges historians to continue to tell stories about these lives, to reevaluate what has been already learned, to ask new questions, and to discuss which secrets need to be shared.

  17. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  18. Secret Key Crypto Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Guido Marco; Melzani, Filippo

    This chapter presents the algorithm selected in 2001 as the Advanced Encryption Standard. This algorithm is the base for implementing security and privacy based on symmetric key solutions in almost all new applications. Secret key algorithms are used in combination with modes of operation to provide different security properties. The most used modes of operation are presented in this chapter. Finally an overview of the different techniques of software and hardware implementations is given.

  19. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity test of Chia seed%奇亚籽急性毒性及遗传毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑琴; 李建国; 李学敏; 边林秀

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解奇亚籽的毒理学安全性。方法:采用小鼠急性毒性试验和遗传毒性试验(Ames试验、小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验)对奇亚籽进行研究,小鼠急性经口毒性试验剂量为22.5 g/kg,观察经口给予受试物后14 d内动物的死亡情况;Ames试验设5个剂量,分别为每皿0.008、0.04、0.20、1.0和5.0 mg (每皿给受试物体积为0.1mL),同时设自发回变、溶剂对照(丙酮)和阳性对照(9-芴酮、2-AF、NaN3、MMC、1.8-二羟蒽锟),接种后,在37℃下培养48 h,计数每皿回变菌落数;小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验和小鼠精子畸形试验均设3个剂量组,分别为1.875、3.750和7.500 g/kg,同时设溶剂对照组(玉米油)和阳性对照组(环磷酰胺,50 mg/kg),分别观察骨髓涂片中嗜多染红细胞中的微核发生率和精子标本中精子畸形的类型和相应的数量。结果:奇亚籽的小鼠经口最大耐受剂量(maximum tolerated dose,MTD)>22.5 g/kg,为无毒级物质;在Ames试验、小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验和小鼠精子畸形试验中结果均呈阴性;结论:奇亚籽属于无毒级物质,亦不具有遗传毒性。%OBJECTIVE:To explore the toxicological safety of Chia seed. METHODS:Acute toxicity tests and mutagenicity tests (Ames test,micronucleus test of bone marrow cell in mice and sperm shape abnormality test in mice) were used. The dose of 22.5 g/kg was chosen for the acute toxicity tests. The amounts of Chia seed of 22.5 g/kg were fed to mice through mouth,and the mice were observed for 14 days. The doses of 0.008, 0.04, 0.20, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/plate were chosen for the Ames test. The treated plates were cultured at 37℃ for 48 h,the number of bacterial colony was counted. The doses of 1.875, 3.750 and 7.500 g/kg were used for the micronucleus test. The number of micronucleus of bone marrow cell was counted,the types and numbers of sperm shape

  20. Infrared spectroscopy used to determine effects of chia and olive oil incorporation strategies on lipid structure of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Carmona, P; Jimenez-Colmenero, F

    2017-04-15

    This article reports an infrared spectroscopic study, using attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR), on the structural characteristics of lipids in frankfurters as affected by different strategies to replace animal fat with chia flour and olive oil. Three incorporation strategies were considered: direct addition (FCO) and addition in a conventional emulsion (non-gelled) (FCE) or an emulsion gel using alginate as a gelling agent (FCEG). Reduced-fat (all-pork-fat) frankfurters (FP) were used as reference. Proximate composition and specific technological properties (pH, processing loss, texture) were also evaluated. FCE and FCEG frankfurters showed a shift to higher frequencies and the highest (p<0.05) half-bandwidth in the νasCH2 and νsCH2 bands. These spectroscopic results could be related to the fact that the lipid chain was more disorderly in these samples, presumably because there were more lipid interactions than in the reference frankfurter. These features of lipid structure correlated significantly with processing loss and textural behaviour.

  1. Oil-in-water emulsion gels stabilized with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and cold gelling agents: Technological and infrared spectroscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, T; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P; Herrero, A M

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports on the development of olive oil-in-water emulsion gels containing chia (Salvia hispanica L.) (flour or seed) and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate or gelatin). The technological and structural characteristics of these emulsion gels were evaluated. Both structural and technological changes in emulsion gels resulting from chilled storage were also determined. The color and texture of emulsion gels depend on both the cold gelling agents used and chilled storage. Lipid oxidation increased (p < 0.05) during storage in emulsion gels containing transglutaminase or alginate. Analyses of the half-bandwidth of the 2923 cm(-1) band and the area of the 3220 cm(-1) band suggest that the order/disorder of the oil lipid chain related to lipid interactions and droplet size in the emulsion gels could be decisive in determining their textural properties. The half-bandwidth of 2923 cm(-1) band and area of 3220 cm(-1) band did not show significant differences during chilled storage.

  2. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  3. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  4. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  5. Modern Approach in Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacu Irina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy. Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.

  6. Modeling premature brain injury and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joey; Fagel, Devon M.; Ment, Laura R.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2009-01-01

    Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure and function in these preterm infants at school age and relevant animal models. These animal models have provided scientists with an opportunity to explore in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury as well as the potential of the brain for recovery. The endogenous potential that the brain has for neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and how environment contributes to recovery, are also outlined. These preclinical models will provide important insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for variable degrees of injury and recovery, permitting the exploration of targeted therapies to facilitate recovery in the developing preterm brain. PMID:19482072

  7. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Joseph Ting

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis.

  8. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  9. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  10. Periodic heart rate decelerations in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Abigail A; Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B

    2010-04-01

    The pacemaking system of the heart is complex; a healthy heart constantly integrates and responds to extracardiac signals, resulting in highly complex heart rate patterns with a great deal of variability. In the laboratory and in some pathological or age-related states, however, dynamics can show reduced complexity that is more readily described and modeled. Reduced heart rate complexity has both clinical and dynamical significance - it may provide warning of impending illness or clues about the dynamics of the heart's pacemaking system. In this paper, we describe simple and interesting heart rate dynamics that we have observed in premature human infants - reversible transitions to large-amplitude periodic oscillations - and we show that the appearance and disappearance of these periodic oscillations can be described by a simple mathematical model, a Hopf bifurcation.

  11. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  12. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  13. Mechanical ventilation of the premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa K; DiBlasi, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although the trend in the neonatal intensive care unit is to use noninvasive ventilation whenever possible, invasive ventilation is still often necessary for supporting pre-term neonates with lung disease. Many different ventilation modes and ventilation strategies are available to assist with the optimization of mechanical ventilation and prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Patient-triggered ventilation is favored over machine-triggered forms of invasive ventilation for improving gas exchange and patient-ventilator interaction. However, no studies have shown that patient-triggered ventilation improves mortality or morbidity in premature neonates. A promising new form of patient-triggered ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), was recently FDA approved for invasive and noninvasive ventilation. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate outcomes in neonates who receive NAVA. New evidence suggests that volume-targeted ventilation modes (ie, volume control or pressure control with adaptive targeting) may provide better lung protection than traditional pressure control modes. Several volume-targeted modes that provide accurate tidal volume delivery in the face of a large endotracheal tube leak were recently introduced to the clinical setting. There is ongoing debate about whether neonates should be managed invasively with high-frequency ventilation or conventional ventilation at birth. The majority of clinical trials performed to date have compared high-frequency ventilation to pressure control modes. Future trials with premature neonates should compare high-frequency ventilation to conventional ventilation with volume-targeted modes. Over the last decade many new promising approaches to lung-protective ventilation have evolved. The key to protecting the neonatal lung during mechanical ventilation is optimizing lung volume and limiting excessive lung expansion, by applying appropriate PEEP and using shorter inspiratory time, smaller tidal

  14. Delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempf, Joseph W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Kaempf, Andrew J; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Tipping, Nicole; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping is reported to increase neonatal blood volume. We estimated the clinical outcomes in premature neonates who had delayed umbilical cord clamping compared with a similar group who had early umbilical cord clamping. This was a before-after investigation comparing early umbilical cord clamping with delayed umbilical cord clamping (45 seconds) in two groups of singleton neonates, very low birth weight (VLBW) (401-1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) (greater than 1,500 g but less than 35 weeks gestation). Neonates were excluded from delayed umbilical cord clamping if they needed immediate major resuscitation. Primary outcomes were provision of delivery room resuscitation, hematocrit, red cell transfusions, and the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes. In VLBW neonates (77 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 1,099±266 g; 77 early umbilical cord clamping 1,058±289 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with less delivery room resuscitation, higher Apgar scores at 1 minute, and higher hematocrit. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with significant differences in the overall transfusion rate, peak bilirubin, any of the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes, or mortality. In LBW neonates (172 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 2,159±384 g; 172 early umbilical cord clamping 2,203±447 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with higher hematocrit and was not associated with a change in delivery room resuscitation or Apgar scores or with changes in the transfusion rate or peak bilirubin. Regression analysis showed increasing gestational age and birth weight and delayed umbilical cord clamping were the best predictors of higher hematocrit and less delivery room resuscitation. Delayed umbilical cord clamping can safely be performed in singleton premature neonates and is associated with a higher hematocrit, less delivery room

  15. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K

    2007-07-01

    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  16. [Complete triploidy in a liveborn premature (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, S; Skinner, C; Lechuga, J L; Fernández, E; Serrano, J; Casanova, M; Argemí, J; López, A; Castro, J M

    1980-01-01

    Authors describe the clinical, pathological and cytogenetic data of a polymalformed premature with a complete a triploidy 69,XXY). This rare condition (30 cases in the literature) may be suspected in a premature with broad posterior fontanella, eye and ear anomalies, syndactily between IV and III fingers/toes, intersexual status and mielomeningocele. Frequently the placenta presents a molar or micromolar degeneration.

  17. Lipid profile of women with premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, Erik A. H.; Westerveld, Hendrika E.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Valkenburg, Olivier; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Earlier menopause is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events later in life. Concurrent with the ages of menopausal transition, a shift in lipid profile takes place. Premature ovarian failure (POF) or premature menopause allows LIS to Study the effect of cessation of

  18. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  19. Acupuncture Treatment for 98 Cases of Ventricular Premature Beat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Baojie; Wang Feng; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ventricular premature beat is a commonly encountered arrhythmia,which can occur in patients with and without cardiac diseases.In TCM.ventricular premature beat fall into the category of palpitation and obstruction of qi in the chest.The authors treated it with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory thera-peutic effects.A summary follows.

  20. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  1. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  2. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  3. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  4. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  5. Autotransporter protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Jeremy R H

    2011-12-01

    Autotransporter proteins are a large family of virulence factors secreted from Gram-negative bacteria by a unique mechanism. First described in the 1980s, these proteins have a C-terminal region that folds into a β-barrel in the bacterial outer membrane. The so-called passenger domain attached to this barrel projects away from the cell surface and may be liberated from the cell by self-cleavage or surface proteases. Although the majority of passenger domains have a similar β-helical structure, they carry a variety of sub-domains, allowing them to carry out widely differing functions related to pathogenesis. Considerable biochemical and structural characterisation of the barrel domain has shown that 'autotransporters' in fact require a conserved and essential protein complex in the outer membrane for correct folding. Although the globular domains of this complex projecting into the periplasmic space have also been structurally characterised, the overall secretion pathway of the autotransporters remains highly puzzling. It was presumed for many years that the passenger domain passed through the centre of the barrel domain to reach the cell surface, driven at least in part by folding. This picture is complicated by conflicting data, and there is currently little hard information on the true nature of the secretion intermediates. As well as their medical importance therefore, autotransporters are proving to be an excellent system to study the folding and membrane insertion of outer membrane proteins in general. This review focuses on structural aspects of autotransporters; their many functions in pathogenesis are beyond its scope.

  6. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  7. Characteristic analysis and prevention on premature convergence in genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗本; 高勇

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characteristics of premature convergence in genetic algorithms (GAs) are investigated Through a detailed quantitative analysis on the search capability and the degree of population diversity, the cause of premature convergence in GAs is recognized, and attributed to the maturation effect of the GAs: The minimum schema deduced from current population, which is the largest search space of a GA, converges to a homogeneous population in probability 1 ( so the search capability of the GA decreases and premature convergence occurs). It is shown that, as quantitative features of the maturation effect, the degree of population diversity converges to zero with probability 1, and the tendency for premature convergence is inversely proportional to the population size and directly proportional to the variance of the fitness ratio of zero allele at any gene position of the current population. Based on the theoretical analysis, several strategies for preventing premature convergence are suggest

  8. [Report on threatened premature labor: etiology, management, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzibahcian, J J; Mida, M; David, E; Weber, L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The studies on the aetiological factors of a premature delivery constitute an old fear of obstetricians and epidemiologists. However, they remain confused and the very definition of prematurity is among the first sources of confusion. There are many therapeutic methods considered as preventive. Their efficacy is debatable whilst their secondary effects are obvious. In this article, the authors report the results of a retrospective study of observations of patients who presented threats of premature labour and analyzed the epidemiological aspects, the aetiological factors and the therapeutic methods. It seems important to consider the risk factors in order to prevent premature labour. A decrease in the use of betamimetics and an increase in that of therapies said to be of replacement does not seem to be accompanied by a relative increase in the incidence of prematurity.

  9. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  10. Hypothyroxinemia of prematurity: rite of passage or therapeutic necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeram, M R; Wilson, D P

    2000-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia is a common finding in premature infants, presumably resulting from an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Because dynamic studies of thyroid function in premature infants are normal and the condition resolves spontaneously, HOP has been considered physiologic rather than pathologic. Thus, thyroid hormone supplementation has been assumed to be not required in premature infants. True hypothyroidism of hypothalamic pituitary or thyroid origin, however, does occur in premature as well as in term infants and should be investigated aggressively and treated appropriately. Current studies in premature infants with hypothyroxinemia suggest the following: infants with more than 27 weeks of gestation do not appear to benefit and may, in fact, be harmed by thyroid hormone supplementation; and short-term thyroid hormone supplementation in infants born before 27 weeks of gestation may be important to diminish morbidity and to improve neurodevelopmental outcome.

  11. Insight on pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation: inverse relationship between lifelong premature ejaculation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, A; Ekmekcioglu, O

    2010-01-01

    Although both biological and psychological factors are important in the etiology, the exact pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) remains to be clarified. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that contributes to many chronic diseases. Obesity is associated with erectile dysfunction, but the relationship between obesity and PE has not yet been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of these two conditions. Between January 2008 and December 2009, we evaluated consecutive patients with lifelong PE in the urology outpatient clinic. Control cases without lifelong PE were selected randomly among cases attending the department of internal medicine for a checkup procedure. The age and sex of control group were matched with that of the study group. Body mass index (BMI) of each case was calculated using the World Health Organization criteria by the measurements of the physician instead of relying on verbal expressions. The mean (+/-s.d.) age of the premature ejaculators was 31.7+/-5.7 (range 21-51) years and in the control cases it was 32.3+/-6.7 (range 22-54) years. The comparison of the mean (+/-s.d.) weight between the study (74.1+/-11.2 kg) and control groups (81.9+/-6.4 kg) revealed a significant difference (Pobese cases in the control group (n=26, 24.1%) was three times greater than the obese premature ejaculators (Pobesity, and we found that patients with lifelong PE were leaner than the healthy control cases.

  12. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  13. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  14. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  15. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  16. RIC-7 promotes neuropeptide secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingsong Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is mediated by exocytosis of distinct secretory organelles, synaptic vesicles (SVs and dense core vesicles (DCVs respectively. Relatively little is known about factors that differentially regulate SV and DCV secretion. Here we identify a novel protein RIC-7 that is required for neuropeptide secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans. The RIC-7 protein is expressed in all neurons and is localized to presynaptic terminals. Imaging, electrophysiology, and behavioral analysis of ric-7 mutants indicates that acetylcholine release occurs normally, while neuropeptide release is significantly decreased. These results suggest that RIC-7 promotes DCV-mediated secretion.

  17. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  18. Circular threshold quantum secret sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a circular threshold quantum secret sharing (TQSS) scheme with polarized single photons.A polarized single photon sequence runs circularly among any t or more of n parties and any t or more of n parties can reconstruct the secret key when they collaborate.It shows that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing.Moreover,the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as the single photons carrying the secret key are deterministically forwarded among any t or more of n parties,and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage.This protocol is feasible with current technology.

  19. Evaluation of chia seed and oil (Salvia Hispanica L.) potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity and comorbidities induced by high fat and high carbohydrate diet in vivo : Avaliação do potencial da semente e do óleo de chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) na prevenção e no tratamento da obesidade e comorbidades induzidas por dieta hiperlipídica e hiperglicídica in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela da Silva Marineli Campos

    2016-01-01

    A diversidade de compostos bioativos presentes nos alimentos e sua ampla aplicação terapêutica justificam a busca por conhecimentos relacionados às propriedades fisiológicas ou funcionais dos mesmos. A chia (Salvia hispanica L.) é uma antiga planta herbácea, com alto teor de óleo, principalmente ácido graxo ?-linolênico, proteína, fibra dietética e outros compostos bioativos. Ela tem sido recentemente estudada por sua importante composição nutricional, possível aplicação em alimentos, potenci...

  20. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  1. Effect of partial substitution of gluten-free flour mixtures with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour on quality of gluten-free noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer

    2017-06-01

    In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168.30 mg/100 g and 47.46 mg/100 g to 1057.69 mg/100 g and 298.27 mg/100 g, respectively with CSF usage. Increase of CSF level in gluten-free noodle samples caused an expected increase in the amounts of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Noodle samples containing CSF showed darker colour than control. Significant increase was observed in volume increase and weight increase values with CSF addition. DATEM reduced cooking loss values of noodle samples. The use of CSF improved the gluten-free noodles taste and odor score. As a result, 20% of CSF with DATEM can be used in gluten-free noodle formulation with acceptable sensory attributes of raw and cooked samples. The present results showed that CSF had a good potential to improve the nutritional quality of noodle.

  2. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...... on the shoulders of China’s only child in each family, known as the generation of little emperors and little empresses. Since the 1980s, the suzhi jiaoyu reforms (education for quality) have involved various attempts to reduce the pressure of education. However, simultaneously the aim is to increase...... the competitiveness of individuals. Drawing on existential and phenomenological thought, I suggest that the discourse seems to objectify and quantify a concern for well-being, rather than recognising its intersubjective character. Finally, I argue that the suicides are controversial since they are seen as a form...

  3. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals.Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction.Among them,normal signal coupling is the strongest,followed by that of premature ventricular contractions,and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest.The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct.Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data,can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  4. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  5. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  6. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM. Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1 were evaluated in terms of effectiveness in diagnosis of PROM. Results: A gold standard method has not yet been defined in PROM. Diagnostic tests (nitrazine test, fern test, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 “IGFBP-1” and Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 “PAMG-1” should be used when the diagnosis is not certain following history, examination with sterile speculum and ultrasonography evaluation. Conclusion: IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 are tests based on bedside immunochromatographic method. Especially, PAMG-1 comes into prominence with its high sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Progeria: a rare genetic premature ageing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Shampa; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-05-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  8. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs. As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent ′drug of hope′ for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  9. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  10. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  11. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  12. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  13. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic function in girls with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Piccolo, F; Scalamandre, A; Malvaso, M; Ortolani, R; Boscherini, B

    1980-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic activity was investigated in 9 girls with premature thelarche, and compared with that in 9 healthy girls and 6 girls with true precocious puberty. The gonadotropin stimulation test with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone was used. Girls with premature thelarche showed luteinising hormone response resembling that of normal girls, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response quite similar to that of girls with precocious puberty. This suggests that in premature thelarche there is a partial activation of the diencephalic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis, which affects FSH only. Premature thelarche therefore, should be considered as one of the disorders due to altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic receptors which regulate sex maturation. PMID:6779715

  15. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  16. [Histologic chorioamnionitis prevalence in patients with premature rupture membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-de la Torre, José Ignacio; Delgado-Rosas, Antonio; Gonzélez-Cantú, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Search Histologic Chorioamnionitis frequency in patients in week 28 (+/-) and pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes. Retrospective and observational study in which we studied all patients who came between June 28, 2011 and November 15, 2011 to receive obstetric care in the service of Tocochirurgical of the University Hospital of Saltillo, with greater than or equal 28 weeks of pregnancy. 598 patients were studied, and the frequency of premature rupture of membranes with histologic chorioamnionitis at term patients was, respectively, 1.7 and 5.3% in preterm labor. In the total sample frequency of histologic chorioamnionitis was 0.6% (4 patients) and, of these, 25% were term and 75% with preterm rupture. In patients with premature rupture of membranes the clinical chorioamnionitis was 0% valued by the criteria of Gibbs. The premature rupture of membranes is a risk factor important for histological chorioamnionitis. To decrease risk factors and possible complications, an established protocol must be taken.

  17. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    . The parents recalled that his elder sister had similar but milder skin changes and respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome was suggested and the diagnosis supported by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy specimen showing pathognomonic trilamellar membrane aggregations...... birth he developed respiratory distress and needed intubation. Remarkable skin changes were noticed with universal red, edematous and desquamating, spongy skin giving an impression of excessive vernix caseosa. Marked regression of the edema and ichthyotic scaling was observed within a few weeks......Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately after...

  18. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu Bello University ... The commonest diagnoses were protein-energy malnutrition and pneumonia and ... Conclusion: Socio-economic factors were significant determinants of ...

  19. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of labor versus expectant ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were ...

  20. Potentiation of the synergistic activities of chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC from Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2 by chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Dunn, Michael F; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela; Guillén-Navarro, Karina

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the chitinolytic mechanism of the potential biological control strain Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2, genes encoding chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC, chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP) were cloned, the protein products overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 6His-Sumo fusion proteins and purified by affinity chromatography. Following affinity tag removal, the chitinolytic activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated individually and in combination using colloidal chitin as substrate. ChiB and ChiC were highly active while ChiA was inactive. Reactions containing both ChiB and ChiC showed significantly increased N-acetylglucosamine trimer and dimer formation, but decreased monomer formation, compared to reactions with either enzyme alone. This suggests that while both ChiB and ChiC have a general affinity for the same substrate, they attack different sites and together degrade chitin more efficiently than either enzyme separately. Chb and CBP in combination with ChiB and ChiC (individually or together) increased their chitinase activity. We report for the first time the potentiating effect of Chb on the activity of the chitinases and the synergistic activity of a mixture of all five proteins (the three chitinases, Chb and CBP). These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of the chitinases produced by strain CFFSUR-B2 and provide a molecular basis for its high potential as a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens.

  1. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree...... lend to future research on family outcome, as well as the balance they may offer in the information provided to parents of premature children....

  2. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  3. Necrotizing enterocolitis and cytomegalovirus infection in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lynn; Ferris, Michael; Norori, Johana; Stark, Matthew; Craver, Randall; Dowd, Scot; Penn, Duna

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The etiology is considered multifactorial. Risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeding, hypoxia, and bacterial colonization. The etiologic role of viruses is unclear. We present a case of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with cytomegalovirus and Proteobacteria in a 48-day-old, ex-premature infant and discuss the effects of potential viral-bacterial interactions on host susceptibility to this disease.

  4. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  5. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Esteve, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  6. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan.

  7. Premature Trigger of ERI in Medtronic EnRhythm Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Melissa E; Mahajan, Rajiv; Elliott, Adrian D; Pathak, Rajeev K; Twomey, Darragh; Wilson, Lauren; Stolcman, Simon; Munawar, Dian A; Kumar, Sharath; Lau, Dennis H; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2017-06-01

    Medical technology has made significant advances over the last few decades with smaller and more dynamic pacemakers. However, technical failures leading to premature replacement is a cause of concern. We present a series of Medtronic EnRhythm devices that reached premature elective replacement indicator (ERI). The database of Centre of Heart Rhythm Disorders was searched for EnRhythm device implantation from 2006 to 2011. Battery depletion <8.5 years was considered premature considering the projected average longevity to be 8.5-10.5 years. An unexpected premature ERI was defined when it was reached within 3 months of last normal check. Device follow-up was conducted every 3 months after advisory. A total of 88 EnRhythm pacemakers were implanted. Over a median follow-up of 6.2 years (range: 0.3-9.2), 39 (44.3%) EnRhythm devices reached premature ERI. In 11 (28%), ERI was not recognized and patients were being investigated for other causes of unsteadiness or dyspnea prior to device check. Notably, three (7%) patients had premature ERI < 3.5 years. Ten (25.6%) had sudden and unexpected premature ERI. While asynchronous pacing was observed, there were no cases of absence of pacing. The rate of premature ERI for EnRhythm devices was 44.3%, significantly higher than reported by the manufacturer. Of concern, a sizeable proportion occurred unexpectedly, warranting more frequent reviews and empirical replacement in some patients. With the experience of the EnRhythm, appropriate monitoring strategies are recommended for future advisories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  9. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 20-30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium.

  10. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. Data sources: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases’ inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Study eligibility criteria: Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. Participants: patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. Interventions: a history of depressive disorder. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Results: Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42–1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I2 = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. Limitations: The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42016041272 PMID:27583879

  11. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  12. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  13. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-MingYuan; Zhong-ChengXin; HuiJiang; Yan-JieGuo; Wu-JiangLiu; LongTian; Ji-ChuanZhu

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE).Methods: The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P>0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6±1.2 and 10.2±9.5 minutes,respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7±4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9±4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P15 point) 19.8%, moderate (10~14 point) 62.8% and severe (<9point) 16.7%. Conclusion:The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  14. Hubungan Frekuensi Kunjungan Antenatal Care (ANC dengan Kejadian Prematur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Esti Utami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cause of infant mortality is mostly due to perinatal matters. Almost 2-27% of all perinatal death is caused by prematurity with low birth weight (BBLR. Reducing mortality rate on perinatal can be achieved by observing all pregnant women and fi nding as well as addressing infl uenced factors of neonatal safety. This research aims to identify correlation between frequencies of Antenatal Care (ANC with incidence of prematurity. This is an observational study with case-control design using retrospective approach. Total population was 1335 and of 156 was choosen as research respondents deviding into 78 as case respondents and 78 as control groups. The result of statistic analysis showed that p value=0,837 (p>0,05 means frequencies of ANC did not have correlation with prematurity. Conclusion, (1 during the period of 1 January 2011 and 29 February 2012, it found 207 (8,13% premature baby delivered, (2 at about 80,8% mother who delivered premature baby had normal ANC 4 times or more with the pattern 1-1-2 in every semester, (3 statistically ANC was not having correlation with premature baby.

  15. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  16. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Motion-defined form processing in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Frisk, V; Downie, A L S

    2006-01-01

    Children born extremely prematurely are at risk for a variety of problems with motion analysis, including problems with motion-defined (MD) form recognition [Downie, A. L. S., Jakobson, L. S., Frisk, V., & Ushycky, I. (2003). Periventricular brain injury, visual motion processing, and reading and spelling abilities in children who were extremely-low-birthweight. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 440-449]. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and mild periventricular brain injury (PVBI) on MD form processing in this population; (2) to assess relationships between MD form recognition in these children and their performance in several other areas of visual competence. To this end, a battery of visual and visuomotor tests was administered to 43, 5- and 6-year old, extremely premature children, all of whom had escaped severe PVBI. A group of full-term controls was also studied. Relative to controls, premature children displayed clear deficits in MD form recognition and these deficits were related to the presence of ROP and/or mild PVBI, rather than to a history of prematurity per se. Regression analyses revealed significant associations in premature children between MD form processing deficits and problems with visual search, stereopsis, visuoconstructive and graphomotor skills, motor development, and Performance IQ. The results suggest that assessment of sensitivity to MD forms may be useful in the early identification of preterm children at greatest risk for visual problems associated with dorsal stream dysfunction.

  18. Multiparty Quantum Secret Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Fu-Guo; LI Xi-Han; LI Chun-Yan; ZHOU Ping; LIANG Yu-Jie; ZHOU Hong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A multiparty quantum secret report scheme is proposed with quantum encryption. The boss Alice and her M agents first share a sequence of (M + 1)-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states that only Alice knows which state each (M + 1)-particle quantum system is in. Each agent exploits a controlled-not (CNot) gate to encrypt the travelling particle by using the particle in the GHZ state as the control qubit. The boss Alice decrypts the travelling particle with a CNot gate after performing a σx operation on her particle in the GHZ state or not.After the GHZ states (the quantum key) are used up, the parties check whether there is a vicious eavesdropper,say Eve, monitoring the quantum line, by picking out some samples from the GHZ states shared and measuring them with two measuring bases. After confirming the security of the quantum key, they use the remaining GHZ states repeatedly for the next round of quantum communication. This scheme has the advantage of high intrinsic efficiency for the qubits and total efficiency.

  19. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  20. Ergodic Secret Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassily, Raef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce two new achievable schemes for the fading multiple access wiretap channel (MAC-WT). In the model that we consider, we assume that perfect knowledge of the state of all channels is available at all the nodes in a causal fashion. Our schemes use this knowledge together with the time varying nature of the channel model to align the interference from different users at the eavesdropper perfectly in a one-dimensional space while creating a higher dimensionality space for the interfering signals at the legitimate receiver hence allowing for better chance of recovery. While we achieve this alignment through signal scaling at the transmitters in our first scheme (scaling based alignment (SBA)), we let nature provide this alignment through the ergodicity of the channel coefficients in the second scheme (ergodic secret alignment (ESA)). For each scheme, we obtain the resulting achievable secrecy rate region. We show that the secrecy rates achieved by both schemes scale with SNR as 1/2log(SNR...

  1. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes...

  2. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. In our present study, we established cyclophosphamide- (CTX- induced POF rat model and elucidated its effect on ovarian function. We detected the serum estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone, and anti-Müllerian hormone of mice models by ELISA and evaluated their folliculogenesis by histopathology examination. Our study revealed that CTX administration could severely disturb hormone secretion and influence folliculogenesis in rat. This study also detected ovarian cells apoptosis by deoxy-UTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL and demonstrated marked ovarian cells apoptosis in rat models following CTX administration. In order to explore the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs in POF treatment, the above indexes were used to evaluate ovarian function. We found that human UCMSCs transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rat, in addition to reduced ovarian cell apoptosis. We also tracked transplanted UCMSCs in ovaries by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The results manifested that the transplanted human UCMSCs could reside in ovarian tissues and could survive for a comparatively long time without obvious proliferation. Our present study provides new insights into the great clinical potential of human UCMSCs in POF treatment.

  3. Helicobacter pylori in lacrimal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batioglu-Karaaltin, Aysegul; Saatci, Ozlem; Akpinar, Meltem; Celik, Melih Ozgür; Develioglu, Omer; Yigit, Ozgur; Külekçi, Mehmet; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in human lacrimal and nasal secretions. Eighty patients with complaints of dyspepsia who had undergone endoscopies and gastric antrum biopsies were included in the study. A total of five specimens, including 2 lacrimal secretion samples, 2 nasal mucosal swab samples, and 1 gastric antrum biopsy, were collected from each patient and investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods consisting of the urease enzyme coding gene GlmM (UreC) and the H pylori-specific 16S rRNA coding gene. The Reflux Symptom Index and ophthalmologic complaints of the patients were recorded. The detected positivity rates of the H pylori 16S rRNA coding gene in gastric biopsies and nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions were 55, 11.2, and 20%, respectively. The patients were grouped as gastric-antrum-biopsy-negative (Group I [n = 36]) and -positive (Group II [n = 44). In Group II, H pylori positivity in the lacrimal and nasal mucous secretions was 36.3 and 18%, respectively. A comparison between the groups in terms of H pylori presence in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions yielded statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001, p = 0.003). The simultaneous presence of H pylori in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions was 13.6% in Group II. H pylori positivity in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions had a positive moderate correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.0003). The present study is the first report on the presence of H pylori in lacrimal secretions through nested PCR, which suggested the presence of a number of mechanisms for H pylori transmission to lacrimal secretions.

  4. Secret key generation via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M.; Evans, P. G.; Lawrie, B.; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, W.; Williams, B. P.; Qi, B.; Grice, W. P.

    2015-05-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over ~6km of telecom. fiber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and significantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  5. Secret Key Generation via a Modified Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith IV, Amos M [ORNL; Evans, Philip G [ORNL; Lawrie, Benjamin J [ORNL; Legre, Matthieu [ID Quantique, Inc.; Lougovski, Pavel [ORNL; Ray, William R [ORNL; Williams, Brian P [ORNL; Qi, Bing [ORNL; Grice, Warren P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over 6km of telecom. ber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N > 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and signicantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  6. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in ord...

  7. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In t...

  8. Gram-Negative Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Activin A Secretion from Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin A is involved in inflammation. The present study was performed to clarify if lipopolysaccharide, a component of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates activin A secretion from human amniotic epithelial cells and to determine if activin A plays a role in amnionitis. Fetal membranes were obtained during elective cesarean sections performed in full-term pregnancies of patients without systemic disease, signs of premature delivery, or fetal complications. Amniotic epithelial cells were isolated by trypsinization. The activin A concentrations in the culture media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cell proliferation was assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. Amniotic epithelial cells secreted activin A in a cell density-dependent manner, and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL enhanced the secretion at each cell density. Lipopolysaccharide (10–50 μg/mL also stimulated activin A secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the effect of activin A secretion, lipopolysaccharide inhibited cell proliferation in amniotic epithelial cells. The present study suggests that lipopolysaccharide stimulation of activin A secretion may be a mechanism in the pathogenesis of amnionitis.

  9. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Cole, Cynthia H; Gray, James E; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-01-01

    The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial demonstrated that peripheral retinal ablation of eyes with high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (early treatment) is associated with improved visual outcomes at 9 months' corrected gestational age compared with treatment at threshold disease (conventional management). However, early treatment increased the frequency of laser therapy, anesthesia with intubation, treatment-related systemic complications, and the need for repeat treatments. To determine the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity compared with conventional management. We developed a stochastic decision analytic model to assess the incremental cost of early treatment per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. We derived resource-use and efficacy estimates from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial's published outcome data. We used a third-party payer perspective. Our primary analysis focused on outcomes from birth through 9 months' corrected gestational age. A secondary analysis used a lifetime horizon. Parameter uncertainty was quantified by using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of early treatment was $14,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. There was a 90% probability that the cost-effectiveness of early treatment would be less than $40,000 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented and a 0.5% probability that early treatment would be cost-saving (less costly and more effective). Limiting early treatment to more severely affected eyes (eyes with "type 1 retinopathy of prematurity" as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial) had a cost-effectiveness of $6,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. Analyses that considered long-term costs and outcomes found that early treatment was cost-saving. Early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity is both

  11. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P medicine, Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and topical severance secret cream in improving IELT and other outcomes. However, results are based on clinically heterogeneous studies of unclear quality. There are sparse data on adverse effects or potential for drug interactions. Further well-conducted randomized controlled trials

  13. Secret Key Generation From Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gungor, Onur; Koksal, C Emre

    2011-01-01

    We consider secret key generation from relative localization information of a pair of nodes in a mobile wireless network in the presence of a mobile eavesdropper. Our scheme consists of two phases: in the first phase, legitimate node pair exchanges beacon signals to establish localization information based on noisy observations of these beacons; in the second phase, nodes generate secret key bits via a public discussion. Our problem can be categorized under the source models of information theoretic secrecy, where the distance between the legitimate nodes acts as the observed common randomness. We characterize the achievable secret key bit rate in terms of the observation noise variance at the legitimate nodes and the eavesdropper. This work provides a framework that combines information theoretic secrecy and wireless localization, and proves that the localization information provides a significant additional resource for secret key generation in mobile wireless networks.

  14. An Image Secret Sharing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    M. E. Hellman, “On secret sharing systems,” vol. IT-29, no. 1, pp. 35–41, Jan. 1983. [10] K. Kurosawa , K. Okada, K. Sakano, W. Ogata, and S. Tsujii...Ed., Berlin, Germany, 1994, pp. 1–12. [14] W. Ogata and K. Kurosawa , “Some ba- sic properties of general nonperfect secret sharing schemes,” J.UCS

  15. J point elevation as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z; Petriashvili, Sh; Archvadze, A; Azaladze, I

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. 36 patients were included in this observation. There are 36 patients (19-68 years old) with early repolarization ECG patterns. All this 36 patients were divided into two groups according to their level of J point elevation. First group consisted of 12 patients with J point elevation ≥0,15 mV; second group - of 24 patients with J point elevation premature ventricular beat during 24 h. Before and during this monitoring patients don't take any antyarrhythmic drugs. In the first group (J point elevation ≥0,15 mV) sum of premature ventricular beats were 27432, in the second group (J point elevation premature ventricular beats were 31 896. The results of this observational study shows that there is 1,72 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in first group. So, J point elevation equal or more then 0,15 mV, is more arrhythmogenic and induces premature ventricular beats. This is principally new and very important result.

  16. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  17. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue are very pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus, we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates wound healing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.MethodsThe study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of full-thickness skin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition. The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.ResultsMost of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by wound contraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resulted in 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with less granulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to the relaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars. There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over two thirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients' parents were satisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.ConclusionsFull-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by wound contraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skin mobility.

  18. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue arevery pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus,we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates woundhealing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.Methods The study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of fullthicknessskin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition.The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatoryagents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.Results Most of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by woundcontraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resultedin 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with lessgranulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to therelaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars.There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over twothirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients’ parents weresatisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.Conclusions Full-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by woundcontraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skinmobility.

  19. Mothers’ Experiences with Premature Neonates about Kangaroo Care: Qualitative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Premature neonates admitted in NICU besides being separated from their mothers are prone to inevitably painful and stressful situations. Kangaroo care is the most effective method to get rid of this separation and its negative consequences. This study was performed to determine the experiences of mothers having premature neonates concerning Kangaroo care.   Material and Methods: The present study is a qualitative research in which focus group discussion method is used for data collection. Research society consisted of mothers having premature neonates Research group reread and categorized the qualitative findings. Contents of interviews were analyzed using the conventional interpretation approach introduced by Dicklman Method.   Results: Through content analysis of information emerged two major categories including mothers’ experiences about advantages of kangaroo care in interaction with neonate, and, feeling of physical-mental healthiness of neonate. Executive obstacles of kangaroo care from mothers’ standpoint were also discussed, which will be subsequently presented.   Discussion: According to the obtained results, it seems vital to highlight kangaroo care as a safe and effective clinical care-taking treatment in nursery of premature neonates in all hospitals. Nurses shall provide all mothers with the needed instructions for holding the premature and lower-weight neonate properly on their chests and shall promote their knowledge level concerning positive effects of kangaroo care including induction of tranquil sleep, optimization of physiological conditions of neonate, and removal of suckling obstacles.

  20. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also

  1. [Preterm premature rupture of membranes: active or expectant management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, G; Maillard, F

    2009-04-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and is responsible for 30% of preterm births. The management is discussed between active and expectant management. French recommendations let open both possibilities. The risks described in the case of PPROM are those of prematurity, maternofetal infection, acute procidence of the umbilical cord and abruptio placentae. Before 32 weeks of gestation (WG) and even 34 WG, a prolongation of one week of gestational age significantly decreases neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, most of the authors choose expectant management in case of PPROM. Between 34 and 37 WG, the risk of rare severe morbidity associated with prematurity has to be balanced with risks of an acute maternofetal infection and of abruptio placentae. Further randomized trials are required to choose a type of management with a sufficient level of evidence.

  2. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  3. Ablation of frequent premature ventricular complex in an athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, G; Fernández-Armenta, J; Prat, S; Berruezo, A; Brugada, J; Sitges, M

    2015-12-01

    Premature ventricular complex are common findings in the exam of many athletes. There is no extensive scientific evidence in the management of this situation particularly when associated with borderline contractile function of the left ventricle. In this case report, we present a 35-year-old asymptomatic healthy athlete with high incidence (over 10,000 beats in 24 h) of premature ventricular complex and left ventricular dilatation with dysfunction, which persisted after a resting period of 6 months without training. We performed radiofrequency ablation of the premature ventricular complex focus. After 1-year follow-up, he was asymptomatic without arrhythmia and the left ventricle normalized its size and function as shown by echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance.

  4. Ability to Keep Milk-Ejecting Activity after Premature Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gribakin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the modern data on the importance of breast milk in nursing premature babies. It is shown that the amount of breast milk in women, who gave birth prematurely, decreases rapidly, especially when it is impossible to get a baby latched on to the breast. There is a negative correlation between gestational age and duration of lactation. According to the opinion of both doctors and the majority of mothers, pumping out breast milk and using it in feeding a premature baby is an important psychological and physiological factor linking a mother and a child at the intensive care unit. Individual breast milk banks are a new safe and effective method for long-term keeping of breast milk.

  5. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  6. Premature exfoliation of teeth in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, J K

    1994-01-01

    Although the premature loss of primary teeth in conjunction with early eruption may be of no clinical significance, the loss of primary or permanent teeth in the absence of trauma should not be overlooked by the clinician. Premature loss of teeth associated with systemic disease usually results from some change in the immune system or connective tissue. This chapter presented some conditions associated with loosening and/or premature loss of teeth that may be encountered in children and adolescents. The most common of these conditions appear to be hypophosphatasia and early-onset periodontitis. Other less common conditions were described to aid in forming a differential diagnosis. Other diseases that may manifest with severe oral infection, such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, diabetes mellitus, or herpes zoster, could result in early tooth loss.

  7. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  8. Median age at death as an indicator of premature mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Jannerfeldt, Eric; Hörte, Lars-Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    The median age at death from certain diseases was calculated for each year for 1969-85 and compared with that at death from all causes. The results indicated the impact of these diseases in terms of premature mortality and changes over time. Cancer was a more important cause of premature mortality among women than among men. For cancer of the cervix the median age at death increased appreciably whereas for cancer of the lung in women it slightly decreased. The median age at death is easy to c...

  9. Preventing respiratory syncytial virus in homebound premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the home health nurse's role in preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among premature infants. Thousands of children infected with RSV require hospitalization each year. Consistent contact with the infant alerts the nurse to subtle signs and symptoms of RSV infection, which may include nasal congestion, cough, low-grade fever, and malaise. By developing patient and caregiver trust, the home health nurse can implement an RSV prevention plan, leading to a decrease in hospitalization episodes of premature infants with RSV. Identification of patient risk factors contributing to RSV together with caregiver education is addressed in this article.

  10. Immunology of Addison's disease and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease and autoimmune ovarian insufficiency are caused by selective targeting by T and B lymphocytes to the steroidogenic apparatus in these organs. Autoantibodies toward 21-hydroxylase are a clinically useful marker for autoimmune Addison's disease. Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase are found in premature ovarian insufficiency, but others also can be present, notably antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme. The autoimmune response primarily targets the theca cells, yielding elevated concentrations of inhibin, which is emerging as a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune etiology of ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about its immunogenetics, but in contrast to Addison's disease, several experimental models of autoimmune premature ovarian insufficiency are available for study.

  11. Premature birth as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Rachel L; Matson, Johnny L

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is common, life-long in nature, and can be very debilitating. Thus, an intensive search is on to identify the potential risk factors for the disorder. Premature birth has been identified as one potential factor that could influence potential symptoms of ASD. The sample for this study consisted of 1655 at risk children for developmental delays who were 17-37 months of age. Participants were divided into those diagnosed with ASD (n = 916) and children with atypical development only (n = 739). Premature births were almost twice as common for the atypical development group versus the ASD group. Implications of these data are discussed.

  12. Male masturbation device for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, J E; López, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficiency as a treatment of the first line masturbator aid device for patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Methods: A whole of 18 cases with lifelong PE used a masturbator TENGA, 5 times per week for 6 weeks and a minimum of 5 min for every use. Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) was used to measure the effects of its use. As a main outcome measure was used the proportion of patients who achieved criteria for clinical benefit, defined as achieving a two-c...

  13. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: an epidemic in the making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graham E. Quinn; Clare Gilbert; Brian A. Darlow; Andrea Zin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP),which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth".Study selection We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies.Results Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventiing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however,there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution.Conclusions ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  16. Secret sharing using biometric traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Savas, Erkay; Levi, Albert

    2006-04-01

    In biometric based authentication, biometric traits of a person are matched against his/her stored biometric profile and access is granted if there is sufficient match. However, there are other access scenarios, which require participation of multiple previously registered users for a successful authentication or to get an access grant for a certain entity. For instance, there are cryptographic constructs generally known as secret sharing schemes, where a secret is split into shares and distributed amongst participants in such a way that it is reconstructed/revealed only when the necessary number of share holders come together. The revealed secret can then be used for encryption or authentication (if the revealed key is verified against the previously registered value). In this work we propose a method for the biometric based secret sharing. Instead of splitting a secret amongst participants, as is done in cryptography, a single biometric construct is created using the biometric traits of the participants. During authentication, a valid cryptographic key is released out of the construct when the required number of genuine participants present their biometric traits.

  17. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  18. Rol de los hidrocoloides de semillas de chía y lino en la optimización de panificados libres de gluten Role of the hydrocolloids of chia and flax seeds in the optimization of gluten free breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rita Garda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El objetivo de esta investigación fue desarrollar y evaluar panificados libres de gluten con adición parcial de semillas molidas de lino y chía, cuyos mucílagos aportaron efectos benéficos, superando las características reológicas, vida útil y perfil nutricional de panificados tradicionales para celíacos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental, mixto respecto a la secuencia temporal. Se elaboró una fórmula estándar como muestra control y una muestra experimental con reemplazo del 6% de las harinas por partes iguales de semillas molidas de lino y chía. Finalmente se analizaron en ambas muestras las variables textura y actividad de agua de forma longitudinal y las variables pérdida de agua durante la cocción, levantamiento de la masa, volumen, densidad del pan, composición química y características sensoriales de forma transversal. Resultados: Las determinaciones de actividad de agua y las pruebas de textura demostraron que el agregado de las semillas de lino y chía permitió que el pan se mantuviera fresco por más tiempo. La masa del pan modificado logró mayor volumen, levantamiento y elasticidad. La composición química mejoró su perfil por el agregado de fibra y la relación entre los lípidos. Todos los atributos sensoriales evaluados, tuvieron mayor aceptación en el pan con semillas. Conclusión: La modificación de la versión original de un pan sin gluten, con el reemplazo parcial de harinas por semillas molidas de lino y chía, resulta ser una opción factible y eficiente permitiendo lograr panes más apetecibles, duraderos y saludables.Introduction: the objective of this research was to develop and evaluate gluten free breads with partial addition of ground flax and chia seeds, whose mucilage provided beneficial effects, surpassing the rheological characteristics, life and nutritional profile of traditional breads for celiac. Materials and methods: an experimental study was

  19. Prematurity stereotyping and mothers' interactions with their premature and full-term infants during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine; McIntosh, Bonnie; Moritzen, Sara; Olexa, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    To longitudinally assess stability and correlates of prematurity stereotyping and perceptions of infant vulnerability in mothers of premature (N = 56) and full-term (N = 59) infants. At 5, 9, and 12 months, mothers rated videotapes of unfamiliar infants with a full-term label (FTL) or a preterm label (PL), interacted with their own infant, and completed other questionnaires. A subgroup of infants were administered a developmental assessment at 32 months. Mothers rated PL infants more negatively than FTL infants at each age. Individual differences in stereotyping were not stable. Mothers who negatively rated infants labeled with the same birth status of their own infants exhibited more negative interactive behaviors with their infants. Mothers who viewed their own infant as more vulnerable and who showed more prematurity stereotyping at 5 months had infants with lower 32-month mental scores. The results suggest an association between early maternal cognitions and both contemporaneous maternal behavior and later child developmental outcomes.

  20. On family secrets and -K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgad, Yariv

    2014-08-01

    In this paper I present a novel interpretation of family secrets. Leaning on Bion's concept of -K, the constitution of secrecy is interpreted in terms of family dynamics that actively prevent knowledge formation and mental growth. Family secrets are interpreted as a destructive process that attacks the family's truth-generating-space - the shared semiotic space within which meanings are constituted through family relationships. The paper explores the microstructure interpersonal process of -K through the analysis of Mike Leigh's movie, Secrets and Lies. Two scenes in the movie are used to demonstrate how -K is worked out in the form of a specific intersubjective semiotic endeavor that unconsciously blocks the process of meaning-making.

  1. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  2. Of Plants, and Other Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I inquire into the reasons for the all-too-frequent association of plants and secrets. Among various hypotheses explaining this connection from the standpoint of plant morphology and physiology, the one that stands out is the idea that plants are not only objects in the natural environment, but also subjects with a peculiar mode of accessing the world. The core of the “plant enigma” is, therefore, onto-phenomenological. Positively understood, the secret of their subjectivity leaves just enough space for the self-expression and the self-interpretation of vegetal life.

  3. Homocysteine level in Iranian patients with premature acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shojaie; Farzan Naghshvar; Hamid Reza Izadi; Ahad Eshraghian; Morteza Pourahmad

    2009-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine may impair vascular endothelial cell function.Besides,it may also induce cell damage,smooth muscle cell proliferation,thrombogenesis and oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.1 The possible role of elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine in cardiovascular disease was firstly hypothesized after the observation of high incidence of premature occlusive vascular disease in children with homozygous homocystinuria.2

  4. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  5. Can screening for retinopathy of prematurity be reduced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termote, JUM; Donders, ART; Schalij-Delfos, NE; Lenselink, CH; van Angeren, CSD; Lissone, SCJL; Cats, BP

    2005-01-01

    Background. As screening,for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is costly, time-consuming for the ophthalmologist and discomforting for the neonate, the minimum number of infants should be screened for ROP, without missing infants with severe ROP, at risk for threshold ROP. Objectives: To develop a di

  6. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.; Knauff, E.A.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Lambalk, C.B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Goverde, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  7. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A. H.; Niermeijer, Martinus F.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lambalk, Cornelius B.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  8. Specific premature epigenetic aging of cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Mera-Varela, Antonio; Rego-Perez, Ignacio; Horvath, Steve; Zhang, Yuhua; del Real, Álvaro; Zhai, Guangju; Blanco, Francisco J; Riancho, Jose A.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease affecting multiple tissues of the joints in the elderly, but most notably articular cartilage. Premature biological aging has been described in this tissue and in blood cells, suggesting a systemic component of premature aging in the pathogenesis of OA. Here, we have explored epigenetic aging in OA at the local (cartilage and bone) and systemic (blood) levels. Two DNA methylation age-measures (DmAM) were used: the multi-tissue age estimator for cartilage and bone; and a blood-specific biomarker for blood. Differences in DmAM between OA patients and controls showed an accelerated aging of 3.7 years in articular cartilage (95 % CI = 1.1 to 6.3, P = 0.008) of OA patients. By contrast, no difference in epigenetic aging was observed in bone (0.04 years; 95 % CI = −1.8 to 1.9, P = 0.3) and in blood (−0.6 years; 95 % CI = −1.5 to 0.3, P = 0.2) between OA patients and controls. Therefore, premature epigenetic aging according to DNA methylation changes was specific of OA cartilage, adding further evidence and insight on premature aging of cartilage as a component of OA pathogenesis that reflects damage and vulnerability. PMID:27689435

  9. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  10. A Program of Stimulation for Infants Born Prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kathryn

    Examined was the effect of low frequency auditory and kinesthetic stimulation on the sleep behavior of seven premature normal infants. Stimulation consisted of positioning in a rockerbed and exposure to a recorded heartbeat for 15 minutes an hour. Measured were Ss's sleep wakefulness, weight change, and gestational development. Analysis of the…

  11. Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.

    2009-01-01

    Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is

  12. Impact of prematurity on language skills at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A R; Channell, Ron W; Petrill, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control group of twins born at full term, analyzing both standardized test results and language sample data from the population-based Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP; Petrill, Deater-Deckard, Thompson, DeThorne, & Schatschneider, 2006). Fifty-seven children born prematurely, at ≤32 weeks or children born at full term and were matched for age, gender, race, and parental education. Data included discourse-level language samples and standardized test results, collected at average ages 7, 8, and 10 years. The language samples were analyzed to yield a number of semantic and syntactic measures that were consolidated via factor analysis. Regression models showed significant differences between the 2 groups for standardized test results, although the mean score for both groups fell in the normal range. For the discourse-level language measures, however, differences never reached statistical significance. Parental education was significantly associated with improved standardized test scores. These findings suggest that in the absence of frank neurological impairment, sophisticated semantic and syntactic skills may be relatively intact in the discourse-level language of children born prematurely. Implications for assessment, particularly the potential role of attention and executive function in standardized testing tasks, are reviewed.

  13. Management practices to control premature senescence in bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial cultivation of Bt cotton produced higher boll load which led to stiff inter-organal competition for photosynthates resulting in early cessation of growth (premature senescence) due to more availability of sink and less sources. To overcome this problem field experiment was conducted durin...

  14. On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...

  15. Premature Discontinuation in Adult Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature discontinuation from therapy is a widespread problem that impedes the delivery of otherwise effective psychological interventions. The most recent comprehensive review found an average dropout rate of 47% across 125 studies (Wierzbicki & Pekarik, 1993); however, given a number of changes in the field over the past 2 decades,…

  16. Allergic colitis presenting within the first hours of premature life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.R.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Semmekrot, B.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    A prematurely born infant developed rectal blood loss several hours after birth, after his first formula feeding. Discontinuing the feeding resolved symptoms, but after resuming feeding rectal blood loss reappeared. There were no signs of necrotizing enterocolitis. Suspecting cow's milk allergy, the

  17. [Premature craniosynostosis is related to increased criminal behavior in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1989-01-01

    Among 100 patients with premature synostosis of the coronal suture or of several cranial sutures there were 37 patients with problems of social adaptation. 54% of them had committed punishable offences and 22% were even recidivists. Sexual offenders with mental retardation predominated. Frontal lobe dysfunctions with increased susceptibility to environmental damages are assumed to be the basic disorder.

  18. PERINATAL AND MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The objectives of this study are 1 To find out the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, 2 To evaluate the aetiology of premature rupture of membranes, 3 To assess foetal and maternal outcome in premature rupture of membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective case control study was conducted in Govt. RSRM Lying In Hospital, Chennai, over a period of 6 months and 100 cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were studied. Maternal and neonatal outcome were compared with controls. RESULTS Incidence of PROM was 9.06%. Most of them belonged to low socioeconomic class and in the age group 20-29 years, commonly seen primi gravida and in unbooked cases. Aetiological analysis revealed infection in 15% of cases, which is evident by positive amniotic fluid culture, h/o recent coitus in 20%, mal-presentation in 7%. Cause is unknown in most of the cases. The caesarean section rate is 24% when compared to 12% in control group. The PROM group had higher morbidities like postpartum haemorrhage, postpartum fever, wound infection, neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSION This study showed significantly increased morbidity for both mother and baby. PROM causes major increase in the incidence of prematurity, hence careful screening of high risk factors and treatment of infection promptly is needed to decrease the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  19. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batton, G.D.; DiCarmine, F.; Boal, D.K.

    1988-04-01

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae.

  20. Premature: growth and its relation to oral skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Camila Lehnhart; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Steidl, Eduardo Matias dos Santos; Prade, Leila Sauer; Bolzan, Geovana; Keske-Soares, Márcia; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of oral motor skills of premature infants on their oral feeding performance and growth, during neonatal hospitalization. Fifty-one newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of a hospital in Southern Brazil, between July 2012 and March 2013, were evaluated. The evaluation of oral feeding skills, according to Lau and Smith, was applied after prescription for starting oral feeding. The oral feeding performance was analyzed using the following variables: days taken to start independent oral feeding and hospital discharge. Growth was measured by weight, length, and head circumference, using the curves of Fenton, at birth, first and independent oral feeding, and hospital discharge. At birth, 71% preterm infants were proper for gestational age, most of them were males (53%), with average of 33.6 (±1.5) weeks of gestational age. The gestational age in the assessment did not influence the oral feeding performance of the premature infant and did not differ between levels. Time of transition from tube feeding to oral feeding and hospital stay was shorter when the oral skills were higher. At birth, there was a tendency of low weight and low oral feeding performance. Level IV premature infants in the release of oral feeding presented higher weights. The level of oral skills of the premature infant interfered positively on time of feeding transition from tube to independent oral feeding and hospital stay. Growth, represented by weight gain, was not affected by the level of oral skill.

  1. Congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, LM; Fleer, A; de Vries, LS; Gerards, LJ

    2004-01-01

    A case of congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) with fatal outcome in a premature infant is reported. An intrauterine infection with Staphylococcus aureus was probably the cause for the fulminant course of the disease. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the infant died within 24

  2. Evaluation of premature failure of a gas turbine component

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dedekind, MO

    1996-01-03

    Full Text Available A case study of certain gas turbine stator vanes which fail prematurely is presented, with a view to determining whether operational procedure might have caused the failures. The engines had been operated from a ‘hot-and-high’ environment...

  3. Patient reported outcomes in the assessment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    The term 'Patient Reported Outcome', abbreviated as PRO, was introduced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which proposed guidance on the development and validation of PROs. Previously PROs were known as self-report diaries, event-logs, self-administered questionnaires, and clinician administered rating scales. PROs seek to capture the subjective perceptions of patients and/or partner's related to their specific symptoms, degree of bother, efficacy of a medication or psychotherapy intervention, and quality of life issues related to a specific condition. This article reviews the essential psychometric and regulatory agency requirements in the development of PROs. The constructs of reliability, various forms of validity, sensitivity, and specificity as well as concerns with translating a PRO into a different language are reviewed. Three PROs, the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), the Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) all used in the assessment of premature ejaculation (PE) are discussed. These questionnaires meet or exceed all the psychometric requirements and have been employed in clinical trials and observational studies of men with PE. The article concludes on discussing some of the limitations of PRO use and recommendations for the future.

  4. Opiates May Have Neuroprotective Properties against Neurodegeneration and Premature Death

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    Endorphins and endorphin agonists play a crucial role in the neuromodulation of mood, anxiety, pain and addiction. Review of clinical studies seem to elucidate possible protective role of opiates against neurodegeneration and premature death. The historical, biological, experimental, clinical and neuroimaging data strongly support the potential properties of opiates as neuro protectors.

  5. Language Abilities Following Prematurity, Periventricular Brain Injury, and Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared language abilities in three groups of preschool children (total n=18) who were born prematurely: children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy associated with perinatal brain injury, with similar brain injury but no motor impairment, and with no brain injuries. No significant differences were observed among the groups on any…

  6. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); M. Alanazi; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past decades, the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as 'disease of the genes' has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer, recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair

  7. Effect of vocal stimulation on responses of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alipour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There are studies that support music and singing as appropriate developmental care for premature infants, thus, we conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to Quran recitation, lullaby music and silence. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial (2011-2012,120 premature infants in the Neonatal Unit (NNU at Izadi Hospital, were randomly assigned to experimental (holy Quran recitation, lullaby music and silence and control groups. The four groups were surveyed for physiological responses including, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate and behavioral states. The data were analyzed using SPSS-PC software and quantitative tests. Results: 66females and 54 male infants with gestational age 28- 36 weeks entered into the study. The fourgroupswere not significantly different in terms of demographic variables (P>0.05. The comparisonofchangesinthe infant’s responsesintheendof the intervention comparedtothebase lines, showedno statistically significant differencesbetweengroups(P>0.05. Repeated measures ANOVA and Friedman test did notindicate any significant differences in the mean ofresponseswithinanyof the four groups during the courseof study (P>0.05. Conclusion: Although fluctuations were observed in the mean of physiological responses and behavioral states in premature infants who listened to the recitation of the holy Quran and lullaby music, but these fluctuations were not significant. Findings of this study demonstrated that the preterm infants did not display any adverse reactions to the carefully designed acoustic intervention.

  8. Respiratory Failure in Premature Babies Born from Multiple Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the factors that are responsible for the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and the specific features of its course in preterm twin neonates. Subjects and methods. Twenty-three patients who had had twin pregnancy, including 9 (39.1% and 14 (60% with monochorial and bichorial biamniotic twin pregnancies, respectively, were examined. Their mean age was 28.5±5.4 years. Obstetric and gynecologic histories, conditions at conception, the course of pregnancy, the type of pla-centation, and fetal presentation were considered. The placentas were morphologically examined. In all the patients, pregnancy ended in birth of 46 premature neonates, of them there were 19 (41.3% boys and 27 (58.7% girls. The gestational age of the neonates averaged 31.7±2.3 weeks. The evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy used clinical assessment of the status of the premature neonates; measurement of partial oxygen tension (pO2 and calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2, respiratory index (RI, and oxygenation index (OI; death rates were analyzed. Results. The main cause of respiratory failure (RF was RDS in premature twins. Neonatal blood aspiration-caused pneumonia occurred in one case. The course of RDS was variable. Most neonatal infants needed exogenous surfactant replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation (MV. No signs of RF were present in 7 (15.2% premature neonates. Conclusion. Premature twins are a high RDS risk group. The unfavorable factors that contribute to the development of the disease are multiple pregnancy, a past maternal obstetric history, in-vitro fertilization-induced pregnancy, severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The type of placentation affects the fetal status after birth. Fatal outcome occurred in infants from the monochorial bioamniotic twins. In multiple pregnancies, there are pathological changes in the placenta, its membranes, and umbilical

  9. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  10. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Weiss, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The term "encephalopathy of prematurity" encompasses not only the acute brain injury [such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)] but also complex disturbance on the infant's subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD), and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP, and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9, and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after PHVD. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  11. Evaluation and Treatment of Anemia in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Cengic, Nermana; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Heljic, Jasmina; Lutolli, Ismail; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia in preterm infants is the pathophysiological process with greater and more rapid decline in hemoglobin compared to the physiological anemia in infants. There is a need for transfusions and administration of human recombinant erythropoietin. Aim: To determine the frequency of anemia in premature infants at the Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, as well as parameter values in the blood count of premature infants and to explore a relationship between blood transfusions with the advent of intraventricular hemorrhage (determine treatment outcome in preterm infants). Patients and methods: Research is retrospective study and it included the period of six months in year 2014. Research included 100 patients, gestational age < 37 weeks (premature infants). Data were collected by examining the medical records of patients at the Pediatric Clinic, UCCS. Results: The first group of patients were premature infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks (62/100) and the second group were premature infants of gestational age 33-37 weeks (38/100). Among the patients, 5% were boys and 46% girls. There was significant difference in birth weight and APGAR score among the groups. In the first group, there were 27.42% of deaths, while in the second group, there were only 10.53% of deaths. There was a significant difference in the length of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in the need for transfusion among the groups. 18 patients in the first group required a transfusion, while in the second group only 3 patients. Conclusions: Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks are likely candidates for blood transfusion during treatment. Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks have the risk of intracranial bleeding associated with the application of blood transfusion in the first week of life. PMID:28210010

  12. Results of Thyroid Function Tests in Premature Infants

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    Pelin Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the rate, etiology and morbidity association of disorders of thyroid function tests (TFTs in premature babies. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 premature babies who were admitted to Uludag University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2009 and January 2012 were included in this study. Prenatal, natal and postnatal characteristics along with TFTs results were recorded. TFTs were performed for all patients in the first and third weeks of life. Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH values of >10 IU/L was considered elevated. Free T3 and T4 levels were evaluated according to laboratory cut-off values. Weight, height and head circumference values of all individuals with and without the diagnosis of hypothyroidism on the 6th, 12th, and 18th months of their polyclinic follow-ups.Results: Abnormal TFTs were detected in 41 (24% patients. Twenty two patients (53% had transient TSH elevation, 9 (22% had primary hypothyroidism, 9 (22% had non-thyroidal disease and 1 (2.4% had transient hypothyroxinemia. Among morbidities, respiratory distress syndrome rate was found to be significantly higher in patients with thyroid function disorders (p=0.007. The rate of thyroid function disorders in patients with mothers with hypothyroidism was significantly more frequent compared to patients without maternal hypothyroidism (p=0.049. The mean head circumference in 18 month was significantly lower in patients with abnormal TFTs (p=0.047. Conclusions: Thyroid function disorders are common morbidities in premature babies and are important for neuromotor development. Maternal thyroid function disorder can lead to impairment of TFTs in infants. Thyroid function tests should be performed in all premature babies and hypotyhroidism should be treated. Avoidance of iodine exposure in premature infants can reduce the rate of abnormal TFTs and transient hypothyroidism.

  13. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  14. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    of DA synthesis and of DA or serotonin (5-HT) receptors inhibit or prevent the PRL stimulatory action of HA infused centrally or systemically. However, other factors regulating PRL secretion (e.g. beta-endorphin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin or TRH) may be involved in the mediation...

  15. Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Katanaev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration gradients formed by the lipid-modified morphogens of the Wnt family are known for their pivotal roles during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt morphogens are also implicated in a variety of human diseases, especially cancer. Therefore, the signaling cascades triggered by Wnts have received considerable attention during recent decades. However, how Wnts are secreted and how concentration gradients are formed remains poorly understood. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has provided important advances in this area. For instance, we have previously shown that the lipid raft-associated reggie/flotillin proteins influence Wnt secretion and spreading in Drosophila. Our work supports the notion that producing cells secrete Wnt molecules in at least two pools: a poorly diffusible one and a reggie/flotillin-dependent highly diffusible pool which allows morphogen spreading over long distances away from its source of production. Here we revise the current views of Wnt secretion and spreading, and propose two models for the role of the reggie/flotillin proteins in these processes: (i reggies/flotillins regulate the basolateral endocytosis of the poorly diffusible, membrane-bound Wnt pool, which is then sorted and secreted to apical compartments for long-range diffusion, and (ii lipid rafts organized by reggies/flotillins serve as “dating points” where extracellular Wnt transiently interacts with lipoprotein receptors to allow its capture and further spreading via lipoprotein particles. We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies.

  16. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial 1

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso; Leiliane Martins Farias; Gleicia Martins de Melo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music), 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose), 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose). All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby wa...

  17. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  18. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants Notice Notice is hereby given of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ``NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants'' to... ``premature'' or ``preterm'' and face increased risk for a variety of complications. Babies born before the...

  19. Late-onset blueberry muffin lesions following recombinant erythropoietin administration in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishal; Dummula, Krishna; Fraga, Garth; Parimi, Prabhu

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant erythropoietin is being used in premature population for anemia of prematurity. It is considered very safe in this population, although risks are still being evaluated. We report the first case of dermal erythropoiesis as a side effect of recombinant erythropoietin in an extremely prematurely born infant presenting with late-onset blueberry muffin lesions.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells from rats with chronic kidney disease exhibit premature senescence and loss of regenerative potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mara Klinkhammer

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation has the potential for organ repair. Nevertheless, some factors might lessen the regenerative potential of MSCs, e.g. donor age or systemic disease. It is thus important to carefully assess the patient's suitability for autologous MSC transplantation. Here we investigated the effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD on MSC function. We isolated bone marrow MSCs from remnant kidney rats (RK with CKD (CKD-RK-MSC and found signs of premature senescence: spontaneous adipogenesis, reduced proliferation capacity, active senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, accumulation of actin and a modulated secretion profile. The functionality of CKD-RK-MSCs in vivo was tested in rats with acute anti-Thy1.1-nephritis, where healthy MSCs have been shown to be beneficial. Rats received healthy MSCs, CKD-RK-MSC or medium by injection into the left renal artery. Kidneys receiving healthy MSCs exhibited accelerated healing of glomerular lesions, whereas CKD-RK-MSC or medium exerted no benefit. The negative influence of advanced CKD/uremia on MSCs was confirmed in a second model of CKD, adenine nephropathy (AD. MSCs from rats with adenine nephropathy (CKD-AD-MSC also exhibited cellular modifications and functional deficits in vivo. We conclude that CKD leads to a sustained loss of in vitro and in vivo functionality in MSCs, possibly due to premature cellular senescence. Considering autologous MSC therapy in human renal disease, studies identifying uremia-associated mechanisms that account for altered MSC function are urgently needed.

  1. Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth is a risk factor for deficits of neurological and cognitive development. Four cohort studies are reported investigating the effects of very premature birth (development correlated with the severity of brain abnormality observed on structural MRI at and before term, and were sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. The second study compared VERP measures for orientation-reversal and direction-reversal (DR) stimuli, from 2 to 5 months post-term age, in healthy very premature infants compared to infants born at term. The groups did not differ on the development of OR-VERP responses, but the development of the DR-VERP motion responses was delayed in the premature group despite the absence of any brain damage visible on ultrasound, consistent with the developmental vulnerability we have identified in the dorsal cortical stream. The third study used the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision (ABCDEFV) to assess sensory, perceptual, cognitive and spatial visual functions, together with preschool tests of attention and executive function. The premature group showed delays on these tests in line with severity of observed perinatal brain damage on structural MRI at term age. Deficits on certain spatial tasks (e.g. block-construction copying) and executive function tests (e.g. the detour box task) were apparent even in children with minimal damage apparent on MRI. The fourth study tested a large cohort of 6- to 7-year old children born before 32 weeks gestation, across a wide range of cognitive domains, including new tests of spatial cognition and memory. The premature group as a whole showed significant deficits on both auditory and visual tests of attention and attentional control from the TEA-Ch battery, on tests of location memory, block construction and on many visuocognitive and visuomotor tests. Development was generally relatively normal on language tests and on WPPSI scores. Factor analysis showed

  2. LH Dynamics in Overweight Girls with Premature Adrenarche and Slowly Progressive Sexual Precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfield RobertL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excess adiposity and premature adrenarche (PA are risk factors for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. Girls with slowly progressive precocious breast development, who were overweight and had PA (SPPOPA, 6.2–8.2 years, , overweight PA (6.6–10.8 years, , and overweight premenarcheal controls (OW-PUB, 10.6–12.8 years, underwent hormonal sleep testing and GnRH agonist (GnRHag and ACTH tests. Results. Despite an insignificant sleep-related increase in LH and prepubertal baseline hormone levels, SPPOPA peak LH and estradiol responses to GnRHag were intermediate between those of PA and OW-PUB, the LH being significantly different from both. Conclusions. GnRHag tests indicate that SPPOPA is a slowly progressive form of true puberty with blunted LH dynamics. These results argue against the prepubertal hyperandrogenism of excess adiposity or PA enhancing LH secretion or causing ovarian hyperandrogenism prior to menarche. Excess adiposity may contribute to both the early onset and slow progression of puberty.

  3. [Maintenance of lactation: a challenge for hospitalized premature infant's mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Melissa; Mendes, Eliane Norma Wagner

    2008-03-01

    Preterm birth is a difficult situation for all family members, interfering with the establishment of parental bonding and attachment with the baby. This paper is a qualitative and collective case study, carried out with the purpose of identifying the perception of mothers concerning the maintenance of lactation during the hospital stay of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Clinic Hospital of Porto Alegre), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected from March to April/2006 through interviews and observations and resulted in four categories. This article focuses only on the categories that refer to the mechanisms used by mothers to maintain lactation during hospitalization: beliefs and attitudes related to maintenance of lactation and breast milk expression at the human milk bank. The maintenance of lactation constitutes a complex process to be learnt by mothers involved with their infant's prematurity and hospitalization.

  4. Premature ventricular complex-induced chronic cough and cough syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, S; Dabrowska, M; Zaborska, B; Bielicki, P; Maskey-Warzechowska, M; Tarnowski, W; Chazan, R; Kulakowski, P

    2007-08-01

    The present case study reports a case of chronic cough and cough syncope associated with frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). Careful analysis of cough-related symptoms and ECG monitoring led to the suspicion of PVC-induced cough. A coincidence between PVCs and episodes of cough was also documented by a portable multichannel recorder. Moreover, Doppler echocardiography revealed a PVC-induced transient increase in the pulmonary artery blood flow. After exclusion of other possible aetiologies, complete relief of chronic cough and cough syncope was achieved by radiofrequency ablation of the arrhythmogenic focus located in the right ventricular outflow tract. Premature ventricular complexes should be considered as a cause of chronic cough and cough syncope and an interdisciplinary cooperation can lead to successful diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  5. Blindness in schoolchildren: importance of heredity, congenital cataract, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Levy, A M; Newton, M; Stokoe, N L

    1987-08-01

    Of 99 children in the Royal Blind School, Edinburgh (which serves Scotland and part of N E England), 15 had optic atrophy (hydrocephalus 4, intracranial haemorrhage 2, prematurity 2, fetal distress 2, birth asphyxia 2, cerebral atrophy 1, cardiac arrest during hernia operation 1, and leukaemia 1). Fourteen had congenital cataract, 12 congenital retinal aplasia (Leber's congenital amaurosis) and 11 retinopathy of prematurity. There were small numbers in many other diagnostic categories, including three with non-accidental head injury. Mental retardation, spasticity, and nystagmus were frequent other correlates in all diagnostic categories. 'Very probably hereditary' was a conservative attribution in 36, while 'probable' seemed appropriate for 12-that is, almost 48% were hereditary. Only about 11 cases might have been prevented through genetic counselling, which testifies to the frequency of autosomal recessive hereditary disease, although no parents were consanguineous.

  6. Chediak-Higashi syndrome and premature exfoliation of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Ortega, Adriana Oliveira Lira; Tintel, Claudia; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. These changes are associated with various diseases and syndromes that mainly cause periodontal disease and thus the premature loss of teeth. This paper describes the monitoring of premature loss of primary teeth that began when the child was 5 years old. On presentation his teeth were mobile and there was a history of gingival bleeding. Panoramic radiography revealed generalized and severe bone loss, and the teeth showed no bony support enough for their stability. Blood test was ordered to assess the overall health of the child and giant cells with cytoplasmic granules were found, confirming the diagnosis of CHS. The management of periodontal disease focused on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical methods.

  7. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  8. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...

  9. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  10. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  11. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  12. A dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Minami, M; Kano, H; Ohhira, M; Nakamura, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing a pathophysiological concentration of dopamine. This case shows that excessive excretion of dopamine, a vasodilative hormone, may affect blood pressure.

  13. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weightPrematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  14. [The skin of the premature newborn under the nurse's evaluation: orientating the manteinance of cutaneous integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christiane Pereira; Tapia, Carmen Elisa Villalobos

    2009-01-01

    The prematurity expressed relevance to the health neonatal, demonstrating ascending compromising regarding morbi-mortality of this patients, whose larger incidence can be attributed to the inadequate practices with the skin of the premature. Revision of the literature about the beneficial interaction among the skin of premature infant newborn and the appropriate handling, orientated by the nurse, that through the standardization of the cares of direct interference and continuous evaluation of the cutaneous integrity and attending the premature. It publishes the importance of the care with the skin of the premature newborn, not just making possible the survival, but the opportunity to integrate and to enjoy of the life with quality.

  15. Current and emerging therapies in premature ejaculation: Where we are coming from, where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Nolen, Hunter; Podolnick, Jason; Wang, Run

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common form of sexual dysfunction among men. The pathophysiology of premature ejaculation appears to be multifactorial, implicating the need for multimodal therapeutic regimens to successfully treat premature ejaculation. Multiple treatment regimens have been shown to be effective in extending the time between penetration and ejaculation. These treatment modalities include everything from behavioral modifications and medications to diet alterations and major surgery. The goal of the present article was to review the commonly used treatment regimens used in the treatment of premature ejaculation, as well as to introduce and discuss the newest treatment routines under study for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  16. The genetics of premature ovarian failure: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chevy Chapman, Lynsey Cree, Andrew N Shelling Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels in women under the age of 40. Many genes have been identified over the past few years that contribute to the development of POF. However, few genes have been ...

  17. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  18. Psychosocial determinants of premature cardiovascular mortality differences within Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Maria; Skrabski, Árpád; Szántó, Zsuzsa; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The life expectancy gap between Central‐Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Hungary, and Western Europe (WE) is mainly attributable to excess cardiovascular (CV) mortality in midlife. This study explores the contribution of socioeconomic, work related, psychosocial, and behavioural variables to explaining variations of middle aged male and female CV mortality across 150 sub‐regions in Hungary. Design Cross sectional, ecological analyses. Setting 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Participants and methods 12 643 people were interviewed in Hungarostudy 2002 survey, representing the Hungarian population according to sex, age, and sub‐regions. Independent variables were income, education, control in work, job insecurity, weekend working hours, social support, depression, hostility, anomie, smoking, body mass index, and alcohol misuse. Main outcome measures Gender specific standardised premature (45–64 years) total CV, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality rates in 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Results Low education and income were the most important determinants of mid‐aged CV mortality differences across sub‐regions. High weekend workload, low social support at work, and low control at work account for a large part of variation in male premature CV mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most noticeably to variations in premature CV mortality rates among women. Low social support from friends, depression, anomie, hostility, alcohol misuse and cigarette smoking can also explain a considerable part of variations of premature CV mortality differences. Conclusion Variations in middle aged CV mortality rates in a rapidly changing society in CEE are largely accounted for by distinct unfavourable working and other psychosocial stress conditions. PMID:16905723

  19. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Cooper, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.

  20. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM; Harvey Rodrick Grenville Ward Bsc(Med), MBChB, DMCOG, FCOG(SA), MMed (O&G), FRANZCOG

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been p...

  1. The Premature Use of English Grammar by EFL Learners

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    Nur Mukminatien

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of conscious learning and error corrections have been questioned since the development of communicative approaches to language teaching, along with theoritical and empirical insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA research. Whether overt learning really helps the learner produce better L2 performance is a mistery. This article describes the premature use of English Grammar by EFL learners as shown on their writing performance. It also reviews theoritical insights from SLA theories to uncover the mystery.

  2. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

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    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level. The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3 and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6. It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05 between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups.

  3. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-10-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in ..beta..-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by ..beta..-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered.

  4. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHOD: A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressur...

  5. Human SNPs resulting in premature stop codons and protein truncation

    OpenAIRE

    Savas Sevtap; Tuzmen Sukru; Ozcelik Hilmi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of genetic variation in humans. SNPs introducing premature termination codons (PTCs), herein called X-SNPs, can alter the stability and function of transcripts and proteins and thus are considered to be biologically important. Initial studies suggested a strong selection against such variations/mutations. In this study, we undertook a genome-wide systematic screening to identify human X-SNPs using the dbSNP databa...

  6. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-01-01

    Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs), and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefit...

  7. Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-11-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions.

  8. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  9. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  10. Predictors of premature discontinuation of treatment in multiple disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nantz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nantz1, Hong Liu-Seifert2, Vladimir Skljarevski21Department of Statistics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: Premature discontinuation of treatment impacts outcomes of clinical practice. The traditional perception has been patient discontinuation is mainly driven by unwanted side effects. Systematic analysis of data from clinical trials across several disease states was performed to identify predictors of premature discontinuation during clinical interventions.Methods: A post hoc analysis was conducted on 22 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of fibromyalgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Analyses were conducted on pooled data within each disease state.Results: Lack of early therapeutic response was a significant predictor of patient discontinuation in each disease state. Visit-wise changes in therapeutic response and severity of adverse events were also significant risk factors, with change in therapeutic response having a higher significance level in three disease states. Patients who discontinued due to adverse events had similar therapeutic responses as patients completing treatment.Conclusion: Contrary to the conventional belief that premature treatment discontinuation is primarily related to adverse events, our findings suggest lack of therapeutic response also plays a significant role in patient attrition. This research highlights the importance of systematic monitoring of therapeutic response in clinical practice as a measure to prevent patients’ discontinuation from pharmacological treatments.Keywords: attrition, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, therapeutic response, adverse event

  11. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

  12. Effects of centric relation prematurities of the frontal teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottner, Kurt; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans; Proff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Centric relation prematurities of frontal teeth are frequently found with patients who have severe orthodontic anomalies or received extensive restorative treatment. They can cause a range of symptoms ranging from loosening of the teeth to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The objective of this work has been to derive a mathematical description of the mandibular and periodontal forces generated by anterior prematurities for different incisor relations. In order to quantify the effect of contact area (location and inclination) and the tooth inclination, a two-dimensional mathematical approach was used. Vectorisation of the forces and bending moments makes it possible to predict under which conditions the load increase mainly affecting the anterior teeth can and may cause localized pain and eventually loosening and flaring/crowding of the upper/lower incisors and under which conditions the temporomandibular joint will suffer a large increase in retrusive force, which potentially leads to TMD. For 10 patients with anterior prematurities, analysis of the incisor relation was carried out. For all cases the conclusions drawn from the mathematical model were in full agreement with the reported symptoms, which could be successfully treated.

  13. Risks associated with premature ovarian failure in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered.

  14. Prematurity and Programming Contribution of neonatal (NICU) interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678

  15. The epidemiology of premature aging and associated comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppedè F

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Coppedè Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome and Werner syndrome, also known as childhood- and adulthood-progeria, respectively, represent two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. The discovery of their genetic basis has led to the identification of several gene mutations leading to a spectrum of progeroid phenotypes ranging from moderate and mild–severe to very aggressive forms. In parallel, the creation of disease registers and databases provided available data for the design of relatively large-scale epidemiological studies, thereby allowing a better understanding of the nature and frequency of the premature aging-associated signs and symptoms. The aim of this article is to review the most recent findings concerning the epidemiology of premature aging disorders, their genetic basis, and the most recent reports on the frequency of associated diseases. Keywords: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome, Werner syndrome, premature aging disorders, epidemiology, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, genetics, sign and symptoms

  16. Economic evaluation of caffeine for apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Lorch, Scott A; Schmidt, Barbara; Doyle, Lex W; Kok, Joke H; Roberts, Robin S; Kamholz, Karen L; Wang, Na; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment with caffeine compared with placebo for apnea of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 g, from birth through 18 to 21 months' corrected age. We undertook a retrospective economic evaluation of the cost per survivor without neurodevelopmental impairment by using individual-patient data from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity clinical trial (N = 1869). We included direct medical costs either to the insurance payer or the hospital but excluded costs to parents and society, such as lost productivity. We used a price of $0.21/mg of generic caffeine citrate for our base-case analysis. All costs were expressed in 2008 Canadian dollars and discounted at 3%. The time horizon for this analysis extended through 18 to 21 months' corrected age to match the clinical trial. The mean cost per infant was $124 466 in the caffeine group and $133 505 in the placebo group (difference: $9039 [-14 749 to -3375]; adjusted P = .014). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed caffeine to be a dominant or "win-win" therapy: in >99% of 1000 bootstrap replications of the analysis, caffeine-treated infants had simultaneously better outcomes and lower mean costs. These results were robust to a 1000% increase in the individual resource items, including the price of caffeine citrate. In comparison with placebo, caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in infants weighing less than 1250 g is economically appealing for infants up to 18 to 21 months' corrected age.

  17. Premature ovarian failure risk factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemzadeh A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alieh Ghassemzadeh1,2, Laya Farzadi1,2, Elaheh Beyhaghi1,21Women’s Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Alzahra University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The aim of this study was to determine possible correlates of premature ovarian failure (POF in an Iranian population.Methods: In a case-control study, 80 patients with POF were compared with 80 controls enrolled from the same setting during 2007–2008. A food diary was used to assess food consumption habits.Results: Mean age of starting ovarian failure symptoms was 19.3 ± 5.7 years and mean age of menopause was 22.6 ± 6.3 years. Familial coincidence was observed in 16 POF patients versus no one in the control group (P < 0.05. POF patients had lower frequency of both eating red meat and fish when compared with controls (P < 0.001. POF and control subjects consumed similar amounts of dairy products, being 5.3 ± 3.2 times per week in POF and 5.6 ± 2.1 times in the control groups.Conclusion: In this study, an association between POF and lower red meat or fish consumption was found.Keywords: POF, etiology, case-control, nutrition, premature menopause, premature ovarian dysfunction, primary ovarian insufficiency

  18. Changes in family functions in patients with secondary premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Arı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to inverstigate changes in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation.Materials and methods: In the present study, study group were randomly selected from Mustafa Kemal University Medical School Research and Training Hospital Urology Department outpatients clinic. Control group were selected among healthy volunteers. Totally 30 patients were included in the PE group and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the control group. Subjects were examined by the same psychiatrist. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Family Assessment Scale were applied to both groupsResults: Compared with the control group, premature ejaculation patients had significantly higher anxiety scores (p=0.001 and more deterioration in problem solving (p=0.001, communication (p=0.022, affective responsiveness (p=0.011, behavior control (p=0.032, and affective involvement in their families (p=0.011. There were no difference in terms of roles and general functions scores (p>0.05.Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is deterioration in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation, Therefore, approaches targeting family functions may be beneficial in the treatment of these patients.

  19. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia; Pfister, Riccardo E; Karam, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks' gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was -0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of -4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  20. Persistent unexplained congenital clitoromegaly in females born extremely prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.E.; Nakhal, R.S.; Achermann, J.C.; Creighton, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Unexplained clitoromegaly is a rare but well recognised feature in girls born premature. Although detected at birth, girls may re-present during childhood to paediatric urologists and gynaecologists who should be aware of this condition. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical findings and management of a series of girls presenting with persistent congenital clitoromegaly associated with prematurity. Materials and methods This was a retrospective notes review set in a tertiary referral centre for Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (PAG). Results Eight girls with a mean age of 6 years were seen over an eight year period. In all cases a Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) had been previously excluded. The main symptoms were discomfort or concern about appearance. On examination five girls had excess skin over the clitoris and three had enlarged corporal tissue. Management included reassurance and simple measures to ease discomfort. In two cases the parents requested referral to a paediatric urologist to consider clitoral surgery. Conclusion As survival rates for extreme prematurity improve, paediatric urologists and gynaecologists are likely to see more of these cases. Clinicians must be familiar with this condition to ensure children are managed appropriately. PMID:23619354

  1. Claustrophobia and premature termination of magnetic resonance imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence of MRI-related claustrophobia and prematurely terminated MRI (ptMRI) examinations due to claustrophobia in a large-scale cohort study. The hospital's computerized radiology information system (RIS) was retrospectively analyzed for all 1.5-Tesla MRI examinations and reports during the year 2004. Data collected included demographic information, body part examined, known claustrophobia, and whether the examination was prematurely terminated. All information available on the MRI examinations and the patient-based data (i.e., excluding any additional examinations per patient) were analyzed. A total of 5798 MRI reports of 4821 patients were evaluated. A total of 95 patients (1.97%) suffered from claustrophobia and 59 (1.22%) prematurely terminated the examination due to claustrophobia. The incidence of ptMRI was higher in women than men (no statistical significance). The majority of patients with ptMRI were between 20 and 80 years old. Patients undergoing head MRI showed the highest incidence of ptMRI and those undergoing extremity, breast, or pelvic MRI had the lowest. Prone compared to supine positioning results in the lowest ptMRI incidence (P Claustrophobic reactions cause a relatively low incidence of ptMRI and are influenced by sex, body part examined, and positioning within the MR scanner. Sedation and prone positioning might help overcome these reactions. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Philip C; Perlman, Christopher M; Ross, Stuart A; Gates, April L

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed.

  3. The Impact of Premature Childbirth on Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N. Hoffenkamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200 and fathers (n = 193 of full-term (n = 69, moderately premature (n = 68, and very premature infants (n = 63. During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ. Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  4. The impact of premature childbirth on parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenkamp, Hannah N; Tooten, Anneke; Hall, Ruby A S; Croon, Marcel A; Braeken, Johan; Winkel, Frans Willem; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2012-08-17

    The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200) and fathers (n = 193) of full-term (n = 69), moderately premature (n = 68), and very premature infants (n = 63). During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM) and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.

  5. Timely implementation of a retinopathy of prematurity telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Graham E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Repka, Michael X; Siatkowski, R Michael; Hoffman, Robert; Mills, Monte D; Morrison, David; Daniel, Ebenezer; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Hildebrand, P Lloyd; Schron, Eleanor B; Ells, Anna L; Wade, Kelly; Kemper, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    To examine the feasibility of a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) telemedicine evaluation system of providing timely feedback to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with at-risk premature infants. This was a prospective observational study of premature infants with birth weights of return of the grading results to the clinical center was 10.1 ± 11.3 hours (standard deviation), with a median of 12.0 hours (1st quartile, 0.9 hours; 3rd quartile, 16 hours). Overall, 95.5% of gradings (95% CI, 93.9%-96.7%) were returned within 24 hours. Subgroup analyses found, for image sets submitted to the reading center before 2 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, median time to report was 1.7 hours (1st quartile, 0.7 hours; 3rd quartile, 15.5 hours) compared with those submitted after 2pm (median, 14.1 hours; 1st quartile, 11.2, hours; 3rd quartile, 16.3 hours). An ROP telemedicine approach can provide timely feedback to the NICU regarding the detection of potentially serious ROP and thus referral to an ophthalmologist for examination and consideration of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prematurity and programming: contribution of neonatal Intensive Care Unit interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, S C; Wilson-Costello, D

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow-up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include: (1) intrauterine growth restriction; (2) interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury; (3) nutritional and pharmacological protocols for clinical care; and (4) nutritional care in the first 2 years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by affecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy.

  7. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

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    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  8. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

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    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.

  9. Endovascular retrieval of a prematurely deployed covered stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jefferson; T; Miley; Gustavo; J; Rodriguez; Ramachandra; P; Tummala

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques have been reported to address different endovascular device failures. We report the case of a premature deployment of a covered balloon mounted stent during endovascular repair of a posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula(CCF). A 50-year-old male suffered a fall resulting in loss of consciousness and multiple facial fractures. Five weeks later, he developed decreased left visual acuity, proptosis, chemosis, limited eye movements and cranial/orbit bruit. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a direct left CCF and endovascular repair with a 5.0 mm × 19 mm covered stent was planned. Once in the lacerum segment, increased resistance was encountered and the stent was withdrawn resulting in premature deployment. A 3 mm × 9 mm balloon was advanced over an exchange length microwire and through the stent lumen. Once distal to the stent, the balloon was inflated and slowly pulled back in contact with the stent. All devices were successfully withdrawn as a unit. The use of a balloon to retrieve a prematurely deployed balloon mounted stent is a potential rescue option if leaving the stent in situ carries risks.

  10. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, H

    1980-03-01

    Carnitine plays a significant role in fatty acid utilization and ketone body production. Its availability is especially important during the immediate postnatal period. To determine whether low birth weight infants who cannot be orally fed are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, we compared the carnitine blood levels and urinary excretion of 12 premature infants (Group A) receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with those of 8 infants of similar gestational age and birth weight (Group B) who received carnitine-containing milk formulas. In Group A, serum levels of total and free carnitine fell after 5 days of carnitine-deficient parenteral nutrition, and urinary excretion was significantly reduced. Serum levels and urinary excretion increased after the onset of oral feedings. The control Group B exhibited no significant changes in carnitine blood levels between the first and fifth days of life, but did show a later increase. Children in Group A had lower carnitine blood levels compared to those in Group B on the fifth day of life. These findings suggest that premature infants are not able to synthesize enough carnitine to maintain blood levels, and that carnitine deficiency can occur following TPN. Further investigation of metabolic consequences secondary to deficient carnitine intake in premature infants is necessary before carnitine supplementation should be considered.

  11. Cidea is an essential transcriptional coactivator regulating mammary gland secretion of milk lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Lv, Na; Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuanying; Ye, Jing; Xie, Yuansheng; Shen, Yuemao; Wenk, Markus R; Li, Peng

    2012-01-15

    Adequate lipid secretion by mammary glands during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. However, the mechanism governing this process is poorly understood. Here we show that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lactating mammary glands and its deficiency leads to premature pup death as a result of severely reduced milk lipids. Furthermore, the expression of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an essential factor for milk lipid secretion, is markedly lower in Cidea-deficient mammary glands. Conversely, ectopic Cidea expression induces the expression of XOR and enhances lipid secretion in vivo. Unexpectedly, as Cidea has heretofore been thought of as a cytoplasmic protein, we detected it in the nucleus and found it to physically interact with transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in mammary epithelial cells. We also observed that Cidea induces XOR expression by promoting the association of C/EBPβ onto, and the dissociation of HDAC1 from, the promoter of the Xdh gene encoding XOR. Finally, we found that Fsp27, another CIDE family protein, is detected in the nucleus and interacts with C/EBPβ to regulate expression of a subset of C/EBPβ downstream genes in adipocytes. Thus, Cidea acts as a previously unknown transcriptional coactivator of C/EBPβ in mammary glands to control lipid secretion and pup survival.

  12. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael J. D.; Brough, David

    2017-01-01

    In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation. PMID:28067797

  13. Cheater identifiable visual secret sharing scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhi; Chen Kefei

    2005-01-01

    The visual secret sharing scheme proposed by Naor and Shamir provides a way to encrypt a secret black-white image into shares. A qualified group of participants can recover the secret message without using any cryptographic computation. But the original scheme can easily be corrupted by malicious participant. We propose an extension of VSS(visual secret sharing) to identify cheaters before the secret is recovered. Without the need for any additional information and cryptographic computation, every participant can verify the validity of shares of other participants, thus the security of VSS is enhanced.

  14. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-08-05

    Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter - regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost - YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature

  15. Prostaglandin E2 and patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

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    Mochammading,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is a congenital heart disease most commonly occurring in premature infants. Spontaneous ductus arteriosus (DA closure in premature infants has been suggested to be associated with duct lumen maturity and the DA sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between serum PGE2 levels and PDA size in premature infants. Methods This observational study using repeated measurements on premature infants with PDA detected at days 2-3 of life was undertaken in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Fatmawati Hospital, Jakarta, from April to May 2014. The PDA was diagnosed using 2-D echocardiography and PGE2 levels were measured by immunoassay. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate a possible correlation between PGE2 level and DA diameter. Results Thirty-three premature infants of median gestational age 31 (range 28-32 weeks and median birth weight 1,360 (range 1,000-1,500 grams were enrolled. Almost two-thirds of the subjects were male. Almost all (30/33 subjects had spontaneous DA closure before the age of 10 days. Subjects’ mean DA diameter was 2.9 (SD 0.5 mm with maximum flow velocity of 0.2 (SD 0.06 cm/sec, and left atrial-to-aortic root ratio (LA/Ao of 1.5 (SD 0.2. Their mean PGE2 levels at the ages of 2-3, 5-7, and after 10 days were 5,238.6 (SD 1,225.2, 4,178.2 (SD 1,534.5, and 915.2 (SD 151.6 pg/mL, respectively. The PGE2 level at days 2-3 was significantly correlated with DA diameter (r = 0.667; P < 0.001, but not at days 5-7 (r = 0.292; P = 0.105 or at day 10 (r = 0.041; P = 0.941. Conclusion There is a strong, positive correlation between the PGE2 level and DA diameter in preterm infants at 2-3 days of age. However, there is no significant correlation between PGE2 level and persistence of PDA.

  16. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-hong; WANG Dan-hua; DONG Mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Glutamine, proposed to be conditionally essential for critically ill patients, is not added routinely to parenteral amino acid formulations for premature infants and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral feeding is Iow. Parenteral feeding is the basic way of nutrition in the first days of life of premature infants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for premature infants on growth and development, feeding toleration, and infective episodes.Methods From December 2002 to July 2006, 53 premature infants were given either standard or glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for more than 2 weeks. Twenty-eight infants were in glutamine supplemented group, whose gestational age (31.4±2.0) weeks, birth weight range (1386±251) g; twenty-five infants were in control group, gestational age (31.1 ± 1.7) weeks, with birth weight range (1346± 199) g. There were no differences between the two groups. Various growth and biochemical indices were monitored throughout the duration of hospital stay. Data between groups were analyzed with Student's t test. Nonparametric data were analyzed using a Chi-square test. A two-tailed P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The level of serum albumin was lower in the glutamine groups on the second week (3.0 vs 3.2 g/dl, P=0.028), and blood urea nitrogen was higher in glutamine groups on the fourth week (8.1 vs 4.9 mg/dl, P=0.014), but normal. Glutamine group infants took fewer days to regain birth weight (8.1 vs 10.4 days, P=0.017), required fewer days on parenteral nutrition (24.8 vs 30.8 days, P=0.035), with shorter stays in hospital (32.1 vs 38.6 days, P=0.047). Episodes of hospital acquired infection in glutamine supplemented infants were lower than that in control group (0.96 vs 1.84 times, P=0.000).Conclusion Parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants can shorten days on parenteral nutrition and

  17. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

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    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  18. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Jelena

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (% and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000. Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and

  19. Secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhenjun; Meng Fanzhen

    2006-01-01

    To assure the shareholders can look for their "legal" attorneys to renew the secret, once the secret sharing scheme is initialized, a secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic is constructed. In this scheme, each shareholder can produce a new share by his algorithm, which is equivalent to the primary one. Together with other shares, the primary secret can be renewed. Since this scheme is constructed not by replacing the primary share with a new share produced by the dealer in his primitive secret sharing scheme, so no matter how much shares the shareholder produces, these shares can not be gathered together to renew the secret in this scheme. Compared with the existing secret sharing schemes, this scheme provides more agility for the shareholders by investing each of them a function but not affect its security.

  20. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

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    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  1. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  2. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

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    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  3. Salidroside protects against premature senescence induced by ultraviolet B irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, G-X; Xing, W-M; Wen, X-L; Jia, B-B; Yang, Z-X; Wang, Y-Z; Jin, X-Q; Wang, G-F; Yan, J

    2015-06-01

    Salidroside, the predominant component of a Chinese herbal medicine, Rhodiola rosea L., becomes an attractive bio-agent due to its multifunction. Although it is well proposed that this herbal medicine may have photoprotective effect according to the folk hearsay, the direct supportive experimental evidences linking the drug with skin ageing have rarely been reported so far. The study was conducted to investigate the photoprotective role of salidrosdie and its related mechanisms in vitro. First, a premature senescence model induced by UVB irradiation (250 mJ cm(-2)) in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was established, and senescent phenotypes were evaluated by cell morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and cell cycle distribution. Then the photoprotective effect of salidroside was investigated. Cells were pre-treated with various doses of salidroside (1, 5 and 10 μM) followed by the sublethal dosage of UVB exposure and then were harvested for various detections, including senescence-associated phenotypes and molecules, alteration of oxidative stress, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secretion and inflammatory response. Pre-treatment of salidroside dose dependently reversed the senescent state of HDFs induced by UVB as evidenced by elevated cell viability, decreased SA-β-gal activity and relieving of G1/G0 cell cycle arrest. UVB-induced increased protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(WAF) (1) and p16(INK) (4) was also repressed by salidrosdie treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in UVB-irradiated HDFs was inhibited upon salidroside treatment. Additionally, salidroside significantly attenuated UVB-induced synthesis of MMP-1 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in HDFs. Our data provided the evidences for the protective role of salidroside against UVB-induced premature senescence in HDFs probably via its anti

  4. Weegee’s City Secrets

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    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  5. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtková, Jana; Thomas, Elizabeth B; Alas, Germain C M; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Behjatnia, Habib R; Hehl, Adrian B; Paredez, Alexander R

    2016-08-23

    Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia's sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus-like encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). Constitutive GlRac signaling increased levels of the ER marker PDI2, induced ER swelling, reduced overall CWP1 production, and promoted the early maturation of ESVs. Quantitative analysis of cells expressing constitutively active hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged GlRac (HA-Rac(CA)) revealed fewer but larger ESVs than control cells. Consistent with the phenotype of premature maturation of ESVs in HA-Rac(CA)-expressing cells, constitutive GlRac signaling resulted in increased CWP1 secretion and, conversely, morpholino depletion of GlRac blocked CWP1 secretion. Wild-type cells unexpectedly secreted large quantities of CWP1 into the medium, and free CWP1 was used cooperatively during cyst formation. These results, in part, could account for the previously reported observation that G. lamblia encysts more efficiently at high cell densities. These studies of GlRac show that it regulates encystation at several levels, and our findings support its coordinating role as a regulator of CWP trafficking and secretion. The central role of GlRac in regulating membrane trafficking and the cytoskeleton, both of which are essential to Giardia parasitism, further suggests its potential as a novel target for drug development to treat giardiasis. The encystation process is crucial for the transmission of giardiasis and the life cycle of many protists. Encystation for Giardia lamblia involves the assembly of a protective cyst wall

  6. The evidence for secretion clearance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D R

    2001-11-01

    Many acute and chronic respiratory diseases are associated with increased respiratory secretions in the airways. Narrative reviews and a few systematic reviews of secretion clearance techniques have been published. These reviews raise concerns regarding the lack of evidence to support the various secretion clearance techniques. I conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the following subjects: chest physical therapy, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, forced expiratory technique, autogenic drainage, high-frequency chest wall compression, flutter device and secretions, positive expiratory pressure and secretions, intrapulmonary percussion, mechanical in-exsufflation and secretions. This was followed by a comprehensive search of cross-references to identify additional studies. The results of this review are reported herein. There are a number of methodological limitations of the literature reporting studies of the use of secretion clearance techniques. Most of the studies were small, most used crossover designs, and few used sham therapy. Many studies were limited to short-term outcomes such as sputum clearance with a single treatment session. Despite the clinical observation that retained secretions are detrimental to respiratory function and despite anecdotal associations between secretion clearance and improvements in respiratory function, there is a dearth of high-level evidence to support any secretion clearance technique.

  7. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems.

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    Ram Samudrala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates--effector proteins--are not. We have used a novel computational approach to confidently identify new secreted effectors by integrating protein sequence-based features, including evolutionary measures such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, G+C content, amino acid composition, and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and validated on a set of effectors from the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. We show that this approach can predict known secreted effectors with high specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, by considering a large set of effectors from multiple organisms, we computationally identify a common putative secretion signal in the N-terminal 20 residues of secreted effectors. This signal can be used to discriminate 46 out of 68 total known effectors from both organisms, suggesting that it is a real, shared signal applicable to many type III secreted effectors. We use the method to make novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. Typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated. We also apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, identifying the majority of known secreted proteins in addition to providing a number of novel predictions. This approach provides a new way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  8. Metabolic regulation of insulin secretion.

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    Keane, Kevin; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of metabolic fuel homeostasis is a critical function of β-cells, which are located in the islets of Langerhans of the animal pancreas. Impairment of this β-cell function is a hallmark of pancreatic β-cell failure and may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. β-Cells are essentially "fuel sensors" that monitor and react to elevated nutrient load by releasing insulin. This response involves metabolic activation and generation of metabolic coupling factors (MCFs) that relay the nutrient signal throughout the cell and induce insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Glucose is the most important insulin secretagogue as it is the primary fuel source in food. Glucose metabolism is central to generation of MCFs that lead to insulin release, most notably ATP. In addition, other classes of nutrients are able to augment insulin secretion and these include members of the lipid and amino acid family of nutrients. Therefore, it is important to investigate the interplay between glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, as it is this mixed nutrient sensing that generate the MCFs required for insulin exocytosis. The mechanisms by which these nutrients are metabolized to generate MCFs, and how they impact on β-cell insulin release and function, are discussed in detail in this article.

  9. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

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    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  10. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

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    Marie Janaillac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2, compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2. Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks’ gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g, providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson’s R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  11. Retinopathies in premature infants, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Analysis of incidence and accompanying states, detection of risk factors of retinopathies in premature infants (RN, dynamic monitoring and improvement of medical actions. Material and Methods: 134 children have been surveyed in the group of risk on development of RN for the last 2 years. Results: From 134 surveyed infants with gestation from 22 to 37 weeks and body weight at birth from 750 to 2500 kg. At 56 children (41,8% the retinopathy of various degree of expressiveness has been revealed. 38 children with RN of 1-2 stages (67,8% from which at 22 (39,3% —the disease ended with the induced regress after a course of «retinalamin», at 16 (28,6% of RN — spontaneous regress. 4 children (7,1% had RN 2-3 of the Art., 3-4 Art. at 12 (21,4%, and 5 Art. a cicatricial phase with retinal detachment — 2 (3,5%. In 12 cases the laser photocoagulation in the eye centers is carried out. Conclusion: The revealed relationship of cause and effect of risk factors of formation of RN with features of a current ofthe neonatal period at patients with RN, promoted development of the system of monitoring, implementation of the program of treatment and rehabilitation of prematurely born children suffering RN. Ophthalmologic screening of premature infants with the use of the ophthalmologic digital pediatric camera "Ret Cam 3" allows to diagnose a retinopathy at early stages, in due time to hold preventive an3 medical measures that allows to lower the invalidization of this group of children.

  12. Is "Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping" Beneficial for Premature Newborns?

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    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appropriate moment for clamping the umbilical cord is controversial. Immediate cord clamping (ICC is an item of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL. Unclamped umbilical cord may cause inconvenience in preterm neonates because they commonly need some levels of emergent services. Some studies revealed delayed cord clamping (DCC of preterm neonates results in better health conditions like lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, less morbidities in labor room and lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on premature neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this single‑center randomized control trial study, sixty premature neonates (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5–10 seconds or DCC (30–45 seconds groups and followed up in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Primary outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar score, average of level of hematocrit after birth, intra ventricle hemorrhage and need some levels of resuscitation. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics were not statistically significant. After birth, neonates who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean hematocrit after at 4-hour of birth (49.58+5.15gr/dl vs. 46.58+5.40gr/dlin DCC vs. ICC groups, respectively (P=0.031. Delayed cord clamping reduced the duration of need to nasal continues positive airway pressure (NCPAP (86.7% and 60.0% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P= 0.039. Attractively, the results showed lower incidence of clinical sepsis in delayed cord clamping neonates (53.3% vs. 23.3% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P=0.033. Conclusion: Prematurity complications might decrease by delay umbilical cord clamping which improve the hematocrit, duration of need to NCPAP and incidence of clinical sepsis. Furthermore, DCC may have no negative impact on neonatal resuscitation.

  13. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

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    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by PROM at University Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Jundiaí, from march 2007 to june 2009. Results: the results showed a higher prevalence: age between 20 and 30 years (54.5%, caucasian (58.6%, unmarried (46%, non-smokers (72.82%, gestation LMP term (63.3% and USG (64.5%, number of prenatal consultations more than six (59.8%, multiparous (66.6%, obstetric history with normal vaginal delivery (PVN (56.3%, cervical dilatation at admission between 2 cm - 3 cm, evanescence 50%, ruptured membranes between 1 and 4 hours, conduct the spontaneous delivery (82.5%, type of delivery PVN (55,6%, newborn weighing 2,500 kg and 3,500 kg (61.6%, Apgar score greater than seven at 1 and 5 minutes (89.2% and 99.2% respectively, need for resuscitation (81,5%, Neo ICU (2.6% and length of the binomial two days. Conclusion: based on our results and in comparison with the literature review, we found a similar prevalence in our service and other services of those studies. The exception was the high prevalence of cesarean section over the other and the high number of pregnant women had not received prenatal care (22.9%.

  14. Premature ageing prevention: limitations and perspectives of pharmacological interventions.

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    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-11-01

    A significant increase of the elderly in populations of developed countries is followed by increase morbidity and mortality from main age-related diseases--cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative, cancer, diabetes mellitus, declining in a resistance to infections. Obviously, the development of means of the prevention of the premature ageing and these diseases in humans are crucial at present. However, data on such type means rather scarce, contradictory and often not reliable from the points of view of the adequacy of the experiments to current scientific requirements, as well as the interpretation of the results and safety. Available data on the life span extension and adverse effects of chemical compounds and drugs suggested as geroprotectors are critically analyzed: antidiabetic drugs, growth and thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, DHEA, sex steroids and contraceptives, melatonin and peptide preparations modulating the pineal gland, antioxidants, chelate agents and lathyrogens, adaptogens and herbs, neurotropic drugs, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase, immunomodulators and some other. Most of the results could not convincingly evidence the life span extension and safety of the suggested geroprotectors. We believe that it is necessary to establish an international program for the expert evaluation of the life span extension potential of pharmacological interventions for humans. The scope of the program should be to evaluate chemical, immunological, dietary and behavioural interventions that may lead to life span extension or retard premature ageing and the objective--preparation of critical reviews and evaluations on evidence of the life span extending properties of a wide range of potential geroprotectors and strategies by international groups of working experts. The program may assist national and international authorities in devising programs of health promotion and premature ageing prevention.

  15. The importance of microbiological tests of vaginal secretion during reproductive period

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal infections, during reproductive period are frequent and although not life treating, they can affect their normal functions. They can also affect wommen's fertility as well as the course of pregnancy. The outcome of pregnancy can be endangered due to the possibility of infection of newborn while passing trough birth canal of the infected mother. As statistically shown, bacterial vaginosis is considerably more often found with the patients having precancerous changes on cervix, or diagnosed cancer of cervix, comparing with women with healthy cervix. It can also cause the apperance of postoperative pelvic cellulitis after hysterectomy. On the other side, the presence of S. agalactiae in vaginal secretion may cause very serious and lethal infections of the newborn such as meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis. As for protozoa T. vaginalis it has been shown that it could cause reduced fertility ability and that during pregnancy it could demage fetal membranes and bring to its premature rupture and premature birth. There is also increased risk of cervix cancer. During reproductive period of women especially if risk factors are existing such as hormone therapy, diabetes mellitus type 1 and applications of wide range antibiotics, vaginal fungal infections caused by Candida can frequently appear. These infection apart from the discomfort like itch and affluent secretion they can also mean diagnostic and therapeutical problem. Regular microbiological test of women are highly recommended during reproductive period as standard for bacterial vaginosis, fungal and trichomonas infections. If those results appear negative, further microbiological tests are necessary. Such tests which are more elaborate, more timely and more expensive are referring to tests on chlamidia, micoplasma and some viruses that can also be the cause of vaginal secretion disbalance in women during reproductive period.

  16. Premature ovarian failure (POF): discordance between somatic and reproductive aging.

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    Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette

    2002-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a unique example of isolated organ senescence, with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Though the phenotypic expression of POF is similar to that of age-appropriate natural menopause, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are diverse and not entirely clear. The impact of POF on the patient is profound, with myriad ramifications, ranging from psychological devastation to multi-system implications of estrogen deprivation and its sequelae. The hastening of degenerative changes noted in these patients however, are not entirely ameliorated with estrogen replacement and POF may indeed represent an acceleration of the aging process.

  17. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    hospital admissions later in life. METHODS: Using Danish nation-wide registries we created a cohort of 1,348,106 persons born 1974-1996 and assessed all unique diagnoses registered in the Danish Patient Registry (DPR) for hospital admissions in the period 1994-2007 (n=27,910,558). We determined the odds...... in life. CONCLUSION: Being born premature or SGA was associated with significantly altered risks of being admitted to a hospital with a wide range of diseases later in life, affecting almost all organ systems throughout childhood and early adulthood. Our findings may motivate testing in other cohorts...

  18. Dynamics of human foveal development after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ramiro S; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Sarin, Neeru; Freedman, Sharon F; Wallace, David K; Cotten, C Michael; Winter, Katrina P; Stinnett, Sandra; Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina; Toth, Cynthia A

    2011-12-01

    To determine the dynamic morphologic development of the human fovea in vivo using portable spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Thirty-one prematurely born neonates, 9 children, and 9 adults. Sixty-two neonates were enrolled in this study. After examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), SD-OCT imaging was performed at the bedside in nonsedated infants aged 31 to 41 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (= gestational age in weeks + chronologic age) and at outpatient follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Thirty-one neonates met eligibility criteria. Nine children and nine adults without ocular pathology served as control groups. Semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation was performed. Central foveal thickness, foveal to parafoveal (FP) ratio (central foveal thickness divided by thickness 1000 μm from the foveal center), and 3-dimensional thickness maps were analyzed. In vivo determination of foveal morphology, layer segmentation, analysis of subcellular changes, and spatiotemporal layer shifting. In contrast with the adult fovea, several signs of immaturity were observed in the neonates: a shallow foveal pit, persistence of inner retinal layers (IRLs), and a thin photoreceptor layer (PRL) that was thinnest at the foveal center. Three-dimensional mapping showed displacement of retinal layers out of the foveal center as the fovea matured and the progressive formation of the inner/outer segment band in the opposite direction. The FP-IRL ratios decreased as IRL migrated before term and minimally after that, whereas FP-PRL ratios increased as PRL subcellular elements formed closer to term and into childhood. A surprising finding was the presence of cystoid macular edema in 58% of premature neonates that appeared to affect inner foveal maturation. This study provides the first view into the development of living cellular layers of the human retina and of subcellular specialization at the fovea in premature infant eyes

  19. The omega-3 and retinopathy of prematurity relationship

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    Malamas, Angelakis; Chranioti, Angeliki; Tsakalidis, Christos; Dimitrakos, Stavros A; Mataftsi, Asimina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the effect of omega-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) intake on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reviewing the experimental and clinical trials conducted on animal models and infants. LCPUFAs demonstrate cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. Their intake appears to have a beneficial effect on ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular signaling mechanisms, influencing retinal cell gene expression and cellular differentiation. ω-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes that activate molecules implicated in the pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases such as ROP. PMID:28251092

  20. Metabolic studies of transient tyrosinemia in premature infants

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    Fernbach, S. A.; Summons, R. E.; Pereira, W. E.; Duffield, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The recently developed technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry supported by computer has considerably improved the analysis of physiologic fluids. This study attempted to demonstrate the value of this system in the investigation of metabolite patterns in urine in two metabolic problems of prematurity, transient tyrosinemia and late metabolic acidosis. Serial 24-hr urine specimens were analyzed in 9 infants. Transient tyrosinemia, characterized by 5- 10-fold increases over basal excretion of tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, and p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in urine, was noted in five of the infants. Late metabolic acidosis was seen in four infants, but bore no relation to transient tyrosinemia.